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CLUSULAS RELATIVAS

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibmMybaXq4U
(Relative Clauses - Uso de Who, Which, Whom, Whose, That.) 11 minutos
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tooDvQ-vJa4
(ejemplo de cláusulas relativas) 13 minutos
 Pronombres relativos
That - Para personas, The girls that are laughing over there are my sisters.
animales o cosas que
que
Which - para cosas, lugares I bought two cell phone, which were very expensive.
o animales los cuales
que, el, cual, los cuales
Who – para personas Last week I met the man who fixes my car.
quien, quienes, que que / quien
Whom – para personas That is the Dr. Smith whom I owe the life.
a quien, a quienes a quien
Whose – posesivo This is the boy whose parents are my neighbor.
cuyo, cuyos, de quien cuyos

Las clausula relativas en Ingles.

La palabra cláusulas o frase unidas por medio de los pronombres relativos en inglés who, which, that, whom y whose se llaman frases
relativas. Existen dos tipos:

Cláusulas relativas restrictivas:


Estas frases proveen información esencial sobre el sustantivo al cual reemplazan. Si intentamos quitar la frase relativa, la oración cambiaría
de sentido. Ejemplo:

I bought the phone that we checked online yesterday. (Compré el teléfono que revisamos en línea ayer)

Si omitimos la frase that we checked online yesterday (que revisamos en línea ayer), la frase cambiaria de sentido.

  I bought the phone. (compre el telefono)

Cláusulas relativas no restrictivas:


Estas cláusulas pueden ser omitidas sin afectar el significado general de la oración. Ejemplo:
Andy, who is one of my best friends, called me yesterday. (Andy, que es uno de mis mejores amigos, me llamó ayer)

Si omitimos who is one of my best friends (que es uno de mis mejores amigos), el sentido de la frase no se afectaría radicalmente.
Andy called me yesterday (Andy me llamo ayer)

( H ) who M posesivo: cuyo, cuyos, de quien


( X ) that U para personas: a quien, a quienes
( U ) whom O para cosas: que, el, cual, los cuales
( O ) which H para personas: quien, quienes, que
( M ) whose X Para personas o cosas: que
Elige la opción correcta.
 
1 I liked the girl ____ I met at the party.
where which that
2 We couldn't hear ___ you said.
that which what
3 The couple ____ lives next to me has invited me to a birthday party.
where who whose
4 The flat ____ I was living in London was bigger than this one.
what that which
5 I met someone ____ brother knows me.
whose whom who

Escribe el pronombre relativo cuando sea imprescindible


6 I want to know __________ you think.
7 There's something _________ I should tell you.
8 I have a friend __________ plays the piano.
9 I remember the day _________ you visited my parents.
10 Julia's father, ____________ is 80 years old, plays football with his grandsons.

Identifique las cláusulas a continuación y decida si son restrictivas (R) o no restrictivas (NR). Se han omitido las
comas para no revelarlo las respuestas correctas.

1.- The time that we were together became a great memory. R


[cuando estábamos juntos]
2.- The pinter whom I saw the other day knows how to paint abstract draws. NR
[a quien vi el otro día]
3.- My neighbor’s kid who often plays outside is on the wild side. NR
[que a menudo juega afuera]
4.- The river that is near my house is so pretty in the evening. R
[que está cerca de mi casa]
5.- The traveler whose bag went missing became really angry. R
[cuya maleta se perdió]
6.- There is a shortcut which only I know. R
[que solo yo conozco].
7.- She hesitantly explained the reason why she didn’t want to go. ______
[por la que no quería ir]
8.- Bergfield Park which is a few blocks from my house is a nice place to walk. ________
[que está a pocas cuadras de mi casa]
9.- Can you toss me the big blue ball that’s over there? ________
[que está ahí]
10.- That time five years ago when we were in school was really stressful. ___________
[cuando estábamos en la escuela]

CREAR UN “SPEECH” CON CLAUSULAS RELATIVAS

Checar este video para considerarlo como ejemplo para la actividad.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tooDvQ-vJa4
Relative Clauses and Relative Pronouns - Where, Who, Which, Whom, Whose (13 minutos”

I want to share with you that I have an HP brand computer, that / which is a bit old. I bought this equipment in 2014 and as a
complement I had a printer, which / was included in the package as a gift, these electronic devices have been my valuable work
tool to teach online classes during the pandemic. I don´t have complaints about them, which have worked quite well. I
remember the clerk, who attended me when I bought it, expressing "you have made an excellent purchase, if there is a failure
in the equipment, don´t hesitate to contact our customer service department and I responded, of course I will do it. These
electronics businesses are very responsible; whose technicians are experts in the field. So I felt confident in the purchase I
made.
Who plan to buy a piece of computer equipment, I highly recommend this brand.
RESUMEN INFINITIVO (“TO”) VS GERUNDIO (“ING”)
Cuando un verbo sigue a otro verbo, siempre necesitamos usar el infinitivo o el gerundio. Normalmente usamos el infinitivo
después de algunos verbos y el gerundio después de otros. También hay verbos con los que podemos usar el gerundio o el infinitivo.
El gerundio y el infinitivo son formas de los verbos que actúan como nombres. El gerundio se forma con “-ing” (walking, eating,
etc.). El infinitivo se forma con la preposición “to” (to walk, to eat, etc.).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AKXJbVu5sc
(5 formas de usar el ING o el GERUNDIO en inglés) 20 minutos

