THE BOOK OF LIGHT - LIBER DE LUMINE by Blessed Raymond Lull Doctor Illuminatus and Martyr GOD With the

grace and virtue of your Light We now begin the Book of Light FOREWORD 1. Whereas the intellect reproduces species by attracting likenesses from physical and imaginable things to its coessential and natural intelligible part in which it makes them intelligible, we now write this Book of Light which enables the intellect to become fluent in the science of the General Art, and this book proceeds according to the mode of the General Art (Ars Magna, or Ars Generalis Ultima) whose Principles and Rules it adopts. Now this Book is like a knot tied in a rope to prompt the memory to recollect things. 2. By virtue of its subject, this Book will enlighten the intellect and stimulate it to understand intelligible things artificially and to discover natural beings with their secrets; this Book is meant to be an Art of Understanding subsidiary to the General Art from which it arises; and it deals above all with natural things associated to the intellect in providing doctrine about the light of truth. The subject of this Book is that illumination with which all other sciences are illuminated.

HOW THIS BOOK IS DIVIDED This Book has three Distinctions. The first deals with the Tree and the Principles, Rules and Definitions of the Principles of the General Art. The second deals with the Definitions of light and the ten Rules. The Third deals with Questions about the nine modes of being outside of which nothing can exist.

The Tree
1. In this Book we made one Tree called the Tree or Candelabrum of Light, with nine flowers as shown, and these flowers are named after the nine letters of the Alphabet, namely B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I.K. To know this Art, one must know this Alphabet by heart. B. means Goodness, Difference, Light and Whether. C. means Greatness, Concordance, Light and What. D. means Duration or Eternity, Contrariety, Light and Of What. E. means Power, Beginning, Light and Why. F. means Wisdom, Middle, Light and How much. G. means Will, End, Light and What kind. H. means Virtue, Majority, Light and When. I. means Truth, Equality, Light and Where K. means Glory, Minority, Light, How and With what. 2. This Tree with its flowers is general for illuminating other sciences with the light that the intellect receives from it for seeing the other sciences. 3. Here are the Conditions of this Art's Candelabrum: if there is some doubtful issue that has to do with B, we investigate it with whatever B contains, and if this is not sufficient, we then apply C to B and scrutinize the content of B in conjunction with the content of C, and if C is not sufficient, we go on to D and all the way to K, combining letters with each other; this will necessarily clarify the issue because this set of combinations with B is both implicitly and explicitly general to all the particular lights that can generally be mentioned with reference to B. 4. Any investigation using the conditions of the Tree is general to every kind of light because the Tree is general, due to the above conditions. Nonetheless, before the Artist of light can do anything with this Tree, he must read the entire Book from beginning to end and become thoroughly conversant with it because the entire Book is implicitly contained in the Tree. If the doubtful issue has more to do with C than with B, then it is applied to C and if BC does not yield any explicit results, D is then applied and so on in sequence all the way to CK; and the things said here about B and C apply to all other letter combinations.

COMBINING THE FLOWERS IN THE TREE 5. In this part we give a doctrine that will enable Artists of this Art to use the Flowers of the Tree. first let us deal with the first Flower called B. Here we consider the things contained in B and if there is any doubt about anything contained in B, the doubtful issue is treated with the questions "Whether" or "What" and with reference to the things said about the Definitions of Goodness, Difference and Rule B; after this, conclusions can be drawn by making affirmative or negative statements following the above meanings brought to bear on the issue at hand without distorting or destroying the definitions of Goodness, Difference and Rule B. 6. If the doubtful issue relates to something contained in Flower C, the Artist will proceed in the way described for Flower B, namely he will refer to the definitions of Greatness and Concordance and to Rule C and assert whatever appears in the light of the above terms brought to bear on the issue, using simple or compound definitions as he sees fit. 7. If the doubtful issue has to do with terms represented by B and C, he will refer to the content of Flowers B and C, namely the Definitions and Rules in the first and second Distinctions, and assert the things he sees in the light of the said terms applied to the issue; whatever we said about BC also applies to the other flowers. 8. Let us use the Flowers to deal with doubtful issues, beginning with with Flower B, for instance, let us ask: "Can the Goodness of light be a reason for good to do good without any distinction or motion?" And it seems that it cannot, as signified by the definitions of Goodness, Difference and Rule B. 9. Now if the question has to do with the content of C, for instance, if we ask: "What is candlelight in terms of Greatness and Concordance, and what does it contain in itself? And what is it in other things, and what does it have in other things?" Here we apply Rule C and base the answer on what the first and second Distinctions say about the definitions of Greatness and Concordance. 10. And if the question has to do with BC, for instance if we ask: "When the light of a candle lights a lamp, does it cause good motion as the lamp receives its influx; and what motion do they cause and compose?" Now heating is caused by the heater and what is heated, and running by the runner and what is run, and an arrow's motion by the mover and the movable, and so forth. And here the answer is given in accordance with the things signified by BC about light in the first and second distinctions. The above examples of questions made with BC are valid for making questions with BD, or CD and so forth.

