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TP ON BU CHNH VIN THNG HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

Bi ging

QUN L MNG VIN THNG


(Lu hnh ni b)

H NI - 2009

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

Bi ging

QUN L MNG VIN THNG

Bin son:

TS. Nguyn Tin Ban (ch bin) ThS. Hong Trng Minh ThS. Nguyn Th Thu Hng ThS. Dng Th Thanh T KS. Nguyn nh Long

H NI - 2009

Qun l mng vin thng

Li ni u

LI NI U
Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca cc gii php cng ngh h tng mng truyn thng, hng lot cc yu cu mi c t ra i vi cc vn khai thc v trin khai h thng trong mi trng mng thc tin. Bi ton qun l mng vin thng lun l mi quan tm hng u v l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht cn gii quyt ca cc nh khai thc vin thng. Ty thuc vo cc gii php cng ngh v cc ng dng trin khai m cc nh khai thc la chn v xy dng cc h thng qun l mng thch hp nng cao hiu qu vn hnh v khai thc mng. V vy, cc gii php qun l mng lun l mt bi ton mang tnh ng v st vi cng ngh mng li. Nhm cung cp cho hc vin nhng kin thc c bn trong qun l mng vin thng, bi ging ny cung cp cho sinh vin nhng kin thc c bn v qun l mng vin thng qua hiu c cc c ch, k thut cng nh giao thc qun l v gim st mng vin thng. Vi mc tiu t ra nh vy, ni dung ca ti liu c chia thnh 4 chng. Chng 1 gii thiu cc vn c bn nht ca qun l mng, bao gm cc khi nim, yu cu v kin trc ca cc m hnh qun l mng. Chng 2 cung cp cc c tnh, ng dng v phng thc hot ng ca giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP nhm a ti ngi c cc kin thc nn tng ca giao thc qun l mng trong mi trng hi t trn nn IP. Chng 3 trnh by cc nguyn tc gim st mng thng dng vi cc nguyn l gim st v iu khin mng t xa. Chng 4 trnh by cc gii php qun l mng thc tin i vi mt s cng ngh in hnh ang c trin khai trn th gii cng nh Vit nam, cc nguyn tc v phng php ny s gip ngi c c c nhng kin thc tip cn vi thc tin qun l mng vin thng hin nay. Qun l mng vin thng l mt ni dung rt quan trng, cn c nghin cu k lng nng cao hiu qu vn hnh v khai thc mng. Yu cu i vi hc vin sau khi hc xong mn hc ny l phi nm bt c cc yu cu chung v qun l mng, cc thc th vt l cng nh cc thc th chc nng trong mng qun l vin thng, cc giao din v chc nng qun l, cch thc qun l v iu hnh mng thng qua cc giao thc qun l khc nhau. Ti liu c bin son trong khong thi gian tng i ngn nn khng trnh khi cn nhiu thiu st. Nhm tc gi rt mong nhn c cc kin ng gp ca c gi v nhng ngi quan tm. Nhng kin ng gp xin gi v :
B mn Mng vin thng- Khoa Vin thng 1- Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh vin thng

T: 84-4-33515484 Fax: 84-4-33511405 H Ni, thng 12 nm 2009

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Qun l mng vin thng

Mc lc

MC LC
LI NI U........................................................................................................................ i THUT NG VIT TT..................................................................................................... iv CHNG 1........................................................................................................................... 1 TNG QUAN V QUN L MNG .................................................................................. 1 1.1 GII THIU CHUNG ............................................................................................... 1 1.2 CC YU CU QUN L MNG............................................................................ 3 1.2.1 Cc kch bn qun l mng .................................................................................. 4 1.2.2 Cc chc nng qun l mng ............................................................................... 6 1.3 CC CCH TIP CN TRONG QUN L MNG ............................................. 12 1.3.1 Cc phng php tip cn qun l mng .......................................................... 12 1.3.2 Quan im qun l Manager Agent................................................................ 20 1.3.3. M hnh quan h Manager-agent ..................................................................... 20 1.4 KIN TRC QUN L MNG............................................................................... 22 1.5 MNG QUN L VIN THNG ........................................................................... 24 1.5.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................ 24 1.5.2 Kin trc chc nng .......................................................................................... 24 1.5.3 Kin trc vt l ................................................................................................... 26 1.6 TNG KT CHNG 1 ......................................................................................... 31 CHNG 2......................................................................................................................... 32 GIAO THC QUN L MNG N GIN SNMP ....................................................... 32 2.1 GII THIU CHUNG V SNMP ........................................................................... 32 2.2 QUN L TRUYN THNG TRONG SNMP ....................................................... 34 2.2.1 B phn qun l (manager) ........................................................................... 34 2.2.2 Agent.............................................................................................................. 35 2.2.3 C s thng tin qun l - MIB ....................................................................... 36 2.2.4 M hnh giao thc SNMP ............................................................................. 36 2.3 CU TRC V C IM NHN DNG CA THNG TIN QUN L MIB 40 2.4 C S THNG TIN QUN L MIB ...................................................................... 41 2.4.1 Cu trc ca MIB .............................................................................................. 41 2.4.2 Truy nhp thng tin qun l MIB ................................................................. 44 2.4.3 Cc i tng ca MIB ................................................................................. 46 2.5 SNMPv2 .................................................................................................................... 51 2.5.1 Cu trc bn tin SNMPv2............................................................................. 52 2.5.2 C s thng tin qun l MIB trong SNMPv2 ............................................... 56 2.5.3 Nguyn tc hot ng ca SNMPv2 ............................................................. 57 2.6 SNMPv3 ................................................................................................................... 60 2.6.1 Khun dng bn tin SNMPv3 ....................................................................... 62 2.6.2 Cc ng dng ni b ca SNMPv3 ............................................................... 65 2.6.3 Nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc SNMPv3 ............................................. 65 2.6.4 H tr bo mt v nhn thc trong SNMPv3 .............................................. 67 2.6.5 ng dng thc tin ca SNMPv3 ................................................................. 72 2.7 TNG KT CHNG 2 ......................................................................................... 74 CHNG 3........................................................................................................................ 78 3.1 NGUYN L CHUNG ............................................................................................ 78 3.2 CC PHNG PHP GIM ST MNG ........................................................... 79 3.2.1 Gim st mng b ng...................................................................................... 79 3.2.2 Gim st mng ch ng .................................................................................. 80 3.3 GIM ST T XA RMON .................................................................................... 82 3.3.1 Gii thiu chung ................................................................................................ 82 3.3.2 Cc thnh phn ca RMON .............................................................................. 85
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Mc lc

3.3.3 iu khin thit b RMON ................................................................................ 86 3.4 TNG KT CHNG 3 ......................................................................................... 96 CHNG 4......................................................................................................................... 97 QUN L CC MNG THC TIN ............................................................................... 97 4.1 QUN L MNG IP ................................................................................................ 97 4.1.1 La chn phng php qun l ......................................................................... 97 4.1.2 La chn phng php cu hnh ...................................................................... 97 4.1.3 Truy nhp v th hin d liu tiu chun ha .................................................. 99 4.1.4 Mt s vn thch thc ca qun l mng IP .............................................. 100 4.2 QUN L MNG MPLS....................................................................................... 103 4.2.1 Cc ng dng c bn ca MPLS..................................................................... 103 4.2.2 Cc i tng qun l trong MPLS ................................................................. 104 4.3 QUN L MNG QUANG ................................................................................... 109 4.3.1 Khung lm vic ca qun l mng quang........................................................ 109 4.3.2 Giao din v cc dch v lp quang ................................................................ 110 4.3.3 Qun l li v hiu nng mng quang ............................................................. 112 4.3.4 Mng truyn thng d liu v bo hiu .......................................................... 115 4.4.2 Cc module MIB ca GMPLS ........................................................................ 117 4.4 TNG KT CHNG 4 ...................................................................................... 122 TI LIU THAM KHO .............................................................................................. 124

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Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG VIT TT
API ARP ASN ATM ATMF BDI BGP B-ISDN BML CBCDES CCITT CLI CMIP CMIS CORBA DCN DES DML DTL ERO ETSI FDI FR FTP GDMO GMPLS Application Programming Interface Address Resolution Protocol Abstract Syntax Notation Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM Forum Backward Defect Indicator Border Gateway Protocol Broadband ISDN Business Management Layer Cipher Block Chaining - Data Encryption Standard Giao din lp trnh ng dng Giao thc phn gii a ch Ch c php rt gn Phng thc truyn d b Din n ATM Ch th li hng v Giao thc cng bin ISDN bng rng Lp qun l kinh doanh Giao thc m ho ma trn

Consultative Committee for y ban t vn v in thoi v in bo International Telegraph and Telephone quc t (Tin thn ca ITU) Command Line Interface Common Management Information Protocol Common Management Information Services Common Object Request Broken Architecture Data Communication Network Data Encryption Standard Data Management Language Designated Transit List Explicit Route Object European Telecommunications Standards Institute Forward Defect Indicator Frame Relay File Transfer Protocol Guideline for Definition of Managed Objects General Multi Protocol Label Giao din dng lnh Giao thc thng tin iu hnh chung Giao thc dch v thng tin qun l chung Kin trc CORBA Mng thng tin d liu Tiu chun mt m ho d liu Ngn ng x l d liu Danh sch chuyn tip mong mun i tng nh tuyn hin Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u Ch th li hng i Chuyn tip khung Giao thc truyn file Gi xc nh cc i tng iu hnh Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao iv

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Qun l mng vin thng Switching GUI HMMP IAB ICMP ID IETF INMF IP ISDN ISO ITF ITU ITU-T LAN LSP MAC MD MF MIB MOM MPLS NE NEF NEML NGN NMF NML NMS Graphic User Interface Hypermedia Management Protocol Internet Architecture Board Internet Control Message Protocol Identification Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Network Management Framework Internet Protocol Integrated Service Digital Network International Standard Organisation Information Transfer Function International Telecommunications Union ITU-Telecommunication Sector Local Area Network Label Switch Path Media Access Control Mediation Device Mediation Function Management Information Base Manage Of Manager Multi Protocol Label Switching Network Element Network Element Function Network Element Management Layer Next Generation Network Network Management Forum Network Management Layer Network Management System Network Management Station OS OSI PDU Operating System Open System Interconnection Protocol Data Unit thc tng qut

Thut ng vit tt

Giao din ngi dng ho Giao thc qun l a phng tin T chc kin trc Internet Giao thc kim sot thng bo Internet Nhn dng T chc h tr k thut Internet Khung cng vic qun l mng Internet Giao thc Internet Mng s a dch v T chc tiu chun ho quc t Chc nng truyn ti thng tin Hip hi vin thng quc t Tiu ban vin thng Hip hi vin thng quc t Mng ni ht ng chuyn mch nhn iu khin truy nhp phng tin Thit b trung gian Chc nng trung gian C s thng tin qun l Qun l ca qun l Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc Phn t mng Chc nng phn t mng Lp qun l phn t mng Mng th h k tip (sau) Din n iu hnh mng Lp qun l mng H thng qun l mng Trm qun l mng H iu hnh H thng lin kt m n v d liu giao thc v

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng QAF QoS RARP RED RMON RSVP SAME SGMP SLA SMI Q Adapter Function Quality of Service Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Random Early Detection Remote Network Monitoring Resource ReServation Protocol System Application Management Entity Simple Gateway Monitoring Protocol Service Level Agreement Structure of Management Information System Management Information SML SNMP SONET SS7 TCP TCP/IP TDM TMN UDP UML VACM VPN WAN WDM WS WSF Service Management Layer Simple Network Management Protocol Synchronous Optical Network Signalling System Number 7 Transmission Control Protocol Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (Suite) Time Division Multiplexing Telecommunication Management Network User Datagram Protocol Unified Modeling Language View-based Access Control Model Virtual Private Network Wide Area Network Wave Division Multiplexing Work Station Work Station Funtion

Thut ng vit tt Chc nng thch ng Q Cht lng dch v Giao thc phn gii a ch ngc K thut loi b sm ngu nhin Kim sot mng t xa Giao thc ginh trc ti nguyn Thc th qun l ng dng h thng Giao thc kim sot cng n gin Tho thun mc dch v Cu trc thng tin qun l Thng tin qun l h thng Lp qun l dch v Giao thc qun l mng n gin Mng quang ng b Mng bo hiu s 7 Giao thc iu khin giao vn Chng giao thc TCP/IP Ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian Mng qun l vin thng Giao thc d liu ngi dng M hnh hng i tng s dng M hnh iu khin kt ni da trn cc View Mng ring o Mng din rng Ghp knh quang theo bc sng My trm (trm lm vic) Chc nng trm lm vic

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Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

CHNG 1

TNG QUAN V QUN L MNG


1.1 GII THIU CHUNG
S pht trin v hi t mng tin ti mng th h k tip NGN (Next Generation Network) trong nhng nm gn y tc ng mnh m ti tt c cc kha cnh ca mng li, thm ch c v nhng nhn thc nn tng v phng php tip cn Qun l mng cng l mt trong nhng lnh vc ang c nhng s thay i v hon thin mnh m trong c n lc tiu chun ho ca cc t chc tiu chun ln trn th gii v yu cu t pha ngi s dng dch v. Mt khc cc nh khai thc mng, nh cung cp thit b v ngi s dng thng p dng cc phng php chin lc khc nhau cho vic qun l mng v thit b ca mnh. Mi nh cung cp thit b thng a ra gii php qun l mng ring cho sn phm ca mnh. Trong bi cnh hi t mng hin nay, s lng thit b v dch v rt a dng v phc tp to ra cc thch thc ln trong vn qun l mng. Nhim v ca qun l mng rt r rng v mt nguyn tc chung, nhng cc bi ton qun l c th li c phc tp rt ln. iu ny xut pht t tnh a dng ca cc h thng thit b v cc c tnh qun l ca cc loi thit b, v xa hn na l chin lc qun l phi ph hp vi kin trc mng v p ng yu cu ca ngi s dng. Mt lot cc thit b in hnh cn c qun l gm: My tnh c nhn, my trm, server, my vi tnh c nh, my vi tnh c ln, cc thit b u cui, thit b o kim, my in thoi, tng i in thoi ni b, cc thit b truyn hnh, my quay, modem, b ghp knh, b chuyn i giao thc, CSU/DSU, b ghp knh thng k, b ghp v gii gi, thit b tng thch ISDN, card NIC, cc b m ho v gii m tn hiu, thit b nn d liu, cc gateway, cc b x l front-end, cc ng trung k, DSC/DAC, cc b lp, b ti to tn hiu, cc thit b chuyn mch, cc bridge, router v switch, tt c mi ch l mt phn ca danh sch cc thit b s phi c qun l. Ton cnh ca bc tranh qun l phi bao gm qun l cc ti nguyn mng cng nh cc ti nguyn dch v, ngi s dng, cc ng dng h thng, cc c s d liu khc nhau trong cc loi mi trng ng dng. V mt k thut, tt c thng tin trn c thu thp, trao i v c kt hp vi hot ng qun l mng di dng cc s liu qun l bi cc k thut tng t nh cc k thut s dng trong mng truyn s liu. Tuy nhin s khc nhau cn bn gia truyn thng s liu v trao i thng tin qun l l vic trao i thng tin qun l i hi cc trng d liu chuyn bit, cc giao thc truyn thng cng nh cc m hnh thng tin chuyn bit, cc k nng chuyn bit c th thit k, vn hnh h thng qun l cng nh bin dch cc thng
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Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

tin qun l v bo li, hin trng h thng, cu hnh v bo mt. Khi mng hi t tin ti h tng mng th h k tip NGN, mt khung lm vic v cc khi nim chung c cc t chc tiu chun ha quc t a ra nh T chc vin thng quc t ITU (International Telecommunication Union), Vin tiu chun vin thng Chu u ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute), T chc c trch k thut internet IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)... Trong , theo quan im ca tiu ban chun ho vin thng trong ITU (ITU-T), chc nng qun l mng lin quan ti mt tp chc nng iu hnh v qun l mng cho php trao i thng tin qun l gia mt bng qun l v cc ngun ti nguyn, dch v v cc mt bng khc. Khuyn ngh ITU-T M.3060/Y.2401 (03/2006) nh ngha v cc yu cu chung ca qun l mng NGN gm c mt s cc c im c bn nh sau: Cung cp kh nng qun l ngun ti nguyn NGN trn c mng li, mng truy nhp, cc thnh phn lin kt ni, mng khch hng v thit b u cui. Cung cp kh nng qun l ngun ti nguyn dch v c lp vi ti nguyn truyn ti, cho php h tr phn bit cc dch v ngi s dng u cui. Cho php kh nng kin to dch v mi cho ngi s dng trn mi trng kin to dch v ca NGN. Cung cp kh nng qun l mng ti cc dch v ring ca ngi s dng (bo co li, bn ghi cc trc tuyn). m bo truy nhp an ton cc thng tin qun l. H tr cc mng gi tr eBussiness da trn cc lut kinh doanh (khch hng, nh cung cp dch v, cc i th cnh tranh, nh cung cp). Cho php nhng ngi dng c nhn hoc cc t chc a lut ring vo trong mi trng mng chung. a ra nhn nhn tng th v cc ngun ti nguyn nhm che du phc tp v s a dng ca cc cng ngh. H tr vn thu thp d liu cc cho ngi iu hnh mng trn c hai phng thc online v offline. Cung cp kh nng khi phc mng khi mng li, gim st mng khch hng, cung cp dch v tch hp t u cui ti u cui v t ng ch nh ngun ti nguyn. Cung cp kh nng iu hnh mng da trn cht lng dch v. Kh nng trao i cc thng tin qun l qua cc vng bin mng: Gia vng dch v v vng truyn ti, gia mt bng iu khin v mt bng qun l v gia cc vng qun l. C cc giao din qun l trn cc phn t mng tiu chun, d pht trin cho c nh cung cp dch v v ngi s dng dch v.
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Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

C kh nng iu khin, phn tch v tm kim cc thng tin qun l thch hp. Trong kin trc phn lp cu NGN, tng dch v NGN cung cp cc chc nng iu khin v qun l dch v mng ti tng ng dng v ngi s dng u cui. Tng truyn ti truyn cc thng tin gia cc thc th v vng qun l gm cc mt bng qun l thng tin, chc nng v kha cnh vt l ca cc thc th NGN. Cc chc nng ca tng truyn ti c m t chi tit trong NGN-FG II v nm ngoi phm vi ca ti liu ny. Cc chc nng qun l h thng l nn tng iu hnh ca NGN, cc chc nng cung cp kh nng qun l NGN cung cp cc dch v NGN vi cht lng, bo mt v tin cy mong mun ca ngi s dng dch v NGN. Cc cng ngh ny c b tr phn tn trong cc thc th chc nng FE (Function Entity) v chng tng tc vi cc chc nng qun l phn t mng NE (Network Element), qun l mng v qun l dch v. Cc chc nng qun l thc hin iu hnh trn tng truyn ti v tng dch v. Trong cc tng ny cc chc nng c bn gm 5 vng c bn: Qun l li, qun l cu hnh, qun l ti khon, qun l hiu nng v qun l bo mt.

1.2 CC YU CU QUN L MNG


Cc c ch qun l mng c nhn nhn t hai gc , gc mng ch ra h thng qun l nm ti cc mc cao ca m hnh OSI v t pha ngi iu hnh qun l h thng. Mc d c rt nhiu quan im khc nhau v m hnh qun l nhng chng u thng nht bi ba chc nng qun l c bn gm: gim st, iu khin v a ra bo co ti ngi iu hnh. Chc nng gim st c nhim v thu thp lin tc cc thng tin v trng thi ca cc ti nguyn c qun l sau chuyn cc thng tin ny di dng cc s kin v a ra cc cnh bo khi cc tham s ca ti nguyn mng c qun l vt qu ngng cho php. Chc nng qun l c nhim v thc hin cc yu cu ca ngi qun l hoc cc ng dng qun l nhm thay i trng thi hay cu hnh ca mt ti nguyn c qun l no . Chc nng a ra bo co c nhim v chuyn i v hin th cc bo co di dng m ngi qun l c th c, nh gi hoc tm kim, tra cu thng tin c bo co. Trong thc t, tu theo tng cng vic c th m cn c mt vi chc nng khc c kt hp vi cc h thng qun l v cc ng dng qun l c s dng nh qun l k hoch d phng thit b, dung lng, trin khai dch v, qun l tm tt ti nguyn, qun l vic phn phi ti nguyn mng/ cc h thng, qun l vic sao lu v khi phc tnh trng h thng, vn hnh qun l t ng. Phn ln cc chc nng phc tp k trn u nm trong hoc c xy dng da trn nn tng ca ba chc nng
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

qun l lp cao l gim st, iu khin v a ra bo co. Di gc ca ngi iu hnh qun l mng, mt s yu cu c bn thng c t ra gm: Kh nng gim st v iu khin mng cng nh cc thnh phn ca h thng thit b t u cui n u cui. C th truy nhp v cu hnh li t xa cc ti nguyn c qun l. D dng trong vic ci t, vn hnh v bo dng h thng qun l cng nh cc ng dng ca n. Bo mt hot ng qun l v truy nhp ca ngi s dng, bo mt truyn thng cc thng tin qun l. C kh nng a ra cc bo co y v r ngha v cc thng tin qun l. Qun l theo thi gian thc v hot ng qun l hng ngy c thc hin mt cch t ng. Mm do trong vic nng cp h thng v c kh nng tng thch vi nhiu cng ngh khc nhau. C kh nng lu tr v khi phc cc thng tin qun l.

1.2.1 Cc kch bn qun l mng


Nhim v qun l mng lun gn lin vi kin trc mng thc tin, v vy rt nhiu kch bn khc nhau c trin khai trn cc nn mng thc tin. Mt s yu cu qun l c ch ra sau y gm: mng khch hng, lu tr d liu phn tn, h thng bn s tp trung v cc h thng ti liu chia s, v h thng tr gip iu hnh.

A, Yu cu qun l khch hng


Mt h thng cung cp dch v ti khch hng ca cc nh cung cp thng c phn cp theo hp ng v theo dch v gn vi cc k thut khc nhau. Thng tin qun l t mt s ngun ti nguyn mc thp yu cu s dng dch v, cc b to bo co li, gim st hiu nng v qun l cc dch v c cung cp ti mc cao nht ca mi quan h gia khch hng v nh cung cp. Qun l mng khch hng nh ngha s chuyn dch t vn qun l phn t ti vn qun l lin quan ti dch v. Mt s yu cu c bn c ch ra di y: Mi nh cung cp dch v phi qun l c mng ca h v mt phn tch hp trong l qun l thnh phn, lin quan ti vic gim st kh dng, mc s dng dung lng, bo mt v xc nh li cc phn t. Thm vo l cc nhim v qun l lin quan ti chc nng ca ton mng nh nh tuyn, ghp knh, gim st cc knh. Ti im truy nhp ti mng, cc dch v cung cp thng c da trn tha thun mc dch v th hin cht lng dch v cung cp. Ti , nhim v qun
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

l c thc hin da trn vic gim st cht lng dch v. Cc giao din khch hng-nh cung cp cng bao gm cc th tc bo co li, tng thch dch v hoc cung cp dch v. Trong kch bn ny, cc khch hng c th truy nhp cc thng tin qun l c th, v d nh cht lng dch v, kh nng s dng dch v pht trin cc dch v gia tng gi tr hoc dch v mi. C s thng tin qun l MIB (Management Information Base) do khch hng s dng phi phn nh c cc dch v v tho thun mc dch v.

B, Lu tr d liu phn tn
Mt kch bn thng s dng cho lu tr d liu ca cc h thng l lu tr d liu phn tn ti cc v tr khc nhau. Cc h thng lu tr d liu nh vy l mt phn ca h thng d liu phc tp, c cc h thng file v cho php truy nhp d liu. Nu mt mng gm cc h thng c cu trc khc nhau hoc c cung cp bi cc nh cung cp dch v khc nhau th h thng s c b sung thm mt s chi tit nh cc tham s h thng khc nhau m ngi iu hnh mng thit lp qua qun l. m bo tnh ring t v tnh tun t ca d liu cng l cc yu cu cn t ra trong kch bn ny. Kha cnh bo mt chu trch nhim cho tnh ring t ca d liu k c cc d liu d phng, cp nht v lu tr. Cc chnh sch c ng dng trong cc h thng di chuyn d liu t cc vng khc nhau ti cc mc phn cp d liu khc nhau.

C, Bn s tp trung
Mt h thng tm kim khc cung cp chc nng qun l mng hon ton khc bit l h thng bn s tp trung. H thng c s d liu bn s cn mt s nhim v qun l nh sau: Thit lp mt cu trc th mc thch hp gm cc dch v th mc. To cc my ch lu tr tm thi truy nhp nhanh ti trung tm. Tch hp cc chin lc cache v cho php chng thay i. nh ngha v iu hnh cc th tc truy nhp c lp vi h tng. m bo tnh bo mt thng qua cc th tc nhn thc, trao quyn v m kha. Bo v cc vng mng ring thng qua tng la hoc cc phng php ring thch hp.

D, H thng chia s ti liu


H thng chia s ti liu gm h thng lu tr v h thng tm kim nhanh vi kh dng ln ti 98% trong thi gian lm vic. Cc nhim v qun l trong kch bn ny gm: Gim st cc tham s QoS ph hp vi cc yu cu SLA. Qun l ng dng (phn tn phn mm, tham s cung cp cho cp nht h thng tm kim, hot ng iu hnh cc ng dng tm kim phn tn)
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Qun l h thng v mng: bo mt ca hot ng h tng v cp nht d liu. Qun l ngi s dng v bo co cc thng tin lin quan ti QoS.

E, H thng tr gip ngi iu hnh


Gim st li l mt tin trnh phc tp v tiu tn thi gian do phc tp ca cc h thng phn tn v cc dch v truyn thng. Cc nh cung cp h tng thng a ra cc h thng tr gip, ng dy nng, cc my ch cuc gi tr gip iu hnh. Cc b cng c khc nhau thng c c sn trong h thng tr gip, cng c tch cc s dng gim st hoc iu khin mt h thng phn tn, cng c th ng h tr cc trung tm cuc gi gm cc h thng ti liu v cc bo co li.

1.2.2 Cc chc nng qun l mng


Cc t chc tiu chun v cc nh cung cp thit b a ra cc h thng mng khc nhau, v vy cc chc nng qun l mng cng rt a dng v bin i theo tng mi trng qun l thc t. Di gc tng quan, cc chc nng qun l mng thng c tham chiu v trin khai theo m hnh kt ni h thng m OSI (Open System Interconnection). Cc chc nng qun l h thng c phn lp v c nh ngha bi cc nh qun l mng. Tp chc nng ny ph thuc vo yu cu qun l v gn lin vi cc ng dng. H thng qun l mng theo OSI l mt tp cc tiu chun qun l mng do t chc tiu chun quc t ISO (International Standard Organization) thc hin. Mt lot cc khuyn ngh c t chc ny a ra bao hm c khung qun l, giao thc v dch v truyn thng qun l, v cu trc ca thng tin qun l (serial X.7xx). M hnh trao i thng tin qun l c thc hin trong 3 vng phn cp: qun l h thng, qun l lp v iu hnh lp. Nhim v qun l h thng c thc hin t lp ng dng v s dng khi nim thc th qun l ng dng h thng SAME (System Application Management Entity) qun tr h thng. Cc giao thc lp ng dng lun l giao thc quan trng nht trong m hnh ny, chng c kh nng trao i cc thng tin qun l p ng cc yu cu qun l v l cch tip cn nhanh nht ca ngi qun l h thng vi h thng. Nhim v qun l lp ca m hnh OSI thc hin qun l cc i tng thuc lp v trao i thng tin qua h thng giao thc ti cc lp k cn. i tng b qun l nm trong cc lp khc nhau thuc m hnh OSI v thng tin qun l nm trong c s d liu thng tin qun l MIB (Management Information Base). MIB c coi l mt dng c s d liu, ni dung ca c s d liu ny khng cha i tng b qun l m ch cha cc thng tin lin kt vi cc i tng ny. H thng qun l lp thc hin duy tr mi lin kt gia i tng b qun l v thng tin trong c s d liu. V vy, nu xut hin li ti lp qun l th thng tin trong c s d liu khng phn nh ng thc trng qun l ca h thng.

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Hnh 1.1: M hnh h thng qun l theo OSI Cc kha cnh qun l ca m hnh OSI c ch ra gm: thng tin, t chc, chc nng v truyn thng. Kha cnh thng tin ca m hnh qun l h thng ch ra phng php trao i thng tin v phng php truy nhp ti nguyn qun l ca cc lp. i tng b qun l c th hin qua cc c tnh nguyn thy ca i tng v hnh vi ca i tng.Cc i tng b qun l c nh ngha nh l cc thc th lp, cc u ni, cc thit b phn cng. H thng qun l s ch xem xt ti cc c tnh ca i tng qun l thc hin chc nng qun l h thng. M hnh qun l theo OSI c t chc theo nguyn tc tp trung, mt khi qun l c th qun l v iu hnh mt s i din qun l (Agent). Mi trng qun l OSI c th phn vng qun l theo chc nng, v tr a l hoc cng ngh mng. V vy, cc nh qun tr mng c th hon ton a ra cc cu hnh khc nhau trong cch thc qun l ca h.

Hnh 1.2: Quan h qun l i tng Kha cnh truyn thng trong m hnh qun l OSI c nh ngha trong chun giao thc dch v thng tin qun l chung CMIS (Common Management Information Services). CMIS nh ngha cc dch v c bn nh: khi phc thng tin qun l, thay i c tnh ca i tng b qun l (thng qua agent), xo b v to ra cc i tng qun l mi, bo co cc s kin trong qu trnh qun l. Cc yu cu c bn trong kha cnh truyn thng gm: kh dng, kh nng hot ng lin kt, kh nng di chuyn v kh nng phn cp.
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

kh dng th hin kh nng d dng ci t, vn hnh v bo dng ca mt h thng qun l. N cng bao hm c n nh v hiu nng. Kh nng hot ng lin kt th hin kh nng trao i thng tin qun l mt cch trong sut gia c s qun l vi cc agent b qun l hay gia cc h thng qun l ngang hng. Kh nng di chuyn din t s n nh ca c s qun l hay cc ng dng ca cc h thng qun l khi b thay i mi trng (c s tnh ton) hay ni cch khc, c s qun l hay cc ng dng ca cc h thng qun l khng b thay i hay s thay i l ti thiu khi c s thay i mi trng tnh ton. Kh nng nng cp l kh nng p ng khi h thng nng cp, m rng phm vi qun l, bin ng ca ngi s dng, cc chc nng qun l m khng thay i ton b thit k ban u. Kha cnh chc nng ca m hnh qun l c chia thnh 5 vng gm c: Qun l cu hnh, qun l hiu nng, qun l li, qun l bo mt v qun l ti khon. Kin trc qun l theo ISO c th hin trn hnh 1.3.

Hnh 1.3: Cc khi chc nng ca kin trc qun l theo ISO Qun l cu hnh gm cc tin trnh xc nh v x l cc tham s thay i ca cc thit b v phng tin truyn thng nhm duy tr hot ng chc nng ca mng. Cc tham s c th t, khi to li, hoc n gin ch l hin th tham s cho ngi qun l. Cc h thng qun l thng qua giao thc iu khin qun l a ra cc lnh ti cc thit b qun l. Qun l li l mt tin trnh pht hin li, xc nh li, cch ly li v sa li. Bc quan trng nht trong qun l li l pht hin cc iu kin bt bnh thng ca cc thit b. Pht hin li c th c thc hin bng nhiu phng php
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

gm vic t ngng cho cc kiu cnh bo khc nhau hoc t cc thng tin t pha ngi s dng dch v. Bc cui cng ca qu trnh qun l li c th lin quan ti tin trnh thay i cc tham s cho ph hp trong qun l cu hnh. Qun l hiu nng gm mt s tc v yu cu nh gi mc s dng ca cc thit b mng v phng tin truyn dn v t cc tham s ph hp vi yu cu thc t. Qun l hiu nng s dng cc thng tin gim st thit b hoc thng qua c s d liu trong qu trnh thng k. Qun l hiu nng lin quan mt thit vi qu trnh quy hoch mng. Qun l bo mt m t mt tp cc tc v nhm m bo nhn thc ngi s dng v thit b, nn d liu, phn b kho bo mt, duy tr v gim st bn ghi bo mt, pht hin v ngn chn cc xm phm khng cho php. Qun l ti khon lin quan ti qu trnh tnh cc v ho n s dng dch v, qun l ti khon cung cp phng php tnh ph hp cc yu cu ca ngi s dng v hin trng mng.

1.2.3 Kha cnh t chc ca qun l mng


Vn qun l cc h tng cng ngh truyn thng khng ch xem xt t cc gc k thut m cn l gii php tch hp cho ton b cc c tnh ca mng. Tip cn tch hp gm cc gii php trong cc lp ca m hnh qun l, tng thch vi cu trc ca t chc qun l nh: nh ngha tin trnh qun l h tr tin trnh kinh doanh vi nhiu lut khc nhau. nh ngha cc vng c cc chnh sch qun l v th tc qun l ring bit. Xc nh cc giao din gia cc vng nhm trao i thng tin qun l v cc hot ng qun l. Quy hoch v thit lp h tng qun l nhm nh ra cc th tc ci thin tin trnh qun l v cc cng c qun l cn thit. Thit lp mt cu trc t chc v iu hnh thc hin qun l. Bao gm cc h thng iu hnh, qun tr, lp k hoch, phn tch v tr gip iu hnh. Thut ng iu hnh c s dng tham chiu ti cc iu kin c th ca vn qun l k thut trong mi trng mng. Khi nim iu hnh nh ngha cc ng dng qun l phn tn cng vi cc nhim v, cng vic c ch nh cho cc n v ca t chc, cc th tc v lung thng tin. Cc h tng thng tin c th c cu trc thnh cc vng (phn vng logic) da trn:

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

S khc bit ca cc t chc hoc cng ty l cc phn ca mi trng qun l. V d cc nh khai thc, nh cung cp dch v internet, nh cung cp cng c qun l v cc t chc ngi s dng. Cu trc c t chc ca mt cng ty gm cc nhm, khi v cc vng iu hnh. Cc iu kin a l Cc lnh vc kinh doanh Cc kha cnh x l d liu Cc kiu ti nguyn, v d nh: phn cng, h thng phn mm, cc phn mm ng dng, d liu, h tng k thut. Thit lp cc vng cng c ngha to ra cc nhm ca i tng b qun l. Cc nhm ny c gn cc cng vic khc nhau nh lp k hoch, la chn, thu thp thng tin, cung cp v ci thin, iu hnh, bo dng v tng thch. Khi mt t chc qun l c cung cp, n gm cc vn lin quan ti trch nhim ca cc n v trong t chc. S phn b cc chc nng nhim v ng vai tr quan trng xc nh yu t truyn thng cn thit cho qun l cng nh l phc tp ca vn bo mt trong qun l. Mt vi m hnh thng dng gm qun l tp trung, phn cp v phn tn thng c ng dng trong cc m hnh t chc qun l.
1.2.4 Kha cnh thi gian ca qun l mng

Kha cnh thi gian l mt vn lun c t ra v quan tm trong cc hot ng qun l mng. Yu t thi gian tc ng ti hng lot cc vn nh lp k hoch, cung cp, iu hnh v thay i cc nhim v qun l mng. Trong giai on x l lp k hoch, mt lot bc x l khc nhau thng c t ra nh sau: Phn tch ng dng: Bc ny xc nh loi hnh dch v s c cung cp. Cc dch v c c trng bi cc nh ngha theo chc nng v cht lng dch v. Phn tch mc u tin yu cu: Phn tch mc u tin ch ra cch thc phn b ti nguyn h thng cho ngi s dng v lin quan ti cu hnh v cc mi quan h lu lng. Phn tch kch thc yu cu: Bc x l ny xc nh kh nng phn b d liu t mt mc thi gian v mc tng trng theo thi gian. Phn tch thnh phn: Phn tch thnh phn thit lp kiu v s lng cc thnh phn c a vo h thng phn tn gm cc c tnh giao din v phn mm. Phn tch cc iu kin khc: Mt s cc iu kin khc c th nh hng ti vn lp k hoch v la chn sn phm bao gm: bo v u t, thi gian
10

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

kh dng, cc yu cu bo v d liu, kh nng m rng, gi thnh, pht trin cng ngh, chin lc th trng v tiu chun ha. Lp k hoch a h thng vo hot ng: y l mt tin trnh x l gm rt nhiu vn : kim ta cc th tc iu hnh, xc lp tnh tng thch trong lu t chc, lp k hoch lp t phn cng v phn mm, v.v. Giai on kim tra tnh tng thch tc ng ngc ti cc giai on lp k hoch khc. Cc thng s kim tra c phn hi trong cc mch vng hi tip ti cc giai on khc ca tin trnh lp k hoch. Kha cnh thi gian ca ca cc i tng b qun l c th nhn thy qua cc mch vng hi tip kt qu (hnh 1.4).