Presente We are preparing our exam


progresivo I was talking with my cousin
Sujeto Smoking is dangerous for your health
objeto Speaking Chinese language is very difficult
Después de I wash my hands before eating.
preposición My father goes to the office after taking my sister to school.
Adjetivo People say this isn´t an interesting book
(describe como The documentary was fascinating. I couldn't take my eyes off the screen.
es la acción) It’s really irritating when your neighbors wake up early and start drilling holes
Después de I love watching horror movies
algunos We start studying this course in September
verbos I fancy eating sea food, today
La forma negativa del gerundio es “not + gerundio”: 
I enjoy not doing anything on holiday.

Con preposiciones como: or, about, after, before, in, on, at, by, out, without, used to, object to, an
Con adjetivo al tener el sufijo “ing” : boring, confusing, embarrassing, beginning, fascinating
Con verbos como: like, start, love, avoid, keep, finish, stop, hate, enjoy, mind, fancy, etc.

Uso del infinitivo “to” en ingles

Después de adjetivo They are sad to watch a lot misery


calificativo: It´s tired to listen you!
She is jealous to lose him
Para expresar un objetivo o Please help me to finish early!
el por qué estamos haciendo We should watch films in English to improve our listening
una acción determinada:
Cuando usemos la forma I would like to eat taquitos
would love, would like, I would hate to refuse your invitation
would prefer y would hate. Sorry, I would prefer to stay in home.
Siempre se escribirá la forma
infinitiva “to + verbo”
Después de algunos verbos I want to go to the cinema
como: agree, decide, choose, We decide to buy the new house
plan, refuse, hope, want,
manage etc.:
La forma negativa del infinitivo es “not + infinitivo”: 
He asked me not to be late
GERUNDIO VS INFINITIVO

Complete el texto con la forma de infinitivo o de gerundio de los verbos entre paréntesis.
If you are a beginner, you need ________________ (use) a bilingual dictionary. Bilingual dictionaries are good not just for
translating but also for comparing.
Spend time ______________ (study), if you don't study regularly, you won't become fluent.
Don't be afraid of mistakes - every time you are wrong, you are also able ____________ (learn) something correctly.
Don't translate! It's easier to learn English if you can think in English.
Grammar isn't boring. _____________(Learn) English grammar will help you understand the language.
Find a friend _______________(practice) with! ____________ (Share)you are learning adventure is a great way to go
further and to have some fun along the way.
A qualified teacher is the best person _______________ (help) you learn English.
Remember __________ (do) things that you enjoy in English. If you are interested in gardening, read about it in English.
Try _______________ (practice) all the areas of English: listening, reading, writing and speaking.
Remember that ____________(learn)a language is like ___________(cycle): if you don't use it, you lose it!

Fill in the correct form: Gerund or Infinitive (with or without "TO")


1. SMOKING is very dangerous for your health. (SMOKE) Ya que la oracion inicia con un verbo
2. They saved a lot of money by ________________ the tickets in advance. (BOOK)
3. It was very nice of you ________________ for us. (WAIT)
4. They agreed ___________________ the meeting after the lunch break. (CONTINUE)
5. I don’t plan on ________________ the whole night with you. (SPEND)
6. The teacher accused the students of ________________. (CHEAT)
7. What do you advise me ________________? (DO)
8. He refused TO CHANGE his mind. (CHANGE) Ya que el verbo que antecede es “refuse”
9. I avoided ________________ the early train because of the rush hour. (TAKE)
10. I’d rather ________________ for you (NOT WAIT)
11. He always keeps ________________ around in the hallway. (RUN)
12. I have given up ________________ newspapers. There’s nothing in them anymore. (READ)
13. I let him ________________ out early because he had a few things to do. (GO)
14. They decided ________________ hiking in such bad weather. (NOT GO)
15. Do you know anything about ________________ stamps? (COLLECT)
16. He suggested ________________ the car here instead of ________________ home. (LEAVE,
DRIVE)
17. How do you make this machine ________________? (WORK)
18. John used ________________ a footballer. He stopped ________________ because of several
injuries. (BE, PLAY)
19. He always thinks carefully about things before ________________ a decision. (MAKE)
20. I have a friend who claims ________________ able to speak 5 languages. (BE)
21. How old were you when you learned how ________________? (DRIVE)
22. I don’t mind ________________, but it would be better to get a taxi. (WALK)
23. I was far from ________________ a word he said. (BELIEVE)
24. The teacher had them ________________ off their boots before ________________ the room.
(TAKE, ENTER)
25. You’d better ________________ those apples. They’re still green. (NOT EAT)

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