Definitions of the Principles
1. Goodness is the being on account of which good does good. 2. Greatness is the being on account of which Goodness, Eternity etc. are great.

3. 17. Greatness etc. let us ask whether or not the intellect exists: now it apparently does. Glory is the bliss in which Goodness. 19. 8. . 18. understand and love the object: for instance. Greatness etc. Greatness etc. Difference is that on account of which Goodness. The Beginning is what comes before everything else on account of some priority. and it naturally participates in both. Equality is the subject in which the End of the Concordance of Goodness. are clear reasons without any confusion. It has three species. Truth is that which is true about Goodness. 13. 16. Will is the being on account of which Goodness. Duration. 12. we will later define it with the help of these definitions The Ten Rules or Questions 1. Greatness etc. Majority is the image of the immensity of Goodness. are lasting. The End is that in which the Beginning reposes. Contrariety is a mutual resistance of things with divergent ends. are desirable. The Middle is the subject through which the End influences the Beginning and the Beginning transmits its influence back to the End. 6. Power is the being on account of which Goodness. 4. 11. Light is the being that illuminates substances and dispels the darkness. Wisdom is the being on account of which the wise understand. or Eternity is the being on account of which Goodness. Minority is a being close to nothingness. Greatness etc. understood and loved than the denial of its existence. 5. repose. 9. To have full knowledge of light. Greatness etc. Its condition consists in making the affirmations or negations that help the most to remember. agree in unity and plurality. Greatness etc. because the affirmation of its existence can be better remembered. 7. The first Rule inquires into whether something is. doubt and negation. can exist and act. Greatness etc. Virtue is the source of union among Goodness. or not. Greatness etc. 15. 10. and this follows the definitions of the principles previously given here. Concordance is that on account of which Goodness. reposes. 14. Greatness etc. namely affirmation.

intelligible and act of understanding. the intellect exists so that it can understand and move purposefully toward its end which is to understand God and the truths of other . called intelligence. The first species asks what something is. And this is how this Rule asks the question "of what?". The second species asks: "What does the intellect have in itself co essentially and substantially?" And the answer is that the intellect has its own innate intellectivity. nails are made of iron. and has three species. for instance. The third Question or Rule inquires into Material. or reason. as in asking "Why is there an intellect?" And the answer. meaning that it is not made or created from anything that existed before it. The third species inquires into the ownership of things. The first species asks about the origin of something. and so with other similar things. like "To whom does the intellect belong?" or "To whom does the realm belong?" And the answer is that the intellect belongs to man and the realm belongs to the king. The second Rule deals with Quiddity or definition and has four species. 3. with regard to existence. man consists of his own body and soul. likewise. The third species asks: "What is the intellect in other things?" And the answer is that in the will. The fourth species asks "What does the intellect have in other things?" As in asking "What does the intellect have in the will?" And the answer is that the intellect has action in the will through the habit of conscience with which it afflicts the will. intelligible and act of understanding. The fourth Question asks "Why?" and has two species: one concerns existence and the other concerns agency. The second species inquires into the constituent parts things are made of. is that the intellect exists because it consists of its own innate intellective. intelligibility and act of understanding. like a whole that is what it is on account of its own constituent coessential parts. "What is the intellect?" This first species simply considers the essence by asking "What is it in itself?" And the answer is that the intellect is the being of its own essence. namely its own innate intellective. And with regard to agency.2. as for instance "Of what origin is the intellect?" And the answer is that the intellect consists of its own original being. 4. as in asking "What does the intellect consist of?" And the answer is that the intellect consists of its own co essential principles. And this example using the intellect can be applied to everything else. the intellect is what enables the will to choose to love what is truly good and to hate what is truly evil. but simply created inasmuch as it now is and previously was not.