B: Kt qu iu khin F: Cc lut phn tch v o cho gim st E: B h tr quyt nh iu hnh S: Tin trnh iu khin

Z: Trng thi ca i tng b qun l V: Hnh v i tng b qun l t: Thi gian

Hnh 1.4: Kha cnh thi gian ca i tng b qun l Cc ngun ti nguyn c iu khin thng qua s thay i cc tham s nhn c trong qu trnh qun l. Kt qu o c nh gi bi ngi qun l hoc h thng qun l (bao gm c phn tch s kin v phn tch ngng) c th s dng khi to mt quy trnh qun l mi. Cc hot ng khc nhau c t trong cc khong thi gian khc nhau trong giai on iu hnh h thng c th gn vo trc thi gian nh trn hnh 1.5. Phm vi ngn hn: Cc nhim v ngn hn gm cc php o c thc hin trong thi gian tnh bng giy hoc pht. Cc nhim v ny gm cc nhim v gim st trong thi gian ngn m bo cc mc tiu iu hnh nh m bo tnh bo mt hoc kh dng, hoc x l bn tin li v thay th ti nguyn d phng. Phm vi trung hn: Cc nhim v trung hn c thc hin theo chu k tnh bng gi. Trong khi cc nhim v ngn hn thng c x l bi cc h thng qun l t ng th nhim v trung hn thng do cc chuyn gia qun l m trch. V d cc nhim v chn on li, kim tra h thng, thay i cu hnh, kch hot v dng hot ng cc module, thu thp v nh gi d liu o ngn hn.
11

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Phm vi di hn: Thi gian di hn c tnh theo tun hoc thng. Mc tiu ca cc nhim v di hn l s dng kinh nghim thu nhn c qua thi gian ci thin iu hnh trong tng lai. Lp k hoch chnh l kha cnh then cht trong phm vi di hn ny. Cc nhim v di hn thng l nhim v bo dng, phn tch chin lc v lp k hoch dung lng.

Cc dch v ti mc gim st c th xc nh cc kiu li ngn hn, cc dch v ti mc can thip iu khin s nm trong giai on trung hn. Mc iu khin c a vo gia mc gim st v mc can thip i vi mt s dch v. Cc dch v di hn c coi l cc mc chin lc.

Hnh 1.5: Kha cnh thi gian v cc hot ng qun l Vic phn chia thi gian khng ch nhn dng cc hot ng qun l m cn ng vai tr quan trng cho cc qu trnh to cng c v c s d liu. V vy, i vi rt nhiu nhim v gim st, cc chu k gim st c quy nh bi khung thi gian. Khung thi gian ny xc nh nhng im c bn ca cc gii php vi cc tham s chun v tnh tun t tc ng ti kch thc b m, kch thc b m, tn sut o, chnh xc ca php o v cc th tc phn tch. N cng nh hng ti kha cnh truyn thng v phn phi thng tin qun l. Thi gian qun l cng nh hng ti cc vn qun l s liu lu tr.

1.3 CC CCH TIP CN TRONG QUN L MNG 1.3.1 Cc phng php tip cn qun l mng
Kin trc h thng qun l mng rt phc tp v ch yu ph thuc vo kin trc h thng mng, khng c mt lut hoc mt k thut c th no c coi l bt buc i vi cc h thng mng. Mt s hng tip cn c ch ra sau y:

B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

12

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

A, Qun l hin
Nu h thng qun l c con ngi khi to v qun l, phng php qun l mng ny c gi l qun l hin. Ngi qun l s khi to qu trnh v thc hin qun l trong sut thi gian qun l, c th c mt s chc nng t ng h tr cho cng tc qun l ca ngi iu hnh h thng nhng vn c coi l phng php qun l hin. Mt u im ca phng php qun l hin l khng cn thit phi thit k chi tit cc chc nng qun l trong giai on thit k h thng, cc vn thc t s c ngi iu hnh ra quyt nh tu thuc vo cc mc tiu v iu kin c th trong qu trnh khai thc. Nh vy, tin trnh thit k h thng s gim bt phc tp v thi gian. Qun l hin hu dng trong vic gii quyt cc vn khng mong mun xy ra trong qu trnh hot ng thc t ca h thng, ng thi yu cu cc gii php tt nht c a ra t pha ngi iu hnh. Qun l hin rt ph hp vi chc nng qun l li. Nhc im ca qun l hin l b gii hn kh nng x l v s lng li t chnh ngi iu hnh h thng. Mc d gim bt c chi ph trong khu thit k h thng nhng li lm tng chi ph ca giai on iu hnh h thng.

B, Qun l n
Khi h thng t khi to v iu hnh, phng php qun l ny c gi l qun l n, tt c cc chc nng qun l c thc hin bi cc module phn cng v phn mm mt cch t ng. S khc bit vi phng php qun l hin l phng php thi hnh. V mt nguyn tc, hon ton c th thc hin hai phng php qun l trong cng mt h thng. Vi cc h thng thng minh v h thng chuyn gia h tr cho phng php qun l n, ranh gii gia hai phng php qun l c thu hp li. Mt s vn li cn phi c gii quyt bng c hai phng php ng thi trong c qu trnh pht hin v sa li. Trong giai on thit k v iu khin, cc chc nng qun l mng c nhn nhn di cc gc khc nhau. Khi giai on vn hnh h thng c bt u, ngi s dng v nh qun tr mng phn bit cc chc nng nguyn thu v cc chc nng qun l nhm la chn phng php qun l theo thc t.

C, Qun l tp trung
Trong tip cn ny ch c mt thit b qun l thu nhn cc thng tin v iu khin ton b cc thc th mng, v d cc thng tin lin quan ti cc ng dng c lu tr ti mt h thng qun l n nh ch ra trn hnh 1.4. Cc chc nng qun l c thc hin bi manager (thit b qun l), kh nng ca h thng ph thuc rt ln vo mc thng minh ca manager. Kin trc ny thng c s dng rt nhiu trong mng hin nay, nht l vi cc m hnh doanh nghip c h tng mng ring v c trung tm qun tr mng. qun l iu hnh cc chc nng s cp, agent c t vo cc h thng b qun l thc hin cc chc nng s cp nhm h tr cc chc nng khi to, gim
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

13

Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

st v sa i cc hnh vi ca chc nng s cp. So vi cc chc nng thuc manager, chc nng Agent thng rt n gin, thng tin trao i t manager ti cc agent thng qua cc giao thc thng tin qun l nh giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) v giao thc thng tin qun l chung v dch v thng tin qun l chung CMIS/CMIP (Common Management Information Protocol), cc giao thc ny s c tho lun chi tit trong chng 2. H thng qun l tp trung thng t trong mt trm lm vic, nu manage li hoc hng th ton b h thng qun l s b t lit, nu li ch xy ra trong mt phn mng, th mt s phn t mng trong vng mng li s khng c qun l. Thm vo , h thng qun l tp trung rt kh m rng v mc phc tp ca h thng tng ln rt nhanh.

Hnh 1.6: M hnh qun l tp trung Mt bin th ca h thng qun l tp trung da trn tip cn nn gm mt mt bng qun l 2 tng: Nn tng qun l mng v ng dng qun l mng. Nn qun l mng lin quan ti th tc thu thp thng tin v cc tnh ton n gin, trong khi ng dng qun l vic s dng cc dch v cung cp bi nn qun l ra quyt nh x l v h tr cc chc nng lp cao. u im ca tip cn ny l cc ng dng khng ph thuc qu nhiu vo phc tp ca giao thc v s phc tp ca thnh phn mng. Tuy nhin, nhc im cn tn ti trong m hnh ny xut pht t kh nng m rng ca vic qun l tp trung. Mt s c im c bn ca m hnh ny nh sau: Nn tng qun l mng c t trn mt h thng my tnh n. d phng h thng cn c lu tr bn sao ti mt h thng khc. H thng qun l c th truy nhp v chuyn cc s kin ti bn iu hnh hoc h thng khc. Thng c s dng cho cnh bo v s kin li trn mng, cc thng tin mng v truy nhp ti cc ng dng qun l.
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

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Qun l mng vin thng u im:

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Quan st cnh bo v cc s kin mng t mt v tr Bo mt c khoanh vng n gin


Nhc im:

Li h thng qun l chnh s gy tc hi ti ton b mng. Tng phc tp khi c thm cc phn t mi vo h thng. Tn ti cc h thng hng i ch x l khi c nhiu yu cu x l t cc thit b.

Hnh 1.7: M hnh qun l phn cp

D, Qun l phn cp
Trong tip cn ny, h thng c chia thnh cc vng tu theo nhim v qun l to ra mt h thng phn cp qun l. Trung tm x l t ti gc ca cy phn cp, v cc h thng phn tn c t ti cc nhnh ca cy. H thng x l trung tm truy nhp ti tt c cc h thng nhnh v ch ra cc nhim v phn tn ca nhnh. Kin trc phn cp s dng khi nim qun l ca qun l v qun l theo vng. Mi mt h thng qun l vng chu trch nhim qun l trong chnh vng v khng lin quan ti cc vng khc. Trong kin trc phn cp, khng c cc thng tin trao i trc tip gia cc manager vng. Kin trc ny rt d m rng theo c chiu rng ln chiu su ca cy phn cp. Cc c im c bn ca h thng phn cp nh sau: H thng qun l vng thng l h thng my tnh a chc nng: truy nhp ti my ch trung tm v ng vai tr hot ng nh mt client. H thng qun l khng ph thuc vo mt h thng n. Phn tn cc chc nng qun l mng. Chc nng gim st mng c b tr phn tn. Lu tr thng tin tp trung.
B mn Mng Vin thng-Khoa Vin thng 1- PTIT

15

Qun l mng vin thng u im:

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

C kh nng m rng h thng qun l nhanh.


Nhc im:

Thu thp thng tin phc tp v tn thi gian. Danh sch thit b qun l bi cc client phi c xc nh v cu hnh trc.

Hnh 1.8: M hnh qun l phn tn

E, Qun l phn tn
H thng qun l phn tn cn gi l h thng qun l ngang cp v khng c h thng trung tm. Cc khi qun l a chc nng chu trnh nhim trn tng vng mng v trao i thng tin ti cc h thng qun l khc qua cc giao thc ngang cp. Cc thit b qun l sn sng a ra cc quyt nh i vi cc chc nng c s. Bng cch qun l phn tn ti cc trm lm vic trn ton mng, cng tc qun l mng tng tin cy v hiu nng h thng trong khi gi truyn thng v tnh ton gim xung. Tt c cc h thng qun l u thc hin cng mt kiu chc nng c s v tng ng nhau. Cc c tnh ca h thng qun l phn tn l tn ti cc h thng ngang cp chy ng thi trn mng s liu. Trong giai on khi to mng, mi mt manager qun l vng qun l mt phn ca h thng, v vy nu s lng h thng ln, phng php iu khin hin khng th thc hin c v vy qun l phn cp thng s dng h thng qun l n. Kin trc ny l tng ca cc h thng tiu chun ISO v TMN. Vn xc nh li tng th v x l li song song l cc c tnh mu cht ca h thng qun l phn tn. Mt h thng qun l phn tn s dng lin kt ni v cc phn t x l c lp trnh cc im li n. Vi h thng qun l phn tn, t s hiu nng / gi thnh, mm do, kh nng m rng, tnh kh dng v tin cy c nng cao nh vo cc chc nng c module ho. Cc dch v phn tn c th trong sut vi ngi s dng dch v v h khng cn phn bit u l dch v ti
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ch hoc dch v truy nhp t xa. iu ny yu cu h thng qun l phi m bo tnh cht ch, an ton cao, xc nh li tng th nhanh chng v thi gian thc hin nm trong mt gii hn cho php. Mt nhc im c bn ca h thng qun l phn tn xut pht t s phc tp trong vn thay i chc nng qun l sau khi giai on iu hnh c khi to, v vic thay i cc chc nng lin quan ti quyt nh qun l, iu yu cu sa i mt s lng ln ti nguyn ca cc h thng mng. Trong trng hp thiu cc gii php qun l chi tit trong qu trnh thit k, tip cn qun l phn tn gp rt nhiu kh khn trong vn ng b h thng qun l. Tuy nhin trong giai on vn hnh, c bit l i vi mt s kiu li mng cn phi xc nh th t u tin x l v khng ph thuc vo mt h thng c th no ra quyt nh, phng php qun l phn tn em li hiu nng hn rt nhiu so vi phng php qun l tp trung. V vy, kin trc mng thc t thng c kin trc tch hp v c cc c im thng thy nh sau: T hp kin trc qun l tp trung v kin trc phn tn. S dng mt s cc h thng qun l mng ngang hng trong mi nt ngang hng c mt c s d liu hon chnh, lu tr thng tin c t ti mt v tr v cho php truy nhp c s d liu t cc v tr. Phn tn cc nhim v qun l v nhim v gim st ton mng.

F, Phng php qun l lai ghp (hybrid)


Phng php qun l lai ghp c xy dng trn nguyn tc t hp ca kin trc phn tn v kin trc phn cp. Kin trc ny rt thng dng v th hin qua kin trc mng. M hnh phng php qun l hybrid c ch ra trn hnh 1.9.

Hnh 1.9: M hnh qun l lai ghp


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Kin trc qun l mng hybrid s dng phng php qun l gm: cc thnh phn qun l trn tng vng v qun l cc qun l MOM (Manage Of Manager). Trn nguyn tc phn cp v mi quan h gia cc thnh phn qun l vng, thnh phn qun l vng c th thc hin nhim v qun l cho gia cc vng. V vy, m hnh lai ghp rt thch hp vi mi trng c tnh bin ng ln do c tnh mm do ca m hnh ny.

G, Qun l hng i tng


Qun l hng i tng c xut bi t chc tiu chun quc t ISO v t chc c trch k thut Internet IETF. Mc tiu ca qun l hng i tng tp trung vo gii quyt cc vn c bit trong qun l ti nguyn phn tn nhm to ra mt h thng qun l mng m chung i vi cc ngun ti nguyn. Trong m hnh thng tin, thut ng i tng qun l c s dng nhm tru tng ho cc ngun ti nguyn vt l v logic ca thnh phn qun l v b qun l. Vic truy nhp n cc ngun ti nguyn b qun l phi thng qua cc i tng qun l v i din qun l.
i tng qun l

Giao thc qun l i tng b qun l

Agent

i tng ti nguyn qun l

Hnh 1.10: M hnh qun l hng i tng Cc tp i tng c bn gm: i tng qun l: i tng qun l cung cp iu khin qun l thng minh thc thi cc lnh v iu khin ti nguyn phn tn. i tng Agent: i tng i din cho thnh phn b qun l trong ng cnh qun l, Agent cung cp giao din truyn thng ti i tng qun l. i tng b qun l: Cc i tng b qun l cung cp cc thng tin ti nguyn mu cht ti i tng qun l. Giao din thuc i tng b qun l c tiu chun ho, gm cc lut chung to v xo cc c tnh ca i tng b qun l. i tng b qun l chu trch nhim nhn cc gi tr c tnh v t cc gi tr c tnh cho cc thc th b qun l.
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Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Cc i tng ti nguyn b qun l: Cc i tng ti nguyn b qun l l cc thc th c th trong mng. ISO v IETF khng nh ngha c th ti tng giao din thc th v s a dng v bin ng ca cc thc th.

H, Qun l tch hp
Tip cn qun l tch hp da trn t hp ca qun l phn cp, phn tn v qun l hng i tng bng cch p dng kin trc CORBA (Common Object Request Broken Archictecture). Kin trc CORBA gi thit cc tp i tng phn mm c phn tn trong cc thc th c kh nng t iu khin v kt hp vi nhau gii quyt cc li trong h thng. Cc i tng ny c x l qua cc ngn ng hng i tng (v d nh Smalltalk, C++ hoc JAVA). Tp i tng phn mm truyn thng vi nhau thng qua cc cng ngh phn tn nh CORBA hoc mi trng ngn ng m OLE (Open Language Environment). Trong cch tip cn ny, cp qun l trung gian c gi l SubManager hot ng nh mt phn t trung gian gia Manager v Agent hng v pha Agent. SubManager c th kim tra c lp cc gi tr qun l ca cc c s d liu thng tin qun l MIB (Management Information Base) bng cc giao thc qun l. SubManager thu nhn cc thng tin nguyn thu t cc Agent v thc hin tnh ton, x l cc gi tr cn thit cho Manager. Phng php ny gim lu lng thng tin mc cao phi chuyn ti Manager.

Hnh 1.11: M hnh qun l tch hp Khi p dng kin trc CORBA vo tip cn qun l tch hp, n cho php trao i thng tin qun l trc tip ti cc Agent. CORBA coi ton b cc SubManager v Agent l i tng qun l, trong tng trng hp c th m cc quyt nh c a
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ra qua SubManager hoc khng nhm trnh cc hin tng tc nghn khi h thng trong iu kin bt thng.

1.3.2 Quan im qun l Manager Agent


Cc quan im v qun l u cho rng chc nng quan trng nht trong qun l chnh l s truyn thng gia thc th qun l v thc th b qun l. V iu ny c thc hin da trn m hnh yu cu-phn hi. Khi qun l s yu cu i din qun l (Agent) gi cc thng tin qun l c trng v thc th b qun l thng qua agent, s phn hi li bng mt bn tin cha y thng tin c yu cu. Nu truyn thng yu cu-phn hi c s dng lin tc tm kim mi agent v cc i tng b qun l tng ng th c ch ny c gi l polling. C ch ny ln u tin c ng dng qun l trong mi trng internet da trn giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).

Hnh 1.12: M hnh truyn thng Manager-agent C ch yu cu - phn hi c coi l mt c ch truyn thng ng b. iu ny c ngha l, manager s ch s phn hi t agent trong mt khung thi gian gii hn no trc khi n tin hnh bt k mt s kin no tip theo. Nu qu thi gian cho php m khng nhn c phn hi, manager s tin hnh pht li yu cu. Bn cnh c ch yu cu-phn hi cn c mt c ch na cho s truyn thng gia manager v agent, l c ch thng bo. C ch thng bo l mt c ch khng ng b. Trong c ch ny, agent s gi thng bo n manager nhng thay i quan trng v trng thi ca cc ti nguyn b qun l v yu cu manager lu n hay can thip vo.

1.3.3. M hnh quan h Manager-agent


Mt h thng qun l mng xy dng trn m hnh Manager-Agent c xy dng khng ch da trn m hnh truyn thng m cn lin quan ti hng lot cc m hnh khc nh: m hnh kin trc, m hnh t chc, m hnh chc nng v m hnh thng tin (hnh 1.13). M hnh kin trc s dng thit k, cu trc cc thnh phn tham gia vo tin trnh qun l. Trong m hnh kin trc, Manager ng vai tr nh l mt c s qun l bao gm mt c cu qun l v mt b cc ng dng qun l cung cp cc chc nng qun l thc s nh qun l cu hnh, qun l li v qun l hiu nng.
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M hnh vn hnh nh ra giao din ca ngi s dng vi h thng qun l trong ch r trng thi cng nh kiu nh dng ca cc tng tc ti ngi s dng nh iu khin cc i tng c qun l, hin th v tm kim cc s kin, cc bn tin hay cnh bo ti ngi iu hnh. M hnh chc nng nh ra cu trc ca cc chc nng qun l gip cho h thng qun l thc hin cc ng dng qun l. M hnh chc nng c cu trc phn lp m nhim cc chc nng c bn nh qun l cu hnh, hiu nng, li v cc tc v h tr qun l mc cao. cc lp bc cao trong m hnh chc nng u l cc ng dng thc hin cc chc nng phc hp nh tng quan cc s kin/ cnh bo, cc h thng chuyn gia v qun l t ng.

Hnh 1.13: M hnh quan h Manager-Agent M hnh t chc lin quan cht ch n cc chnh sch qun l v th tc vn hnh. M hnh ny s xc nh cc min qun l, s phn chia quyn iu hnh cng nh quyn truy nhp ca ngi s dng vo h thng qun l chung cng nh h thng qun l mng khch hng. M hnh ny th hin kh nng trao i vai tr gia cc manager v cc agent cng nh s hp tc ton cc gia manager ny vi cc manager khc hay vi cc ng dng qun l. M hnh thng tin l m hnh ct li ca vn qun l. M hnh thng tin a ra cc tm tt v cc ngun ti nguyn c qun l di dng thng tin chung m cc manager v agent u c th hiu c. M hnh thng tin cng xy dng mt c s d liu nh dng, t tn v ng nhp cc ngun ti nguyn c qun l. Trong m hnh thng tin, thut ng i tng qun l c s dng nhm tru tng ho cc ngun ti nguyn vt l v logic b qun l. Vic truy nhp n cc ngun ti nguyn b qun l phi thng qua cc i tng qun l. C s d liu cha cc thng tin qun l c gi l MIB. Khi tham kho ti mt MIB c bit no c ngha l th
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tc tham kho n min hay mi trng c t chi tit nh dng ca cc i tng qun l. nh dng ca i tng qun l c chun ho. Da trn c s chun ho thng tin ny, manger tin hnh thc hin qun l qua cc giao thc chuyn bit v truyn thng vi cc agent phn tn trn cng mt MIB.

1.4 KIN TRC QUN L MNG 1.4.1 Kin trc qun l mng
Qun l mng gm mt tp cc chc nng iu khin, lp k hoch, lin kt, trin khai v gim st ti nguyn mng. Qun l mng c th c nhn nhn nh mt cu trc gm nhiu lp: Qun l kinh doanh: Qun l kha cnh kinh doanh ca mng v d nh: ngn sch/ ti nguyn, k hoch v cc tha thun. Qun l dch v: Qun l cc dch v cung cp cho ngi s dng, v d cc dch v cung cp bao gm vic qun l bng thng truy nhp, lu tr d liu v cc ng dng cung cp. Qun l mng: Qun l ton b thit b mng trong mng. Qun l phn t: Qun l mt tp hp thit b mng, v d cc b nh tuyn truy nhp hoc cc h thng qun l thu bao. Qun l phn t mng: Qun l tng thit b n trong mng, v d b nh tuyn, chuyn mch, Hub. Kin trc ny l tip cn top to down vi cc thnh phn tru tng nm ti lp cao ca kin trc v cc thnh phn c th nm ti lp thp. i vi cc thnh phn tru tng, cc c tnh qun l cng c thc hin trong ng cnh tru tng v d nh chnh sch. Trong khi , cc lp thp c qun l qua cc bin v tham s.

Hnh 1.14: Phn cp kin trc qun l mng Qun l mng c th chia thnh hai chc nng c s: truyn ti thng tin qun l qua h thng v qun l cc phn t thng tin qun l mng. Cc chc nng ny gm
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cc nhim v khc nhau nh: Gim st, cu hnh, sa li v lp k hoch c thc hin bi nh qun tr hoc nhn vin qun l mng.

1.4.2 C ch qun l mng


C ch qun l mng bao gm c cc giao thc qun l mng, cc giao thc qun l mng cung cp cc c ch thu thp, thay i v truyn cc d liu qun l mng qua mng. Hai giao thc thng c dng ph bin hin nay l: giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP v giao thc thng tin qun l chung CMIP. Trong , giao thc qun l mng SNMP thng c s dng ph bin hn giao thc CMIP trong cc h thng qun l cho mng cng cng v mng thng mi. Thng qua cc cu lnh, giao thc SNMP thc hin qu trnh thu thp thng tin v t cc by cnh bo cho thit b (cc chc nng chi tit ca SNMP c th hin trong chng 2). Cc tham s truy nhp qua SNMP c nhm vo trong cc bng c s thng tin qun l MIB. CMIP cng thc hin qu trnh thu thp v ci t tham s tng t nh SNMP nhng cho php nhiu kiu iu hnh hn v v vy cng phc tp hn SNMP. Cc c ch gim st nhm xc nh cc c tnh ca thit b mng, tin trnh gim st bao gm thu thp c v lu tr cc tp con ca d liu . D liu thng c thu thp thng qua polling hoc tin trnh gim st gm cc giao thc qun l mng. X l d liu sau qu trnh thu thp thng tin qun l mng l bc loi b bt cc thng tin d liu khng cn thit i vi tng nhim v qun l. S th hin cc thng tin qun l cho ngi qun l cho php ngi qun l nm bt hiu qu nht cc tnh nng v c tnh mng cn qun l. Mt s k thut biu din d liu thng c s dng di dng k t, th hoc lu (tnh hoc ng). Ti thi im x l thng tin d liu, rt nhiu cc thng tin cha kp x l c lu tr ti cc vng nh lu tr khc nhau. Cc c ch d phng v cp nht lu tr lun c xc nh trc trong cc c ch qun l mng nhm trnh ti a tn tht d liu. Cc phn tch thi gian thc lun yu cu thi gian hi p ti cc thit b qun l trong khong thi gian ngn. y l iu kin nh i gia s lng c tnh v thit b mng vi lng ti nguyn (kh nng tnh ton, s lng thit b tnh ton, b nh, lu tr) cn thit h tr cc phn tch. Thc hin nhim v cu hnh chnh l ci t cc tham s trong mt thit b mng iu hnh v iu khin cc phn t. Cc c ch cu hnh bao gm truy nhp trc tip ti cc thit b, truy nhp t xa v ly cc file cu hnh t cc thit b . D liu cu hnh c thng qua cc cch sau: Cc cu lnh SET ca SNMP Truy nhp qua telnet v giao din dng lnh
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Truy nhp qua HTTP Truy nhp qua kin trc CORBA S dng FTP/TFTP ly file cu hnh

1.5 MNG QUN L VIN THNG 1.5.1 Gii thiu chung


TMN (Telecommunication Management Network) l mng qun l vin thng cung cp cc hot ng qun l lin quan ti mng vin thng. ITU-T cng b t nm 1988 mt lot khuyn ngh v cc h thng qun l iu hnh mng vin thng M.3xxx. TMN c nh ngha trong khuyn ngh ca ITU-T M.3100 nh sau: TMN l mt mng ring lin kt cc mng vin thng ti nhng im khc nhau gi/nhn thng tin i/n mng v iu khin cc hot ng ca mng. Ni mt cch khc, TMN s dng mt mng qun l c lp qun l mng vin thng bng cc ng thng tin ring v cc giao din c chun ho. Mng qun l vin thng TMN gm mt hoc nhiu h iu hnh, mng thng tin d liu v nhng phn t qun l nhm qun l trng thi thc hin chc nng cc phn t mngvin thng (nh h thng chuyn mch, h thng truyn dn ). Mng thng tin d liu ca TMN c s dng truyn ti thng tin qun l trong ni b mng hoc ti cc mng qun l khc. Mng qun l vin thng cung cp cc chc nng qun l v truyn thng cho vic khai thc, qun l, bo dng mng v cc dch v vin thng trong mi trng a nh cung cp thit b. Mng qun l vin thng thng nht vic iu hnh qun l cc mng khc nhau trong cc thng tin qun l c trao i qua cc giao din v giao thc chun ho. TMN khng ch qun l s a dng ca mng vin thng m cn qun l mt phm vi ln v thit b, phn mm v nhng dch v trn mi mng.

1.5.2 Kin trc chc nng


Kin trc chc nng ca TMN bao gm mt tp cc khi chc nng, mt tp cc im tham chiu v mt tp cc chc nng. Khi chc nng l thc th logic trnh din chc nng qun l quy chun. Cc im tham chiu hay cn gi l im tiu chun phn chia gia hai khi chc nng v hai khi chc nng thng tin vi nhau thng qua im tham chiu. Mt hoc nhiu hn cc chc nng thnh phn to ra mt khi chc nng, vic truyn thng tin gia cc khi l chc nng thng tin s liu. Chc nng ca TMN l cung cp cc phng tin truyn ti v x l cc thng tin c lin quan n vn qun l mng vin thng v dch v. Ta xem xt cc thnh phn di y: Mt tp cc chc nng qun l gim st, iu khin v kt hp mng. Mt tp cc phn t mng c qun l.
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Hnh 1.15: Cc khi chc nng v im tham chiu ca TMN Kh nng cho ngi s dng TMN truy nhp hot ng qun l v nhn c s th hin v kt qu ca hot ng. A, Chc nng phn t mng NEF NEF (Network Element Function) l mt khi chc nng thng tin ca TMN nhm mc ch gim st hoc iu khin. NEF cung cp cc chc nng vin thng v h tr trong mng vin thng cn c qun l. NEF bao gm cc chc nng vin thng - l ch ca vic qun l. Cc chc nng ny khng phi l thnh phn ca TMN nhng c th hin i vi TMN thng qua NEF. B, Chc nng h iu hnh OSF OSF (Operation System Function) cung cp cc chc nng qun l. OSF x l cc thng tin qun l nhm mc ch gim st phi hp v iu khin mng vin thng. Chc nng ny bao gm: H tr ng dng cc vn v cu hnh, li, hot ng, tnh ton v qun l bo mt. Chc nng to c s d liu h tr: cu hnh, topology, tnh hnh iu khin, trng thi v ti nguyn mng. H tr cho kh nng giao tip gia ngi v my thng qua thit b u cui ca ngi s dng. Cc chng trnh phn tch cung cp kh nng phn tch li v phn tch hot ng. Khun dng d liu v bn tin h tr thng tin gia hai thc th chc nng TMN hoc gia hai khi chc nng TMN ca cc thc th bn ngoi (ngi s dng hoc mt TMN khc).
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Phn tch v quyt nh, to kh nng cho p ng qun l. C hai kha cnh: h tr cho phn t c qun l bi OSF, cung cp cc chc nng vin thng l cc i tng qun l cho mng vin thng cn c qun l. S qun l ny c th hin i vi TMN thng qua cc chc nng h tr lu lng. Cc chc nng cu trc khng phi l mt phn ca TMN, tuy nhin cc chc nng h tr li l mt phn bn thn TMN. C, Chc nng trm lm vic WSF WSF (Work Station Function ) cung cp chc nng cho hot ng lin kt gia ngi s dng vi OSF. WSF c th c xem nh chc nng trung gian gia ngi s dng v OSF. N chuyn i thng tin ra khi OSF thnh khun dng c kh nng th hin c vi ngi s dng. V tr ca WSF nh mt cng giao tip nm trn ranh gii ca TMN. D, Chc nng thch ng Q QAF (Q Adapter Function) cung cp s chuyn i kt ni NEF hoc OSF ti TMN, hoc nhng phn t mng khng thuc TMN vi TMN mt cch c lp. Chc nng thch ng Q c s dng lin kt ti cc phn t TMN m chng khng h tr cc im tham chiu TMN chun. E, Chc nng trung gian MF MF (Mediation Function) hot ng truyn thng tin gia OSF v NEF, cung cp chc nng lu tr, lc, bin i... trn cc d liu nhn c t NEF. Chc nng trung gian hot ng trn thng tin truyn qua gia cc chc nng qun l v cc i tng qun l. MF cung cp mt tp cc chc nng cng ni (Gateway) hay chuyn tip (Relay), n lm nhim v ct gi (lu), bin i ph hp, lc phn nh v tp trung thng tin. V MF cng bao gm cc chc nng x l v truyn ti thng tin, do khng c s phn bit ln gia MF v OSF. Cc chc nng ca MF gm: Cc chc nng truyn ti thng tin ITF (Information Tranfer Funtion) gm: Bin i giao thc, bin i bn tin, bin i tn hiu, dch/ nh x a ch, nh tuyn v tp trung d liu. Cc chc nng x l thng tin gm: Thc hin, hin th, lu gi, lc thng tin.

