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sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Uses of H2SO4 ;
i. ii. iii. iv. v. Manufacture of detergents, artificial fibres and paint. Production of fertiliser. Leather tanning. As electrolyte in car batteries. To remove oxides from the surface of metals. This process is know as metallurgy.

Manufacture of H2SO4;
Sulphuric acid is manufactured in industry through CONTACT PROCESSbecause sulphur dioxide, SO 2 reacts with oxygen in contact witgnthe catalyst several times. This process consist of threestages ;


STAGE 1 In the furnace, molten sulphur is burnt in dry air to produce sulphur dioxide SO 2. The gas produced is purified and cooled . S(l) + O2(g) SO2(g)


STAGE 2 In the converter, sulphur dioxide, SO 2 and excess oxygen gas O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450oC to produce sulphur trioxide, SO 3. 2SO2(g) + O2 2SO3(g) About 99.5% of the sulphuric dioxide, SO 2 is converted in sulphur trioxide, SO 3 thorugh this reversible reaction. Sulphur trioxide SO 3 is contaminated with sulphur dioxide gas, SO 2. The gas is absorbed with calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 to prevent it from escaping to the air, causing environmental pollution.


STAGE 3 in the absorber, the sulphuric trioxide, SO 3 is first reacted with concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4 to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7. SO3(g) + H2SO4(l) H 2S2O7(l)

The oleum, H2S2O7(l) is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H 2SO4 in large quantities. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(l)

The two reactions in the third stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide SO 3 directly to water. SO3(g) + H2O(l) H 2S2O7(l)

However, this is not done in industry because sulphur trioxide SO 3 reacts too violently with water and produces a lot of heat an d a large cloud of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 mist. The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and difficult to condense.

Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution ;

i. ii. Inhaling SO2 causes coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, bronchitis and lung diseases. SO2 causes acid rain. Natural rainwater has a pH of about 5.4. acid rain occur when pH of the rain is 2.4 and 5.0. this is due to the reactin on SO 2 and rainwater. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) = 2H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)

ammonia, NH3 and its salt

Uses of ammonia ;
i. ii. To make fertilisers. Large number of ammonia NH3 are converted into nitric acid, NHO 3. The acid is then used to make synthetic fibres, exxplosives, wood pulp, paints, varnishes, lacquers and rocket propellants/

Properties of ammonia ;
i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Alkaline A colourless gas Has a pungent smell Less dense than air Burns in oxygen, O 2 but not in the air Very soluble in water Give white fume when reac with hydrogen chloride gas, HCl

Manufac ure f ammonia ;

Ammonia is manufac ure through HaberProcess The process combines nitrogen gas N2 from the air with hydrogen gas H2 derived mainly from natural gas to form ammonia NH3

y y

Ammonia, NH3 formed is then liquefied and separated to get a batter yield. The production of ammonia, NH3 gives out heat. The reaction of ammonia, NH3 is reversible. The unreacted nitrogen gas, N2 and hydrogen gas, H2 are recycled and passed back into the reactor toge ther with the new source of nitrogen gas, N2 and hydrogen gas H2.

N2 g) + 3H2 g)

The ratio of one volume of nitrogen gas N2 to three volumes of hydrogen gas H2 is passed through the reactor. The mixture is compressed to a high pressure of 200 atmosphere at a temperature of about 450oC. t is then passed through layers of iron catalyst to speed up the rate of reaction. 2NH3 g)

Arrangement of atoms in metals ;
y y y The arrangement of the atoms in metals gives the metals their ductile and malleable properties. The orderly arrangement og atoms in metals enables the layers of atoms to slide on one another when force is applied. Thus, metals are ductile or can be stretched. There are some imperfections in the orderly arrangement of atoms in metals that allow some empty spaces in between the atoms. When a metal is knocked, atoms slide. This is why metals are malleable or can be shaped.

What are alloys?

 Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.  The properties of pure metals can be improved by making them alloys. The aim of making alloys is to make them stronger, harder, resistant to corrosion, have a better furnish and lustre.  The uses of each different alloy is depends on the properties of the alloy.
alloy Bronze composition 90% copper 10% tin properties Hard and strong Does not corrode easily Has shiny surface Harder than copper Hard and strong uses In the buildingof statues or monuments In the making of medals, swords and aristic materials In the making of musical instruments and kitchenware In the construction of buildings and bridges In the building of the body of cars and railway tracks In the making of cutlery In the making of surgical instruments In the building of the body of aeroplanes and bullet trains

Brass Steel

70% copper 30% zinc 99% iron 1% carbon

Stainless steel Duralumin


74% iron 8% carbon 18% chromium 93% aluminium 3% copper 3% magnesium 1% manganese 96% tin 3% copper 1% antimony

Shiny Strong Does not rust Light Strong

Lusture Shiny Strong

In the making of souvenirs

The arrangement of atoms in alloys ;

y y The presence of atoms of other metals that are of different sizes disturb the orderly arrangement of atom in the metal. This reduces the layer of atoms from sliding. Thus, an alloy is stronger and harder than its pure metal.

synthetic polymers
 Polymers are large molecules made up of many identical repeating sub-units called monomers which are joined together by covalent bonds. Monomers are joined into chains by a process of repeated linking known as polymerisation.  Some polymers occur naturally. Starch, cellulose, wool, protein, silk and natural rubber are examples of natural occurring polymers.  Synthetic polymers are man made polymers. The monomers used are usually obtained from petroleum after going through refining and cracking process. Examples ; polythene, PVC, polypropene, Perspex, nylon and terylene.