ninth and tenth Rules as we said in the chapter on the Seventh Rule in the Major Art. intelligible and act of understanding. Let us ask: "When does the intellect exist?" And by the first species we answer that the intellect exists when its being exists. the answer is that the intellect has the quantity of its essence and agency. This Rule inquires into things as they exist within time and outside of time: for instance the intellect is within time by the third . the answer is that the intellect has the qualities of the habit or intelligibility that it appropriates when it acts within its own intelligibility whereby it attains other intelligible beings. namely proper and appropriated quality. namely its own innate intellective. The fourth species asks "When does the intellect have something in other things?" The answer is that the intellect has something in other things when it has an understanding of their likenesses. The sixth Question asks about Quality and has two species. 5. The seventh Question asks about Time and has as many species as the second. As for composition. namely simple and compound: for instance. intelligible and act of understanding of which it consists. Likewise. Let us ask. let us ask "What is the quality of fire in its own quality. But here we want to give an example of the Seventh Rule using only the four species of the second Rule. third. for instance when the intellect is practically engaged in a subject. The fifth Question asks about Quantity and has two species. namely heat?" And the answer is that fire is a being that heats. let us ask "What is the quantity of intellect in the simplicity of its essence?" And the answer is that the intellect has the quantity of its essential being. for instance. With this rule we inquire into the "Why and wherefore" of things. it is a being with the power to dry out air. Any topic can be dealt with in the same way as we dealt with the intellect. 6. And if we ask the same question by the second species. Further. by the third species we answer that the intellect exists in other things when it acts in them. This Rule serves to inquire into proper and appropriated qualities. and so forth. by the first species: "What quality does the intellect have?" And the answer is that the intellect has the quality of its own innate intellective. and with the dryness it appropriates to itself from earth.things or entities and to have the habit of science. 7. and what we say about them applies to the remainder. By the second species we answer that the intellect exists when it has its own innate coessential parts. And this Rule serves to inquire into the number and measure of things.

The second species asks: "How is the intellect in other things and other things in it?" And we answer that the intellect has a way of existing in the will and the will in the intellect inasmuch as the intellect and the will together with memory constitute the rational soul. Ninth and Tenth Rules together as was said in the General Art. By the third species. The ninth Question is about mode. like a man existing in his humanity. for the sake of brevity. With the first species let us ask. Third. the intellect is located in the virtue or habit with which it has its habit of knowledge. The first asks how a thing exists in itself. The second asks how one thing exists in another.and fourth species of C but it simply exists outside of time by the first and second species of the same. the intellect is in the soul. we want to give an example using only the four species of the second Rule. but here. let us ask. The third asks about the way parts are in the whole and the whole in its parts. for instance: "How is the intellect in its parts and its parts in it?" And the answer is that the intellect has a way of being in its parts and its parts in it by the natural mode implemented by its own intellective. Now the intellect. The fourth asks how a thing transmits its likenesses outside itself. With the third species. let us ask: "Where is the intellect?" And this Rule has as many species as the second. which is its own being and essence. The eighth Rule asks about location. for instance: "How does the intellect exist as a being per se?" And we answer that the intellect has a mode of existing as a being per se inasmuch as its own essence is distinct from all other essences. is in its own coessential and natural locus. or in the location where man happens to be. and it has four species. 9. let us ask: "How can the intellect transmit its likenesses outside itself?" And we answer that the intellect can transmit its likenesses . and it is also in the subjects in which it has practical habits. for instance. By the second species the intellect is in its own essence and being as its parts constitute a whole. intelligible and act of understanding with the full participation of these three correlatives. And by the fourth species. 8. This Rule serves to inquire about things located in space and about things that simply exist without occupying any space. or in man. With the fourth species. and so forth. or about how things exist. for instance. for instance: the intellect is located in space by the third and fourth species but does not occupy any location by the first and second species.