1.5.3 Kin trc vt l


Kin trc vt l TMN ch r gii hn ca cc nt mng v cc giao din thng tin gia cc nt. Cc nt (nh OS v cc phn t mng) v cc s lin kt gia cc nt c th c nh x ti c nhng thc th phn cng v phn mm. TMN bao gm nm loi nt khc nhau v 4 loi lin kt. Mi nt c k hiu bi chc nng cung cp bi nt . Mi ng lin kt c k hiu bi giao din gia hai nt. Nt trong TMN c th l mt h thng phn cng, mt h ng dng phn mm
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hoc kt hp c hai.
Cc thnh phn chc nng

Kin trc chc nng

Cc khi chc nng

Cc im tham chiu

Kin trc vt l

Cc thnh phn vt l

Giao din

Hnh 1.16 : Quan h gia m hnh chc nng v kin trc vt l Cc chc nng qun l c th c thc hin trong cc thnh phn khc nhau ca cc cu hnh vt l. Mi quan h ca cc khi chc nng ti thit b vt l c trnh by bng 1.1. N nh r cc khi vt l qun l theo tp cc khi chc nng m mi khi ny c cho php cha ng. i vi mi khi vt l, c mt khi chc nng m l c im ca n v c tnh cht bt buc cha ng. Ni cn tn ti cc chc nng khc tu chn cho cc khi vt l bao hm. A, H iu hnh OS OS l h thng m thc hin cc chc nng h iu hnh OSF nh miu t trong kin trc chc nng TMN. OS c th cung cp tu chn v QAF v cc WSF. Trong thc t n x l thng tin c lin quan ti qun l vin thng nhm mc ch theo di iu khin v gim st mng vin thng. OS cung cp kh nng ch yu ca h thng qun l TMN, OS cung cp kh nng gim st hoc kh nng iu khin cho p ng qun l. Mt OS c th c kt ni vi OS khc, vi c mt TMN ging n hoc mt TMN khc. Cu hnh ca OS ph thuc cu hnh ca OSF. Mt OSF dch v c lin quan ti cc kha cnh dch v mng v thc hin hu ht cc qui tc ca giao din khch hng. Mt OSF l mt mng c s ng dng TMN, chu trch nhim cung cp mc thng tin mng cho OSF dch v. N lin lc vi NEF hoc MF mang theo cc chc nng qun l trn phn t mng. Cu trc vt l ca OS c kh nng thc hin cc vic phn phi hoc tp hp. Mt OS tp hp b chc nng OS hon chnh trong mt h thng n. Mt OS phn phi c th c chc nng phn phi dc theo s lng ca cc OS. Yu cu thi gian thc cho la chn giao thc TMN, y l mt nhn t rt quan trng trong kin trc vt l ca OS. S la chn phn cng ph thuc rt nhiu vo vic c hay khng mt OS cung cp dch v thi gian thc, gn thi gian thc hay
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Qun l mng vin thng

Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

khng phi thi gian thc. B, Phn t mng NE Phn t mng NE bao gm thit b vin thng (hoc cc nhm/cc phn ca thit b vin thng) v thit b tr gip hoc bt k mc hoc cc nhm, cc mc tnh ton lin quan ti mi trng vin thng m thc hin cc NEF. Bng 1.1: Mi quan h ca khi vt l v khi chc nng qun l
NE MD QA OS WS NEF M* MDF O M O QAF O O M O OSF O O M WSF O O O M

M: Bt buc; O: Tu chn

Phn t mng NE c th bao gm bt k tu chn ca cc khi chc nng qun l theo cc yu cu thc hin ca n. NE c mt hoc nhiu hn cc giao din loi Q tiu chun v c th c tu chn cc giao din F v B2B/C2B. NE tn ti nh thit b m khng c mt giao din tiu chun s ginh c s truy cp ti c s h tng qun l thng qua mt chc nng tng thch Q. Chc nng tng thch Q ny s cung cp chc nng cn thit bin i gia giao din qun l tiu chun v khng tiu chun. C, Thit b trung gian MD Mt MD thc hin chc nng trung gian nh nh ngha trong kin trc chc nng TMN. Nhim v ca chc nng trung gian l x l thng tin truyn gia OS v phn t mng m bo lm cho thng tin ph hp. Chc nng ti nhng im ny c th l lu tr, chuyn i, lc, xp xp v phn loi thng tin. Chuyn i thng tin. Chuyn i gia cc m hnh thng tin l mt loi x l, qu trnh chuyn i thng tin s chuyn i rt nhiu m hnh thng tin thnh m hnh thng tin ng nht, bin i thng tin t MIB ni ht tun theo m hnh thng tin ng nht. Lin kt lm vic. Qu trnh ny cung cp giao thc thit lp v dn xp kt ni bng cch duy tr phm vi thng tin. X l d liu. Qu trnh ny cung cp tp trung, la chn d liu, t khun dng cho d liu v bin dch d liu. Ra quyt nh. Qu trnh ny bao gm truy nhp trm lm vic, xp xp, lu tr d liu, nh tuyn d liu, truy nhp kim tra.

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Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

Lu tr d liu. Qu trnh ny bao gm lu tr c s d liu, cu hnh mng, phn loi thit b, d tr b nh. Chc nng trung gian c th thc hin nh mt thit b trung gian. Trong trng hp ng mt mnh, nhng giao din trc ca NE, QA, v OS l giao din c bn ca Qx v Q3. Khi trung gian l mt phn ca NE, ch nhng giao din c th trc OS s l giao din chun. Chc nng trung gian c th cng c thc hin nh mt vai tr thay th cho thit b trung gian, thit b trung gian c xem nh thnh phn khng r rng nht ca TMN. Trong thc t mt thch ng Q thng c cp ti nh l thit b trung gian. D, Trm lm vic WS WS l h thng thc hin cc chc nng trm lm vic WSF. Cc chc nng trm lm vic dch thng tin im tham chiu f ti mt khun dng c th hin th im tham chiu giao din ngi my v ngc li. Mt trm lm vic TMN c th tr thnh u cui kt ni thng tin s liu ti mt OS hay mt MD. Thit b kt ni u cui ny c kh nng bin dch thng tin im tham chiu f c m t trong m hnh thng tin TMN thnh khung hin th cho ngi s dng im tham chiu g hay ngc li. Thit b u cui s c lu gi d liu, x l d liu v h tr giao din. Mt trm lm vic thc hin hai loi chc nng: chc nng hin th v chc nng WSF. Chc nng hin th cung cp cho ngi s dng u vo, u ra vt l v nhng phng tin xm nhp, hin th v sa i nhng chi tit ca thng tin bn trong ca mt TMN. Chc nng ny cng cung cp s h tr cho giao din ngi-my, c gi l im tham chiu g. Giao din ngi-my c th l mt dng lnh, ng dn hay ca s c s.

OS Chc nng trm lm vic NSD Chc nng hin th

OS

Hnh 1.17: Trm lm vic WS Chc nng trm lm vic WSF cung cp cho ngi s dng nhng chc nng chung ti thit b u cui x l u vo, u ra ca d liu n hay i t thit b
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Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

u cui ca ngi s dng. Nhng chc nng ny bao gm an ton truy cp ti thit b u cui, phn tch v xc nhn tnh hp l u vo; t khun dng v xc nhn tnh hp l ca u ra; duy tr c s d liu, h tr danh mc, mn hnh, ca s v thanh cun. Mt trm lm vic phi c mt giao din f v khng cha chc nng OSF. Nu OSF v WSF c kt hp lm mt th trm lm vic c coi l h iu hnh OS. E, Thnh phn thch ng QA Thch ng Q c th l mt phn cng, phn mm hoc l s kt hp c hai. N thc hin chc nng thch ng (QAF) ti ni chuyn i mt giao din phi TMN thnh giao din TMN. Mt QAF bin i giao din cho giao din lp Q3 v Qx. Mt thch ng Q c th gm mt hay nhiu QAF. Thch ng Q phn nh s nh hng ln nhau ca TMN v nhng h thng tn ti. l iu lun kh c chng minh xy dng thch ng Q do kh khn trong vic sp xp gia giao din TMN v nhng giao din khc. Gn y trong nn cng nghip, rt nhiu ngi s dng thut ng thit b trung gian thay cho ngha thch ng Q. Trn thc t s s dng rt thng dng, thut ng thit b trung gian bao hm ngha ca thch ng Q. Mt QAF thc hin hai chc nng c bn: chuyn i thng tin v chuyn i giao thc. F, Mng thng tin d liu (DCN) Thc hin y chc nng thng tin d liu (DCF) ca kin trc chc nng TMN v cung cp s kt ni gia cc nt TMN. c bit mt DCN lin kt nhng phn t mng, thch ng Q, thit b trung gian ti OS qua giao din Q3 v lin kt cc thit b trung gian ti nhng phn t mng v nhng thch ng Q qua giao din Qx. Mc d DCN c th l mt mng tch ri, nhng trong thc t DCN thng l mt h thng c qun l bi TMN. G, Cc im tham chiu im tham chiu l im mang tnh khi nim trao i thng tin gia cc chc nng khng chng ln nhau. im tham chiu c th tr thnh mt giao din khi: Cc khi chc nng kt ni vi n l cc thit b ring bit v mt vt l. Cc im tham chiu bao gm: q; f; x; g v m. Cc im tham chiu xc nh ranh gii dch v gia hai khi chc nng qun l. Mi im tham chiu yu cu v cc c tnh giao thc truyn tin khc nhau, n c nh ngha khi qut th tc trao i thng tin gia cc khi chc nng khc nhau. Trong 5 loi im tham chiu trn, TMN c 3 loi im tham chiu c nh ngha nh sau: q Gia OSF, QAF, MF v NEF f Gia OSF hoc MF vi WSF
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Chng 1: Tng quan v qun l mng

x Gia OSF ca hai TMN Ngoi ra hai im tham chiu phi TMN (non-TMN) c nh ngha l : g Gia WSF v ngi s dng (users) m Gia QAF v thc th non-TMN b qun l Giao din TMN m bo kh nng tng tc ca cc h thng c kt ni vi nhau nhm thc hin chc nng qun l/lp k hoch TMN. Giao din TMN nh ngha bn tin tng thch chung cho tt c cc chc nng qun l, lp k hoch TMN m khng ph thuc vo loi thit b hoc nh cung cp thit b.

1.6 TNG KT CHNG 1


Chng 1 gii thiu cc vn c bn nht ca qun l mng, bao gm cc khi nim, yu cu v cc cch thc tip cn trong qun l nh qun l hin, qun l n, qun l tp trung hay phn cp, phn tn, hng i tng hay tch hp. Chng cng a ra cc kin trc qun l mng v gii thiu v mng qun l vin thng TMN vi kin trc chc nng v vt l in hnh.

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

CHNG 2

GIAO THC QUN L MNG N GIN SNMP


GII THIU CHNG
Chng 2 gii thiu v giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP. SNMP l giao thc ng dng ca IETF dnh cho qun l mng n gin da trn nn giao thc TCP/IP (mng Internet). Cho ti nay c nhiu phin bn SNMP c ng dng rng ri, mi nht l phin bn th 3. Chng ny cng gii thiu c th v ng dng v phng thc hot ng ca giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP nhm a ti ngi c cc kin thc nn tng ca giao thc qun l mng trong mi trng IP v cc mi trng mi trong lnh vc truyn thng nh mi trng hi t trn nn IP. SNMP v RMON (tho lun trong chng 3) l cc chun v mng c mi lin h kh cht ch, chng cho php bt c nhng thng tin thi gian thc trn ton b mng li.

2.1 GII THIU CHUNG V SNMP


Vo u nm 1988, T chc kin trc Internet IAB (Internet Architecture Board) nhn thy s cn thit c b cng c qun l cho TCP/IP nn cho ra i RFC 1052. RFC 1052 l cc yu cu tiu chun ho qun l mng v tp trung vo cc vn qun l mng phi thc hin: m bo tnh m rng m bo tnh a dng pht trin m bo tnh a dng trong qun l Bao trm nhiu lp giao thc

Da trn tng ca giao thc iu khin cng n gin SGMP (Simple Gateway Protocol) mt s RFC tip tc c ra i trong nm 1988. RFC 1065 - Cu trc v nhn dng thng tin qun l cho TCP/IP da trn internet. RFC 1066- C s thng tin qun l cho qun l mng TCP/IP.
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

RFC 1067 Giao thc qun l mng n gin.

Vo nm 1991, Phin bn SNMPv1 c vit li t RFC 1067 v b sung thm mt s cc chc nng gm cc RFC sau: RFC 1155

Cu trc v nhn dng thng tin qun l cho TCP/IP da trn Internet. Cu trc v hng dn nhn dng thng tin thng tin qun l cho cc tn i tng.

M t thng tin qun l theo cu trc hnh cy. t ra mt s hn ch cho php giao thc n gin. a cc lut ng k tn cho cc i tng

RFC 1212

nh ngha c s thng tin qun l v hon thin cc nh ngha ca 1155.

RFC 1213

C s thng tin qun l cho qun l mng ca TCP/IP MIB-II. Lit k cc bin s dng trong m hnh qun l mng, trng thi ca cc h thng iu hnh mng.

RFC 1157

nh ngha cc bn tin c th trao i gia h thng qun l vi cc thc th b qun l c hoc cp nht gi tr. nh ngha bn tin TRAP c gi i t h thng. nh ngha khun dng bn tin v chi tit giao thc truyn thng.

Cc nhm lm vic khc cng pht trin v m rng cc giao thc h tr MIB cho cc kiu thit b mng (Cu ni, chuyn mch, b nh tuyn, cc giao din WAN, DS1, DS3) v cc giao thc qun l ring ca nh cung cp thit b. Thng 4 nm 1993, SNMPv2 tr thnh tiu chun qun l mng n gin thay th SNMPv1. SNMPv2 b sung mt s vn m SNMPv1 cn thiu nh nhn thc v bo mt. Tuy nhin, SNMPv2 kh phc tp v kh tng thch vi SNMPv1. Nm 1997, SNMPv3 ra i nhm tng thch vi cc giao thc a phng tin trong qun l mng, pht trin trn nn java v a ra kin trc v giao thc mi nh
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

giao thc qun l a phng tin HMMP (Hypermedia Management Protocol). Thng 4 nm 1999 v thng 12 nm 2002, nhng ci tin, b sung nhm lm hon thin hn SNMPv3 c trnh by trong cc ti liu RFC2570-RFC2576 (nm 1999) v RFC3410-RFC3418 (nm 2002). Cc ti liu t RFC3410 n RFC3418 trnh by mt cch chi tit v y nht v SNMPv3, c s thng tin qun tr SNMPv3, cu trc thng tin qun tr SNMPv3, s tng thch gia SNMPv1, SNMPv2, SNMPv2c v SNMPv3... Mc ch chnh ca SNMPv3 l h tr kin trc theo kiu module c th d dng m rng. Theo cch ny, nu cc giao thc bo mt mi c m rng chng c th c SNMPv3 h tr nh l cc module ring. C s thng tin qun tr v cc dng bn tin s dng trong SNMPv3 cng hon ton tng t nh SNMPv2.

2.2 QUN L TRUYN THNG TRONG SNMP


H thng qun l mng da trn SNMP gm ba thnh phn: b phn qun l (manager), thit b chu s qun l cn gi l i l (agent) v c s d liu gi l C s thng tin qun l (MIB). Mc d SNMP l mt giao thc qun l vic chuyn giao thng tin gia ba thc th trn, song n cng nh ngha mi quan h client-server (ch t). C s d liu do agent SNMP qun l l i din cho MIB ca SNMP. Hnh 2.1 minh ha mi quan h gia ba thnh phn SNMP ny.

Hnh 2.1: Mi quan h gia cc thnh phn SNMP

2.2.1 B phn qun l (manager)


B phn qun l l mt chng trnh vn hnh trn mt hoc nhiu my tnh trm. Ty thuc vo cu hnh, mi b phn qun l c th c dng qun l mt mng con, hoc nhiu b phn qun l c th c dng qun l cng mt mng con hay mt mng chung. Tng tc thc s gia mt ngi s dng cui (end-user) v b
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

phn qun l c duy tr qua vic s dng mt hoc nhiu chng trnh ng dng m, cng vi b phn qun l, bin mt bng phn cng thnh Trm qun l mng (NMS). Ngy nay, trong thi k cc chng trnh giao din ngi s dng ha (GUI), hu ht nhng chng trnh ng dng s cho ra giao din s dng con tr v chut phi hp hot ng vi b phn qun l to ra nhng bn ha v biu cung cp nhng tng kt hot ng ca mng di dng thy c. Qua b phn qun l, nhng yu cu c chuyn ti mt hoc nhiu thit b chu s qun l (hnh 2.2). Ban u SNMP c pht trin s dng trn mng TCP/IP v nhng mng ny tip tc lm mng vn chuyn cho phn ln cc sn phm qun l mng da trn SNMP. Tuy nhin SNMP cng c th c chuyn qua NetWare IPX v nhng c cu vn chuyn khc.

Hnh 2.2 Truyn thng gia manager v agent trong SNMP [6]

2.2.2 Agent
Thit b chu s qun l (Agent) l mt nt mng h tr giao thc SNMP v thuc v mng b qun l. Thit b c nhim v thu thp thng tin qun l v lu tr phc v cho h thng qun l mng. Nhng thit b chu s qun l, i khi c gi l nhng phn t mng, c th l cc b nh tuyn v my ch truy nhp (Access Server), switch v bridge, hub, my tnh hay l my in trong mng. Mi thit b chu s qun l bao gm phn mm hoc phn sn (firmware) di dng m phin dch nhng yu cu SNMP v p ng ca nhng yu cu . Phn mm hoc phn sn ny c coi l mt agent. Mc d mi thit b bt buc bao gm mt agent chu qun l trc tip, nhng thit b khng tng thch vi SNMP cng c th qun l c nu nh chng h tr mt giao thc qun l c quyn. thc hin c iu ny phi c agent y nhim (proxy agent). Proxy agent ny c th c coi nh mt b chuyn i giao thc v n phin dch nhng yu cu SNMP thnh giao thc qun l c quyn ca thit b khng hot ng theo giao thc SNMP. Mc d SNMP ch yu l giao thc p ng thm d (poll-respond) vi nhng
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

yu cu do b phn qun l to ra dn n nhng p ng trong agent, agent cng c kh nng xng ra mt p ng t nguyn. p ng t nguyn ny l iu kin cnh bo t vic gim st agent vi hot ng c nh ngha trc v p ng ny cnh bo vic agent ti ngng nh trc. Di s iu khin SNMP, vic truyn cnh bo ny c gi l ci by (TRAP).

2.2.3 C s thng tin qun l - MIB


Mi thit b chu s qun l c th c cu hnh, trng thi v thng tin thng k nh ngha chc nng v kh nng vn hnh ca thit b. Thng tin ny rt a dng, c th bao gm vic thit lp chuyn mch phn cng, nhng gi tr khc nhau lu tr trong cc bng ghi nh d liu, b h s hoc cc trng thng tin trong h s lu tr cc file v nhng bin hoc thnh phn d liu tng t. Nhn chung, nhng thnh phn d liu ny c coi l C s thng tin qun l ca thit b chu s qun l. Xt ring, mi thnh phn d liu bin i c coi l mt i tng b qun l v bao gm tn, mt hoc nhiu thuc tnh v mt tp cc hot ng (operation) thc hin trn i tng . V vy MIB nh ngha loi thng tin c th khi phc t mt thit b chu s qun l v cch ci t thit b m h thng qun l iu khin.

2.2.4 M hnh giao thc SNMP


SNMP s dng cc dch v chuyn ti d liu thng qua cc giao thc UDP/IP. Mt ng dng ca Manager phi nhn dng c Agent cn thng tin vi n. Mt ng dng ca Agent c nhn dng bi a ch IP ca n v mt cng UDP. Mt ng dng Manager ng gi yu cu SNMP trong mt UDP/IP, UDP/IP cha m nhn dng cng ngun, a ch IP ch v m nhn dng cng UDP ca n. Khung UDP s c gi i thng qua thc th IP ti h thng chu s qun l, ti khung UDP s c phn phi bi thc th UDP ti Agent. Tng t, cc bn tin TRAP phi c cc Manager nhn dng. Cc bn tin s dng a ch IP v m nhn dng cng UDP ca Manager SNMP. SNMP s dng 3 lnh c bn l Read, Write, Trap v mt s lnh ty bin qun l thit b (hnh 2.3). Lnh Read: c SNMP dng c thng tin t thit b. Cc thng tin ny c cung cp qua cc bin SNMP lu tr trn thit b v c thit b cp nht. Lnh Write: c SNMP dng ghi cc thng tin iu khin ln thit b bng cch thay i gi tr cc bin SNMP. Lnh Trap: Dng nhn cc s kin gi t thit b n SNMP. Mi khi c mt s kin xy ra trn thit b mt lnh Trap s c gi ti NMS. SNMP iu khin, theo di thit b bng cch thay i hoc thu thp thng tin qua cc bin gi tr lu trn thit b. Cc Agent ci t trn thit b tng tc vi
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

nhng chip iu khin h tr SNMP ly ni dung hoc vit li ni dung. Giao thc SNMP s dng kiu kt ni v hng (connectionless) trao i thng tin gia cc phn t v h thng qun l mng (c th l UDP - User Datagram Protolcol - Giao thc d liu ngi s dng). UDP truyn cc gi tin theo cc khi ring bit. Tuy vy c th ty s dng cc giao thc khc truyn cc gi tin SNMP. Khi gi cc gi tin qua mng, cc phn t mng hay h thng qun l mng vn gi nguyn nh dng ca SNMP.
B phn qun l SNMP SNMP Agent

Cc ti nguyn c qun l ng dng qun l ng dng qun l cc i tng


GetReponse SetRequest Trap

Cc i tng c SNMP qun l


GetRequest GetNextRequest SetRequest GetReponse Trap

GetNextRequest

GetRequest

SNMP Manager UDP IP Cc giao thc ph thuc mng Cc thng bo SNMP

SNMP Agent UDP IP Cc giao thc ph thuc mng

Mng hoc Internet

Hnh 2.3 M hnh giao thc hot ng SNMP Hnh 2.4 cho thy v tr giao thc SNMP trong m hnh chng giao thc TCP/IP. Ta thy, SNMP thuc v lp ng dng trong m hnh giao thc, n s dng UDP lm giao thc lp vn chuyn trn mng IP.

Qun l lin lc gia manager vi cc agent


Nhn trn phng din truyn thng, manager v cc agent cng l nhng ngi s dng, s dng mt giao thc ng dng. Giao thc qun l yu cu c ch vn chuyn h tr tng tc gia cc agent v manager. Manager trc ht phi xc nh c cc agent m n mun lin lc. C th xc nh c ng dng agent bng a ch IP ca n v cng UDP c gn cho n. Cng UDP 161 c dnh ring cho cc agent SNMP. Manager gi lnh SNMP vo mt tiu UDP/IP. Tiu ny cha cng ngun, a ch IP ch v cng 161. Mt thc
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

th IP ti ch s chuyn giao gi UDP ti h thng b qun l. Tip , mt thc th UDP ti ch s chuyn pht n ti cc agent. Tng t nh vy, lnh TRAP cng cn xc nh nhng manager m n cn lin h. Chng s dng a ch IP cng nh cng UDP dnh cho SNMP manager, l cng 162.
Lp ng dng (Application layer)
Ping SMTP FTP Telnet NNTP ...
NFS

RPC

DNS SNMP BOOTP

...

Lp vn chuyn (Transport layer)


OSPF ICMP IGMP BGP

TCP

UDP

RIP

Lp lin mng (Internet layer) Lp truy cp mng (Network Access layer)

IP ARP
Data link

RARP

Media (physical)

Hnh 2.4 V tr ca SNMP trong chng giao thc TCP/IP

C ch vn chuyn thng tin gia manager v agent


Vic la chn c ch vn chuyn l c lp vi giao thc truyn thng . SNMP ch i hi c ch vn chuyn khng tin cy d liu (datagram) truyn a cc PDU (n v d liu giao thc) gia manager v cc agent. iu ny cho php s nh x ca SNMP ti nhiu nhm giao thc. M hnh vn chuyn datagram gim c phc tp ca nh x tng vn chuyn. Tuy nhin, vn c mt s la chn cho tng vn chuyn. Cc tng vn chuyn khc nhau c th s dng nhiu k thut nh a ch khc nhau. Cc tng vn chuyn khc nhau c th a ra nhng hn ch quy m ca PDU. nh x tng vn chuyn c trch nhim phi x l cc vn nh a ch, hn ch quy m PDU v mt s tham s tng vn chuyn khc. Trong phin bn th hai ca SNMP, ngi ta n gin ha qu trnh nh x ti cc chun vn chuyn khc nhau. Giao thc qun l c tch khi mi trng vn chuyn v iu ny cng c khuyn khch s dng cho bt c nhm giao thc no. Bo v truyn thng lin lc gia manager v cc agent khi s c Trong iu kin mng thiu n nh v tin cy th vic truyn thng qun l cng tr nn quan trng. Lm th no cc manager lin lc vi cc agent mt cch tin cy? Vic SNMP s dng c ch UDP lin lc lm thiu i tin cy v UDP hot ng theo kiu d liu . SNMP li cho chng trnh manager hon ton chu
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trch nhim v x l vic mt thng tin. Cc lnh GET, GET-NEXT v SET u c phc p bng mt lnh GET-RESPONSE. H thng c th d dng pht hin ra vic b mt mt lnh khi khng nhn c lnh tr li. N c th lp li yu cu mt ln na hoc c nhng hnh ng khc. Tuy nhin, cc bn tin TRAP do agent to ra li khng yu cu phc p. Khi b tht lc bn tin TRAP, cc chng trnh agent s khng bit c iu (tt nhin l manager cng khng hay bit v iu ny). Thng thng cc bn tin TRAP mang nhng thng tin ht sc quan trng cho manager, do vy manager cn ch v cn bo m vic vn chuyn chng mt cch tin cy. Mt cu hi t ra l lm th no vn chuyn m trnh c mt mt, tht lc cc bn tin TRAP? Ta c th thit k cho cc agent gi lp li bn tin TRAP. Bin s MIB c th c s ln lp li theo yu cu. Lnh SET ca manager c th t cu hnh cho bin s ny. C mt cch khc l agent c th lp li lnh TRAP cho n khi manager t bin s MIB chm dt s c. Tuy nhin, c hai phng php trn u ch cho ta nhng gii php tng phn. Trong trng hp th nht, s ln lp li c th khng m bo lin lc mt cch tin cy. Trong trng hp th hai, mt s c mng c th dn n vic hng lot bn tin TRAP b mt ty thuc vo tc m cc agent to ra chng. iu ny lm cho s c mng tr nn trm trng hn. Trong c hai trng hp, nu ta cn chuyn nhng bn tin TRAP ti nhiu manager th c th xy ra tnh trng khng nht qun gia cc manager hoc xy ra hin tng tht lc thng tin rt phc tp. Nu cc agent phi chu trch nhim thit k cho vic phc hi nhng bn tin TRAP th cng lm tng thm phc tp trong vic qun l cc agent trong mi trng a nh ch to. Ngi ta cng c gng ci tin c ch x l bn tin s c cho phin bn th hai ca SNMP. Th nht l n nguyn TRAP c b i v thay th n bng mt lnh GET/RESPONSE. Lnh ny do agent to ra v chuyn n cho manager by ti cng UDP-162. iu ny phn nh quan im l b phn qun l s c c th thng nht cc bn tin s c ri tr li cho cc yu cu o. Bng cch b i mt n th, giao thc c n gin ha. Ngi ta cng b sung thm mt c s thng tin qun l c bit TRAP MIB thng nht vic x l s c, cc manager nhn bn tin v cc s c ny v vic lp li c thc hin ci thin tin cy trong vic vn chuyn thng tin.

nh hng ca tng vn chuyn ti kh nng qun l mng


Vic s dng mng b qun l h tr cc nhu cu thng tin lin lc qun l (qun l trong bng) gy ra nhiu vn th v. Vic qun l trong bng v ngoi bng c lp vi vic la chn giao thc qun l. Qun l trong bng c th dn n tnh trng mt lin lc vi mt agent ng lc agent cn s ch v qun l (ty thuc vo ngun ca s c). Ngi ta c th lm gim nh c vn ny nu chnh cc thc th m agent qun l li bo v ng truy nhp ti cc agent ny.
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C mt nh hng nh v kh nng qun l xut hin trong vic nh a ch tng vn chuyn. V d: c th xc nh duy nht mt agent SNMP bng a ch IP v s cng UDP. iu ny c ngha l vi mt a ch IP cho trc th ta ch c th tip cn c mt agent duy nht. Hn th na agent ny li ch duy tr mt c s thng tin qun l MIB duy nht. Do vy, vi mt a ch IP duy nht ch tn ti mt MIB. Vic gn kt MIB vi a ch IP c th hn ch c phc tp ca bin s liu m agent cung cp. Xem xt trong cng mt hon cnh trong h thng yu cu nhiu MIB qun l cc thnh phn khc nhau ca n. Cn phi thng nht cc MIB khc nhau ny di mt cy MIB tnh duy nht c th truy nhp chng thng qua mt agent duy nht. Trong mt s hon cnh nht nh, vic thng nht khng th thc hin c. Trong nhng trng hp nh vy, mi MIB i hi phi c ring mt nhm giao thc SNMP/UDP/IP. iu ny lm tng phc tp trong vic t chc qun l (cc thng tin tng quan t nhiu MIB thuc mt h thng cho trc) cng nh vic truy nhp n (thng qua nhiu a ch IP). C mt cch khc l mt agent duy nht trong mt h thng c th gi vai tr nh mt proxy m rng cho cc agent ph ng gi nhng c s d liu MIB khc nhau cng lin quan ti mt phn h cho trc. Cc phin bn m rng SNMPv2 h tr phng php ny x l nhu cu truyn thng ca manager. Cc phin bn m rng ny cho php agent ng vai tr nh mt manager ca cc agent con ti ch, do vy cho php tip cn hng lot cc agent con.

2.3 CU TRC V C IM NHN DNG CA THNG TIN QUN L MIB


Thng tin qun l h thng SMI (System Management Information) nh ngha mt c cu t chc chung cho thng tin qun l. SMI nhn dng cc kiu d liu trong MIB v ch r cch thc miu t v t tn cc ti nguyn trong c s d liu thng tin qun l MIB. SMI m phng su loi d liu, l b m, kiu (gauge), tch tc thi gian (Time Ticks), a ch mng, a ch IP v s liu m khng trong sut (opaque). B m c s dng din t s ly mu tch t ca chui thi gian. Kiu (gauge) din t cc mu ca chui thi gian, tch tc thi gian c s dng o thi gian tng i, cn loi s liu khng trong sut th c s dng m t mt chui bt bt k. Ngi ta cng s dng cc loi d liu c s chung nh s nguyn chui octet, c im nhn dng vt th xc nh s liu b qun l. Vic gii hn cc loi d liu trong SMI v hn ch quy m ca cc hng mc s liu trong MIB lm gim nhiu phc tp ca vic t chc lu tr, m ha, gii m s liu. SMI duy tr tnh n gin v kh nng m rng trong MIB. V th MIB ch lu nhng loi d liu n gin gm cc i tng v hng v cc mng hai chiu ca cc i tng v hng. SMI khng cung cp cch to hoc truy xut cc cu trc d liu phc tp. Cc MIB s cha cc loi d liu do nh cung cp to ra. Thng tin qun l h thng h tr cho lin iu hnh trong qun l mng da trn cc c s thng
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tin qun l MIB, n c t v hin th cc thng tin ti nguyn trong MIB cng nh tiu chun k thut nh ngha cho cc i tng n l khc. cung cp phng php tiu chun biu din thng tin qun tr, SMI cn thc hin nhng cng vic sau: Cung cp k thut tiu chun nh ngha cu trc ca MIB c bit. Cung cp k thut tiu chun nh ngha cc i tng n l, bao gm c php v gi tr ca mi i tng. Cung cp k thut tiu chun m ho cc gi tr i tng.

S m t cc i tng b qun l c SMI thc hin thng qua ngn ng m t ASN.1. Vic nh ngha loi i tng gm 5 trng: Object: Tn ca i tng, cn c coi nh l phn m t i tng cho mi loi i tng cng vi phn nhn dng i tng tng ng ca i tng. Syntax: C php cho loi i tng. c th l mt trong cc loi c php n gin nh: Integer, Octet String, Object Identifier, Null hay mt c php ng dng nh: a ch mng, b m, kiu gauge, Time Ticks, dng d liu khng trong sut, hay cc loi d liu ng dng m rng (c th xem thm trong RFC 1155 bit thm chi tit). Definition: Cc nh ngha m t ng ngha ca loi i tng. Access (Truy nhp): Phng php truy nhp c th l: ch c, c-ghi hay khng th truy nhp. Status (Trng thi): C th l cng ch, ty chn hay khng cn hiu lc.

2.4 C S THNG TIN QUN L MIB 2.4.1 Cu trc ca MIB


Cc i tng qun l trong mi trng SNMP c sp xp theo cu trc hnh cy c th bc. L ca cy l i tng qun l thc, mi thnh phn trong i tng ny biu th cho ti nguyn, s hot ng hoc cc thng tin lin quan c qun l. SNMP tn dng cy ng k ca OSI nh l mt th mc thng tin b qun l. Cc cy con c s dng biu th ni dung logic, cn cc bin s b qun l c lu tr ti cc l cy. Ngi ta s dng cc bin s ny biu din cc thi im ca thc th tng ng. Cu trc cy c s d liu ny c cc nh thit k MIB nh ra theo kiu tnh. Cn s thay i m rng ch c trong cc gi tr ca c s d liu v trong vic to ra hay xa i cc hng ca bng. Nh minh ha trn hnh 2.5, ngi ta s dng cy ng k nh du cc nh
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ngha ca cc tiu chun khc nhau. Mi nt ca cy c nh du bng mt tn (c im nhn dng chung) v mt con s (c im nhn dng tng i). Mt nt c xc nh duy nht bng cch ni cc con s t gc n nt . V d: mt cy con c nhn Internet c xc nh bng ng 1.3.6.1. Cy con ny c t trong t chc Internet ghi li cc tiu chun ca n. Cy Internet c ba cy con lin quan n qun l, l qun l (management), thc nghim (experimental) v c nhn (private). Cc cy con ny c s dng ghi li cc MIB khc nhau theo tiu chun Internet (MIB-II).

Hnh 2.5: Cy ng k ca OSI Mi dng i tng lin kt trong mt MIB l mt nhn din ca kiu ASN.1 OBJECT IDENTIFIER. Vic nhn dng phc v cho vic t tn ca i tng v cng phc v cho vic nhn din cu trc ca cc dng i tng. Nhn din i tng l mt nhn din duy nht i vi mt lot i tng c th. Gi tr ca n bao gm mt dy cc s nguyn. Tp cc i tng nh ngha c cu trc hnh cy vi gc ca cy l i tng da vo chun ASN.1. Hin ti, hai phin bn ca MIB c pht trin l MIB-I v MIB-II. Trong MIB-II l s m rng ca MIB-I. Nm 1990, MIB-I c cng b theo RFC 1156, MIB-I phn tch i tng qun tr thnh tm nhm l: System, Interfaces, Address Translation, IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, v EGP. Nm 1991, MIB-II c a ra theo RFC 1213, MIB-II l siu tp ca MIB-I, c b sung mt vi i tng v nhm. MIB-II phn tch i tng qun tr thnh 10 nhm.

Vi mc tiu qun l cc nhm giao thc trong m hnh TCP/IP v mng Internet, mt m hnh cy c tn gi MIB II (RFC1213) c nhnh Internet c chia ra thnh 4 nhm ln: Th mc, qun l, thc nghim v vng ch s c nhn.
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Nhm th mc (Directory): H tr cc th mc trong OSI X.500 Nhm qun l (Management): Gm cc i tng ca Internet Nhm thc nghim (Experimental): S dng cho qu trnh thc nghim trc

khi chuyn sang nhm qun l. Nhm c nhn (Private) : Gm cc c t ca cc nh cung cp thit b v cc vng gia tng gi tr.