Monomers in synthetic polymers ;

Syhnthetic Polymer Polythene Polypropene PVC Perspex Terylene Monomer Ethene Propene Chloroethene Methylmethacrylate Hexane 1,6 diol Benzene 1,4 dicarboxylic acid Hexane 1,6 diamine Hexane 1,6 diocid acid Uses Plastic bags, shopping bags, plastic containers,and insulation for electric wiring Piping, bottle crates, carpets, car batteries and ropes Artificial leather, water pipes and records Safety glass, reflectors, traffic signs and lens Clothing, sails and ropes


Ropes, clothing and carpets

 One of the advantage of synthetic polymers is that they can be made to have special properties required for their uses. They are cheap, easy to be moulded or shaped and can be coloured.  Synthetic polymers are very stable and do not corrode or decay. This also means, they are difficult to dispose and not easily biodegradable. They may cause pollution, blockage of drainage systems and flash floods. When they are burnt, they give out harmful and poisonous gases which have pungent smell.

glass and ceramics

glass ;
The major component is silica, SiO 2. i. FUSED GLASS  Fused glass is the simplest glass  Fused glass ius a highly heat-resistant glass.  It can be heated to an extremely high tempetrature an d then can be plunged into icy cold water withouth cracking.  It is widely used because of its great purity, optical transparency, high temperature and chemical durability as well as resistance to thermal shock.  These properties make it appropriate to be used as laboratory glasswarem lenses, telescope mirrors and optical fibres. SODA-LIME GLASS The most common glass can be found in house is soda -lime glass. It is made by heating sand and limestone, CaCO 3or sodium carbonate, NaCO 3. Soda-lime glass can be melted at a relatively low temperature. It is easy to be shaped and has a good chemical durability. It is also has a high thermal expansion coefficient. It expands a lot when heated and contracts a lot when cooled. It doesnot withstand heat.  Soda-lime glass is used to make flat glass, electric bulbs, mirror and all kind of glass containers. iii.     BOROSILICATE GLASS Is formed when boron oxide, B 2O3 is added to soda-lime glass. Has a lower thermal expansion coefficient. Three times as heat resistant as soda-lime glass. More resistant to chemical attacks compared to sado-lime because it contains less alkali.  Borosilicate glass is excellent to be used in cookware, laboratory glassware and automobile headlights.  It is also used in glass pipelines and applications which require superior resistance to thermal shock and greater chemical durability. ii.    

iv. LEAD CRYSTAL GLASS.  Is normally called crystal or lead glass.  Made by substituting lead oxide, PbO for calcium oxide, CaO and often for part of the silica, SiO2 used in lime-soda glass.  Soft and easy to melt.  More expansive than soda-lime glass.  Used for the finest tableware, lead crystal glassware and art objects.  Is suitable for fine crystal because it is optically transparent and contains much more lead.

ceramics ;
 Examples ; clay pots, bricks, tiles, mugs.  Made from clay. Eg ; kaolin, a hydrated aluminiumsilicate, Al 2O3.2SiO2.2H2O.  When clay is heated to a very high temperature, they undergo a series of chemical reactions and are hardened permanently to form ceramics.  Ceramics can withstand high temperature and do not melt easily.  Very hard, brittle, chemically inert, do not corrode and have a very high melting point.  Their properties make them suitable for making abrasive, construction materials, tableware, insulators in electric equipments and refractories.

composite materials
 Composite materials os a structural material that formed by combining two or more different subtances.  The resulting material has properties that are superior than those of original components.
i.     CONCRETE AND STEEL Consist of mixture of stones, c hips and sand bound together by cement. Strong but brittle and weak in tension Steel is strong in tension. When reinforced with steel wires, steel bars or any polymer fibre, the resulting combination is very tough material with more tensile strength. This material is known as reinforced concrete. Steel and concrete have about the same coefficient of expansion. They make good composites and are essential for the construction of large structure buildings, bridges and oil paltforms.


ii. SUPERCONDICTORS  Capable of conducting electricity without any electric resistance when they are cooled to extremely low temperature.  Most of them are alloy of metal compounds or ceramic of metal oxides and some from composite materials.  used in bullet trains in Japan and medical magnetic-imaging devices like magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, magnetic energy-storage systems, generators, transformer and computers parts.  Devices made from superconductor have low power dissipation, high -speed operation and high sensitivity. iii. FIBRE OPTIC  Consist of bundle og glass or plastic threads that are surrounded by a glass cladding.  Able to transmit data, voices and images in a digital form.  Used to replace copper wire in long distance telephones lines, in mobile phones, video cameras and to link computer within local area network.  Also used in instruments for examining internal parts of the body or inspecting the interiors of manufactured structural products.  Widely used because of its low material cost, high transmission capacity, chemical stability and is less susceptible to interference.

iv. FIBRE GLASS  When glass fibres are used to reinforce plastic, we get a strong composite material called fibre glass.  Has high tensile strength, can be easily coloured and low in density.  Can be made into thin layers, yet very strong.  Easily moulded and shaped.  Used to make household products like water storage tanks, badminton rackets, small boats, skis and helmets. v. PHOTOCHROMIC GLASS  Produces by embedding photochromic subtances like silver chloride, AgCl crystal in glass or tansparent polymers.  When exposed to light, AgCl is converted to silver and the glass darken. The photocromic glass becomes tranparents again when silver is converted back to AgCl when the light dims.  Suitable for making optical lenses, car windshields, smart energy efficient windows in buildings, information displayspanel, lens in cameras, optical switches and light intensity meters.