With the second species. The Tenth Rule. and daylight is a good thing because it is instrumental in destroying darkness and enabling animals to see. Light is a good being that naturally does good in its own way. let us ask: "With what is the intellect a part of the soul?" And we answer that the intellect is a part of the soul with difference. First Part Light defined with the Principles 1. This Rule serves to inquire about spiritual and physical instruments. and it has four species similar to those in the Rule of modality. For instance. This Rule serves to ask about modes according to the way in which things exist in themselves or in other things. 10. let us ask: "With what does the intellect transmit its likenesses outside itself?" And we answer that the intellect transmits its likeness outside itself with its own intellective. concerning instrumentality. and its own Goodness is its natural reason to do good: now candlelight is a good being that naturally does its own kind of good by lighting lamps and lighting up the air. . We have dealt with the Questions or Rules. With the third species let us ask: "With what is the intellect universal and particular?" And we answer that the intellect is universal inasmuch as it has one formal active intellective power with which it attains many things within one universal intelligible that reflects many intelligible likenesses. as said above. and they contain the solutions to the questions in the Third distinction and to all peregrine questions that can be reduced to the explicit terms in the way shown in the second distinction. like an eye viewing its reflection in a mirror. let us ask: "With what does the intellect understand things other than itself?" And we answer that the intellect understands things by acquiring species and combining them together as it places them in its own innate intelligible where it makes them intelligible and understands them. and with all the other principles except contrariety. intelligible and act of understanding with which it produces intelligible species that can be recalled by the memory so the will can choose to love or hate them. concordance and power.outside itself through its habit of science with which it understands many things as it makes them intelligible in its own innate intelligible part. and it is particular when it descends to practical considerations and understands some specific species it has acquired and stored in memory. asks about what things exist with and what they act with. like many images displayed in one mirror. the Sun illuminates the atmosphere to cause daylight. With the fourth species.

in its own understanding of itself. and they cannot do this if the light runs out of material. Appetite and Virtue of light to last in air. Power. Light is a great being on account of its own natural Greatness with which it produces great Illumination. or if it is placed where it cannot move. extinguished candle to which it is drawn through the smoke by its appetite for lighting things. 7. it optimizes its virtuous Goodness and magnifies its virtuous Greatness. And light has a great act potentially existing in its own great. candlelight. as when candlelight lights a lamp without decreasing or vanishing: this is because its own Goodness. for instance. And likewise. 6. it could effectively last forever. so much so that if light never ran out of matter. as when the Virtue of candlelight lights up air and lights lamps with its own Virtue. Instinct. the Moon shines at night to dispel the darkness that does evil against good when it hinders the sight from seeing. as when a candle lights a lamp and lights up the air and when it extends its flame down to another. does its great act by illuminating lamps and air. and its Appetite reposes in the act of illuminating. natural and coessential Greatness: now if candlelight had enough fuel. Greatness etc. 3. Light is a being with its own natural Appetite for illuminating things and reproducing its likenesses. namely its wick and its wax.likewise. the intellect reproduces the likenesses it acquires to make them intelligible and exercise the natural acts of its own Goodness. it would last forever without decreasing in quantity: if candlelight never ran out of wick and wax. for instance. Light is a being that arises with its own Virtue from a flame. the light of a candle has an Instinct for lighting a lamp by using all of its own active mode and the lamp's entire passive mode: candlelight cannot light a lamp without the entirety of its mode because its Instinct cannot perform without a mode just as the intellect cannot understand things unless it has a mode for understanding them. Greatness etc. 5. it would grow into a flame so huge that it would light up the entire sphere of air and consume all darkness and shadow. given that light enclosed on all sides in a small space cannot move. Light is a powerful being by its very nature: its innate Power enables it to maintain its size and identity and to produce other light or lights without decreasing or going out. Light is a being with a natural Instinct for doing things proper to its own nature. as we know by experience. sustain its identity. 2. and as it is infused in the air or in a lamp. or if the wind blows it out. Light is a being that lasts in its own natural Duration with which it causes the Goodness. Greatness. 4. .