Hnh 2.6 Cu trc cy MB-II Theo nhnh nhm qun l, MIB-II a ra cc bin s qun l cc giao thc gm 11 cy chc nng con (Hnh 2.6). Cc cy con ny li tip tc c chia ra thnh cc cy con cp thp hn nh i tng h thng v cc bng con tng ng vi cc l. L c s dng nh du cc bin s b qun l thuc mt loi nht nh. Mt s l nh m t h thng sysDesc ch nh du mt thi im duy nht ca bin s b qun l v ch i hi mt phn t lu tr duy nht. Nhng l khc nh m t trng thi mt ng kt ni TCP tcpConnState c th ch dn nhiu thi im khc nhau. Cc thi im khc nhau ny c t chc thnh cc ct ca t bo. Cc ct ny to thnh mt bng m cc hng ca bng ny biu din nhng thi im khc nhau ca mt thc th (nh mt ng kt ni TCP hoc mt giao din).
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Vic nh s theo th t hnh cy em li li th cho qu trnh truy nhp thng tin trng thi chnh xc nhng kh phc tp v mt ch dn do th hin trng thi ca cng mt i tng ti cc thi im khc nhau l khc nhau. V vy, phng php ch dn theo bng s h tr cc ch dn i vi cc i tng c s thay i. Agent c th b sung thm hoc xa i cc u mc mi. Bng cc ct cha kha ngi ta c th xc nh duy nht mt u mc ca bng thng qua vic s dng ni dung ca cc ct cha kha lm ch dn. Bng giao din a ra mt ch dn c bit ng vai tr nh cha kha. Gi tr lu tr trong ct ny cho php ta xc nh cc hng ct mt cch duy nht.

2.4.2 Truy nhp thng tin qun l MIB


C th nhn nhn MIB nh mt ngn ng i hi vi cy MIB. Chng trnh qun l s dng cc n nguyn GET, GET-NEXT truy xut d liu t MIB. p li hai n nguyn ny l GET-RESPONSE tr li d liu di dng cp bin s. Ta c th s dng c hai n nguyn truy xut nhiu bin s b qun l. Lnh GET trc tip ch ra tp hp cc bin s b qun l thng qua c im nhn dng ng dn ca chng. iu ny rt hu ch cho vic truy xut d liu dng thng thng (khng theo dng bng) bi v ng truy nhp l tnh v bit trc. GET-NEXT c s dng i li trn cy v p dng cho s liu dng bng. Ta c th t truy xut s liu bng cch i li trn cy MIB. Theo quy nh ca th t ny th h thng truy xut s liu ti nt m trc ri mi n nt con t tri qua phi. Trong bng, cc ct c nh th t t tri qua phi v cc hng c th t t trn xung di. Th t ny c gi l th t tin t (preorder). GET v GET-NEXT cho ta phng tin truy xut d liu MIB. Bng n nguyn SET ta c th iu khin c cch ng x ca thit b. SET thng c s dng khi to hnh ng ca agent lm hiu ng b xung i vi nhng thay i ca MIB. V d: ta c th khi ng mt th tc kim tra chun on bng cch t trng thi hnh chnh ca thit b (thng qua SET) l th nghim. iu ny c ngha l cc agent phi ch ng gim st nhng thay i ca MIB v khi to cc hnh ng cn thit. iu ny khng ging vi cc h thng c s d liu th ng m s cp nht s liu ch n thun l vic ghi li s liu. C mt nhc im ca vic truy xut s liu bng lnh GET-NEXT trong SNMP, l h thng cn phi truy nhp mt hng ti mt thi im. iu ny c th lm chm qu trnh i li trn cy, c bit trong trng hp bng c kch thc ln. Thng th h thng phi qut v truy cp ton b bng. khc phc nhc im ny, trong phin bn th hai SNMPv2 ngi ta thay lnh GET-NEXT bng lnh GET-BULK. Lnh GET-BULK truy cp mt s hng lin tc va vo mt khung UDP. Ta c th nhn nhn vic ny nh l vic tng hp cc lnh GET-NEXT ci thin thi gian truy cp i vi d liu dng bng.
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Cu trc thng tin qun l (SMI) cho ta mt m hnh n gin v s liu b qun l. M hnh ny c nh ngha bng ngn ng m phng c php d liu ASN.1. Trong mi trng agent c ngun ti nguyn hn ch th s n gin ha v vic iu khin ngun ti nguyn hn ch gi mt vai tr trung tm trong vic thit k SNMP. SMI cng bao gm mt Macro m rng c bit ca ASN.1 l OBJECT-TYPE. Macro ny phc v nh mt cng c chnh xc nh cc vt th b qun l ti l ca cy MIB. Macro OBJECT-TYPE cho ta phng tin nh ngha bin s b qun l v gn cho n mt loi d liu, mt phng php truy nhp (c, vit, c/vit), mt trng thi (bt buc, ty ) v mt v tr cy MIB tnh (c im nhn dng ng). nh ngha ca Macro OBJECT-TYPE v ca cc bin s b qun l c trnh by trong bng vi phn th nht ca nh ngha MIB cho ta cc c tnh nhn dng ng ny i vi cc nt bn trong ca cy MIB v c gn vo nhiu loi d liu nhn dng vt th. Ta c th xc nh c im nhn dng ca mt nt bng cch buc mt con s vi c im nhn dng nt m ca n. Khi cc nt bn trong c xc nh, bng Macro OBJECT-TYPE h thng c th to ra cc nt ti l cy. Cc nt ti l cy ny xc nh loi d liu (c php) ca cc bin s b qun l m chng lu tr. Cc nt l cy cng iu khin vic truy nhp, xc nh trng thi v ng c im nhn dng vt th truy nhp bin s b qun l. Di y l mt s im hu ch cn lu v cc nh ngha ny v cch s dng chng: 1. Cc c im nhn dng vt th xc nh v tr ca cc nt bn trong (nh system, interface) hoc l trn cy MIB (sysDescr, ifInError). Ta c th to ra c im nhn dng ng bng cch ghp ng m vi nhn ca nt (v d sysDescr={system 1}). 2. Cc bng c to nn di dng chui ca cc hng. Cc hng xc nh ra cc ct ca bng. V d: bng to giao din c thit lp t cc ct c dnh ring cho cc tham s giao din khc nhau (ifSpeed, ifInError). Cc tham s ct khc nhau ny c ng k nh l di cy con ifEntry m t trong bng. 3. Cc nh ngha cu trc MIB ch n gin cho ta mt cu trc v c php. Hai phin bn trin khai thc hin MIB khc nhau c th din gii ngha ca mt s bin khc nhau. i khi ta khng th m bo vic tun th cc ng ngha. 4. H thng c th s dng cc nh ngha chnh thc ca MIB to ra MIB v cu trc truy nhp chng. B phin dch s dng cc nh ngha ny to ra cu trc c s d liu cho vic lu tr MIB. iu ny lm n gin ha qu trnh pht trin MIB. 5. Vic trin khai thc hin MIB l r rng. Ta c th lu tr cc s liu khng
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phi dng bng trong cu trc d liu tuyn tnh c nh. H thng cn to kh nng cho s liu dng bng thu nh hoc m rng khi cc hng ca bng b xa i hay c b sung. Ta c th dng cu trc ca mt danh sch lin kt hoc cy biu din cc s liu ng nh vy (cc bn ghi ca bng c lu tr ti l cy). Chng ta cn nhn nhn cu trc MIB theo cc h thng c s d liu truyn thng. Ngi ta c th s dng ngn ng x l d liu (DML) to ra h thng c s d liu v m t cu trc ca c s d liu. Ta c th coi m hnh SMI hoc cc phin bn m rng ca ASN.1 nh l ngn ng DML xy dng MIB. B bin dch MIB cng tng t nh b bin dch DL, c s dng to ra cu trc c s d liu t mt chng trnh tru tng. Ta cng c th coi cc n nguyn truy nhp giao thc nh ngn ng x l d liu DML. Nhn trn quan im h thng c s truyn d liu truyn thng th ta c th coi SNMP nh l mt h thng c s d liu th bc n gin m bn cht ca n do cc ngn ng DL (SMI) v DML xc nh (cc n nguyn giao thc).

2.4.3 Cc i tng ca MIB


MIB-II phn tch i tng qun tr thnh 11 nhm i tng. Bng 2.3 s trnh by chi tit v cc nhm i tng ny. Bng 2.3: Cc nhm i tng trong MIB-II
STT 1 Nhm System Group ng i {1.3.6.1.2.1.1} Vai tr Nhm h thng m t tng quan v h thng b qun l di dng vn bn k t ASCII. Nhm ny bao gm OID, di thi gian t thi im ti khi ng thc th qun l mng v nhng chi tit qun l khc. Nhm h thng gm 7 i tng s dng m t thng tin cu hnh cc thit b b qun l. Cc i tng n l trong cng mt h thng c th c nhn dng nhm theo h thng system n (n c gi tr:1..7). Cc m t chi tit v 7 i tng ny c trong ph lc A.1. sysDescr {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1} M t thit b sysObjectID {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.2} Nhn dng phn cng, phn mm hoc ti nguyn sysUptime {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3} di thi
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Vai tr gian tnh t khi Agent khi to sysContact {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.4} Tn i din ca nt hoc thit b sysName {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5} Tn nt hoc thit b sysLocation {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.6} V tr vt l ca thit b sysServices {1.3.6.1.2.1.1.7} M nhn dng tp dch v do thit b cung cp.

Interface Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.2}

Nhm giao din: D liu giao din phn cng trn thit b chu s qun l khi khai thc ng v tnh. Thng tin ny c trnh by di dng bng. Nhm giao din gm 23 nhn dng i tng cung cp cc thng tin nh: hiu nng, cu hnh v trng thi cho tt c cc loi giao din. Mc d cc thng tin chung c th cung cp trong chnh hot ng ca cc giao din nhng cc thng tin ny vn cha c coi l y trong bi ton qun l, v khng th hin r c hiu nng tng th ca ton b h thng. Khi mng c rt nhiu thit b cn phi qun l, mt c ch nhn dng thit b c thm vo cy qun l v c trnh by di dng bng. i tng u tin (ifNumber) ch s giao din trn thit b. Mi giao din s c mt dng tng ng trong bng vi 22 ct/dng. Cc ct mang thng tin v giao din nh: tc giao din, a ch (phn cng) vt l, trng thi vn hnh hin thi v thng k v gi tin qua giao din (M t chi tit c trong ph lc A.2). Nhm phin dch a ch gm bn a ch IP v a ch thun vt l (phn cng) phin dch gia hai a ch ny (c trong MIB-I nhng b phn i trong MIB-II). Phn i ngha l MIB-II vn c nhm ny tng thch vi MIB-I, song c l s b loi tr trong nhng 47

Address Translation Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.3}

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Tng quan v vin thng STT Nhm ng i

Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Vai tr phin bn sau. Trong MIB-II v nhng phin bn sau, mi nhm giao thc s cha bng phin dch ring ca n. Bng chuyn i bin dch gm c 3 ct tng ng vi s giao din, a ch vt l v a ch mng (IP). Trong m hnh TCP/IP s dng giao thc phn gii a ch ARP (Address Resolution Protocol). Thc t, nhm bin dch cha c bng a ch vt l v a ch mng vi cc ch s tng ng cho php tm kim v nh x t bt k bng no.

IP Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.4}

Nhm giao thc Internet ny l bt buc vi tt c cc nt v cung cp thng tin trn cc my trm v router s dng IP. Nhm ny cha 19 i tng v hng cung cp s liu thng k d liu lin quan ti IP v ba bng sau: bng a ch (ipAddrTable), bng phin dch a ch IP sang a ch vt l (ipNetToMediaTable) v bng hng i IP (ipForwardTable). RFC 1354 nh ngha ipForwardTable, thay th ipRoutingTable trong MIB-II. Ni dung chi tit ca cc i tng nhm IP c trong ph lc A3. Nhm giao thc bn tin iu khin Internet l thnh phn bt buc ca IP v c nh ngha trong RFC 792. Nhm ICMP cung cp cc bn tin iu khin ni mng v thc hin nhiu vn hnh ICMP trong thc th b qun l. Nhm ICMP gm 26 i tng v hng duy tr s liu thng k cho nhiu loi bn tin ICMP nh s lng cc bn tin ICMP Echo Request nhn c hay s lng bn tin ICMP Redirect gi i. Do giao thc ICMP l k thut bo co li, ngi qun l mng c th s dng cc gi tr i tng ICMP xc nh kiu li. Thm vo , ICMP cn s dng cc bn tin nh k t li ngng cnh bo da trn s lng bn tin.

ICMP Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.5}

TCP Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.6}

Nhm giao thc iu khin truyn ti l bt buc 48

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Vai tr v cung cp thng tin lin quan ti vn hnh v kt ni TCP. Nhm ny c 14 i tng v hng v mt bng. Nhng i tng v hng ny ghi li cc tham s TCP v s liu thng k, nh s lng kt ni TCP m thit b h tr, hoc tng s lng phn on (segment) TCP truyn. Bng tcpConnTable cha thng tin lin quan ti kt ni TCP c th. Thm vo , qua cc phn hi ca i tng giao thc TCP, ta c th xc nh cc thng tin v li ti lp 4 trong m hnh OSI v ch ra hng i ti cc li c xc nh.

UDP Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.7}

Nhm giao thc d liu ngi s dng l bt buc v cung cp thng tin lin quan ti hot ng UDP. V UDP l kt ni v hng nn nhm ny nh hn nhiu so vi nhm TCP c hng. N khng phi bin dch thng tin ca nhng n lc kt ni, thit lp, ti lp Nhm UDP cha bn i tng v hng v mt bng. Nhng i tng v hng ny duy tr thng k d liu lin quan ti UDP, v d: s lng d liu gi t thc th ny. Bng udpTable cha thng tin a ch v cng. Nhm giao thc cng ngoi l bt buc vi mi h thng c trin khai EGP. EGP truyn t thng tin gia cc h thng t tr (autonomous systems) v c m t chi tit trong RFC 904. Nhm EGP gm 5 i tng v hng v mt bng. Nhng i tng v hng ny duy tr cc s liu thng k bn tin lin quan ti EGP. Bng egpNeighTable cha thng tin EGP ln cn. Trong qu trnh pht trin ca Khung cng vic qun l mng Internet (Internet Network Management Framework), c lc SNMP c c gng s dng lm mt bc chuyn tip trong hon cnh thc bch c chun qun l mng, v to Giao thc thng tin qun l 49

EGP Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.8}

CMOT (OIM) Group

{1.3.6.1.2.1.9}

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Vai tr chung (CMIP) trn nn TCP/IP (CMOT) vi gii php di hn tng thch OSI (OSIcompliant). Kt qu l, nhm CMOT c t trong MIB-II. Tuy nhin, kinh nghim cho thy l SNMP khng phi l gii php chuyn tip, v giao thc qun l mng lin quan ti OSI ch yu cu cc MIB. V vy, khng chc chn l bn s gp nhm OIM (OSI Internet Management) trong bt k thit b qun l hoc agent SNMP thng mi no trn th trng. Tuy nhin, nhm CMOT c gi ch {1.3.6.1.2.1.9 } trong MIB-II. RFC 1214 chi tit ha cy con ny. . Hin ti, RFC 1214 c xp loi l giao thc lch s.

10

Transmission {1.3.6.1.2.1.10} Nhm truyn dn cha cc i tng lin quan n vic truyn dn d liu. RFC 1213 khng Group nh ngha nhng i tng ny r rng. Tuy nhin, RFC ny cho bit l nhng i tng truyn dn ny s nm trong cy con thc nghim {1.3.6.1.3} cho ti khi chng c s dng trong nhm qun l. SNMP Group {1.3.6.1.2.1.11} Nhm SNMP cung cp thng tin v cc i tng SNMP. C tng cng 30 i tng v hng trong nhm ny, bao gm nhng thng k bn tin SNMP, s lng i tng MIB khi phc (retrieved) v s lng by (trap) SNMP gi. By nhn thc: Khi mt trm c cu hnh ng, n cho php m mt nhn dng i tng by nhn thc cc i tng bn tin truy nhp. Cc bn tin truy nhp bt hp php s b ngn nga ti cc giao din. Trong mt s trng hp, by nhn thc to ra mt s lng ln lu lng thng tin iu khin gia cc nh iu hnh mng. m lu lng n: SNMP gm 17 nhn dng i tng m lu lng n, trong m t

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Vai tr cc s lng bn tin SNMP, hin th iu kin li, tng kt cc cu lnh c x l v chp nhn bi Agent v hin th s lng by c chp nhn v x l. m lu lng i: Tng t nh m lu lng n, nhm SNMP gm 10 nhn dng i tng c s dng gim st lu lng i khi thit b. Cc i tng chia thnh hai nhm con: Nhm con m lu lng v nhm con m li. Cc i tng ny cung cp thng tin v s lng bn tin i, o lu lng cho cc kiu iu kin li khc nhau v lu lng bn tin ra theo kiu.

Mi nhm i tng trn m t mt cch tng quan v thuc tnh i tng. Bng 2.4 cho ta ni dung chi tit v nhm h thng . Bng 2.4: Nhm h thng trong MIB-II
Cy con nhm h thng 1.2.1.1.2 (SysObject) sysDescr sysObjectID (1) (2) M t vn bn ca mt h thng b qun l Nhn dng nh ch to ca h thng di dng cy con MIB thu ring Thi gian theo thang 1/100 giy tnh t khi bt u qun l mng ca h thng Thng tin v tn v truy nhp ca ngi chu trch nhim Tn h thng V tr h thng Cc dch v h thng Ni dung

sysUpTime

(3)

sysContact

(4)

sysName sysLocation sysServices

(5) (6) (7)

2.5 SNMPv2
SNMPv2 tch hp kh nng lin iu hnh t manager ti manager v hai n v d liu giao thc mi. Kh nng lin kt iu hnh manager-manager cho php SNMP
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h tr qun l mng phn tn trong mt trm v gi bo co ti mt trm khc. h tr tng tc tt nht, SNMPv2 thm cc nhm cnh bo v s kin vo trong c s thng tin qun l MIB. Nhm cnh bo cho php t ngng thit lp cho cc bn tin cnh bo. Nhm s kin c a ra khi thng tin Trap xc nh cc gi tr phn t MIB. Hai n v d liu giao thc PDU (Protocol Data Unit) l GetbulkRequest v InformRequest. Cc PDU ny lin quan ti x l li v kh nng m ca SNMPv2. X l li trong SNMPv2 i km vi cc i tng yu cu cho php trm qun l lp trnh t cc phng php khi phc hoc dng truyn bn tin. Kh nng m trong SNMPv2 s dng b m 64 bit (hoc 32) duy tr trng thi ca cc lin kt v giao din.

2.5.1 Cu trc bn tin SNMPv2


Cc bn tin trao i trong SNMPv2 cha cc n v d liu giao thc PDU. Hnh 2.7 m t cu trc chung cc bn tin ny. Trng phin bn (Version) th hin phin bn ca giao thc SNMPv2. Trng Community l mt chui password xc nhn cho c tin trnh ly v thay i d liu. SNMP PDU cha kiu iu hnh (get, set), yu cu p ng (cng s th t vi bn tin gi i) - cho php ngi iu hnh gi ng thi nhiu bn tin. Bin ghp gm cc thit b c c t trong RFC 2358 v cha c gi tr t ti i tng. Trng n v d liu giao thc (PDU) gm c cc trng con: Kiu n v d liu giao thc, nhn dng cc yu cu (Request ID), trng thi li, ch s li, cc gi tr v i tng.
SNMPv2 Message Version Community SNMPv2 PDU

PDU Type

Request ID

Error Status or Non-Rptr

Error Index Or Max-Reps

Object1, Value1

Object2, Value2 Variable

.....

Hnh 2.7 Cu trc dng bn tin SNMPv2


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Cc kiu n v d liu giao thc PDU th hin cc bn tin s dng trong SNMPv2 gm c:

GetRequest: Cu lnh GetRequest c s dng gia Manager ti Agent. Cu lnh ny c s dng c bin MIB n hoc danh sch cc bin MIB t cc Agent ch. GetRequest yu cu s dng hai a ch, a ch u l a ch ca manger hoc agent, a ch th hai th hin v tr ca bin hoc i tng. Cy cu trc MIB trnh by trong phn 2.4 nh ngha cc a ch ca bin MIB. GetNextRequest: Cu lnh GetNextRequest tng t nh cu lnh GetRequest, tuy nhin tu thuc vo agent trong khon mc k tip ca MIB. Cc bin c lu trong thit b v c coi nh i tng b qun l. V vy, cu lnh GetNextRequest m rng cc bin v c c theo tun t. SetRequest: Cu lnh SetRequest l cu lnh c gi i t Manager ti Agent nh hai cu lnh trn. SetRequest tm kim cc thng tin m rng trong bng MIB v yu cu Agent t gi tr cho cc i tng qun l hoc cc i tng cha trong cu lnh. S thnh cng ca cu lnh ny ph thuc vo mt s yu t gm s tn ti ca cc i tng b qun l v cc phng thc truy nhp. GetResponse: Cu lnh GetResponse l cu lnh t Agent ti Manager. Cu lnh ny cung cp c ch p ng cho cc cu lnh GetRequest, GetNextRequest v SetRequest. Cc thng tin trong cu lnh GetResponse gm mt s trng chc nng cho php p ng cc cu lnh nhn trc . Trap: Trap l cu lnh c lp, khng ph thuc vo p ng hoc yu cu t cc Manager hoc cc Agent. Trap a ra cc thng tin lin quan ti cc iu kin c nh ngha trc v c gi t cc Agent ti Manager. GetBulkRequest: Chc nng ca cu lnh GetBulkRequest tng t nh cu lnh GetNextRequest ngoi tr vn lin quan ti s lng d liu c ly ra. GetBulkRequest cho php Agent gi li Manager d liu lin quan ti nhiu i tng thay v tng i tng b qun l. Nh vy, GetBulkRequest c th gim bt lu lng truyn dn v cc bn tin p ng thng bo v cc iu kin vi phm. InformRequest: Cu lnh InformRequest cung cp kh nng h tr cc Manager b tr theo cu hnh phn cp.Cu lnh ny cho php mt Manager trao i thng tin vi cc Manager khc. Cc cnh bo v s kin c gi i trong cu lnh InformRequest pht hin v khi to li cc tuyn truyn bn tin. Mt trm qun l c th thng tin ti cc trm qun l ln cn bit cc iu kin quan trng trong vng qun l.
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Cc cu lnh c th hin trong trng PDU Type, cc gi tr th hin nh trong bng 2.5:
Bng 2.5: Cu lnh v gi tr trong trng PDU Cu lnh GetRequest GetNextRequest Response SetRequest GetBulkRequest InformRequest SNMPv2-Trap Report Gi tr trong trng PDU 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Trng nhn dng yu cu cho php SNMP gi v nhn ng thi nhiu bn tin, phn bit cc bn tin thng qua cc ch s nhn dng. Trng error-status (trng thi li) c s dng trong cc dng bn tin nh trong bng 2.6 .
Bng 2.6: S dng trng trng thi li trong cc bn tin SNMPv2 Error noError tooBig noSuchName1 badValue1 readOnly1 genErr noAccess wrongType x x x x x x Get x x GetNext x x GetBulk x Set x x Inform x x

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Tng quan v vin thng SNMPv2 Error wrongLength wrongEncoding wrongValue noCreation inconsistentValue resourceUnavailable commitFailed undoFailed authorizationError notWritable inconsistentName

Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP Get GetNext GetBulk Set x x x x x x x x x2 x2 x2 x2 x x x2 Inform

Ch : Vi 1: Khng c s dng bi i tng SNMPv2 (ch c nng lc u quyn). Dng tng thch vi SNMPv1. Vi 2: Khng s dng n trong SNMPv2 ch tng thch vi SNMPv1

Trng error-index: Khi trng error-status khc 0, gi tr error-index th hin bin (i tng) trong danh sch lin kt bin gy ra li. Bin u tin trong danh sch c ch mc l 1. Bin th hai c ch mc l 2 Trng cc bin lin kt: Trng ny cho php mt ton t n c p dng trong mt nhm phin bn i tng. N bao gm mt chui cc cp, phn t u tin l nhn dng i tng v phn t th hai l mt trong s sau: value: gi tr lin quan vi mi phin bn i tng; c m t trong mt PDU yu cu. unspecified: gi tr NULL khi s dng trong yu cu ly thng tin. noSuchObject: th hin mt Agent khng th thc hin vi i tng c tham chiu bi s nhn dng ca i tng .
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

noSuchInstance: phin bn i tng khng tn ti cho ton t ny. endOfMibView: th hin mt c gng tham chiu n mt nhn dng i tng bn ngoi phn cui ca MIB ti Agent.

2.5.2

C s thng tin qun l MIB trong SNMPv2

MIB trong SNMPv2 nh ngha cc i tng m t tc ng ca mt phn t SNMPv2. MIB ny gm 3 nhm: Nhm h thng (System group): l mt m rng ca nhm system trong MIB-II gc, bao gm mt nhm cc i tng cho php mt Agent SNMPv2 m t cc i tng ti nguyn ca n. Cc i tng mi trong phn m rng c tn bt u bng sysOR, chng lin quan n ti nguyn h thng v c s dng bi mt Agent SNMPv2 m t cc i tng ti nguyn m vic iu khin chng tu thuc vo cu hnh ng bi mt b phn qun l. Nhm SNMP (SNMP group): mt ci tin ca nhm SNMP trong MIB-II gc, bao gm cc i tng cung cp cc cng c c bn cho hot ng giao thc. N c thm mt s i tng mi v loi b mt s i tng ban u. Nhm SNMP cha mt vi thng tin lu lng c bn lin quan n ton t SNMPv2 v ch c mt trong cc i tng l b m ch c 32-bit. Nhm cc i tng MIB (MIB objects group): mt tp hp cc i tng lin quan n cc SNMPv2-Trap PDU v cho php mt vi phn t SNMPv2 cng hot ng, thc hin nh trm qun tr, phi hp vic s dng ca chng trong ton t Set ca SNMPv2. Phn u ca nhm ny l mt nhm con, snmpTrap, bao gm hai i tng lin quan n Trap: - snmpTrapOID: l nhn dng i tng ca Trap hoc thng bo c gi hin thi. Gi tr ca i tng ny xut hin nh mt varbind (variable binding) th hai trong mi SNMPv2-Trap PDU v InformRequest PDU. - snmpTrapEnterprise: l nhn dng i tng ca t chc lin quan n Trap c gi hin thi. Khi mt Agent u quyn SNMPv2 nh x mt Trap PDU sang mt SNMPv2-Trap PDU, bin ny xut hin nh mt varbind cui cng. Phn th hai ca nhm ny l mt nhm con, snmpSet, bao gm mt i tng n snmpSerialNo. i tng ny c s dng gii quyt hai vn c th xut hin khi s dng ton t Set: Th nht l mt qun tr c th s dng nhiu ton t Set
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trn cng mt i tng MIB. Cc ton t ny cn thc hin theo mt trt t c a ra thm ch khi chng c truyn khng theo th t. Th hai l vic s dng ng thi cc ton t Set trn cng mt i tng MIB bi nhiu manager c th gy ra mt s mu thun hoc lm cho c s d liu b sai. i tng snmpSet c s dng theo cch sau: Khi mt manager mun t mt hay nhiu gi tr i tng trong mt Agent, u tin n nhn gi tr ca i tng snmpSet. Sau n gi SetRequest PDU c danh sch bin lin kt bao gm c i tng snmpSet vi gi tr nhn c ca n. Nu nhiu manager gi cc setRequestPDU s dng cng mt gi tr ca snmpSet, bn tin n Agent trc s c thc hin (gi s khng c li), kt qu l lm tng snmpSet; cc ton t set cn li s b li v khng ph hp vi gi tr snmpSet. Hn na, nu mt manager mun gi mt chui cc ton t set v m bo rng chng c thc hin theo mt trt t nht nh th i tng snmpSet phi c gp vo trong mi ton t.

2.5.3 Nguyn tc hot ng ca SNMPv2


Hnh 2.8 cho ta thy nguyn tc hot ng ca SNMPv2.

Hnh 2.8 Gi v nhn bn tin trong SNMPv2 i, Truyn mt bn tin SNMPv2 Qui tc gi v nhn bn tin ca Manager v Agent c th hin trong bng 2.7.
Bng 2.7 : Quy tc truyn v nhn mt bn tin trong SNMPv2 SNMPv2 PDU GetRequest Agent Generate Agent Receive x Manager Generate x Manager Receive

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Tng quan v vin thng GetNextRequ est Response SetRequest GetBulkRequ est InformReques t SNMPv2Trap x

Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP x x

x x x

Mt phn t SNMPv2 thc hin cc hnh ng sau truyn mt PDU cho mt phn t SNMPv2 khc: S dng ASN.1 m t mt PDU. PDU ny c chuyn sang dch v xc nhn cng vi cc a ch ngun v ch ca truyn thng v mt tn truyn thng. Dch v xc nhn sau thc hin nhng bin i bt k theo yu cu cho s trao i ny nh m ho hoc thm m xc nhn v tr li kt qu. Phn t giao thc sau to ra bn tin gm trng s hiu phin bn, tn truyn thng vo kt qu ca bc trn. i tng ASN. 1 mi ny sau c m ho s dng BER v gi n dch v vn chuyn. ii, Nhn mt bn tin SNMPv2 Mt phn t SNMPv2 thc hin cc hnh ng sau nhn mt bn tin SNMPv2: Kim tra c php c bn ca bn tin v loi b bn tin nu c php sai. Kim tra s hiu phin bn v loi b bn tin nu khng tng hp. Phn t giao thc sau chuyn trn ngi s dng, phn PDU ca bn tin v cc a ch ngun v ch ca bn tin ti dch v xc nhn. Nu xc nhn b sai, dch v xc nhn bn tin cho phn t giao thc SNMPv2 ni to ra

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Trap v loi b bn tin. Nu xc nhn hon thnh dch v xc nhn tr li mt PDU theo dng ca mt i tng ASN.1. Phn t giao thc thc hin kim tra c php c bn ca bn tin v loi b bn tin nu c php sai. Ngc li dng truyn thng theo tn, chnh sch truy cp SNMPv2 tng ng s c chn v tip n l x l PDU.
iii, Cc trng thi thch ng cho SNMPv2

Mc ch ca cc trng thi thch ng l nh ngha mt thng bo dng ch r gii hn thp nht c th chp nhn khi thc hin mc thng thng. C 4 macro c nh ngha: Macro OBJECT-GROUP: Macro ny dng ch r mt nhm i tng c qun l c lin quan v l n v c bn ca tnh thch ng. N cung cp mt phng thc cho mt nh sn xut m t tnh thch ng v cp ca n bng cch ch ra nhng nhm no c b sung. Macro OBJECTGROUP gm 4 mnh chnh sau: Mnh OBJECTS: lit k cc i tng trong nhm c gi tr mnh MAX-ACCESS l accessible-for-Notify, read-Only, read-write hoc read-create. Mnh STATUS: ch ra nh ngha ny l hin thi hay qua. Mnh DESCRIPTION: cha mt nh ngha nguyn bn ca nhm cng vi mt m t ca bt k quan h no vi nhm khc. Mnh REFERENCE: dng gp tham chiu qua li vo mt nhm c nh ngha trong mt vi khi thng tin khc.

Macro NOTIFICATION-GROUP: c dng nh ngha mt tp hp cc thng bo cho cc mc ch thch ng, gm cc mnh chnh sau: Mnh NOTIFICATIONS: Lit k mi thng bo cha trong nhm thch ng. Cc mnh STATUS, DESCRIPTION v REFERENCE: c ngha tng t nh trong macro OBJECTS-GROUP

Macro MODULE-COMPLIANCE: Ch ra mt tp nh nht ca cc yu cu lin quan n vic thm mt hay nhiu khi MIB. Cc mnh STATUS, DESCRIPTION, v REFERENCE c ngha tng t nh trong cc macro OBJECTS-GROUP v NONTIFICATION-GROUP.

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Macro AGENT-CAPABILITIES: Dng cung cp thng tin v cc kh nng c trong mt phn t giao thc Agent SNMPv2. N c s dng m t mc h tr c bit m mt Agent yu cu, lin quan n mt nhm MIB. V bn cht, cc kh nng th hin nhng ci tin hoc bin i nht nh lin quan n cc macro OBJECT-TYPE trong cc khi MIB.

2.6 SNMPv3
SNMPv3 da trn vic thc hin giao thc, loi d liu v u quyn nh SNMPv2 v ci tin phn an ton. SNMPv3 cung cp an ton truy nhp vo cc thit b bng cch kt hp s xc nhn v m kho cc gi tin trn mng. Nhng c im bo mt cung cp trong SNMPv3 l: Tnh ton vn thng tin : m bo cc gi tin khng b sa trong khi truyn. S xc nhn: Xc nhn ngun ca thng tin gi n.

M kho: o ni dung ca gi tin, ngn cn vic gi thng bo t ngun khng c xc nhn. SNMPv3 cung cp c m hnh an ton v cc mc an ton. M hnh an ton l thc hin vic xc nhn c thit lp cho ngi s dng v nhm ngi s dng hin c. Mc an ton l mc bo m an ton trong m hnh an ton. S kt hp ca m hnh an ton v mc an ton s xc nh c ch an ton khi gi mt gi tin. Tuy nhin vic s dng SNMPv3 rt phc tp v cng knh d n l s la chn tt nht cho vn bo mt ca mng. Vic s dng s tn rt nhiu ti nguyn do trong mi bn tin truyn i s c phn m ha BER. Phn m ha ny s chim mt phn bng thng ng truyn do lm tng ph tn mng. Mc d c coi l phin bn ngh cui cng v c coi l y nht nhng SNMPv3 vn ch l tiu chun d tho v vn ang c nghin cu hon thin. Kin trc thc th SNMPv3 (RFC257) c th hin trn hnh 2.9 gm c cu SNMP v cc ng dng.

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Hnh 2.9 Kin trc thc th ca SNMPv3 C cu SNMPv3 gm 4 thnh phn: iu phi (Dispatcher). Phn h x l bn tin (Message Processing Subsystem). Phn h bo mt (Security Subsystem). Phn h iu khin truy nhp (Access Control Subsystem).

Phn h iu phi bn tin x l bn tin gi v nhn, khi nhn c bn tin phn h ny s xc nhn phin bn ca SNMP v gi bn tin ti phn h x l bn tin tng ng. Phn h x l bn tin chia thnh 3 khi (module) nh sau:

Hnh 2.10 Phn h x l bn tin trong SNMPv3 Module SNMPv3 tch phn d liu ca bn tin gi ti phn h bo mt gii nn v nhn thc. Phn h bo mt cng c nhim v nn d liu. Cu trc module ca phn h bo mt nh sau:

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Hnh 2.11 Cu trc module ca phn h bo mt trong SNMPv3 SNMPv3 tng thch hon ton vi SNMPv1 v SNMPv2, n gm m hnh bo mt da trn ngi dng v m hnh bo mt chung x l SNMPv1, SNMPv2. Cu trc module n gin khi thm vo cc module bo mt dng khc trong qu trnh pht trin. Khi s liu tch ra khi PDU v n s c gi ti ng dng thch hp qua phn h iu khin truy nhp. Phn h iu khin truy nhp chu trch nhim xc nh i tng b qun l v cch thc truy nhp ti n. Hin nay ch c mt m hnh iu khin truy nhp nhng n c th m rng trong tng lai (RFC2575).