it delights in attracting to itself the things it can reach through the senses and the imagination. in this way. now if there is no light. this is because darkness and shadow are the colors of earth which air receives in its great transparency. 10. 15. is the color of fire and of the Sun.8. Light is a being that lights up colors and shapes and enables the power of sight to see colored objects: as the intellect attains the truth about things by telling them apart. Light. Light is a being that delights in existing and acting: in existing because it is what it is and in acting because it reproduces itself. from its own Goodness. 9. while Truth makes this a true visual experience. truly enlightens scholars with the science it teaches when its matter and the scholar's matter are not impeded by ignorance. Greatness etc. Light is a being that quantifies things with its quantity. the power of sight cannot perform its act of seeing. and with its own Goodness. 11. Light is the form used by fire to move lightable matter that is lit whenever form and matter repose in light. in the . or brightness. Light is a being that accords visibility to visible subjects so that the power of sight can objectify things and attain one light through its concordance with another light: now candlelight and lamplight both belong to the same genus as they light up a house. and so do sunlight and firelight because the Sun effectively increases the heat of fire as the Sun convenes with fire in the genus of light and heats bodies here below with the heat of fire. blue or red colors receives and takes on these colors. namely continuous and discrete. and the intellect. now transparency is the color of air. Greatness etc. now the colors of the luminaries in heaven are not in the same genus as the colors of earth. Light is a being that truly illuminates air and lamps with itself. Light is the supreme source of color because the luminaries of heaven convene with the light of fire in the same genus. and it delights in making all this intelligible within itself so it can have repose. the light of intellect delights in understanding and reproducing its likenesses in itself and in the humans who use it to learn science. in its own way. and darkness cannot resist this color unless some opaque body impedes it. 14. And likewise. 12. and it has two kinds of quantity. light disposes distinct colors and figures in the physically visible world. It is continuous. like candlelight that has natural delight in lighting up lamps and space. 13. water or air. likewise. fire and air agree in heat while light drives out and dispels darkness and lends its color to air as we see when the Sun shines by day and when candles illuminate courtyards at night. for instance. taking on these colors wherever light is partly blocked out as when a crystal placed on green. from itself. when the intellect is joined to a body. likewise.

lucificable and their act of lucification that give rise to accidental.or the Sun's body . Light is a passive form whose matter is the general illuminability in which peregrine luminaries receive light. And light is a passive form or power when opaque bodies stop it from dispelling darkness and from growing and expanding in quantity and movement. 16. as the Sun illuminates the Moon and candlelight lights up the air. Light is a being that produces times and seasons and participates in motion more closely than any other being. now light cannot be without motion. in the triangular shape of flames. and it is discrete in Saturn and Jupiter etc. 22. Light is a being that relates to things by showing them and it shows that sunlight . 23. breadth and depth. or when gold and silver are mixed in coins. peregrine light when light illuminates and colors the air. Light is a being that acts by illuminating air and coloring and brightening it with light. namely in the air's length. 19. or when it clothes a rose with light shining through the air. in the Sun's and Moon's roundness. . and since motion accords with time. and likewise the intellect habituates itself with science in its own innate intelligibility by acquiring peregrine species habituated with intelligibility. or when substance and accident are mixed in compounds. we see how bodies in mixture stand within one another as when elements mix together in elemented things. or in sunlight by day and moonlight at night. in heaven and in the Sun by day and in the Moon at night. Light is a being that habituates the things it illuminates: as when candlelight habituates and clothes illuminated air by coloring it with its light. 21. light participates in sequential motion more closely than any other being does. in potentiality in a covered lamp and in motion when a stone is struck with iron. coessential. etc. 20.and fire both have substantial. Light is a being with the quality of showing things and it shows that the subject of brightness consists of its innate bright parts and this subject lends brightness to other subjects that do not shine by themselves.various sources of light in a house. and in a lamp in a room and in a candle in a courtyard. Light is a being that locates itself in the air that it lights up and that locates air within itself in every place to which its radiance extends. Light is a habit of air illuminated by the Sun in daytime or by a candle in a room and thus light is a being situated in the subject in which it exists. 17. lamps. innate related parts namely the lucificative. and as every proper color is inseparable from its own subject. And here we see how one color is contained in another. 18. and its action overcomes darkness as was shown above.

We used definitions to show how the general Principles apply to light. Wisdom. Light also exists in minority and close to naught when it potentially exists in a stone without the presence of external agents. with its act of illuminating. this power of light only exists potentially. beloved and act of loving. by the Sun in daylight and by the Moon at night. as when the lover is joined to the beloved and when the knower is joined to knowledge. Light is a subject in which the final concordance between the illuminative and illuminated equally reposes in their act of illuminating. as does the light of human intellect. when the act of loving joins the lover to the beloved and the act of knowing joins the knower to the knowledge. which cannot happen unless the light and the air mix together to make one compound that occupies the entire space within the horizon both formally and materially. Light is a being whose minority makes it exist in proximity to nothingness. Virtue. 26. make its lucificative luminance shine out into infinity. memory and will. 27. And here we see the Greatness of God the creator displaying the outward signs of his intrinsic operation and Trinity. Goodness. Truth and Glory. Light is a subject that exists in space within a horizon in which the color of air is joined to the color of fire. which comes about in an act of illumination. Eternity. Light is the end in which the colors of fire and air repose as does the power of sight which cannot see anything without light: they repose when their appetite is joined to the desired object. it could. Light is an image of God's immense Magnitude. 28. Power. Second Part The Rules Applied to Light Rule B . namely darkness comes into being. and it really has minority because it is deprived of being when it is deprived of material and when its opposite. here we see how spiritual things are signified by corporeal ones. but since candlelight cannot do this for lack of fuel and space. 25. and by a candle flame in a room where continuous and undivided light shines on every extreme of every wall as candlelight lights up the air and as the air lets light shine through its transparency. like motion and a collision with iron or with another stone without which it cannot manifest its act.24. now if a lit candle had an infinite amount of fuel placed at its disposal. Will. and the same is understood about the light of intellect and the flame of love in the knower. they can be applied to different beings in different ways. and as we applied them to light. knowledge and act of knowing and in the lover.