Hnh 2.12 Cu trc phn h iu khin truy nhp trong SNMPv3 M hnh iu khin truy nhp c th nhn thy (RFC 2575) quyt nh ngi dng c th truy nhp (c hoc t trng thi) cho i tng qun l.

2.6.1 Khun dng bn tin SNMPv3


RFC 2572 nh ngha cc khun dng bn tin SNMPv3. Khun dng bn tin SNMPv3 c phn chia trong trong bn phn (Hnh 2.13). D liu chung (Common data)- Trng ny xut hin trong tt c cc bn tin SNMPv3. Bo mt m hnh d liu (Security model data)- Vng ny c ba phn: phn chung, phn dnh cho s chng thc v phn cho d liu ring.
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Context Hai trng nhn dng v tn c dng cung cp context cho PDU no s phi x l. PDU Vng ny cha mt SNMPv2c PDU.

Hnh 2.13 Khun dng bn tin SNMPv3 MessageVersion Trng u tin trong bn tin l trng phin bn SNMP.Trng ny cung cp tnh tng thch vi cc phin bn khc nhau. Gi tr 3 trong trng ny ch ra y l mt bn tin SNMPv3. Gi tr 2 v 1 tng ng vi SNMPv2 v SNMPv1. MessageID Nhn dng bn tin l mt s c s dng gia hai thc th cho bn tin tng quan. n v d liu giao thc PDU cha trng nhn dng yu cu v c s dng nhn dng trong SNMPv1 v SNMPv2c, nhng t SNMPv3 c m ha PDUs, message ID u nm bn trong tiu . MaxMessageSize Kch thc bn tin ln nht MaxMessageSize l kch thc ln nht ca bn tin c h tr bi bn gi bn tin. y l gi kch thc ln nht giao thc vn chuyn c th mang m khng cn phn on. Bn pha thu s dng gi tr MaxMessageSize bo m s tr li ca n vn nm trong phm vi kch thc cho php. MessageFlags C nh du bn tin c di 1 byte, xc nh s thit lp chng thc v t ring cho bn tin. N cng thng bo khi bn tin yu cu mt s p li t pha my thu. C ba bit c s dng khi vic m ha khng thnh cng. Khng c chng thc v khng c s ring l (gi tr bit 000). Chng thc v khng c s ring l (gi tr bit 001). Chng thc v ring l (gi tr bit 011).
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C ba trng hp trn u c th t cnh bo ty chn. MessageSecurity Bo mt bn tin l mt i tng s nguyn c t bo mt cho bn tin. Phm vi ca nhng gi tr h tr nh sau: 0 c dnh cho any (bt k). 1 c dnh cho SNMPv1. 2 c dnh cho SNMPv2c. 3 c dnh cho USM (User-based Security Model). 4-555 c dnh cho nhng m hnh bo mt tiu chun khc.

Cc gi tr ngoi 255 c th c dng cho m hnh bo mt tiu chun. Bn thu cng phi dng cng m hnh bo mt khi x l bo mt hot ng. Phn h bo mt iu khin qu trnh x l ny ca bn tin SNMPv3. M hnh bo mt d liu chung Phn chung ca m hnh bo mt d liu bao gm cc trng sau: EngineID: S nhn dng duy nht ca engine SNMPv3.

EngineBoots: l khong thi gian m engine SNMP bt u up hoc reset gi tr ca usmUserTable cui cng b sa i. EngineTime: S giy m gi tr EngineBoots cui c sa i. UserName: Tn ca ngi dng.

Nhng trng trn i trc cc vng d liu chng thc v ring l. EngineID v UserName c dng to mt ch s trong mt bng gi l usmUserTable. Bng ny lu gi d liu m hnh bo mt cho EngineID v cp ngi dng. M hnh bo mt d liu qua chng thc Hai giao thc chng thc h tr trong SNMPv3 l MD5 v SHA. C hai giao thc cng phc v cho mc ch: xc nhn thng bo SNMPv3. Thut ton MD5 tnh ton 16 byte (128 bit) digest v 12 byte u tin (96 bit) bao gm cc thnh phn ca bn tin bn trong cc trng chng thc. Ngi dng phi chn mt cha kha b mt 16-octet (byte) dng cho thut ton MD5. Nu ngi dng chn thut ton chng thc SHA th thut ton tnh ton 20 byte (160 bit) digest v mt ln na 12 byte u tin (96 bit) bao gm nhng thnh phn ca bn tin chng thc. Ngi dng phi chn mt cha kha b mt 20-octet dng thut ton SHA. D gii thut no c dng th trng giao thc chng thc l mt chui 12
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byte c dng lm nhn dng chng thc bn tin. Khi mt thc th SNMPv3 (manager) mun gi mt yu cu cho thc th khc (agent) phi dng mt cha kha b mt cho c hai pha. M hnh bo mt d liu qua giao thc ring Trng ca giao thc ring l l chui 18 byte octet dng cho thut ton tiu chun m ha d liu DES (Data Encryption Standard). M ha dng kha 16 byte. 8 octet u tin ca kha b mt 16 octet dng nh kha DES. 8 octet tip theo c dng nh mt vector khi to. C hai dng mt kha ring b mt m ha v gii m bn tin.

2.6.2 Cc ng dng ni b ca SNMPv3


Cc ng dng ni b ny thc hin cng vic nh to ra cc bn tin SNMP, p ng li cc bn tin nhn c, nhn cc bn tin v chuyn tip cc bn tin gia cc phn t. Hin c nm loi ng dng c nh ngha: Cc b to lnh (Command Generator): To ra cc lnh SNMP thu thp hoc thit lp cc d liu qun l. Cc b p ng lnh (Command Responder): Cung cp vic truy cp ti d liu qun l. V d cc lnh Get, GetNext, Get-Bulk v Set PDUs c thc hin bi cc b p ng lnh. Cc b to bn tin (Notification Originator): Khi to Trap hoc Inform. Cc b nhn bn tin (Notification Receiver) Nhn v x l cc bn tin Trap hoc Inform. Cc b chuyn tip u nhim (Proxy Forwarder): Chuyn tip cc thng bo gia cc phn t SNMP.

2.6.3 Nguyn tc hot ng ca giao thc SNMPv3


i, Gi mt bn tin hoc mt yu cu

Qu trnh gi mt bn tin hoc mt yu cu gm cc bc sau: To ra cc yu cu ng dng Nu gi tr messageProcessingModel khng miu t mt m hnh x l bn tin c bit ti t b iu vn th gi tr errorIndication c tr li cho ng dng gi ti v khng c hnh ng no c x l na.

B iu vn to ra sendPduHandle cho qu trnh x l tip theo. B iu vn bn tin gi yu cu ti module x l bn tin phin bn c trng v c xc nh bi messageProcessingModel
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Nu statusInformation biu th li, th gi tr errorIndication c tr li cho ng dng gi ti v khng c hnh ng no c x l na. Nu statusInformation biu th s chp thun, th sendPduHandle c tr v ng dng v outgoingMessage c gi i. Truyn thng c s dng gi outgoingMessage c tr v qua destTransportDomain v a ch m n gi c tr v qua destTransportAddress.

Qu trnh x l mt bn tin gi i hon tt.

ii, Gi mt p ng ti mng Qu trnh gi mt p ng mt bn tin din ra nh sau: To ra mt ng dng cha yu cu s dng B iu vn bn tin s gi yu cu ti m hnh x l bn tin thch hp c nhn bit qua gi tr messageProcessingModel. Khi mt p ng chun b c gi i Nu kt qu (result) l errorIndication th errorIndication s tr li ng dng gi ti v khng c hnh ng no c x l na. Nu kt qu c chp nhn th outgoingMessage c gi i. Truyn thng c s dng gi outgoingMessage c tr v qua destTransportDomain v a ch m n gi c tr v qua destTransportAddress.

iii, Qu trnh iu phi bn tin ca bn tin SNMP nhn c Gi tr snmpInPkts c tng ln. Nu gi tin khng phn tch c y phin bn ca bn tin SNMP hoc nu phin bn khng c h tr th gi tr snmpInASNParseErrs c tng ln v bn tin nhn c b loi b v khng x l na. Ngun gc ca transportDomain v transportAddress c xc nh. Bn tin chuyn qua m hnh x l bn tin v thnh phn d liu tru tng c tr v bi b iu vn: Nu result l errorIndication khng thch hp th bn tin b hu b v qu trnh x l kt thc. Tip theo, tu vo gi tr ca sendPduHandle l rng hay khng rng ta c hai hng x l tip.

iv, iu phi PDU ca bn tin SNMP nhn c


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Nu sendPduHandle l rng th bn tin nhn c l mt yu cu hoc mt bn tin. Qu trnh x l nh sau: Gi tr ca contextEngineID v pduType c phi hp quyt nh xem ng dng ng k cho mt bn tin hay mt yu cu. o o o kt thc. Trng hp cn li: Pdu c x l Nu khng c ng dng no c ng k: snmpUnknownPDUHandlers c tng ln. Mt p ng c chun b to ra Nu kt qu l thnh cng th bn tin chun b c gi i. Qu trnh x l

Bn tin n l mt p ng: Gi tr sendpduHandle c xc nh. ng dng ang i p ng ny c xc nh thng quan sendpduHandle. Nu khng c ng dng no i, bn tin b hu b v qu trnh x l kt thc. stateReference c gii phng. snmpUnknownPDUHandlers c tng ln. Qu trnh x l kt thc. Nu xut hin ng dng ang i th p ng c tr v.

2.6.4 H tr bo mt v nhn thc trong SNMPv3


Mt trong nhng mc tiu chnh nu khng coi l mt mc ch chnh chnh khi pht trin SNMPv3 l thm c tnh bo mt cho qun l SNMP. Xc thc v bo v thng tin, cng nh xc thc v iu khin truy cp, c nu r trn. Cu trc SNMPv3 cho php s dng linh hot bt c mt giao thc no cho xc thc v bo v thng tin. D sao, nhm IETF SNMPv3 a ra m hnh bo mt ngi dng. Chng ta s tm hiu thm v cc kha cnh chung v bo mt kt hp vi cc kiu ca cc mi e do bo mt, m hnh bo mt, nh dng d liu bn tin iu tit cc tham s bo mt v s dng cng nh qun l ca cc kho trong phn ny. Cc mi e do bo mt. C 4 mi e do n thng tin qun l mng khi mt thc th qun l c truyn n thc th khc l: Thng tin c th b thay i bi mt ngi dng khng c php no trong khi truyn.
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Ngi dng khng c php c gng gi trang nh ngi dng c php. Thng tin SNMP c chia lm nhiu gi nh truyn i theo nhiu hng v pha nhn phi sp xp li. V vy n c th b ngi no lm tr 1 gi tin, b gi li do mt ngi khng c php to ra ... lm thay i thng tin ca bn tin B ngn chn hoc b l bn tin. t nht c 2 mi e do trn thng xy ra vi kt ni d liu truyn thng, nhng vi m hnh bo mt ngi dng SNMP th n c coi l khng c mi e do. Th nht l t chi dch v, mt xc thc ngi dng s b t chi dch v bi thc th qun l. N khng b coi nh mi e do, khi mng li c th l l do ca s t chi, v mt giao thc s thc thi mc ch ny. Th hai l thng k lu lng bi mt ngi dng khng xc thc. Nhm IETF SNMv3 xc nh rng khng c thun li quan trng no t c bng cch chng li s tn cng ny.

M hnh bo mt
Trong iu kin hot ng bnh thng, m hnh x l bn tin tc ng vi m hnh phn h bo mt. v d hnh 2.9 v kin trc thc th ca SNMPv3, chng ta thy rng bn tin gi i s c to bi mt ng dng v kim sot u tin bi b giao vn, sau bi m hnh x l bn tin, cui cng l m hnh bo mt. Nu bn tin cn c xc thc, m hnh bo mt s xc thc n v chuyn tip n m hnh x l bn tin. Tng t vi bn tin n, m hnh x l bn tin yu cu dch v ny ca m hnh bo mt xc thc ch s ngi dng. Hnh 2.14 ch ra cc dch v c cung cp bi 3 module module xc thc, module ring v module nh thi trong m hnh bo mt ti m hnh x l bn tin.
Phn h bo mt Ton vn d liu Module xc thc Xc thc d liu gc M hnh x l bn tin

D liu b mt

Module ring

Bn tin nh thi v gii hn bo v gi li

Module nh thi

Hnh 2.14 M hnh bo mt M hnh bo mt ngi dng SNMPv3


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Phn h bo mt Thng tin MPM D liu mo u D liu bo mt scopedPDU Bo mt ngi dng


Kho m ho scopedPDU Tham s ring scopedPDU c m ho

Module ring

X l bn tin

Kho xc thc

(Xc thc/m ho) ton b bn tin di bn tin Tham s bo mt

Ton b bn tin Ton b bn tin xc thc

Module xc thc

Hnh 2.15 Dch v ring v xc thc cho bn tin i M hnh bo mt trong SNMPv3 l m hnh bo mt ngi dng (User-base Security Model vit tt l USM). N phn nh khi nim tn ngi dng truyn thng. Nh chng ta nh ngha giao din dch v tru tng gia cc phn h khc nhau trong thc th SNMP, by gi chng ta s nh ngha giao din dch v tru tng trong USM. Cc nh ngha ny bao trm ln khi nim v giao din gia dch v ging USM v xc thc khng ph thuc v dch v ring. Hai primitive c kt hp vi mt dch v xc thc, mt to ra bn tin xc thc i, v mt kim tra bn tin xc thc n. Tng t, 2 primitive c kt hp vi cc dch v ring: encryptData m ho bn tin i v decryptData gii m bn tin n. Cc dch v c cung cp bi module xc thc v module ring trong phn h bo mt cho bn tin i v bn tin n. M hnh x l bn tin dn chng cho USM trong phn h bo mt. Da trn mc bo mt gn trn bn tin, USM ln lt c dn qua module xc thc v module ring. Kt qu c a tr li m hnh x l bn tin bi USM.

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Hnh 2.15 ch ra s x l mt bn tin i v hnh 2.16 cho thy s x l ngc li ca 1 bn tin n i qua xc nhn hp l trc sau s c gii m ho bi module ring.

Phn h bo mt
Thng tin MPM D liu mo u Tham s bo mt scopedPDU
Kha m ha

Bo mt ngi dng

Ton b bn tin (nhn t mng) Tham s xc thc Xc thc ton b bn tin

Module xc thc

X l bn tin

Kha gii m M ha PDU

scopedPDU ( gii m)

Tham s ring Gii m scopedPDU

Module ring

Hnh 2.16 Dch v ring v xc thc cho bn tin n Cc giao thc bo mt. Nn tng cho bo mt s dng xc thc v bo v ring l cc kho b mt c dng chung bi ngi gi v ngi dng - mt ngi xc thc v ngi kia m ho v gii m. Ban u, cc kho b mt ca USM l mt khu. Hai thut ton c khuyn ngh trong SNMPv3 l HMAC-MD5-96 v HMAC-SHA-96. Kho xc thc. Kho b mt cho xc thc c xut pht t mt khu c ngi dng la chn. Ngi dng y l cc cng c SNMP khng xc thc, n to ra h thng qun l mng. Trong hai thut ton MD5 v SHA-1, mt khu c lp li cho n khi c dng 220 octet (1048576 octet), xo ln lp cui nu thy cn thit. Th tc m ho HMAC. M MAC di 96 bit xut pht t vic s dng th tc HMAC (RFC 2104, RFC 2274). Qun l kho. Ngi dng (h thng qun l mng) ch c mt mt khu v do ch c mt kho b mt, digest1 ( cp trong phn kho xc thc). Tuy nhin, n kt ni vi tt c cc cng c SNMP xc thc (tt c cc agent trn mng). Thng tin chia s thm vo s b mt gia 2 cng c kt ni. Khi nim kho cc b c a ra trnh s lu tr kho khc nhau trn cc cng c xc thc vi lin kt ngi dng. Thut ton bm - ging nh s dng to ra kho b mt - c s dng to ra kho cc b.
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Pht hin. Mt trong nhng chc nng quan trng ca h thng qun l mng l pht hin ra nhng agent trn mng. Pht hin c hon thnh bng cch ra cc bn tin yu cu vi mc bo mt l khng cn xc nhn v khng c kho ring, c tn l khi to (initial), mt SNMP engine ID xc thc c di bng khng v varBin l rng. Cng c xc thc s hi p bng bn tin hi p bao gm engine ID v in vo tham s bo mt. Thng tin thm ny c c qua bn tin pair-wise.

Giao thc m kho.


M kho to ra cc k t khng c c (ciphertext) t cc t c c (plaintext). SNMP khuyn ngh d liu tin cy nn s dng giao thc m ho ma trn CBC-DES (Cipher Block Chaining - Data Encryption Standard). USM ch r yu cu scopedPDU chia r phn bn tin cn m kho. Gi tr b mt kt hp vi gi tr nh thi s to ra kho m ho/gii m v vecto khi to (IV). Mt khc, gi tr b mt da trn ngi dng, do s kt hp c th vi h thng qun l mng.

iu khin truy cp
Trong hai phn trc, chng ta ni n s bo mt trong qun l mng vi s quan tm n tnh ton vn d liu, bn tin xc thc, d liu tin cy v nh thi ca bn tin. By gi chng ta s cp n iu khin truy cp, n gii quyt vn ai c quyn truy cp vo cc phn t mng v h c th truy cp nhng g. Trong SNMP v1 v SNMPv2, vn ny c cp trong phn chnh sch truy cp da trn truyn thng. Trong SNMPv3, iu khin truy cp bo mt hn v mm do hn bi m hnh iu khin kt ni da trn cc View (View-based Access Control Model vit tt l VACM). VACM nh ngha cc giao din m ng dng trong mt agent c th s dng hp thc cc cu lnh yu cu v cc b nhn thng bo. N hp thc ngun gi v quyn truy cp i vi cc lnh yu cu. Mt trong nhng gi nh c to ra l xc thc ca ngun c thc hin bi module xc thc. thc hin cc dch v ny, d liu cc b bao gm cc quyn v chnh sch truy cp, c gi l lu tr d liu cu hnh cc b (LCD), c to ra trong thc th SNMP. LCD ny c trng trong mt agent hoc trong mt chc nng qun l trong vai tr ca mt agent khi n kt ni vi mt manager khc. LCD cn thit cho vic cu hnh t xa v cn nhc bo mt cn c quan tm, v vy module MIB cho VACM c a ra. Cc phn t ca m hnh VACM gm 5 phn t: (1) cc nhm, (2) mc bo mt, (3) ng cnh, (4) cc view MIB v h cc view, (5) chnh sch truy cp. Cc nhm. Mt nhm, groupName, gm 1 cp vacmSecurityModel v vacmSecurityName (m hnh bo mt v tn bo mt) i din cho cc i tng qun
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l c th truy cp. Mt tn bo mt l ch c lp vi m hnh bo mt c s dng. Tt c cc phn t thuc mt nhm c quyn truy cp ging nhau. Mc bo mt. C cc mc Khng xc thc khng bo v C xc thc khng bo v C xc thc c bo v Ng cnh. Ng cnh SNMP l s thu thp cc thng tin qun l c th truy cp ca cc thc th SNMP (agent). Mt thc th SNMP truy cp n tim nng hn mt ng cnh. Mi cng c SNMP c mt bng ng cnh lit k cc ng cnh cc b c th bng cc contextName. Cc view MIB v h cc view. Trong SNMPv1 v SNMPv2, quyn truy cp ti ng cnh c iu khin bi cc view MIB. Mt view MIB c nh ngha cho mi nhm v chi tit ca kiu i tng qun l (v tu chn, trng hp r rng ca cc kiu i tng). Mt view MIB phc tp xy ra khi tt c cc i tng ca ct da trn khi nim hng ca bng xut hin trn cc cy con khc nhau, mi ct mt view vi nh dng nh nhau. V nh dng nh nhau nn yu cu ca cy con phi tp hp vo mt cu trc, c gi l h cc cy con view. Mt h cc cy con view l mt cp ca gi tr OBJECT IDENTIFER (c gi l tn ca h) cng vi mt gi tr chui bit (c gi l mt n h). Mt n h cho bit nhn dng con ca tn h kt hp l du hiu nh ngha h. Mt h ca cc cy con view c th bao gm hoc loi tr mt view MIB. Quyn truy cp. Xc nh quyn truy cp cc i tng nh quyn c, ghi v thng bo.

2.6.5 ng dng thc tin ca SNMPv3


Mt s vn thc tin qun l mng Cng vi s pht trin a dng ca cc cng ngh mng, cc thch thc i vi h thng qun l mng ngy cng ln nht l i vi cc mng ln, cc kiu lu lng v s tng trng lu lng tip tc tng khng ngng. Vi cc yu cu m bo cht lng dch v trong mi trng a dch v, h thng qun l mng phi c kh nng qun l t u cui ti u cui, gim gi thnh qun l qua cc tho thun cht lng dch v SLA (Service Level Agreement), cc h thng qun l mng ca cc nh sn xut thit b v s dng phn mm qun l hiu qu. Di y s phn tch mt s vn ny sinh khi s dng giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP. i, Chuyn cc d liu qun l vo m lnh
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D liu lin kt v m l cc khi nim tnh ton c bn, n tp trung vo vng qun l mng trn c s cc thc th mng NE (Network Element) chuyn d liu qun l ti trm qun l. Khi chuyn d liu thnh cc m c mt s vn sau: Cc i tng b qun l nm trn rt nhiu Agent Bn sao ca cc i tng qun l nm ti h thng manager S thay i d liu trn cc Agent s lm thay i d liu bn sao trn manager. C s thng tin qun l MIB cung cp mt h tng qun l v phi d phng cc khng gian nh cho nhng thay i ca i tng qun l. Mt khc, s pht trin v phc tp ca thc th mng (NE) tng ln khng ngng trong khi qu trnh truyn v nhn d liu t Agent l th tc bt buc ca SNMP, v vy vic chuyn cc d liu thnh m nh th no l mt vn thch thc ca h thng qun l mng. Hn na, h thng qun l c nn i hi tt c d liu agent hay khng? Trong thc t, iu ny ch chp nhn c trn nhng mng nh nhng khng th thc hin c trn cc mng ln. Khi cc NE tr thnh phc tp hn th gnh nng li t ln h thng qun l.
ii, S tng trng ca MIB

Cc bng c s thng tin qun l lu tr cc tham s ca i tng qun l, khi s lng NE ln ng ngha vi vic m rng bng MIB. S phc tp gia tng khi nhiu nh cung cp cung cp nhng module MIB cho cc NE ca h theo dng file vn bn. Nhng file ny c th hp nht vo trong mt h thng mng qun l NMS v dng phi hp vi b duyt MIB. MIB cha nh ngha i tng qun l v dng dn xut m hnh c s d liu cho NMS. M hnh c s d liu NMS cha s lng ln cc bng, v d mt bng ct gi nhng ng dn chi tit, bng khc cho cc mch o,v.v. H thng qun l mng NMS theo di v sa i nhng gi tr ca NE, qun l cc i tng v lu gi n trong c s d liu ca mnh. Vic tch hp cc h thng thit b thnh cc phn t mng ln cng mang li mt s kh khn trong h thng qun l mng, v cc chc nng c tch hp rt kh qun l ng thi cc h thng qun l phi h tr rt nhiu tng tc trong FCAPS. iii, phc tp trong trin khai Vic xy dng h thng qun l cho nhng thit b mng hin nay v trong tng lai ngy cng gp nhiu kh khn (iu ny l ng vi vic pht trin thit b ca nhng cng ngh mi nh MPLS hay Ethernet Gigabit l vic thm vo hoc k tha cc thc th mng-NE lp 2). Mt s nh cung cp c nhng nhm c tch ring dnh cho thc th mng v vic pht trin h thng qun l nn cn c s truyn thng gia nhng nhm ny. Ngoi ra vic thit lp cc k nng yu cu ca ngi pht trin
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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

phn mm NMS ang tng v bao gm: Vic pht trin v lm m hnh hng i tng s dng UML (Unified Modeling Language) cho vic gi nhng yu cu, nh ngha cc hot ng v cc trng hp s dng sp xp chng vo trong cc lp phn mm. Pht trin cc phn mm qun l trn Java/C++. Phn mm Server a x l FCAPS. c bit h tr cho vic pht trin cc c tnh nh ATM/MPLS. C s d liu ca vic thit k/nng cp ph hp vi MIB ti gin c s d

liu qua nhiu phin bn phn mm NMS/NE. Cng ngh lp 2 nh ATM, FR v Gigabit Ethernet. Cng ngh k tha nh thoi qua TDM v X.25.

Kh nng pht trin m hnh v thnh phn phn mm chung, h thng qun l c th giu nhiu chi tit nm bn di ca hot ng mng. Thit k Client/server. Qun l vic thit k i tng, giai on lm m hnh ca h thng qun l.

Vic thit k MIB cn c i tng mi bn trong thit b qun l h tr h thng qun l. S di tr chung ti c s h tng lp 3 l mt l do khc cho vic m rng gia nhng k nng pht trin sn c v cc c tnh sn phm yu cu. y l mt cch tip cn khc cho vic pht trin h thng qun l thng qua: Tp gii php tiu chun. Phn tn v gii quyt cc vn pht sinh. X l thng tin thng k. Bao qut nhng chu trnh pht trin ngn. Ti gin vic thay i m. Tng kh nng kim tra.

2.7 TNG KT CHNG 2


SNMP cung cp cch thc qun l mng cc host nh mng ca cc my tnh trm hoc my ch, router, bridge v hub t my tnh iu khin tp trung chy phn mm qun l mng. Cc chun c ho SNMP v nhng giao thc khc nh TCP/IP c n bn trong
74

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

cc RFC. SNMP phin bn 1 (SNMPv1) l phin bn chun ca giao thc SNMP. N c nh ngha trong RFC 1157 v y l chun y ca IETF. bo mt trong SNMPv1 ch da vo t kha (password). SNMP phin bn 2 (SNMPv2) c pht trin cung cp chc nng bo mt m SNMP cn thiu. Phin bn ny c nh ngha trong cc RFC 1905, 1906 v 1907. SNMP phin bn 3 (SNMPv3) c pht trin cung cp bo mt tt nht trong qun l SNMP. N c nh ngha trong cc RFC 2571, 2572, 2573, 2574 v 2575. Thit b c qun l l thit b c chy phn mm SNMP agent. Cc i tng c qun l l cc c tnh hot ng ca thit b c qun l.

Mt c tnh hot ng n nh phin UDP trn mt thit b qun l n c coi l mt bin i tng. C s thng tin qun l (MIB) l c s d liu ca cc i tng c qun l, n c truy nhp thng qua cc giao thc qun l mng. SNMP cha hai chun MIB. Chun MIB I c trong RFC 1156 c nh ngha qun l Internet da trn TCP/IP. Chun MIB II nh ngha trong RFC 1213, c bn vn da trn MIB I. MIB II l nh ngha c dng hin nay. SNMPv2 bao gm MIB II v b sung mt s i tng mi khc. Cc i tng MIB l cc i tng c qun l c phn loi theo cng vic v m chng thc hin, cc i tng ny nm trong MIB. S nhn dng i tng l mt sery s nguyn da trn nt trong cy, c tch bng cc du chm (.). V th iso(1).org(3).dod(6).internet(1) trong dng s nhn dng i tng c biu din l 1.3.6.1 hay di dng cha l iso.org.dod.internet. Trong SNMP cc vn hnh yu cu tun theo tun t.

Cu trc thng tin qun l (SMI) l chun s dng ASN.1. SMI c t c php cho cc loi d liu nh s nhn dng i tng, b m, hng, bng, chui, a ch mng v cc thnh t SNMP khc sao cho c lp vi c cu SNMP. Hai nhnh chnh da trn gc Internet l Qun l v MIB c nhn. Cc chun MIB cng nghip l nhnh qun l iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib vi s nhn dng i tng l 1.3.6.1.2.1. Cn cc MIB c nhn l nhnh iso.org.dod.internet.private vi s nhn dng i tng l 1.3.6.1.4. Trap l cc bn tin (unsolicited) gi t agent ti NMS.

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Chng 2: Giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP

SNMPv1 s dng cc hot ng Get, Getnext, Set v Trap. SNMPv2 s dng cc hot ng Get, Getnext, Set, Trap, GetBulk v Inform.

Cc tha thun s doanh nghip c nhn ca cc cc nhn, hc vin v cc t chc u do IANA qun l. Trong SMIv2 phn ch tng ng vi trap trong SMIv1. Trong SMIv1, trap thng c c t l macro ASN.1 TRAP-TYPE. Trong SMIv2 phn ch c c t bng macro ASN.1NOTIFICATION-TYPE. SNMPv2 cung cp hot ng inform cho php truyn thng t NMS n NMS. Khi inform c gi t mt NMS n NMS khc th NMS bn nhn gi p ng ti NMS bn gi xc nhn vic nhn c bn tin. Chng ta c th s dng SNMP inform gi trap ca SNMPv2 t mt agent ti mt NMS. Trong trng hp ny, agent s c NMS thng bo l trab c nhn. Hot ng report c tng cng cho SNMPv2 song n li khng c trin khai. Tuy nhn n c s dng trong SNMPv3 cho php cc thit b s dng SNMP truyn thng vi nhau v bo co li nhng s c trong vic x l cc bn tin SNMP. Trong SNMPv3, thit b c cu thnh t 4 phn: iu phi (Dispatcher), Phn h x l bn tin, Phn h bo mt v Phn h iu khin truy nhp. iu phi l cng vic gi v nhn bn tin. N c gng xc nh phin bn ca mi bn tin nhn c (v d phin bn 1, 2 hay 3) v nu nh phin bn c h tr th n s iu khin bn tin ti Phn h x l bn tin. Phn h iu phi cng gi cc bn tin SNMP ti cc thc th khc. Phn h x l bn tin chun b cc bn tin gi i v trch d liu t cc bn tin nhn c. Mt h thng x l bn tin c th gm nhiu khi (module) x l bn tin. V d: mt phn h c th c module x l cc yu cu SNMPv1, SNMPv2 v SNMPv3. N cng c th c cc module x l cho cc m hnh khc trong tng lai. Phn h bo mt cung cp cc dch v c nhn v nhn thc. Nhn thc s dng hoc l cc chui truyn thng (SNMPv1 v v2) hoc l nhn thc da trn ngi dng SNMPv3. Nhn thc da trn ngi dng s dng thut ton MD5 hoc SHA nhn thc nhng ngi s dng m khng cn phi gi t kha. Dch v c nhn s dng thut ton D m kha v gii m cc bn tin SNMP. Phn h iu khin truy nhp chu trch nhim iu khin truy nhp ti cc i tng MIB. Chng ta c th iu khin i tng no m ngi s dng c th truy nhp cng nh nhng hot ng no m ngi s dng cho php trn nhng i tng ny. V d: chng ta c th gii hn truy nhp dng c-ghi ca ngi s dng
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vi mt phn no trong cy mib-2 trong khi vn cho php truy nhp ch c vi ton b cy ny. Trong SNMPv3, cc b to lnh to ra nhng yu cu get, get-next, getbulk, set v x l cc p ng. ng dng ny c NMS thc hin, v vy n c th a ra nhng yu cu v thit lp yu cu chng li cc thc th trn cc router, switch, cc my trm Unix, v.v. Trong SNMPv3, b p ng lnh p li cc yu cu get, get-next, getbulk, set. Vi SNMPv3, ng dng ny c thc hin bi mt thc th nh router ca Cisco hoc my trm Unix. (Vi SNMPv1 v v2, b p ng lnh c agent SNMP thc hin). Trong SNMPv3, b to cc thng ip ch to ra cc ch v SNMP trap. ng dng ny c mt thc th trn router hoc my trm Unix thc hin. (Vi phin bn 1 v 2, b to cc thng ip ch ny l mt phn ca agent SNMP). Trong SNMPv3, b thu thng ip ch bt v thng bo v cc bn tin. ng dng ny do mt NMS thc hin. Trong SNMPv3, b chuyn tip proxy chuyn cc bn tin gia cc thc th.

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Chng 3: Gim st t xa RMON

CHNG 3

GIM ST T XA RMON
3.1 NGUYN L CHUNG
Gim st mng c tip cn theo hai phng php: gim st t xa mng th ng v gim st mng ch ng. Mc tiu gim st nhm kim tra v gim st hiu nng thc t ca dch v mng vi cc tha thun cung cp cht lng dch v. a. Gim st mng b ng Cc thit b mng ghi li cc trng thi lu lng mng cung cp cc thng tin ca mt phn t mng thc t. Cc bn tin thm d (polling) nh k c s dng thu thp thng tin d liu cho bo co v phn tch. y l mt php o nh ti cc thit b c lp. Thng tin trng thi mng c th c suy lun t tp cc php o t cc phn t mng trn. Gim st th ng khng yu cu bt c mt lu lng ph no s dng cho cc mc ch o. b. Gim st mng ch ng

Phng php gim st mng ch ng gi cc thng tin gim st vo mng qun l. Cc lung d liu tng hp gm cc gi tin thm d c gi vo mng nhm gim st hiu nng mng. Cc nh phn tch thu thp cc lung d liu phn tch v nh gi hiu nng mng. Phng php gim st mng ch ng cung cp bi o mang tnh tng th qua mt lot cc phn t mng trong h thng. Cc h thng gim st b ng hoc ch ng c pht trin do mt s l do sau: Mc tiu gim st v bo co: Cc dch v mng c cung cp theo cc mc tiu tha thun cht lng dch v v d nh: Cc mng ch ng v gim st SLA; Chin lc di hn lin quan ti s thay i hiu nng SLA v mc hiu nng mng vi cc mc tiu cht lng dch v c yu cu v cm nhn bi ngi s dng. Nh mt mch vng hi tip cho tin trnh lp k hoch mng, cc kt qu gim st ch ng v b ng l c s cho cc bi ton d on, lp ngng trong k hoch pht trin v quy hoch mng. i vi cc nh cung cp dch v, gim st b ng v ch ng cung cp cc c hi cho dch v gia tng gi tr, h tr khch hng c cc thng tin nhm nh gi mc s dng mng v cch thc tha mn tha thun cht lng dch v SLA.