. We ask whether candlelight is joined to the power of sight in viewing colored things. 1.In this part we apply the ten Rules or Questions to light following the mode used in the second part of the first distinction. its matter cannot reproduce. although they work together like an agent with its instrument when the power of sight attains illuminated and colored objects through illuminated air. now illumination could only be air's own quality if it did not receive it in and from the illumination that is proper to fire. can produce lamplight. and deals with possibility. because fire's essential illuminating power illuminates air in fire's innate illuminable part. Given that candlelight. and the answer is that it does. and we answer that it is not because they do not have the same proper subjects. and the illuminating quality does not belong to air itself but air appropriates it from fire. And now we begin with the first Rule. 2. 6. The first Rule is signified by B. whereas candlelight has secondary matter under prime matter. because an Angel does not have discontinuous matter. 5. 7. so does candlelight internally transmute the transparency of air into brightness while the transparency retains its identity. We ask whether candlelight vegetates the light of the lamp it lights. which is less powerful than an Angel. and candlelight visibly produces lamplight without diminishing itself or decreasing in quantity. And the answer is that it does because light exists invisibly and potentially in the wick and wax and visible light brings it into act by generating its species and exhausting itself in its upward movement where it transmutes itself into the species of smoke. We ask: "Does the light of a candle generate light in a lamp without decreasing itself? We answer that it does. We ask whether candlelight illuminates air within its own essence. and the answer is that it does not. which is impossible. because if candlelight did not generate lamplight from itself it would produce it artificially and it would not belong to the same genus as lamplight. since candlelight and lamplight are purely elemented bodies in which vegetation cannot be sustained because of excessive motion and heat. We ask whether a lit candle transmutes the transparency of air into its own light while the transparency of air still remains what it is. 4. 3. and this secondary matter exists due to the transition of prime matter into lamplight by way of generation. as we see. and the answer is that it does: now. as imagination internally reproduces likenesses of outwardly sensible beings which still retain their own identity. we ask whether an Angel can generate another Angel? And the answer is that it cannot. We ask whether candlelight moves on its own.

illuminates illuminated air and produces illuminated lamplight in its own illuminable as it brings it from potentiality into act by way of generation: likewise. voices without using ears and moving bodies without using touch. in order to constitute a full three dimensional body comprised of its own form and matter wherein the elemental accidents are sustained. as in the eye which is an illuminated organ joined to the power of sight that endows it with sense and the power to see. but it does so by contingency inasmuch as the artificer does not naturally light lamplight with candlelight but rather does so through contingency occasioned by need. and a Doctor enlightens himself with the habit of science as he enlightens his students. and light with its virtue has action in the power of sight. candlelight illuminates lamplight and air. now light has in itself its own innate constituent parts. regarding Quiddity. 9. understands and loves them more. namely the illuminative. 3. namely that things are to be affirmed or negated as the soul remembers. for instance. 4. Rules C to K applied to Light The second Rule. an Angel acts on things below with its innate powers in its own innate matter whereby it perceives colors in general without using eyes. and the answer is given in two distinct ways: now inasmuch as candlelight lights lamplight. 1. 2. and the answer is that they do. We ask whether lamplight is lit by candlelight through necessity or by contingency. now light is a disposing agent in air as it enables the power of sight to attain white color that disperses the sight and black color that focuses the sight. What is light in other things? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction. now light has action in the air it illuminates and passion in the power of sight that uses it to see color. . here we see the general nature of the said Rule with its conditions. What is light? The solution to this question is signified by the second Question or Rule in the second part of the first distinction. etc. illuminable and their act of illuminating: like the light of a candle whose innate illuminative. What does light have in other things? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction.8. it does so by natural causation. Light is a being that illuminates things. in its own innate illuminable. We solved the above questions with the first general Question which is "Whether?" and we followed its conditions. signified by C. We ask whether the four elements exist in act in candlelight. What does light have in itself coessentially and naturally? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction.