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3.2 CC PHNG PHP GIM ST MNG 3.2.1 Gim st mng b ng


T gc cht lng dch v, gim st mng b ng lin quan ti vn gi thng tin gim st gim st trng thi duy tr cc chc nng QoS ang thc hin. Phng php gim st mng b ng thng c s dng giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP thu thp cc thng tin trong c s d liu thng tin qun l MIB. Cc kha cnh ca vn thu thp thng tin gm: Tn sut gi thng tin, cc trng thi trn tng lin kt, gim st h thng v ma trn lu lng li. a. Tn sut gi thng tin Trn thc t, tn sut gi thng tin gim st c xc nh trong s cn bng gia kh nng x l ca h thng qun l mng, ti ca cc thit b v s nh hng ca lu lng gim st trn mng. Cc thng tin trng thi mng thng nm di dng cc gi tin v cc byte, cc thng tin ny c th c s dng xc nh cc yu cu lu lng trung bnh qua cc mu lu lng. Chu k gim st ln c kch thc mu ln v c th c s dng cho cc mc tiu mang tnh chin lc. Tuy nhin, d liu gim st c th c gi tr trung bnh trong khong thi gian di v khng th hin c s thay i trong h thng. V vy, cc chu k ngn c a chung hn v cc php o a li cc kt qu tt hn mc d phi cn bng vi lu lng ti gim st. b. Cc trng thi trn tng lin kt Cc trng thi trn tng lin kt c th s dng vi cc mc ch khc nhau ty thuc vo v tr trong mng v chia thnh hai kiu: lin kt truy nhp v lin kt li. Cc lin kt truy nhp c th bao gm c vng phn bit dch v (Differ) v c cng nh cung cp dch v v khch hng. V vy, trng thi ca lin kt truy nhp c s dng cho c mc ch pht hin li v bo co trng thi ti khch hng s dng dch v cng nh ti cc lp QoS ca thit b bin mng. Trn cc lin kt li, trng thi cht lng dch v c s dng cho c mc ch pht hin li v nh mt tham s u vo ca tin trnh quy hoch mng li. Cc trng thi trn tng lin kt c xc nh qua mt s phng php nh: gim st lp, gim st chnh sch, gim st hng i v mt gi. Gim st lp : Mc ch s dng chnh ca cc trng thi phn lp l xc minh lu lng c nm trong lp thch hp hay khng. Cc trng thi lp cn c th c s dng xc nh hoc suy lun ti cc trng thi khc. Gim st phn lp c thc hin trn tng lp hoc tp hp cc lp. Gim st chnh sch : Gim st chnh sch trong phng php gim st th ng gm kiu p buc tc ti a cho dch v thi gian thc v nh du cc lu lng trong hp ng lu lng. Gim st hng i v t l tn tht : Phng php thng thng gim st hng
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Chng 3: Gim st t xa RMON

i v t l loi b gi c thc hin theo qua s lng gi truyn pht v tn tht. Vic gim st t l tn tht c th c thc hin trn s lng gi tin hy b theo trng s ti phn ui ca lu lng hoc thng qua gim st k thut loi b gi sm RED (Ramdom Early Detection). c. Gim st h thng V mt nguyn tc, cc gi tin loi b c thc hin ti cc nt mng. Ty theo kin trc ca cc nt mng cc gi tin c th c loi b cc v tr khc nhau theo cc iu kin rng buc ca h thng. Cc h thng lun c thit k nhm gim thiu cc lu lng loi b. Mt khc, vn loi b gi tin l mt lun xy ra trn thc t. V vy, vic gim st cc trng hp nh vy l rt cn thit nhm cung cp cc thng tin v cc vn gy nh hng ti cht lng dch v cung cp. Mt vi kiu h thng loi b gi tin in hnh gm : (1) Loi b gi khng lu m khi b nh m c chia s gia cc hng i trong mt h thng, ti c cc gi tin n v khng b nh cho cc gi tin v gy tc nghn lu lng ; (2) Loi b gi tin ti u vo xy ra khi khng khng gian b nh m cho cc gi tin u vo mc d cc quyt nh chuyn mch v nh tuyn c thc hin. Loi b gi tin u vo cho thy nng lc chuyn tip gi tin trong h thng cha p ng c cc yu cu ca ngi s dng. Cc h thng loi b gi tin nh trn cn c gim st qua cc c s thng tin qun l c bit ca nh cung cp thit b. Thng tin v cc hin tng loi b gi tin trn s s dng xc nh nguyn nhn loi b gi v trnh s lp li. d. Ma trn lu lng li Ma trn lu lng li l mt ma trn ca cc yu cu lu lng u vo v u ra trong mng li. Ma trn lu lng c th o hoc nh gi t cc trng thi thu thp c qua cc k thut gim st th ng. Li ch chnh ca ma trn lu lng li l lp k hoch mng, d on mc tng trng lu lng v m hnh cc kch bn c th xy ra nhm d on s nh hng ca li trong cc thnh phn mng li ti hiu nng ton mng.

3.2.2 Gim st mng ch ng


V mt nguyn tc, hon ton c th o v gim st mt lot cc tham s cht lng t pha ngi s dng qua cc thng tin ti u cui h thng. Tuy nhin, s a dng v khc bit ca cc giao thc ngi s dng dn ti vic thu thp v x l thng tin gim st ny rt phc tp. Mt cch tip cn khc thng c s dng l gim st t mc mng. Gim st ch ng t mc mng s dng mt s lung lu lng trong c cha cc gi tin thm d (probe) phng to lu lng mng nhm nh gi cc tham s hiu nng mng. Trong cc mi trng phn bit dch v, gim st mng ch ng c th s dng o hiu nng ca tt c cc phn lp lu lng. Gim st mng ch ng yu cu cc h thng thm d tch cc c cc agents gi v nhn cc thng tin thm d. Cc agent o cc lung lu lng n v gi phn tch
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trng thi ca cc kt qu o, kt qu ny c th ly nh k t cc thit b o ch ng qua giao thc SNMP. Thm vo , cc thit b gim st ch ng c th a ra cc by (trap) nu c cc ngng xc nh trc nhm gim st hiu nng khi cc h thng qu ti cc lung lu lng. Cc kha cnh quan trng ca gim st ch ng c trnh by di y. a. Cc tham s lung lu lng kim tra Cc c tnh lung lu lng kim tra trong phng php gim st ch ng s nh hng ti cc c tnh ca mng kim tra. Cc kt qu o ch hu dng khi n th hin c chnh xc hiu nng ca cc ng dng hoc lp lu lng ca mng. iu ny dn ti vn cn phi xc nh cc tham s lung lu lng thch hp phn nh chnh xc cc c tnh mng. Cc phng php o khc nhau s dn ti cc tham s khc nhau. V vy, di y s m t cc tham s chung nht i vi gim st ch ng. Kch thc gi : C hai cch tip cn nhm xc nh kch thc gi tin gim st theo kch thc gi tin ca lu lng gim st (cng kch thc v khc kch thc). Kch thc cc gi tin gim st c th nh hng ln ti tr ni tip ca cc lin kt tc thp, cc gi tin gim st cng kch thc phn nh chnh xc tr ca cc ng dn. Cc gi tin gim st c kch thc ln c th b loi b ti cc im tc nghn do trn b m. Trong mi trng c cc lin kt tc thp, cc gi tin gim st c kch thc nh c s dng v mc tiu kinh t. Hn na, khi tn sut cc gi tin gim st tng nhm tng chnh xc, s dng cc gi tin gim st kch thc ln s nh hng ti lu lng mng cn gim st. Chin lc ly mu : Chin lc ly mu thm d xc inh phn b ca tr t cc gi tin gim st lin tc gm 3 kiu : nh k, ngu nhin v tng t. Kiu ly mu nh k gi thng tin theo tng khong thi gian, trong tip cn ny c th khng thu c cc thng tin s kin trong khong thi gian gia hai ln ly mu. Th tc gi gi tin gim st ngu nhin c phn b theo mt dng hm mt xc sut nhm a ra cc mc o ph hp hn vi s phn b lu lng mng. Ly mu theo tng t l s kt hp ca cc gi tin gim st theo tng nhm v khong cch gia cc nhm c th theo nh k hoc ngu nhin. Tc kim tra gim st : Tc kim tra, gim st c xc nh qua s lng gi tin gi i trong chu trnh kim tra gim st, tc kim tra c th gy xo trn lu lng trong mng nu c mt lng ln cc gi tin c gi qua cc lin kt c bng thng thp v gy ra kt qu o sai. Vic xc nh chnh xc tc kim tra thch hp da trn tnh cn bng gia chnh xc ca cc php o v mc nh hng ti cc lung lu lng trn mng. Trn thc t, tc ny ph thuc vo cc c tnh ca ng dng hoc lp ng dng b gim st.

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Thi gian kim tra v tn sut : Thi gian kim tra v tn sut cn ln nhm m bo tnh chnh xc ca php o. Ngng thp nht ca (thi gian x tn sut) ch ra mt ca s p ng xc sut s kin cn gim st, khung ca s cng ln dn ti xc sut mt s kin cng nhiu. Thm vo , nu cc thit b gim st ch ng lu gi thng tin trng thi qua cc chu k kim tra, tc kim tra nh hng rt ln ti kt qu o. b. Cc tham s o ch ng Cc tham s o lng theo phng php ch ng c th l mt tham s n hoc mt tp tham s c xc nh qua lung lu lng gim st. Cc tham s thng dng thng l : tr, bin ng tr, tn tht gi, bng thng v thng qua, s sp xp li, kh dng v cht lng cm nhn t pha ngi dng QoE. c. Cc kha cnh trin khai gim st ch ng Mt h thng o ch ng s dng cc agent gim st ch ng gi v nhn cc gi tin gim st. Cc agent ny c th gn hoc nhng vi cc thit b mng. Cc agent gn ngoi c th l phn cng c bit chy phn mm gim st ch ng. Tip cn ny a ra c cch nhn khch quan nht t pha ngi s dng, tuy nhin n yu cu b sung cc thit b v lm tng gi thnh. i ngc vi cch tip cn trn, mt s nh cung cp thit b h tr sn cc agent gim st ch ng trong cc sn phm, cho php trin khai nhanh cc h thng gim st m khng cn b sung thit b ph tr. Do cc thng s o t gim st ch ng th hin cc c tnh ng dng nn cc thit b gim st ch ng cng gn vi cc h thng ng dng u cui cng tt. Tuy nhin, iu ny ty thuc vo cu hnh mng trin khai trong thc tin v thng c cc dng cu hnh nh : cu hnh kt ni hnh li y , cu hnh kt ni hnh li tng phn v cu hnh kt ni hnh li phn cp. Ngoi ra cn mt s vn nh hng ti m hnh trin khai h thng gim st ch ng nh : o cc ng dn a ng cn bng gi v dng h ng b cng l nhng vn quan trng nh hng ti h thng gim st ch ng.

3.3 GIM ST T XA RMON 3.3.1 Gii thiu chung


Gim st t xa RMON (Remote MONitoring) l mt c s thng tin qun l tiu chun khc vi giao thc qun l mng n gin. Cc thng tin qun l, tp hp v phn tch ni b, c th truyn n trm qun l t xa v c gim st. Tng t giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP, gim st t xa RMON l mt tiu chun m c nh ngha bi IETF (RFC-1757) v gm hai phin bn RMONv1 (RFC 2819), RMONv2 (RFC 2021). RMONv1 cung cp cc trm qun l mng NMS vi trng thi mc gi ca ton b mng LAN, MAN hoc WAN. RMONv2 ci thin RMONv1 trn c s b sung, cung cp trng thi mc mng v ng dng.

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RMON cung cp cc thng tin tiu chun cho ngi qun tr mng c th s dng gim st, phn tch v sa li cho mt nhm mng cc b phn tn v kt ni T1/E1, T2/E3 ti cc trm trung tm. RMON nh ngha cc thng tin c t cho cc kiu h thng gim st mng. S khc bit ca RMON v SNMP c ch ra di y : RMON da trn thit b, trong s dng cc phn cng c bit iu hnh. RMON gi thng tin theo phng php ch ng nhm s dng ti u bng thng v cc s kin mng. RMON c kh nng thu thp d liu chi tit. Thit b RMON cung cp mt h thng gim st mnh m vi chi ph thp, cc thm d RMON thng c ci t trong cc lin kt ng trc v my ch. H thng RMON c th cu hnh cung cp d liu nh : o Cc thng tin lin quan ti hiu sut mng; o Cc thng tin thng k cho phn tch trng thi v chin lc mng; o Thng tin m t truyn thng gia cc h thng v lng d liu trao i. RMON tr thnh tiu chun nm 1992 vi phin bn RMONv1 cho mng Ethernet. RMONv2 c hon thin 1997. RMONv1 hot ng ch trn lp lin kt d liu ca m hnh OSI, RMONv2 thm kh nng thu thp d liu t cc lp cao hn v a ra nhiu kh nng bo co hn. V d, RMONv2 c th bo co cc s kin xy ra ti lp lu lng TCP thay v lp IP trong phn on LAN a giao thc. Cc nh qun tr mng s dng cc b phn tch mng gim st cc vn s dng mng v cc s kin lin quan. Nhm m bo chnh xc d liu lu lng mng, cc b phn tch mng c gn vo cc mng ch trnh s lc b thng tin ca cc cu ni. Thm vo , ci thin hiu nng gim st t xa v chn on lu lng mng, cc b phn tch ni tip c a vo chuyn tip lu lng d liu ti trung tm x l. Cng ng ngi s dng vi s tr gip ca IETF nh ngha cc c tnh gim st tiu chun cho php gim st cc mng khc nhau v cc h thng iu hnh khc nhau c th trao i cc thng tin gim st mng. Cc c tnh RMON ny nh ngha mt tp cc trng thi v chc nng c th trao i gia cc khi qun l mng v cc phn t thm d (probe). RMON a ti ngi qun l mng s la chn ty cc phn t thm d v gim st ph hp vi mi trng ng dng. Cc phn t thm d RMON thay th cc thit b phn tch mng t tin c gn vo cc vng trng yu trong mng. Cc phn t thm d RMON c nhiu dng khc nhau ph thuc vo kch thc v kiu thit b gim st: Nhng RMON MIB trn chnh thit b chu s gim st, card ri, thit b hoc my tnh ngoi. Trong , cc phn cng c bit gn vi cc thit b chu s gim st c li im nh: Thu thp c cc tham s o chi tit hn agent SNMP v hot ng nh mt b x l thi gian thc cho qu trnh thu thp thng tin gi ti NMS.
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Hnh 3.1: V tr RMON trong cy MIB-II Thng tin qun l h thng RMON v c s thng tin qun l MIB l c s cc nh cung cp thit b khc nhau cng c tham gia vo h thng gim st. Trong h thng truyn thng ca thng tin qun l mng, tiu chun chung cho RMON c nh ngha ti RFC.1757 trn c s c php ASN.1. Cc nhm ca RMON (RMONv1 v RMONv2) thuc vo nt 16 ca cy c s thng tin qun l MIB-II (hnh 3.1). Cc nhm ca RMONv1 gm 9 nhm c nh ngha trong RFC 1757 v RMONv2 gm 9 nhm b sung c nh ngha trong RFC 2021. RMONv1 nh ngha cc hot ng ti lp lin kt d liu ca m hnh OSI, trong khi RMONv2 m rng hot ng ti cc lp cao hn. Mt s c tnh c bn ca RMON nh sau: a. iu hnh ngoi tuyn RMON cho php mt phn t thm d thc hin cc cng tc chn on v thu thp thng tin lin tc ngay c khi truyn thng vi trm qun l khng kt ni. Phn t thm d c gng thng bo vi trm qun l khi c cc iu kin bt thng xy ra. Tuy nhin, khi xy ra li truyn thng, phn t thm d lu tr thng tin v truyn li trm qun l khi kt ni c khi phc. b. Gim st ch ng Vi RMON, thit b gim st t xa (phn t thm d) c mt ngun ti nguyn thc hin chn on v lu gi thng tin hiu nng mng. V vy, phn t thm d c th thng bo ti trm qun l li v lu tr thng tin trng thi v li. Thng tin ny c th c chuyn ti trm qun l thc hin cc chn on xa hn nhm cch ly nguyn nhn li. c. Pht hin v bo co li Phn t thm d c th c cu hnh nhm nhn dng cc iu kin li v kim tra cc li. Khi mt trong cc iu kin b vi phm, s kin c ghi li v c thng bo ti cc trm qun l theo mt s cch thc khc nhau. d. D liu gia tng gi tr

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Mt khi thit b gim st t xa th hin mt ngun ti nguyn mng khc bit vi cc chc nng qun l mng v n c xc nh trc tip t phn gim st mng, thit b gim st t xa c th thm cc gi tr vo d liu thu thp nhm h tr cc phn t thm d a ra c cc thng tin chnh xc hn ti thit b gim st t xa. e. a qun l Mt t chc c th c nhiu trm qun l cho cc n v ca t chc vi cc chc nng khc nhau nhm cung cp cc thng tin tt nht khi phc li. Do mi trng a qun l rt ph bin trong thc t, cc thit b gim st t xa cn c chc nng phn phi thng tin ti nguyn ti cc trm qun l khc nhau.

3.3.2 Cc thnh phn ca RMON


Hnh 3.2 ch ra mt m hnh RMON in hnh. Tng t SNMP, mt kiu cu hnh RMON gm mt trung tm qun l mng NMS v mt thit b gim st t xa RMON.

Hnh 3.2: Cu hnh RMON in hnh Trung tm qun l mng NMS c th hot ng trn cc my ch windows, unix hoc my PC chy cc ng dng qun l mng nhm thc hin cc nhim v tp hp trng thi qua vic gim st cc gi tin d liu trn mng, lu tr cc thng tin ph hp vi c tnh ca RMON. T NMS, ta c th a ra cc cu lnh yu cu thng tin t RMON agent, RMON agent gi thng tin yu cu ti NMS s c x l v hin th thng tin trn bn iu khin. chi tit hn cc c tnh hot ng ca RMON, ta xem xt mt trng hp gim st mng t xa trn hnh 3.3. Mng c xy dng da trn mng ng trc FDDI v kt ni ti mng LAN thng qua thit b cu. Cc b nh tuyn cha phn mm gim st RMON nhm gim st cc thnh phn trong cc phn on mng. Khi xut hin cc s kin bt bnh thng trong cc phn on mng qun l, RMON gi thng tin ti h thng gim st mng t xa bo co. M hnh trn hnh 3.2 cng ch ra li ch ca s dng RMON khi cc agent khng nht thit phi tn ti trong ton b thi gian qun l h thng mng.
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Hnh 3.3: V d v mng gim st t xa RMON Mt s c ch xc nhn li trong mng IP nh gi tin ICMP ping c th b tn tht trong cc ng truyn thng c khong cch ln. Nht l khi c hin tng tc nghn lu lng. V vy, cc gi tin thm d RMON c thc hin trong tng mng ni b v gim st lin tc lm tng tin cy ca bi ton gim st.

3.3.3 iu khin thit b RMON


Do tnh phc tp ca cc hm chc nng trong cc thit b, cc chc nng iu khin thng yu cu cu hnh t pha ngi s dng. Trong rt nhiu trng hp, chc nng ny yu cu cc tham s thit lp cc iu hnh thu thp d liu v cc iu hnh ch c th thc hin khi cc tham s c thit lp y . Nhiu nhm chc nng trong c s thng tin qun l MIB c mt vi bng thit lp tham s iu khin hoc s dng lu kt qu ca hot ng iu hnh. Cc bng c s d liu iu khin l cc bng ghi c (readwrite) trong khi cc bng c s d liu kt qu l cc bng ch c (read only). Cc tham s trong bng iu khin c s dng m t d liu kt qu trong bng d liu. Trong mt s trng hp, cc khon mc d liu c th khng tn ti. V vy, cc tham s iu khin c yu cu sa i nhm nhn dng cc d liu lin quan trong bng d liu v to ra cc tham s iu khin mi. Vic xa khon mc iu khin cng l mt phng php thch hp nhm phn nh li ngun ti nguyn s dng ca cc d liu lin quan. Mt s i tng trong MIB cung cp mt c ch thc hin cc hot ng ca thit b gim st t xa. Cc i tng ny c th thc hin cc hot ng khi c s thay i trng thi ca i tng. a. Chia s ti nguyn gia cc trm qun l Khi s dng h thng a trm qun l, ngun ti nguyn c chia s gia cc trm qun l. V d nh b nh v ngun ti nguyn tnh ton phc v cho cc yu cu chc nng. Mt s vn tranh chp thng xy ra gm:
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Hai trm qun l cng mun s dng ngun ti nguyn vt qu kh nng ca thit b. Mt trm qun l s dng mt lng ti nguyn nht nh trong mt khong thi gian di. Mt trm qun l s dng cc ti nguyn v khng gii phng sau khi s dng. Mt c ch c cung cp cho mi trm qun l ti MIB nhm trnh cc xung t v gii quyt khi xung t xy ra. Mi mt hm chc nng c mt nhn nhn dng khi to. Nhn ny c t bi b khi to nhm tng thch cc kh nng sau: Mt trm qun l c th xc nh r ngun ti nguyn v yu cu s dng ca n. Ngi iu hnh mng c th tm thy cc trm chim gi ti nguyn v tha thun gii phng ti nguyn. Ngi iu hnh mng c th quyt nh n phng gii phng ti nguyn vi cc nh iu hnh mng khc. Ngay sau khi khi to, mt trm qun l c th nhn dng cc ngun ti nguyn c s dng trc v c th gii phng khi khng c s dng. Cc trm qun l v cc phn t thm d cn phi h tr tt c nh dng ca chui a ra bi cc vng mng. N cha mt hoc mt vi tn sau: a ch IP, tn trm qun l, tn cc nh qun l mng, khu vc hoc s in thoi. Cc thng tin ny s gip ngi s dng chia s ti nguyn hiu qu. Thng thng, mt s chc nng ca thit b v nh qun l phn t thm d mun c thit lp ngm nh. Cc ti nguyn gn vi cc chc nng ny c s hu bi chnh bn thn thit b hoc nh qun l mng trong thi gian hot ng. Trong trng hp ny, thit b hoc nh qun l s t cc i tng s hu lin quan vo mt chui bt u vi t gim st monitor. Mt trm qun l mng ch thay i cc i tng ny di s ch o ca ngi qun l phn t thm d. Cc ngun ti nguyn trn mt phn t thm d c ch nh khi cc hng iu khin c to ra bi cc ng dng. Khi c rt nhiu cc ng dng cng s dng phn t thm d cng mt thi im, vic phn b ti nguyn khng hiu qu s dn n s thiu ht ti nguyn trong phn t thm d. Khi mt trm qun l mng mun s dng mt chc nng trong mt khi gim st t xa, n qut bng iu khin ca chc nng tm cc tham s tng t chia s. Cc tham s c bin ng t nht l cc tham s thuc v khi gim st. Nu mt trm qun l quyt nh chia s ti nguyn cho nhng trm qun l khc, n cn hiu rng trm qun l s hu cc tham s c th khng cho php sa i hoc xa b. V vy, mt ng dng qun l quan trng thng c t trong hng ca khi gim st do s thay i trong hng ny t khi xy ra. Trong khi , mt hng ca mt ng dng qun l c thi gian sng nh v nh qun l

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mng thng phn b li ti nguyn t hn l mt hng thuc v khi gim st c s dng bi nhiu ngi s dng. b. B sung hng gia cc trm qun l C ch b sung thm hng c m t trong RFC 1212. Trong c s thng tin qun l MIB, cc hng thng xuyn c b sung vo trong mt bng cu hnh mt chc nng. Cu hnh ny thng gm cc tham s iu hnh chc nng. Agent cn kim tra cc tham s ny m bo chng ph hp vi cc gii hn c nh ngha trong MIB cng nh gii hn v ti nguyn. Cc khi thc thi Agent c th nhm ln khi kim tra cc tham s ny v bo li ti trm qun l rng cc tham s ny khng c gi tr do hai kh nng sau: Khi mt trm qun l t ring l cc i tng tham s. Khi trm qun l t mt i tng trng thi khng chnh xc. Trng hp th hai xy ra khi mt trm qun l c mt vi tham s khng chnh xc v gy ra li, khi thc thi s la chn cc tham s trc c thm thng tin v trm qun l. Thm vo , mt vn ny sinh khi nhiu trm cng qun l c gng thit lp cc thng tin cu hnh bng giao thc SNMP trong cng mt thi im. Khi , qu trnh b sung mt hng mi trong cng mt bng iu khin c th dn ti tranh chp gia cc trm qun l khi cc trm ny cng mun to cng mt khon mc. trnh tranh chp ny, mi khon mc iu khin nh vy cha mt i tng trng thi c mt ng ngha c bit dn xp gia cc trm qun l. Nu mt c ch to hng a ra mt i tng trng thi tng t nh i tng trng thi tn ti th bn tin bo li c gi ti trm qun l. Khi nhiu trm qun l cng mun to ra mt hng, ch trm qun l u tin thnh cng v cc trm cn li s nhn c thng bo li. Khi mt trm qun l mun to ra mt khon mc iu khin mi, n to ra mt ch mc cho hng . La chn ch mc c th theo nhiu cch khc nhau nhng u nhm hn ch ti thiu c hi ca cc trm qun l khc s dng ch mc ny. Nu ch mc ang c s dng, cc k thut trn y s c s dng chng tranh chp. Mt s bng trong c s thng tin qun l MIB ny c tham chiu ti cc bng khc trong cng MIB. Khi to v xa cc khon mc trong cc bng ny, n cho php cc tham chiu khng n nh tn ti v khng nh ngha th t to hoc xa cc khon mc trong bng. 3.3.3 RMONv1

Nh gii thiu, RMONv1 gm 9 nhm c nh ngha bi RFC 1757 v mt nhm m rng cho TokenRing RFC 1513. Cc nhm trong RMONv1 c th hin qua hnh 3.4.

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Hnh 3.4: Cc nhm ca RMONv1 v RMONv2 Hai loi d liu c nh ngha trong RMON1 c quy c l chui d liu ca ngi qun l (OwnerString) v trng thi khon mc (EntryStatus). Hai kiu d liu ny c s dng bi h thng qun l gim st v thit b chu qun l gim st. Cc thng tin d liu c biu din qua bng tham s iu khin gim st. Bng iu khin gim st cho php to, s dng v xa cc tham s nhm thc thi cc hot ng gim st thng qua d liu OwnerString, OwnerString cn c gi l monitor khi mt Agent t qun l chnh n. D liu trng thi khon mc EntryStatus c s dng gii quyt xung t c th xut hin gia h thng qun l bng phng php nhn cng. i vi mt bng iu khin nhiu ngi s dng, mt ct c s dng ring cho d liu trng thi khon mc EntryStatus v gm 4 trng thi: (1) valid, (2) createRequest, (3) underCreation, v (4) invalid; c biu din trong bng 3.1. Trong trng thi iu khin c hiu lc (valid), tt c cc h thng qun l s dng thit b RMON c th s dng hng d liu. Nu d liu trng thi khon mc ch ra l khng hiu lc (invalid) h thng s mt d liu. Trng thi khng hiu lc cn c c s dng xa hng. Nu hng mong mun ca thng tin khng tn ti, h thng qun l c th to ra mt hng qua trng thi createRequest. Trong qu trnh trao i thng tin gia khi qun l v Agent, trng thi ca khon mc c t vo trng thi underCreation nhm trnh s s dng hng ca cc khi qun l khc. Sau khi qu trnh to thng tin d liu hon thnh, trng thi ny c thit lp v trng thi c hiu lc (valid).

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Bng 3.1. Quy c EntryStatus Trng thi Th t 1 M t

Valid

Hng tn ti v trong trng thi hot ng. Yu cu to hng mi qua i tng ny Hng khng trong trng thi kch hot. Xa hng bng cch ngt cc lin kt nh x ti khon mc.

createRequest 2 underCreation 3 Invalid 4

Cc nhm v chc nng RMONv1 RMONv1 thc thi cc chc nng lp lin kt d liu, trong hnh 3.5 m t chi tit hn v nhm v chc nng RMONv1.

Hnh 3.5: Cc nhm ca RMONv1 T mng b gim st t xa, module thu thp d liu nhn cc thng tin gim st v chuyn ti tng khi chc nng qun l. Cc d liu c a vo 5 khi chc nng trong c 3 khi s dng gim st lu lng thng k cho cc kiu mng v thit b (tokenRing, Ethernet v my trm). Khi chc nng iu khin lch s ca tokenRing c s dng chung vi Ethernet. Cc u ra ca cc module ny a ra pha qun l mng cc thng tin thng k di dng bng biu hoc biu . Nhm chc nng lc bao gm chc nng lc gi theo chui v la chn cc knh tng ng, khi lc a ra cc thng tin cnh bo hoc cc s kin khi cc d liu vt qu gii hn hoc khng hp l. Cc thng tin ca nhm lc c th c lu tr trong module bt gi gi tin phn tch cc mu lu lng hoc cc s kin bt thng trong mng. Cc nhm i tng ca RMONv1 l cc n v c s thng nht, thit b gim
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st t xa s dng mt nhm i tng ng ngha vi vic s dng ton b i tng trong nhm. Tt c cc nhm trong c s thng tin qun l MIB ny u l ty chn, b sung ca MIB ny u ko theo s b sung nhm giao din v h thng ca MIBII. MIB-II cng c th y thc s b sung ca cc nhm ph. Cc nhm ny c nh ngha cung cp mt phng tin gn nhn dng i tng v cung cp mt phng php cho cc agents qun l bit i tng no cn c b sung. Chc nng ca cc nhm i tng ca RMONv1 c ch ra trn bng 3.2 gm: Thng k trng thi Ethernet (ethernet statistics); iu kin lch s (history control); lch s Ethernet (ethernet history); cnh bo (alarm); my trm (host); my trm phn cp cao nht (hostTopN); ma trn (matrix); b lc (filter); bt gi tin (packet capture); s kin (event). Bng 3.2. Cc bng v nhm MIB RMON1
Nhm Statistics OID rmon 1 Chc nng Trng thi mc lin kt Bng -etherStatsTable -etherStats2Table History rmon 2 Thu thp d liu trng thi nh k -historyControlTable v lu tr thng tin. -etherHistoryTable -historyControl2Table -etherHistory2Table Alarm rmon 3 To cc s kin khi mu thu thp -alarmTable vt ngng. Thu thp d liu trn my trm. -hostControlTable -hostTable -hostTimeTable -hostControl2Table HostTopN rmon 5 S lng cc my trm sp xp -hostTopNcontrolTable theo s liu thng k thu thp c. Thng k lu lng gia cp my -matrixControlTable trm. -matrixSDTable -matrixDSTable -matrixControl2Table Filter rmon 7 Chc nng lc cho php bt gi cc -filterTable 91

Host

rmon 4

Matrix

rmon 6

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Tng quan v vin thng thng tin cn thit.

Chng 3: Gim st t xa RMON -channelTable -filter2Table -channel2Table

Packet Capture Event

rmon 8

Bt gi tin qua cc knh.

-buffercontrolTable -captureBufferTable

rmon 9

iu khin to s kin v cnh bo.

-eventTable

Chc nng chi tit ca cc nhm c lit k di y: a. Nhm thng k Ethernet Nhm thng k Ethernet cha cc d liu thng k o bi cc phn t thm d trn mi giao din Ethernet ca thit b. Nhm ny gm bng d liu thng k ethernet (etherStatsTable). Da trn cng m hnh ny, cc nhm khc c th c nh ngha cho cc kiu phng tin khc nh FDDI v TokenRing. b. Nhm iu khin lch s Nhm iu khin lch s iu khin mu trng thi thng k nh k ca d liu t cc kiu mng khc nhau. Trong nhm ny gm bng iu khin lch s (historyControlTable). c. Nhm lch s Ethernet Nhm lch s Ethernet ghi li cc mu thng k nh k t mng Ethernet v lu tr t cc ln ly d liu sau cng. Nhm ny gm bng lch s ethernet (ethHistoryTable). Cc nhm ny c th nh ngha cho cc kiu phng tin khc nh FDDI v TokenRing. d. Nhm cnh bo Nhm cnh bo nh k a ra cc mu thng k t cc bin trong d liu thm d v so snh chng vi cc ngng c cu hnh. Mt s kin c to ra nu cc bin vt qu ngng nh sn. Mt c ch gy tr c thc hin nhm gii hn cc bn tin cnh bo, trnh s gia tng ca cc bn tin cnh bo gy tc ng xu ti hiu nng mng. Nhm ny gm bng cnh bo (alarmTable) v cc c ch thc thi s kin. e. Nhm my trm Nhm my trm cha cc d liu thng k lin quan ti cc s kin pht hin my trm trong mng, cha danh sch cc a ch MAC ngun/ch t cc gi tin trong mng. Nhm ny gm cc bng: bng iu khin my trm (hostControlTable); Bng my trm (hostTable) v bng thi gian my trm (hostTimeTable). f. Nhm my trm nh N

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Nhm hostTopN c s dng cho cc bo co m t gim st cc my trm trn t trn xung di theo th t thng k gm N my trm. Cc thng k kh dng l cc mu thng k thu c theo thi gian xc lp bi trm qun l. V vy, mu thng k ny da trn tc ly mu. Trm qun l cng la chn s lng cc my trm bo co (N). Nhm ny gm bng iu khin my trm nh (hostTopControlTable), bng my trm nh (hostTopTable) v yu cu thc hin trong nhm my trm (host group). g. Nhm ma trn Nhm ma trn lu tr d liu thng k lu lng s dng cho nhim v trao i thng tin gia hai tp a ch. Mt khon mc mi trong bng nh tuyn c to ra khi mt thit b nhn dng c mt qu trnh trao i. Nhm ny gm bng iu khin ma trn (matrixControlTable), bng ma trn ngun (matrixSDTable) v bng ma trn ch (matrixDSTable). h. Nhm lc Nhm lc cho php lc cc gi thch hp nhm phc v cho qu trnh gim st. Nhm ny gm bng lc gi (filterTable) nhm cho php cc gi tin thch hp c chuyn qua knh truyn v bng knh (channelTable) th hin knh thng tin truyn cc gi tin gim st. i. Nhm bt gi Nhm bt gi cho php cc gi c thu thp sau khi chuyn qua knh truyn. Nhm ny gm bng iu khin m (bufferControlTable), bng b m bt gi (captureBufferTable), cc nhim v bt gi gi tin trong b m c thc thi trong nhm lc gi. j. Nhm s kin

Nhm s kin iu khin chc nng to v thng bo cc s kin t cc thit b. Nhm ny gm bng s kin (eventTable) m t cc s kin s c thng bo v bng lu vt (logTable) lu li lch s cc s kin.

3.3.4

RMONv2

RMONv1 c bn gim st c d liu tch hp ti lp lin kt d liu trong m hnh OSI. RMONv2 m rng kh nng gim st cho cc mc cao hn, t lp mng ti lp ng dng. Mc ng dng c s dng trong khi nim SNMP RMON m t mt lp cc giao thc, v khng hon ton tun th theo m hnh 7 lp OSI. Cc thng k li trong lp cao bt k u c chuyn xung ti lp mng. V d, cc li lp mng khng bao gm cc li lp lin kt d liu, nhng cc li lp truyn ti bao trm v th hin ti lp mng.

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Kin trc c s thng tin qun l ca RMONv2 gm 10 nhm chc nng c ch ra trn hnh 3.4 v c tm tt trong bng 3.3 di y. Bng 3.3. Cc nhm v bng MIB RMONv2
Nhm Protocol directory Protocol distribution OID Rmon 11 Chc nng Tm tt cc giao thc Bng protocolDirTable

Rmon 12

Thng k lu lng protocolDistControlTable tng quan giao thc trn c s octet v cc gi Bn nh x a ch protocolDistStatsTable MAC v a ch mng addressMapControlTable trn cc giao din Lu lng d liu i v addressMapTable n mi my trm n1HostControlTable D liu lu lng gia n1Host Table cc cp my trm n1MatrixControlTable Lu lng d liu giao n1MatrixSDTable thc i v n mi my n1MatrixDSTable trm n1MatrixTopNControlTable n1MatrixTopNTable a1HostTable

Address map

Rmon 13

Network layer Rmon 14 host Network layer Rmon 15 matrix Application layer host Rmon 16

Application layer matrix

Rmon 17

Lu lng d liu giao a1MatrixSDTable thc gia 2 my trm D liu lch s ca usrHistoryObjectTable ngi s dng trn c usrHistoryTable s cc cnh bo v serialConfigTable thng k Cu hnh cc tham s netConfigTable phn t gim st trapDestTable serialConnectionTable

User history Rmon 18 collection

Probe Configuration

Rmon 19

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Cc nhm trn y da trn cc n v c s ca phn t gim st. Nu mt thit b gim st t xa thc hin trin khai trong mt nhm, thit b phi thc thi vi tt c cc i tng trong nhm . Cc chc nng s lc ca cc nhm gm: a, Nhm th mc giao thc Th mc giao thc l mt phng php cho php mt ng dng RMONv2 d dng lin kt iu hnh vi cc giao thc c trin khai trong cc agent. Nhm th mc giao thc m t nhn dng cc giao thc thng qua cc tham s c phn t gim st thu thp (v d, ch s cng UDP) cho tt c cc giao thc lp pha trn lp IP. Cc tham s cu hnh cho phn t gim st c thay i trong bng th mc giao thc (ProtocolDirTalbe), mi giao thc c nhn dng thng qua mt ch s ID trn ct duy nht trong bng. Cc giao thc th hin trong th mc giao thc c nh ngha trong RFC 2074. b, Nhm phn phi giao thc Nhm phn phi giao thc cung cp thng tin v lu lng tng quan gia cc giao thc khc nhau trn c s cc octet hoc cc gi. Thn vo , nhm phn phi giao thc thc hin vic nh x cc d liu thu thp c bi phn t gim st v ti tn giao thc hin th cho ngi qun l mng. Bng d liu phn phi giao thc (protocolDistControlTable) c cu hnh theo d liu c tp hp v lu tr ti bng thng k phn phi giao thc (protocolDistStatsTable). c, Nhm nh x a ch Nhm nh x a ch thc hin bin dch a ch lp MAC v lp mng thng qua phn t gim st nhm cung cp thng tin ti ngi qun l mng v nn tng qun l. nh x a ch c thc hin trn cc giao din thng qua hai bng d liu: bng thng k phn phi giao thc (protocolDistStatsTable) v bng iu khin nh x a ch (addressMapControlTable). d, Nhm my trm lp mng Nhm my trm lp mng cung cp thng k thng tin lp mng c phn loi theo a ch mng. Nhm ny gim st v thng k lu lng i/n cc a ch mng thng qua phn t thm d. Nhm gm mt bng nh x a ch lp mng (addressMapTable) v bng iu khin my trm (HostControlTable). e, Nhm ma trn lp mng Nhm ma trn lp mng lu tr cc thng k lu lng ng dng c truyn thng gia cc tp a ch lp mng. Nhm ny gm bng iu khin ma trn lu lng (matrixHostTable) v bng d liu lu lng gia cc cp my ch (hostTable). f, Nhm lp ng dng ca my trm

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Cc chc nng lp ng dng trong my trm c chia thnh hai nhm gm nhm lp ng dng my trm v nhm ma trn lp ng dng. Cc thng tin v ng dng v lu lng d liu giao thc c th hin qua cc bng ca lp ng dng lu tr s liu thng k v a ch, lu lng i v n my trm v bng iu khin. g, Nhm ma trn lp ng dng Nhm ma trn lp ng dng thng k lu lng giao thc c chuyn gia cc cp my trm. h, Nhm thu thp thng tin lch s ngi s dng Cc thng tin cnh bo v lch s ngi s dng c thu thp trong nhm thu thp thng tin lch s ngi s dng. Cc chc nng ny c thc hin bi cc h thng qun l mng. Cc i tng d liu c tp hp trong cc nhm bucket, mi nhm bucket gn lin vi mt i tng MIB v cc phn t trong nhm l cc trng hp ca i tng MIB. Ngi dng c th thay i d liu c tp hp bng vic nhp d liu trong bng iu khin lch s ngi s dng (usrHistoryControlTable), khi s c kt hp vi cc hng ca cc trng hp trong bng i tng lch s ngi s dng (usrHistoryObjectTable). h, Nhm cu hnh phn t thm d Chc nng ca nhm cho php mt ng dng RMON ca mt nh cung cp thit b c th cu hnh t xa cc tham s ca phn t thm d thuc v nh cung cp thit b khc. RMONv2 b sung thm tnh nng tng thch vi cc c tnh bt buc hoc ty chn nhm h tr cc nh cung cp thit b b sung cc tham s gim st cho cc h thng gim st t xa. Cc chc nng cu hnh gm: Cu hnh truy nhp ni tip (modem); cu hnh a ch IP; cu hnh cc kt ni ni tip cho by (trap) v cu hnh cc tham s by.

3.4 TNG KT CHNG 3


Trong chng 3 trnh by mt s c im c bn ca phng php gim st t xa. Trn c s nguyn tc chung v gim st t xa, hai phin bn gim st t xa RMONv1 v RMONv2 c m t trn cc kha cnh nguyn l hot ng, v tr v chc nng ca cc nhm trong cy c s thng tin qun l. Mc d gim st t xa c c mt lot cc li im nh trnh by, RMON hin vn cn mt s vn cn tip tc ci thin nh: phc tp trin khai RMON trn cc thit b qun l v agent rt ln, kh nng ty bin v m rng km v mc ph bin cn hn ch.

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CHNG 4

QUN L CC MNG THC TIN


4.1 QUN L MNG IP 4.1.1 La chn phng php qun l
Trong thc t, cc thit b trong mng IP l rt a dng v phc tp dn ti vic cn thit phi c mt s lng ln tham s cu hnh. Thm vo , mi mc thit b mng u yu cu cc c tnh qun l ring v khc nhau. Trong phn ln cc kch bn qun l, cc tham s ny c t gi tr ngm nh, cc phng php qun l mng hng ti s thay i cc tham s ny ti u cc chc nng mng trong cc m hnh c th. Ti mt thi im, rt nhiu cc tc v cn c thc hin nh: gim st chc nng v hnh vi cc nt, ngun ti nguyn kch hot, lu lng chuyn tip v cc trng thi tc nghn. Cc vn qun l trn c mt min rng t thng tin trng thi c bn ca thit b ti cc d liu chi tit lin quan ti cc chc nng bn trong ca thit b. Cc thng tin cn thit c ly ra t cc thit b c chit xut theo cc module chc nng hoc cc thnh phn logic. Kh nng cung cp cc dch v mi cng l mt yu cu qun l quan trng, yu cu ny c th cn cc ngun ti nguyn chc chn ti mi nt dc theo ng dn qun l mng. Mng IP c th s dng giao thc bo hiu dnh trc ti nguyn RSVP (Resource ReSerVation Protocol) thc hin nhim v ny. Qun l mng l mt min trong hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v Internet quan tm, c tnh ca cc mng ny l thng xuyn thay i v ng lc thc y cc loi hnh dch v mi lun c ngi s dng yu cu. S thay i ny dn ti mt lot s thay i cc b cng c qun l mng v yu cu cc nh cung cp dch v Internet a ra cc gii php k thut nhm p ng cc yu cu ca khch hng. Thm vo , nhng khch hng doanh nghip hin nay thng yu cu cung cp cc dch v ring o, loi hnh dch v chia s ti nguyn kiu ny t ra mt lot cc thch thc mi i vi kh nng qun l mng.

4.1.2 La chn phng php cu hnh


C rt nhiu cch cu hnh thit b trong mng IP, t cc phng php cu hnh t ng qua cc giao thc BOOTP v DHCP, ti cc giao din dng lnh, file cu hnh v cc giao din ngi dng ha. Cc k thut ny c th s dng t hp thng tin v k thut ca nh sn xut, cc giao thc tiu chun v cc khun dng d liu tiu chun.

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Cc giao din dng lnh: Cng c qun l n gin nht i vi cc thit b mng l s dng cng c dng lnh CLI (Command Line Interface). CLI l mt tp dng lnh da trn text a ra bi ngi iu hnh ti thit b kt cui qun l. Cc dng lnh c cc c php c bit c nh ngha bi nh cung cp thit b, cc thit b ca cng nh cung cp thng c chung cc b cu lnh v ng ngha cu lnh. iu ny c ngha rng cc nh vn hnh khi qun l cc nt mng t cc nh sn xut khc nhau phi nhn thc c cc ngn ng lnh cho nt . Do cc thit b thc hin cng chung cc chc nng cn c thc hin cng phng php cu hnh, cng nh cc nh cung cp thit b nhn thy cc vn phc tp ca cc mng qun l xy dng trn cu trc phn cng ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Khuynh hng ca CLI thng s dng l hi t cc c php cu lnh t cc nh cng nghip ln. iu ny c li ch r rng nhng cng to ra tnh phc tp khi phi ghi nh cu lnh. Trong m hnh n gin nht, CLI yu cu ngi iu hnh ti thit b qun l c kt ni trc tip vi thit b b qun l. iu ny khng kh thi trong cc trng hp mng ln, trong cc b nh tuyn v chuyn mch c phn tn trong cc vng a l rng. Truy nhp qua bn iu khin t xa c th ng vai tr nh mt my ch kt cui m ngi s dng kt ni telnet qua n ti thit b c qun l. Mt phng php khc c s dng khi thit b h tr giao thc iu khin truyn ti TCP (Transport Control Protocol) v chy my ch Telnet, ngi iu hnh c th truy nhp bng Telnet v chy CLI. Mt trng hp c th xy ra v cn c tnh n khi ngi iu hnh phi cu hnh thit b trong thi gian thit b khi to li, v vy hu ht cc thit b u lu tr d liu ca cu hnh trong mt s dng khc nhau, v d trong cng, b nh flash, trn cc my ch, v..v. Cc thng tin thng c lu tr di dng m nh phn d dng truy nhp v s dng bi cc phn mm qun l. Dng thng tin ny cn rt thun li ghi cc cu lnh cu hnh t pha ngi qun l h thng. Tp cu hnh da trn cc cu lnh c u im ln nht l c th kim tra v qun l t ngi iu hnh v sa i khi cn thit. Mt li ch khc ca CLI l d dng a ra cc mc iu khin tinh qua cc thit b v cho php ngi s dng kim tra chi tit cc hot ng gn nht ca thit b. Giao din ngi dng ha: Cc giao din ngi dng ha (GUI) l cc cng c cu hnh thn thin vi ngi dng. Ngi s dng khng cn nh ngn ng cu lnh m thng qua cc khong trng tham s thc hin cu hnh. Cc gi tr ngm nh c cung cp t ng trn c s cc tr gip ng cnh c sn. Cc giao din ha cung cp phng thc (point-and-click) kch hot cc mc qun l, chut la chn thit b v ko th cc i tng cu hnh.

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Li ch ln nht ca GIU l phng php thu thp d liu t cc thit b c th hin th. Mc d ta c th hin th bng c s d liu nh trong CLI, nhng trong ch ha ca GUI ta c th d dng xem chi tit cc thng tin v thm ch th hin ng theo tin trnh v thi gian. Cc giao din ha c kh nng truy nhp v iu hnh t xa thng qua cc giao din iu hnh m X/open nhng yu cu cc thao tc ha v th hin phc tp trn cc thit b b qun l. GUI c th c trin khai qua cc CLI, khi tt c cc cu lnh a ra bi GUI c nh x vo CLI v gi ti thit b qua telnet. Cc thng tin d liu c thu thp bi CLI v hin th trn mn hnh ha thch hp. Mt khc, GUI c th s dng cc giao thc truyn thng v cc khun dng d liu ring trao i vi cc thit b nhm gim di cc cu lnh iu khin v d liu ra. Giao din ha cng c kh nng x l cc file cu hnh h thng. Nu GUI c trin khai trn CLI th vic lu gi file cu hnh c thc hin qua cc cu lnh CLI. Mt khc, GUI c th c s dng trc tip thng qua cc truy nhp ti cc cu trc d liu cu hnh lu tr file cu hnh di dng nh phn. Tuy nhin, phng php ny phc tp hn nhiu so vi phng php s dng cc cu lnh CLI. Mc d giao din ha a ra cc th hin thn thin vi ngi qun tr h thng. Nhng cc nh qun tr h thng c kinh nghim thng s dng CLI v CLI c th a ra cc mc iu khin chi tit hn v a ra lng thng tin ln hn, thm ch l phng php nhp lnh CLI cng nhanh hn.

4.1.3 Truy nhp v th hin d liu tiu chun ha


Cc nh qun l mng mong mun c mt ng dng n qun l ton b mng. ng dng ny phi c kh nng iu khin tt c cc thit b trong mng, thu thp v tch hp cc thng tin v trng thi lu tr trn cc thit b. Nh vy, ngi qun tr mng c c thng tin tng th mt cch logic v gim thiu cc nhim v qun l mng phc tp do khng cn s dng nhiu ngn ng lnh i vi cc nh cung cp thit b khc nhau. Mt cch tip cn vn ny c theo hng xy dng cng c qun l tng th phi hp cc module trong cc thnh phn ring bit v nh x vo mt thnh phn iu khin v hin th chung. iu ny dn ti s kh khn khi vit cc ng dng qun l khi phi cp nht thng xuyn cc cu lnh mi t mi nh cung cp thit b. Tuy nhin, gii php ny kh thi khi s dng tip cn theo module. Mt tip cn khc to ra mt cng c qun l tng th l to ra cc module do cc nh cung cp thit b chu trch nhim qun l ton b cc thit b ca h v to ra cc giao din ti ng dng chung. Trong v d c ch ra trn hnh 4.1, ngi iu hnh thc hin nhim v qun l ti mt h thng qun l mng NMS hoc qua h thng h tr iu hnh OSS (Telcordia). S dng OSS cho php ngi iu hnh ng
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dng cc dch v cung cp v tnh ton mt cch chuyn bit, OS s dng ngn ng Scrip nh TL1 chuyn qua cc cu lnh CLI ti NMS.

NMS

Ngi iu hnh

EMS

EMS

EMS

Ngi iu hnh

SNMP, XML, CORBA

Network

Hnh 4.1: M hnh qun l mng IP NMS l mt ng dng qun l tng th c th thng tin ti nhiu h thng qun l phn t EMS, mi EMS c h tr bi nh cung cp thit b nh mt module ring t hp cc thng tin ti mng qun l tng th. Nh trn hnh 4.1 ch ra, ngi iu hnh c th phi truy nhp ti cc EMS bng cc giao din CLI v GUI thch hp iu khin thit b. Nu ngi iu hnh thc hin ti NMS hoc OSS th ti phi c mt knh truyn thng gia NMS v mi EMS. Hai yu cu c bn ca truyn thng ny gm: cc bn tin phi m bo tnh tng th v cc d liu phi c th hin trn khun dng chung. Tiu chun ph bin cho giao tip truyn thng t NMS ti EMS l CORBA. CORBA cung cp mt phng thc tiu chun ha NMS truy nhp ti cc i tng d liu c qun l bi mi EMS, v cch thc cho cc nh cung cp thit b hoc EMS cng khai khun dng c s d liu ti NMS. Cc khun dng ny c tiu chun ha nhm tr gip cng vic qun l gim thiu phc tp. Ba k thut cu hnh da trn cc tiu chun thng dng thng c s dng l: CORBA, SNMP v XML. Nu CORBA c s dng bi EMS qun l cc thit b ca n, nh x gia NMS v EMS. Tuy nhin, mt khi cc thit b h tr giao thc cu hnh tiu chun ha th rt t khi s dng EMS, cc thit b ny b sung cc c tnh qun l c bit ca cc nh cung cp thit b v nhn cc lnh trc tip t NMS.

4.1.4 Mt s vn thch thc ca qun l mng IP


Cng vi s pht trin a dng ca cc cng ngh mng, nhng thch thc i vi h thng qun l mng ngy cng ln nht l i vi cc mng ln nh mng IP, trong cc kiu lu lng v s tng trng lu lng tip tc gia tng khng ngng. Vi nhng yu cu m bo cht lng dch v trong mi trng a dch v, h thng qun l mng phi c kh nng qun l t u cui ti u cui, gim gi thnh qun l qua cc tho thun cht lng dch v SLA (Service Level Agreement)
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nhm nng cao hiu qu qun l. Phn sau s phn tch mt s vn ny sinh khi s dng giao thc qun l mng n gin SNMP. Chuyn cc d liu qun l vo m lnh

D liu lin kt v m l nhng vn lin quan ti cc vn tnh ton, bo mt v ti u trong qun l mng, cc vn ny thng tp trung vo vng qun l mng trn c s cc thc th mng NE (Network Element). Vic chuyn d liu qun l ti trm qun l thng qua c ch chuyn d liu thnh cc m gp mt s vn sau: Cc i tng b qun l nm trn rt nhiu Agent Bn sao ca cc i tng qun l nm ti h thng Manager

S thay i d liu trn cc Agent s lm thay i d liu bn sao trn Manager. Nh vy, c s thng tin qun l MIB cung cp mt h tng qun l v phi d phng cc khng gian nh cho cc thay i ca i tng qun l. Mt khc, s pht trin v phc tp ca NE tng ln khng ngng trong khi qu trnh truyn v nhn d liu t Agent l th tc bt buc ca SNMP, v vy vic chuyn cc d liu thnh m nh th no l mt vn thch thc ca h thng qun l mng. Hn na, h thng qun l c nn i hi tt c d liu agent hay khng? Trong thc t, iu ny ch chp nhn c trn nhng mng nh nhng khng th thc hin c trn cc mng ln. Khi cc NE tr nn phc tp hn th gnh nng li t ln h thng qun l. S tng trng ca MIB

Cc bng c s thng tin qun l lu tr cc tham s ca i tng qun l, khi s lng NE ln ng ngha vi vic m rng bng MIB. S phc tp gia tng khi nhiu nh cung cp cung cp nhng module MIB cho NEs ca h theo dng file vn bn. Nhng file ny c th hp nht vo trong mt h thng mng qun l NMS v dng phi hp vi b duyt MIB. MIB cha nh ngha i tng qun l v dng dn xut m hnh c s d liu cho NMS. M hnh c s d liu NMS cha s lng ln cc bng trong c mt bng ct gi nhng ng dn chi tit, bng khc cho cc mch o,v.v. H thng qun l mng NMS theo di v sa i nhng gi tr ca NE, qun l nhng i tng v lu gi n trong c s d liu ca mnh. Vic tch hp cc h thng thit b thnh cc phn t mng ln cng em li mt s kh khn trong h thng qun l mng, v cc chc nng c tch hp rt kh qun l ng thi cc h thng qun l phi h tr rt nhiu tng tc trong phn mm server a x l FCAPS. phc tp trong trin khai

Vic xy dng h thng qun l cho nhng thit b mng hin nay v trong tng lai ngy cng gp nhiu kh khn (iu ny l ng vi vic pht trin thit b
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ca nhng cng ngh mi nh MPLS hay Ethernet Gigabit l vic thm vo hoc k tha cc NE lp 2). Mt s nh cung cp c nhng nhm c tch ring dnh cho NE v vic pht trin h thng qun l nn cn c s truyn thng gia nhng nhm ny. Ngoi ra vic thit lp cc k nng yu cu ca ngi pht trin phn mm NMS ang tng v bao gm: Vic pht trin v lm m hnh hng i tng s dng UML (Unified Modeling Language) cho vic gi nhng yu cu, nh ngha cc hot ng v cc trng hp s dng sp xp chng vo trong nhng lp phn mm. Pht trin cc phn mm qun l trn Java/C++. Phn mm Server a x l FCAPS. c bit h tr cho vic pht trin cc c tnh nh ATM/MPLS.

C s d liu ca vic thit k/nng cp ph hp vi MIB ti gin c s d liu qua nhiu phin bn phn mm NMS/NE. Cng ngh lp 2 nh ATM, FR v Gigabit Ethernet. Cng ngh k tha nh thoi qua TDM v X.25.

Kh nng pht trin m hnh v thnh phn phn mm chung, h thng qun l c th giu nhiu chi tit nm bn di ca hot ng mng. Thit k Client/server.

Qun l vic thit k i tng, giai on lm m hnh ca h thng qun l. Vic thit k MIB cn c i tng mi bn trong thit b qun l h tr h thng qun l. S di tr chung ti c s h tng lp 3 l mt l do khc cho vic m rng gia nhng k nng pht trin sn c v cc c tnh sn phm yu cu. y l mt cch tip cn khc cho vic pht trin h thng qun l thng qua: Tp gii php tiu chun. Phn tn v gii quyt cc vn pht sinh. X l thng tin thng k. Bao qut nhng chu trnh pht trin ngn. Ti gin vic thay i m. Tng kh nng kim tra.

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4.2 QUN L MNG MPLS 4.2.1 Cc ng dng c bn ca MPLS


Hin thi, hai ng dng quan trng nht ca MPLS l k thut lu lng v mng ring o. Tuy nhin cc ng dng trin vng khc ca MPLS nh VoIP, cc dch v m phng knh o v dch v mng LAN o qua MPLS cng s cng tn ti. Mc d mt s ng dng ca MPLS nh TE v VPN hin ang c pht trin trn mt s giao thc khng da trn MPLS, nhng MPLS vn tha mn c cc mc tiu ca cc ng dng do s tch bit ca mt bng nh tuyn v mt bng chuyn tip cng vi cc c ch bo hiu tch hp trong MPLS. V d, vi vic cung cp dch v mng ring o, MPLS c th thc hin n gin hot ng cu hnh VPN bi yu cu ca ngi qun l thng qua cc thit b bin kt ni ti mng bin khch hng. Bo hiu MPLS qun l cc kt ni thc t trong VPN. Mt v d ca mng MPLS h tr VPN c trnh by trong hnh 4.2.
Mng li MPLS ca nh cung cp PE P PE VPN CE VPN CE CE VPN VPN PE CE VPN PE CE PE P P CE Interne t

VPN CE

Hnh 4.2: V d v cung cp dch v VPN trn MPLS MPLS h tr k thut lu lng thng qua cc tuyn hin trong qu trnh nh tuyn to ra mt ng dn c mt s c tnh d liu c bit qua mng. Cc cng ngh hin thi s dng cc giao thc nh tuyn tm ra cc ng dn c trng s thp nht. Nh vy, c th xy ra trng hp tn ti nhiu ng dn c trng s bng nhau v ch mt ng c chn. Mt khc, cc giao thc nh tuyn thng chuyn tt c cc lu lng vo mt ng dn n c chn v c th gy ra cc im tp trung lu lng ti cc nt khi c rt nhiu ng dn xuyn qua . Gii php k thut lu lng c s dng gii quyt hai vn cn tn ti trn thng qua cc tuyn hin c iu hnh bi ngi qun l. Ngi qun l c th phn cc lung lu lng trong mng theo cc tuyn khc nhau khng ph thuc vo tin trnh nh tuyn. Hn na, k thut lu lng cho php ngi qun l mng c th to ra cc tuyn d
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phng cho cc ng dn. thc hin cc c ch ny, cc ng hm MPLS TE c thit lp truyn ti cc gi qua mng MPLS. Mt v d v MPLS TE c m t trn hnh 4.3.

PE

Min MPLS

PE

ng dn chn bi giao thc nh tuyn ng hm k thut lu lng

Hnh 4.3: ng hm k thut lu lng trong MPLS-TE Vi gi thit cc lin kt c cng gi tr trng s th hai ng dn c trng s bng nhau s c thc hin cho truyn ti d liu. ng chm m th hin ng dn ti u c chn bi giao thc nh tuyn, ng chm nht th hin ng hm MPLS TE c cu hnh qua ng dn chn bi giao thc nh tuyn. iu ny cho php mt s lu lng i qua cc ng dn ngm nh chuyn hng sang cc ng lun phin. ng hm TE c cu hnh s dng ng dn lun phin v cha s dng ti u ngun ti nguyn mng.

4.2.2 Cc i tng qun l trong MPLS


Mt trong cc thch thc ln nht ca vn qun l mng MPLS ny sinh t c ch bo hiu ca gii php cng ngh ny. MPLS s dng cc k thut nh tuyn khc nhau thit lp cc ng dn thng qua cc iu kin rng buc to ra cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP. LSP c to ra khng nht thit phi tn ti cc c ch bo hiu nh trong mng IP thun cho d cc phn t mng ca MPLS c th h tr cc giao thc bo hiu. Thm vo , s lng phn t cn qun l trong mng MPLS l rt ln v a ti cc th tc qun l c phc tp cao. Cc i tng qun l c ch ra di y l cc i tng quan trng nht ca vn qun l mng MPLS. A. i tng nh tuyn hin (ERO)

i tng nh tuyn hin ERO (Explicit Route Object) l mt danh sch cc a ch lp 3 trong mt vng mng MPLS. Tng t nh danh sch chuyn tip mong mun DTL (Designated Transit List) trong ATM, ERO m t mt danh sch cc nt MPLS c ng hm i qua. ERO c thit lp thng qua giao thc bo hiu dnh trc ti nguyn h tr k thut lu lng RSVP-TE nhm ch r ng dn cha ng hm. Trn kha cnh nh tuyn, tuyn hin cn th hin c tnh rng buc ca
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ng dn, v vy i tng tuyn hin cho php ngi qun l c th cng bc cc ng dn theo tng bc nhy trn LSP. Mt i tng tuyn hin ERO lu tr trong bng MIB trn nt khi u LSP v c th dng cho nhiu ng hm ca nt . Do c tnh h tr lu lng t ng, cc i tng tuyn hin thng khng s dng phng php cu hnh nhn cng cho cc LSP m thng qua cc giao thc bo hiu nh RSVP-TE. B. i tng ti nguyn

Cc gii php h tr k thut lu lng v QoS trong MPLS cho php s dnh trc ti nguyn trong mng. i tng ti nguyn trong MPLS c cung cp thng qua cc bn tin dnh trc ti nguyn, ng hm u tin hoc cc ng dn LSP ngn nht. Trn gc qun l lu lng LSP cho mng MPLS, i tng ti nguyn ca LSP thng gm mt s thnh phn sau: Bng tn thu pht ln nht. Kch c b lu lng ln nht. di gi. ng hm v ng chuyn mch nhn

C.

Cc ng hm trong MPLS c th hin qua cc i tng gm phn on vo (In-segment), kt ni cho (Cross connect) v phn on ra (Out-segment). Mt gi tin c chuyn qua ng hm trn c s ca cc phng php sau: Chuyn tip da trn c s tra cu nhn MPLS. Chuyn tip trn c s ti nguyn c sn c nh. Chuyn tip theo trn c s rng buc theo k thut lu lng. Cc ng hm v LSP u da trn k thut lu lng xc lp qua cc a ch IP c bit, cc gi tin trong ng hm c phn bit qua cc a ch IP ti pha u vo v u ra ca ng hm nhm h tr k thut lu lng. Cc i tng phn on vo v ra l cc im u vo v u ra lu lng ca mt nt. T cc i tng ny, nt MPLS s dng i tng kt ni cho nhm quyt nh chuyn mch lu lng qua nt. Mt bng u ni cho trong mt nt MPLS h tr 3 kiu kt ni gm: im - im, im - a im v a im - im. D. Cc giao thc bo hiu

Cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP v ng hm trong MPLS c th s dng bng phng php nhn cng hoc t ng thng qua giao thc bo hiu. Cc giao thc bo hiu trong MPLS c th c s dng thit lp cc LSP bao gm hai giao thc c bn: Giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn h tr k thut lu lng RSVP-TE v giao thc phn phi nhn rng buc CR-LDP. Cc giao thc bo hiu ny th hin ti nguyn qun l thng qua cc hot ng cp pht nhn, chn ng dn v thit lp cc c tnh ng dn.
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4.2.3 c im MIB trong qun l mng MPLS A. Mt s vn ca c s thng tin qun l trong MPLS C s thng tin nh tuyn MIB th hin s phn chia khng gian gia cc i din qun l v cc nh qun l mng. MIB ng vai tr trung tm trong mng qun l ca cc kiu mng vin thng bao gm c MPLS, nu MIB a ra cu hnh qun l thch hp th cc tc v nh ci t, cu hnh v hot ng cc phn t mng NE trong mt h thng qun l mng NMS s gim thiu c phc tp. Thng qua giao thc qun l mng n gin, cc khon mc d liu c to ra trong cc bng MIB di dng cc hng. Mi lin h vi cc ct trong bng c s thng tin qun l s th hin cc i tng qun l lin quan. Th t cc ct trong bng v mc kt hp gia ct th hin kh nng kt hp cc khi c tnh ca i tng. Mt khc, mt khon mc c th c s dng li ti cc bng khc nhm ti u ha ti nguyn ca cc bng c s d liu. V d, trong mt bng th hin cc ng hm MPLS gm cc bng bc nhy tuyn hin ERO v bng ti nguyn c dnh trc u c s dng bi bng ng hm. Trong kt cu a bng MIB, cc bng c lin kt vi nhau thng qua cc ch mc s nguyn nhm chia s cc khon mc trong cc bng khc nhau da trn cc ct. V vy, cc h thng qun l mng thng lu tr d liu cc phn t di dng cc lu c s d liu quan h. Cc gi tr i tng trong bng MIB c th c thit lp mc nh nhm to iu kin thun li trong qu trnh qun l cc kt ni. Mt kt ni thng c c trng bi mi lin h gia cc bng v c mt s gi tr mc nh c xc nh trc. Cc gi tr ny c c sn ti cc bng MIB ca cc phn t mng NE v c xc minh qua cc th tc kim tra nhanh. Cc gi tr mc nh c th c a vo MIB t cc i tng bn ngoi thng qua giao thc SNMP. V d, i tng ng hm MPLS gm cc c tnh lin quan mplstunnelIncludeAffinity trong bng ng hm MPLS. i tng ny c s dng khi to ra mt ng hm trong ngi s dng mun cng bc cc lu lng qua mt vng MPLS. Do mt lot cc yu t xc nh c tnh t pha nhn dch v nn vic cung cp cc gi tr mc nh cho i tng ny c th gim bt s tc ng t cc Agent, khi xy ra trng hp pha thu nhn s dng mt gi tr khng hiu lc ca mt ct th gi tr ngoi l s c xc lp bng nhn cng. Mi gi gi tr cho php ca mplstunnelIncludeAffinity c xc nh bng mt n bt nguyn m t mt gi tr m mu giao din, v d: 0x00001 cho vng, 0x00010 cho bc, v 0x00100 cho ng. Mng qun l phi cu hnh cc mu ny trn tt c cc phn t mng NE lin quan. C th cu hnh h tr cho mu bc v ng trn mt giao din vo ca NE. Sau mt ng hm c th to ra mt ng cng bc s dng ch vi giao din vi mu

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bc v ng bi s thit lp mplstunnelIncludeAffinity vo mt n 0x00110. Gi tr mc nh khng s dng i tng mplstunnelIncludeAffinity trong bng MIB l 0. Mt bng ng hm trong MPLS c tnh nng tp trung cc mi quan h cc c tnh ca ng hm. Cc bng n l bn ngoi c s dng to, sa i v qun l cc ng hm thng qua cc quan h vi bng ng hm. V vy, cc lnh cung cp v v xc lp kt ni c thc hin n l ti cc bng v gim thiu cc trng MIB trong h thng qun l mng NMS. B. Cc trnh duyt MIB Cc trnh duyt MIB l cc cng c c bit kim tra cc gi tr ca cc trng hp i tng MIB trn mt Agent a ra. Mt trnh duyt c th l mt ng dng c giao din ha hoc giao din dng lnh. Trnh duyt MIB c th s dng kiu bin dch ch ra cu trc cc file MIB v thng k gi tr cho cc i tng kt hp. Cc c tnh v hnh vi i tng c a ra bi NMS c ngi s dng tng minh qua trnh duyt MIB. C. Cc i tng qun l MPLS trong MIB Thng tin qun l MIB cho MPLS chia cc i tng qun l thnh hai loi: Cc i tng mc thp: Giao din, kt ni cho, cc bng phn on v LSP; Cc i tng mc cao: i tng k thut lu lng ng hm, cc tuyn hin v ti nguyn. Cc i tng MIB trong cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR gm cc bng m t: Cu hnh giao din MPLS, in-segments, out-segments, u ni cho, cc gii hn lu lng, cc gii hn thc thi. Cc i tng k thut lu lng MIB gm cc bng m t: ng hm k thut lu lng, cc ti nguyn ng hm, cc ng hm v b m thc thi ng hm. Cc i tng thit b MPLS gm cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn, cc b nh tuyn IP, cc thit b chuyn mch ATM trong ch lun phin v cc chuyn mch a dch v. Giao din MPLS c cu hnh trn thit b gm cc thnh phn sau: Giao din ti b nh tuyn IP Giao thc nh tuyn ni min IGP (bao gm c giao thc nh tuyn h tr k thut lu lng) Giao thc nh tuyn ngoi min EGP (khng cu hnh cng vi IGP nhm trnh l hng thng tin nh tuyn) Giao thc bo hiu LDP hoc RSVP-TE. D. Cc module qun l MPLS trong MIB
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qun l cc i tng trong MPLS, mt s cc module c s thng tin qun l c cc t chc tiu chun a ra nhm p ng cc yu cu qun l mng MPLS. C cu t chc ca cc c s thng tin qun l c m t trn hnh 4.4.

Hnh 4.4: C cu t chc ca cc module MIB cho MPLS MPLS-TC MIB: c s thng tin qun l MPLS-TC MIB m t chuyn i chun tc cho cc bng c s thng tin qun l lin quan. MPLS-LSR MIB: MPLS-LSR MIB m t cc hot ng chuyn tip nhn c bn ca mt b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR. MPLS-LSR MIB cng m t cc giao din m LSR cho php tham chiu cho ti cc giao din MPLS c trong bng c s thng tin qun l giao din IF-MIB. C s thng tin qun l ny th hin cn c thit lp cc i tng thc t (i ngc vi TC trong MPLS-TC MIB) c s dng bi cc MIB khc. MPLS-TE MIB: C s thng tin qun l TE cung cp ti ngi qun l cc kha cnh ca cc ng hm k thut lu lng cu hnh v qun l cc c tnh. Nu mt ng hm cng th hin nh mt giao din trong bng c s thng tin qun l giao din IF-MIB th ti s tn ti mt khon mc s dng cho tham chiu. MPLSTE MIB ph thuc bo bng MPLS-LSR MIB, trong phn mm h thng trong mt thit b c th c lp trnh lin kt cc LSP hot ng vi mt ng hm. MPLS-LDP MIB: C s thng tin qun l giao thc phn phi nhn cung cp thng tin v cc hot ng ca giao thc LDP trn mt LSR. MPLS-LDP MIB ph thuc vo MPLS-LSR MIB nh x cc bng d liu s dng lin kt cc phin LDP v cc LSP hot ng. MPLS-LDP MIB cng ph thuc vo bng IF-MIB nhm th hin min nhn c cu hnh trn cc giao din MPLS. MPLS-FTN MIB: c s thng tin qun l ghp cc lp lu lng tng ng vo bc nhy k tip th hin cch thc v hnh vi ca lu lng IP i vo mng MPLS, v cch thc nh x cc lung lu lng IP vo trong cc LSP hoc cc giao din ng hm TE. MPLS-FTN MIB ph thuc vo MPLS-LSR-MIB v MPLS-TE MIB trn quan h ghp lung lu lng IP ti LSP v ng hm TE.
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MPLS-FTN MIB cng ph thuc vo bng c s thng tin qun l giao din MPLS do n cho php ngi iu hnh cu hnh FEC- to- NHLFE theo tng giao din. PPVPN-MPLS-VPN MIB: c s thng tin qun l mng ring o ca cc nh cung cp dch v ch ph thuc vo bng chuyn i d liu MPLS-TC MIB. Bng ny cha cc bin i text chung c s dng bi cc PPVPN-MPLS-VPN MIB v cc c s thng tin qun l khc. PPVPN-MPLS-VPN MIB cung cp cho ngi iu hnh kha cnh cu hnh VPN trn cc thit b ca nh cung cp PE. Cng nh l cc thng tin lin quan nh: thng k, BGP v giao din. Thng tin giao din c th hin trong bng c s thng tin qun l IF-MIB v v vy PPVPN-MPLS-VPN MIB ph thuc vo bng IF-MIB.

4.3 QUN L MNG QUANG 4.3.1 Khung lm vic ca qun l mng quang
Trn c s hng lot cc phng php qun l mng c gii thiu trong chng 1 ca bi ging, cc chc nng qun l mng c th c thc hin theo cc cu hnh tp trung, phn tn v phn cp. Vi yu cu tc cao trong vn qun l, cc phng php iu khin tp trung v phn cp rt kh p ng c cc yu cu ca mng quang nht l i vi cc mng ln. Thm vo , cc mng ln thng c qun l theo tng vng bi cc nh qun l ring v cc nh qun l thng tin vi cc nh qun l ca vng khc thng qua chc nng phi hp. Hnh 4.5 ch ra tng quan ca cc chc nng qun l mng in hnh s dng cho mng quang. Cc chc nng qun l c phn cp theo nhiu h thng qun l, cc thnh phn ring bit c qun l gi l cc phn t mng. Cc phn t mng gm: cc u cui ng quang OLT (Optical Line Terminal), cc khi ghp/tch quang OADM (Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer), Cc b khuch i quang, cc thit b kt ni cho quang OXC (Optical cross-connect). Mi phn t mng c qun l bi h thng qun l phn t EMS. Cc Agent c thng tr trong phn mm ca vi x l trong phn t mng. H thng qun l phn t mng EMS thng c kt ni ti mt hoc nhiu phn t mng v truyn thng vi cc phn t mng khc trong mng qua mng truyn thng d liu DCN (data communication network). Knh truyn thng bo hiu c thit lp trong DCN thng c tch bit nhm truyn ti cc thng tin qun l thi gian thc v d nh knh gim st quang OSC (Optical Supervisory Channel). qun l ton mng, mt s h thng qun l phn t EMS c xy dng cho cc h thng thng tin quang phc v cho cng tc qun l. V d, mt nh khai thc s dng h thng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) ca nh cung cp thit b A v kt ni cho ti nh cung cp thit b B thng s s dng hai EMS: mt s dng qun l h thng ng cp quang v mt
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cho kt ni cho. Nh trn hnh 4.5, mt EMS thng ch qun l mt phn t mng ti mt thi im v khng bao hm qun l ton mng, v vy cc kiu phn t mng khc khng c qun l. EMS thc hin truyn thng vi h thng qun l mng NMS hoc h thng h tr iu hnh trao i thng tin v qun l ti cc phn t khc .

Hnh 4.5: M hnh tng quan ca qun l mng quang

4.3.2 Giao din v cc dch v lp quang


Lp quang cung cp cc ng dn quang ti cc lp khc nh SONET, IP hoc ATM. Trong ng cnh ny, lp quang c th nhn nhn nh mt lp phc v cho cc dch v t cc lp khc a ti, lp quang ng vai tr server v cc lp dch v ng vai tr client. T gc ny, mt s c tnh then cht ca lp quang lin quan ti vn qun l c a ra nh sau: Cc ng dn quang cn c thit lp v gii php bi cc lp client cng nh l p ng cc yu cu duy tr mng. Bng thng cc ng dn quang cn c tha thun gia cc lp client v lp quang. Thng thng cc lp client a ra cc lng bng thng cn thit ti lp quang. Chc nng tng thch c th c yu cu ti u vo v u ra ca mng quang bin i cc bo hiu client thnh cc tn hiu tng thch vi lp quang. Chc nng ny thng c thc hin bi b chuyn i tn hiu (transponder) bao gm c kiu tn hiu, tc bit v cc giao thc h tr cho kt ni gia client v lp quang. Cc ng dn quang cn c cung cp cc mc m bo hiu nng, in hnh l t l li bt khng vt qu 10-12.

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Cc mc bo v khc nhau cho mng quang cn phi c trin khai v qun l bao gm c mc u tin, d phng v yu cu thi gian khi phc cho cc dch v khc nhau. Hu ht cc ng dn quang hin nay u thit k song hng mc d cc ng dn quang c th n hng hoc song hng. Tuy nhin, khi c yu cu khc bit v bng thng, mng vn cn c cu hnh n hng. Cc yu cu v bin ng tr thng c a ra i vi cc kt ni SONET/SDH, cng nh yu cu v tr ti a cho mt s kiu lu lng cng l cc vn cn qun l trong cc ng dn quang. Qun l li m rng cn c h tr tm ti gc ca nguyn nhn gy ra cnh bo. iu ny rt quan trng v mt s li n c th kch hot thm nhiu li v to ra nhiu cnh bo khc nhau.

Gia cc lp client v lp quang hnh thnh mt giao din qun l v iu khin, giao din ny cho php client ch r tp ng dn quang c thit lp hoc gii phng cng vi mt s tham s dch v lin quan. Ngoi ra, giao din ny cho php lp quang cung cp cc thng tin qun l li v hiu nng ti lp client. Giao din n gin nht thng s dng hin nay l thng qua h thng qun l. Mt h thng qun l tch bit truyn thng vi EMS ca lp ng dn quang v EMS qun l lp quang. Do cc ng dn quang hin nay thng c thit lp trong cc khong thi gian di, nhng trong tng lai cc ng dn quang s c thit lp ng dn ti vn giao din bo hiu gia lp client v lp quang s tr nn phc tp. V d, cc b nh tuyn IP c th bo hiu lin kt ti kt ni quang nhm thit lp v gii phng cc ng dn quang cng nh p cc c tnh bo v thng qua giao din bo hiu ny. Vic tn ti giao din nh giao din bo hiu ph thuc vo cch tip cn ca cc nh khai thc. Mt s nh khai thc cho rng cn phi tch bit c ch qun l mng quang ra khi cc lp client khc. Tip cn ny hu ch khi lp quang phi phc v nhiu i tng dch v khc nhau trong lp client. Ngc li, khi lp quang ch phc v s t lp client th cc c ch kt hp qun l s em li hiu qu cao, nht l v thi gian thc hin qun l. Lp quang l mt thc th phc tp thc hin mt s chc nng nh: ghp knh bc sng, chuyn mch v nh tuyn bc sng v gim st hiu nng mng ti cc mc khc nhau trong mng. Kin trc phn lp trong lp quang c ch ra trn hnh 4.6 c ITU a ra gm 3 lp:

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Hnh 4.6: Cc phn lp trong lp quang Lp trn cng l lp knh quang Och lin quan ti nh tuyn t u cui ti u cui ca cc ng dn quang. Thut ng ng dn quang m t mt chui cc knh kt ni gia cc nt quang. Mt ng dn quang chuyn qua trn nhiu lin kt quang v cc b ghp knh mang cc ng dn quang. Mi lin kt gia OLT hoc OADM th hin qua mt vng truyn ti a bc sng OMS (carrying multiple wavelength) mang cc bc sng. Mi mt vng truyn ti a bc sng OMS gm mt vi on lin kt, mi on l mt phn ca lin kt gia hai im kt ni quang, cc on ny hp thnh phn on truyn dn quang OTS (optical transmission section). OTS gm vng truyn ti a bc sng v cc thit b kt ni cho quang. Trn chnh lp knh quang cng c chia thnh cc phn lp nh hn, mt on trong sut knh quang Och-TS th hin mt on ca ng dn quang trong mt phn mng ton quang. Trong on ny, cc ng dn quang c mang trn cc cp quang m khng c s hin din ca vng in. Ngay pha trn ca Och-TS l lp on knh quang Och-S, lp ny thm cc tiu cho ng dn quang thc hin bo hiu cho cc phn mng quang. Cui cng, lp ng dn knh quang Och-P th hin truyn ti t u cui ti u cui ca mt ng dn quang qua cc min quang. V mt nguyn tc, khi cc giao din gia cc lp khc nhau c nh ngha cung cp cho cc nh cung cp thit b cung cp cc thit b tiu chun ha. Hn na, cc lp ny to ra cc tip cn qun l tt nht ti cc thit b mng.

4.3.3 Qun l li v hiu nng mng quang


Mc tiu ca qun l hiu nng mng l cung cp m bo cht lng dch v ti ngi s dng ca mng. iu ny thng yu cu gim st cc tham s hiu nng cho tt c cc kt ni trong mng v a ra cc hot ng cn thit m bo cc yu cu hiu nng. Vn qun l hiu nng mng gn vi vn qun l li. Qun l li gm tin trnh xc nh li v cnh bo ti h thng qun l khi c mt hoc vi tham s no vt ngng. Qun l li cng gm cc dch v khi phc cc s kin li.
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Chc nng ny c coi nh chc nng iu khin mng t tr v thng thng cc ng dng khi phc li c phn tn trong mng. A. Qun l t l li bit

T l li bit l c tnh hiu nng then cht ca cc ng dn quang. Cc khung tn hiu trong SONET v SDH bao gm cc byte tiu trong c cha cc byte kim tra chn l tnh ton t l li bt. Cc tiu ny cung cp php o trc tip t l li bit. Cc d liu bo hiu cho client c ng gi trong cc khung tiu ca khung tin SONET/SDH v ta c th o BER v m bo hiu nng trong lp quang. Khi lp quang c thit k phc tp, rt kh nh gi chnh xc BER da trn cc php o gin tip cc tham s nh cng sut tn hiu quang hoc t l tn hiu trn nhiu. Cc tham s ny c th c s dng nh gi cht lng tn hiu v c th s dng lm cn c pht hin cnh bo nhng khng nn s dng nh gi BER. B. Gim st vt ng quang

Cc ng dn quang i qua nhiu nt v qua nhiu card thit b trong mi nt. Vic gim st vt ng quang nhm ch ra cc nhn dng duy nht cho mi ng dn quang. V d, nhn dng ny gm a ch IP ca phn t mng ngun pht cng vi cc nhn dng ca card chuyn i trong cc phn t mng m ng dn quang i qua. Nhn dng ny c gi l gim st vt ng quang. Vt ng quang cho php h thng qun l nhn dng, kim tra v qun l cc kt ni trong ng dn quang. Thm vo , n cung cp kh nng cch ly li cho h thng qun l mng. Gim st vt ng dn quang c th s dng trong nhiu lp khc nhau trong lp quang. V d, mt ng dn quang i qua nhiu nt v cc b ti to tn hiu quang, ta c th xc nh kt ni t u cui ti u cui ca ng dn quang thng qua gim st vt ng dn knh quang. Gim st vt ny c a ti u vo ca ng dn quang v gim st ti cc v tr khc nhau trn ng dn. xc nh v tr v xc nh kt ni gia cc vng ti to tn hiu quang, ta s dng thm nhn dng gim st vt cho on knh quang. Trong mt mng con ton quang, ta c th s dng gim st vt phn on trong sut cho knh quang. Hai kiu gim st vt cui ny c chn vo v ly ra ti cc b ti to tn hiu quang. C. Qun l cnh bo

Trong mt mng, mt s kin li n l c th l nguyn nhn to ra rt nhiu cnh bo qua mng v dn ti cc iu kin li khc. V d, khi mt lin kt hng, tt c cc ng dn quang qua u li. S kin ny c th c cc nt ti cui ca lin kt li pht hin v cc nt ny s a ra cc cnh bo cho cc ng dn quang cng nh l bo co s kin li ti h thng qun l mng. Thm vo , tt c cc nt m ng dn quang i qua s nhn c cc cnh bo ny. V vy, s lng bn tin
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cnh bo rt ln. Vic loi b bt cc cnh bo khng cn thit c s dng qua mt tp cc tn hiu c bit c gi l ch th li hng i FDI (forward defect indicator) v ch th li hng v BDI (backward defect indicator).

Hnh 4.7: V d v cc tn hiu FDI v BDI trong mng quang Hnh 4.7 ch ra hot ng iu hnh ca tn hiu FDI v BDI. Khi mt lin kt li, nt hng xung ca lin kt li s pht hin ra li lin kt v to ra iu kin li. iu kin li c th c to ra do t l li bit ln trn lung tn hiu n hoc mt lung tn hiu. Nu li tip tc xut hin trong mt chu k thi gian (vi giy) th nt s pht cnh bo. Ngay sau khi xc nh li, nt chn mt tn hiu FDI hng xung nt k tip. tn hiu FDI cng thng c gi l tn hiu ch th cnh bo AIS (alarm indication signal). Mt nt pht hin li cng gi tn hiu BDI ti cc nt pha trn n thng bo chnh n ang li. Nu mt nt khng th gi i c FDI th lin kt gia nt v nt ng xung cng b li. Vic tch cc tn hiu FDI v BDI rt hu ch cho cc lp khc nhau trong lp quang. V d, phn bit cc li trn cc ng dn quang tch bit hoc li trn cc phn on lin kt quang gia cc vng khuch i quang. Hnh 4.8 ch ra mt trng hp c th ca cc bo hiu ny trong mt mng quang. Gi thit y c mt lin kt t gia thit b kt cui quang OLT A v thit b kt cui quang OLT B, khi khuch i quang B pht hin ra li t lin kt, n lp tc chn tn hiu OMS-FDI hng xung ch ra rng tt c cc knh trong nhm ghp knh li, v gi tn hiu OTS-BDI hng ln ti OLT A. Tn hiu OMS-FDI c truyn nh mt phn ca tiu lin kt vi lp OMS v OTS - BDI c truyn trong lp OTS.

Hnh 4.8: Phn cp tn hiu ch th li trong mng quang Tn hiu OMS-FDI ch c truyn theo hng xung do cc thng tin li cn c truyn lan ti cc phn t mng c lp OMS cui cng, trong trng hp ny l OADM D. B khuch i C ng xung nhn OMS-FDI v chuyn ti OADM D l
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nt k tip trn ng xung nhn OMS-FDI v xc nh li ca cc ng dn quang nhm loi b cc ng dn quang li. i vi mt ng dn quang chuyn qua, OADM to ra cc tn hiu OCh-TSFDI v gi theo ng xung. Cc tn hiu OCh-TS-FDI c truyn trong tiu Och-TS. Ti im cui ca mng con quang OLT E, cc bc sng c tch v kt cui ti cc b tch sng v ti to tn hiu quang (transponders/regenerators), v vy lp Och-TS c kt cui ti y. OLT E nhn cc tn hiu OCh-TS-FDI v to ra cc ch th cnh bo cho tng ng dn quang li, gi trn ng xung ti ch ca cc ng dn quang trong tiu OCh-P. Nt cui cng s l ni a ra cc cnh bo ti h thng qun l mng. Mt l do quan trng khc s dng cc tn hiu ch th li l s dng chuyn mch bo v. V d, mt nt gn nht ni xy ra s kin li s pht hin li v thc hin vic chuyn mch bo v ti cc ng dn khc. Ti cng thi im , cc nt pha trn v pha di lin kt li cng s thc hin cc phng php ti nh tuyn lu lng nhm trnh i qua lin kt li. Mt nt nhn c tn hiu FDI s quyt nh c khi to hoc khng khi to chuyn mch bo v. V d, mt phng php chuyn mch bo v yu cu cc nt gn nht lin kt li ngay lp tc ti nh tuyn lu lng th cc nt khc nhn tn hiu FDI s khng thc hin chuyn mch bo v. Mt khc, nu chuyn mch bo v c thc hin bi cc nt kt cui ng dn quang th mt nt nhn c FDI s khi to chuyn mch bo v nu nt l nt kt cui ng dn quang.

4.3.4 Mng truyn thng d liu v bo hiu


H thng qun l phn t mng truyn thng vi cc phn t mng khc thng qua mng truyn thng d liu DCN. DCN thng s dng trn mt mng tiu chun nh mng TCP/IP hoc OSI. Nu DCN tha mn iu kin m bo kt ni ngay c khi c li n xy ra trong mng th DCN c th truyn ti theo mt s phng thc sau: - Qua cc mng ngoi bng lp quang. Cc nh khai thc c th to ra mng TCP/IP ring phc v mc ch qun l mng ny. Nu mt mng nh vy khng c thit lp th c th thay th bng cc ng dy ring (leased line). Phng thc ny cho php cc phn t mng trong mt trung tm vn phng ln c sn cc kiu kt ni nh vy m khng qua cc phn t mng nh cc b khuch i quang. - Qua knh gim st quang OSC trn cc bc sng ring. Phng thc ny c sn trong cc thit b WDM, ti ni x l cc phn on quang v cc lp phn on ghp knh c cc knh gim st quang. Cc b khuch i quang c qun l theo tip cn ny. Trong khi cc thit b thuc lp quang nh thit b kt ni cho quang s khng c qun l.

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- Qua cc knh quan trong bng dnh ring. Phng thc ny c s dng ch cc thit b thuc lp quang l khng x l ti cc lp phn on truyn dn v ghp knh quang nh cc kt ni cho quang. Thng qua cc bo hiu s trong tiu khung quang, tip cn ny ch tn ti khi mng quang c cc vng in v d nh cc b ti to tn hiu quang v tch sng quang. Bng 4.1 tng kt cc ty chn mng truyn thng d liu DCN kh dng cho mi kiu phn t mng quang. Ta gi thit cc OADM l mt phn ca h thng si quang cha cc thit b kt cui quang OLT v cc b khuch i quang. Bng 4.1: Cc phng php ng dng DCN cho cc phn t mng Phn t mng OLT vi b tch sng OADM B khuch i OXC vi ti to quang OXC ton quang Ngoi bng C C Khng C C OSC C C C Khng Khng Tiu C C Khng C C

Trong rt nhiu trng hp i vi DCN, cc phn t mng quang cn c mt kiu bo hiu nhanh. iu ny cho php cc phn t mng trao i cc thng tin quan trng vi nhau theo thi gian thc. V d, cc tn hiu bo hiu FDI v BDI cn phi truyn lan nhanh ti cc nt dc ng dn quang, hay cc tn hiu bo hiu s dng cho chuyn mch bo v. Thng thng, mng bo hiu c thit lp trong DCN c th s dng cc kt ni c nh ngoi bng, knh gim st quang hoc qua mt trong cc k thut x l tiu . 4.4 QUN L MNG GMPLS 4.4.1 Gii thiu chung v h thng qun l mng GMPLS Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS chia s mt lot chc nng qun l trong mt bng truyn ti sang mt bng iu khin. V d, vic thu thp thng tin v hiu chnh thng tin v trng thi v dung lng lin kt c x l t ng bi cc giao thc nh tuyn trong GMPLS. Tng t, cc giao thc bo hiu trong GMPLS to ra cc nhn cung cp cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP v qun l cc LSP . T gc ca ngi iu hnh qun l h thng, c th c mt s im khc nhau rt nh gia cc cng c c s dng cho bi ton qun l mng truyn thng vi GMPLS. Nhng hiu qu hoc phng thc iu hnh trong lp
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truyn ti l khc bit nhau. Mt bng iu khin GMPLS to s chc chn cho ngi iu hnh v thng tin cp nht cng nh cc dch v c qun l bi mt bng qun l. V vy, mt bng qun l l mt phn chnh yu v quan trng trong cc mng GMPLS. Mt mng truyn ti in hnh c cu trc t cc thit b ca mt s nh cung cp thit b khc nhau. Ty thuc vo cc mc tiu di hn v kh nng lin iu hnh ca cc thit b m ngi qun l mng xy dng cc vng thit b c cng nh cung cp thit b v a ra cc c ch qun l ring. Cc thit b ca cc nh cung cp thit b khc nhau c cc c tnh qun l khc nhau thm ch khi cng thc hin chc nng mng tng t nhau. V vy, cc giao din chun hon v cc giao thc chun ha l cc iu kin quan trng nht qun l cc thit b truyn ti. iu c ngha ngi iu hnh cn s dng nhiu ng dng khc nhau hoc ghi nh mt s loi c php cu lnh khc nhau iu hnh mng. Trong bi cnh cc c tnh qun l thng c chia s vo cc vng qun l, ngi qun l c th iu khin theo tng vng. Mc d cc tng tc gia cc ngi qun l phi c s dng m rng vng, cc tng tc ny c qun l mt cch tru tng ti lp cao v khng yu cu hiu r cc k thut cu hnh trong tng vng. Mt thc t khc nh hng ti vn phn tn cc thit b ca ngi qun l trong mng chnh l s hi t mng. Cc mng nh thng c ti nguyn c cung cp bi hai nh cung cp thit b v dn ti cc phn nhnh mng. Tuy nhin, chin lc ny lm tng kch thc ca mng do s lng kt ni cc mng nh tng ln cung cp cc tha thun dch v gia cc nh cung cp. Thm vo , tip cn ny to ra cc o hoc cc vng qun l thit b ring t mt nh cung cp dch v.

4.4.2 Cc module MIB ca GMPLS


Giao thc qun l mng n gin GMPLS l giao thc qun l c IETF la chn, nhng iu khng c ngha l GMPLS buc phi theo hoc khng theo do GMPLS c rt nhiu cc kiu giao din ngi qun l c th c s dng. Mt khc, c s thng tin qun l MIB l c s d liu phn tn tng th cho qun l v iu khin cc thit b c kh nng hot ng vi SNMP. Thm vo , c s thng tin qun l MIB ca GMPLS c pht trin trn k thut lu lng trong MPLS v m rng cho GMPLS. A. Qun l c s thng tin qun l MPLS-TE

Ba module MIB thuc vn qun l thit b trong mng MPLS-TE gm: Module c s thng tin qun l chuyn i chnh tc, module c s thng tin qun l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn v module c s thng tin qun l k thut lu lng MPLS. - Module c s thng tin qun l chuyn i chnh tc (MPLS TC MIB) cha cc nh ngha c phn loi s dng cho cc module c s thng tin
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qun l khc. Theo ngha hp, l mt file tiu nh ngha cc kiu v kin trc c s d liu s dng trong file d liu khc. N gm cc nh ngha nh tc bt, nguyn tc chuyn i kiu khi th hin cc gi tr nhn dng ng hm, gi tr nhn dng ng hm m rng, nhn dng ng chuyn mch nhn v cc nhn MPLS. - Module c s thng tin qun l MPLS c s dng m hnh ha v iu khin cc b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn MPLS. MIB ny cha cc chc nng li ca mt b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR (chuyn tip cc gi c nhn, giao thc phn phi nhn, giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn h tr k thut lu lng). Trong thc t, c s thng tin qun l MIB c th c s dng cu hnh nhn cng khi khng c giao thc bo hiu. C 4 khi c s trong c s thng tin qun l MIB. c mt bng giao din cho MPLS th hin thng tin gi gi v nhn gi. Mt bng phn on u vo tng ng vi cc nhn nhn c trn cc giao din hoc hng ln ca cc ng LSP. Mt bng phn on u ra m hnh ha cc on lin kt ng xung ca LSP, nhn dng qua mt chng nhn u ra v ch th giao din m gi tin s chuyn qua. Bng cui cng l bng kt ni cho ch ra mi quan h gia cc phn on u vo v phn on u ra. - Module c s thng tin qun l k thut lu lng MPLS-TE c s dng m hnh v iu khin cc ng chuyn mch nhn LSP. Mc tiu chnh ca module ny cho php ngi qun l cu hnh v kch hot cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP ti cc u vo LSR, ng thi gim st tt c cc LSP i qua b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR. C s thng tin qun l MPLS-TE cha cc bng s dng cu hnh cc ng hm LSP ng thi cho nhim v chia ti hoc tun t cho chc nng khi phc. V vy, mt ng hm c mt im gc trong mplsTunelTable v lin quan ti cc LSP khc. Mi mt LSP trong bng mplsTunelTable c th hin nh mt trng hp ca ng hm.

Hnh 4.9: Mi quan h gia cc bng d liu trong MPLS-TE MIB Cc bng khc cho php cu hnh v kim tra ti nguyn s dng cho LSP, tnh ton, yu cu v xc nh cc ng i ca mt LSP. S ph thuc gia cc module trong MPLS-TE c th hin trn hnh 4.9.

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B.

Qun l c s thng tin qun l GMPLS

Qun l c s thng tin qun l GMPLS c xy dng trn c s qun l MPLS-TE nhm ti s dng li mt lot cc c tnh ca MPLS-TE. Hnh 4.10 ch ra mt s module c ti s dng (mu xm) v cc module mi (mu trng). Nh trn hnh v th hin, 4 module mi c b sung gm: GMPLS-TC-STD-MIB, GMPLSLSR-STD-MIB, GMPLS-TE-STD-MIB v GMPLS-LABEL-STD-MIB.

Hnh 4.10: Mi quan h gia cc bng d liu trong MPLS-TE MIB Trong , GMPLS-TC-STD-MIB c b sung mt s chuyn i chun tc cho GMPLS; GMPLS-LSR-STD-MIB v GMPLS-TE-STD-MIB c s dng m rng cho MPLS-TE, cung cp thm mt lot cc i tng qun l; GMPLS-LABELSTD-MIB l module mi nhm x l cc nhn c di vt qu 20 bit c s dng trong MPLS. N cha mt bng nhn vi cc ch mc n gin nhng c khun dng phc tp v c tham chiu t cc module khc. C. Qun l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn GMPLS

GMPLS LSR c qun l qua cc bng trong MPLS-LSR-MIB vi mt s chc nng m rng. Bng giao din MPLS (mplsInterfaceTable) c m rng thnh bng gmplsInterfaceTable. Mt khon mc trong bng c ch ra giao din s dng RSVP-TE cho MPLS cng c ngha tng t trong bng mi. Trong trng hp ny, mt i tng ttrong bng gmplsInterfaceTable nh ngha giao thc bo hiu GMPLS s dng v mt i tng khc nh ngha chu k bn tin Hello c s dng cho giao din . Hiu nng ca chuyn mch nhn trn giao din c ghi li trong bng mplsInterfacePerfTable v gi nguyn i vi GMPLS. Trong thc t, hai b m c s dng m tin trnh x l gi v m tun t s ln x l gi khi GMPLS hot ng trong mi trng gi. Cc phn on u vo trong MPLS c lu trong bng mplsInSegmentTable. Trong GMPLS bng ny c th gy nhm ln cc khon mc khi cc LSP song hng c thit lp. V vy, n gm cc khon mc tham chiu ti cc hng ca lung d liu khng mang thng tin bo hiu thit lp LSP. Hai hng
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LSP gm hai bng: Bng phn on u vo In-segment trn giao din ng ln (cho hng i) v bng phn on u ra trn giao din ng xung (cho hng v). Bng in-segment c m rng cho GMPLS c tn gi gmplsInSegmentTable s ch ra khi no mt on c s dng cho hng i hoc hng v ca ng dn LSP song hng. Bng ny cn cha mt con tr ti bng gmplsLableTable x l m ha cc nhn phc hp. Bng nh x phn on u vo mplsInSegmentMapTable cho php ngi qun l iu hnh to ra cc gim st ngc {giao din, nhn} tm kim phn on u vo thch hp trong bng mplsInSegmentTable. Chc nng ny c ti s dng trong GMPLS nhng s phc tp hn mt cht do nhn c th c tm thy trong mt hng ca gmplsLabelTable. Cc m rng tng t c thc hin vi mplsOutSegmentTable v c b sung thm mt i tng kim sot mc gim ca trng thi gian sng ca gi tin TTL (Time to live). Bng chng nhn MPLS (mplsLabelStackTable) c d phng cho GMPLS, n cng ch c p dng trong cc mi trng mng gi. Bng ny lit k chng nhn b sung c p dng cho cc gi ra di nhn bc cao nht. Bng chng nhn MPLS c ti s dng cho GMPLS cha danh sch cc nhn b sung cho mi trng GMPLS. Cc nhn ny c ly t bng nhn GMPLS (gmplsLabelTable). Mi quan h gia cc bng c s thng tin qun l qun l b nh tuyn GMPLS c th hin trn hnh 4.11.

Hnh 4.11: Mi quan h gia cc bng qun l b nh tuyn GMPLS C hai bng phn on u vo v phn on u ra u cha cc con tr m rng cc bng c cha cc tham s m t lu lng ca LSP. Con tr ny c th ch th mt khon mc trong bng ti nguyn ng hm MPLS trong c s thng tin qun l MPLS-TE, hoc tr ti mt khon mc trong mt c s thng tin qun l c nhim v qun l LSP (bng kt ni cho MPLS). Chc nng ny c ti s dng trong GMPLS v c xu hng qun l cht ch hn cc phn on u vo v phn on u ra cung cp cc ng LSP qua thit b.
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D.

Qun l ng dn chuyn mch nhn GMPLS-TE

Vn qun l cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn MSP-TE yu cu s lng bng c s d liu t hn so vi vic qun l b nh tuyn chuyn mch nhn GMPLS. Nguyn tc chung ca bi ton qun l cc LSP l c thc hin trn bng ng hm MPLS (mplsTunnelTable), trong c cha cc tham s khi to, kt thc hoc chuyn tip cc ng hm. Cc khon mc trong bng ng hm khng nh s theo nhm 5 cp (five-tuple) nh trong nh ngha LSP (gm {ngun, ch, ch s nhn dng ng hm, ch s nhn dng ng hm m rng, v ch s nhn dng LSP}) m theo mt tp tham s gm {ch s ng hm, s kin ng hm, ch s nhn dng LSR u vo, ch s nhn dng LSR u ra}. Ch s ng hm c nh x ti nhn dng a ch ng hm c gn, s kin ng hm th hin s phn bit cc LSP ghp thnh ng hm v ch ra cc nhn dng LSP c gn. Module c s thng tin qun l gi thit rng ngun v ch ca mt LSP s c m t bi cc nhn dng LSR v nhn dng ng hm m rng s c gn vo ch s nhn dng LSR u vo nhm cho php hot ng m rng mi trng trong GMPLS. Mc ch ca module c s thng tin qun l GMPLS-TE l cho php cc LSP c th cu hnh v qun l ti cc u vo, cng nh cho php cc LSP c gim st ti bt k mt im no trong mng. cu hnh mt LSP ta cn c cc tham s gn ph hp vi cc yu cu rng buc v ty chn ca lu lng trong . Mt tp i tng chnh c th hin trong mplsTunelTable v m rng cho GMPLS nhm h tr mt s c tnh sau: s; La chn phng php ghi nhn; Kiu m ha cho LSP; Kiu chuyn mch cho LSP; Kiu bo v lin kt cho LSP; Nhn dng ti trong LSP; La chn LSP d phng; La chn kiu LSP (n hng, song hng); iu kin cnh bo v cc c tnh khc ca LSP; Phng php tnh ton ng dn cho cc LSR u vo. Th hin ng hm trong LSR nh mt giao din khng nh

Mt s c tnh chung c s dng trong c MPLS v GMPLS s c t gi tr cho kiu m ha bng ZERO trong bng gmplsTunnelTable ch th l LSP ca MPLS. Tt c cc i tng c lit k trc khi LSP c xc nh ti im chuyn tip hoc u ra LSR. T , c th xc nh cc thit b nhn thng bo v c trng thi ca ngi qun tr h thng.

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Chng 4: Qun l mng thc tin

Hnh 4.12: Mi quan h gia cc bng MIB trong qun l GMPLS-TE LSP thc hin ghi li hiu nng ca cc LSP trong GMPLS, mt module c b sung trong bng c s thng tin qun l GMPLS-TE gi l gmplsTunnelReversePerfTable. iu ny xut pht t cc LSP trong GMPLS c thit lp song hng trong cc mi trng khng ch l mi trng gi. Cc yu cu v lng ti nguyn s dng trong GMPLS c lu trong bng mplsTunnelResourceTable. Vn qun l LSP-TE lin quan ti c tnh, tnh ton v ghi li cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn LSP c cung cp trong 3 bng ca module c s thng tin qun l MPLS-TE gm: mplsTunnelHopTable, mplsTunnelCHopTable, mplsTunnelARHopTable. Cc bng ny c gi nguyn trong GMPLS. M rng cui cng trong module c s thng tin qun l GMPLS-TE l bng ch th li ng hm GMPLS (gmplsTunnelErrorTable). Bng ny ghi li cc li xy ra khi thit lp LSP hoc khi LSP hot ng li. Hnh 4.12 ch ra cc bng MIB s dng qun l cc ng dn chuyn mch nhn trong GMPLS-TE cng nh mi quan h gia chng. 4.4 TNG KT CHNG 4 Trong chng ny ln lt trnh by v cc c im c s ca cc bi ton qun l trong mng IP, MPLS, mng quang v GMPLS. Mi kiu kin trc v cng ngh mng yu cu cc phng php qun l khc nhau, nhng tip cn ph bin nht c thc hin trn nguyn tc tiu chun ha v ti s dng cc h thng c s d liu cng nh giao thc qun l mng tn ti. Nhng yu cu sa i v m rng ca cc module c s thng tin qun l MIB c thc hin trn cc yu cu thc t ca cc mi trng mng. i vi cc mng din rng, phng php phn vng chc nng qun l nhm thch ng vi cc kiu cu hnh thit b v tnh c th ca mi
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Chng 4: Qun l mng thc tin

trng qun l v ang c pht trin v hon thin vi cc c ch qun l lin vng thch hp. Tip cn ny v s a n mt lot thch thc trong bi ton qun l mng hin nay v trong tng lai.

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Tng quan v vin thng

Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO

[1] NGN FC books Proceeding, Part II, 2005. [2] Gilbert Held: Managing TCP/IP Networks. John Wiley & Sons, 2000. [3] Douglas Mauro, Kevin Schmidt: Essential SNMP, 2nd Edition, O'Reilly, 2005. [4] Stephen, B.Moris: Network management, MIBs and MPLS, Prentice Hall 2003. [5] Sebastian Abeck, et all. : Network Management: Know It All, Morgan Kaufman, 2009. [6] Steven T.Karris: NETWORKS Design and Management, 2nd ed., Orchard Publications, ISBN 978-1-934404-16-4, 2009.

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