Its proper quantity is its own quantifying quantity and its peregrine . one proper and one appropriated or peregrine. The Fourth Rule. now candlelight is necessarily caused by its own constituting coessential. now the Sun's light exists primordially in its own right. To whom does light belong? The solution to this question is signified by the third species of the Rule in the first distinction: now candlelight belongs to sunlight because the heavenly bodies above effectively and virtually possess bodies here below. substantial and natural lucificative. And candlelight has two quantities. and moonlight is made of sunlight. 1. signified by F What is the quantity of candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule F in the second part of the first distinction. now candlelight exists for lighting up the air and light exists in air to dispel the darkness in it so that sighted beings can see objects that cannot be seen if the air is not lit up. "Why?" signified by E 1. 2. as does the motion of the eighth sphere because at their natural origin they are not derived from anything else. and the light of a lamp is naturally caused by candlelight but it is occasioned by contingency when someone happens to light a lamp with light from a candle. lucificable and lucification. and the heat of fire possesses the heat of air and that of hot water. lucificable and their act of lucification. like divine intellect possesses human intellect. 2. the light of a lamp is made from that of a candle and elemented candlelight consists of the light of simple fire. lucificable and their act of lucification. What does light consist of? The solution to this question is signified by the third Rule in the second part of the first distinction: now light consists of its own coessential lucificative. and Saturn's motion consists of the motion of the eighth sphere at the antipodes that drives planets from west to east in our side of the sky like water moving a mill wheel by driving its lower part so that the upper part moves. namely candlelight that causes the peregrine light in air. and the light in air exists because its cause exists. outwardly in its own necessary lucificable. Why is there light? The solution to this question is signified by the fourth Rule in the second part of the first distinction. now candlelight in continuous quantity is one body in one undivided quantity through all its discrete quantities sustained in its physical parts. 3.The third Rule. namely the lucificative. "Of What" signified by D. Why is there candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by the fourth Rule in the second part of the first distinction. and the light of air is peregrine because it accidentally consists of candlelight. The Fifth Rule or Rule of Quantity. Of what origin is light? The solution to this question is signified by the third Rule in the second part of the first distinction.

and it exists because it contains parts that exist within one another. horses. without this. now candlelight has two qualities: proper and appropriated. etc. Where is candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule I in the second part of the first distinction. The Seventh Rule. candlelight could never move from potentiality to act. as a body it is in substance and accident because physical bodies are composed of substance and accidents. When is there candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule H in the second part of the first distinction. The Ninth Rule. or Rule of "Where?" signified by I. it also has a way of existing because of its innate mobility. it existed potentially in stone and iron and in a candle before it was lit. It also exists in numeric alteration when the light that potentially existed in the wick and wax actually corrupts the flame's body by successively depriving its previous number. and it is in air. and even so it cannot be sensed by touch although its color is visible. it is only visible as the light of a flame with shape and color and situation inasmuch as it is joined to physical being. like its form in its matter and vice versa. The proper quality is the light of simple fire whose color causes compound candlelight. The Sixth Rule. or the Rule of "When?" signified by the letter H. and so forth. like a flame whose mobility enables it to live from wax and wick. and it is in the room where it exists like the content in its container. and this peregrine quantity illuminates stones. or Rule of Quality. lucificable and their lucification. signified by G. like the efficient cause in its effect. What is the quality of candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule G in the second part of the first distinction. And candlelight is in successive becoming when it moves from potentiality to act and it is in corruption when it gradually consumes the wick and wax of the candle. now candlelight exists when its own being and number exist. The Eighth Rule. now candlelight has a way to be what it is and not to be what it is not.quantity is the quantity of light in air derived from the said proper quantity. now candlelight is in its own number and it is sustained in its own constituent lucificative. or Rule of "With What?" signified by K With what does candlelight exist? The solution to this question is signified by . or Rule of "How?" signified by K How does candlelight exist? The solution to this question is signified by Rule K in the second part of the first distinction. lucificable and their act of lucification is neither visible nor measurable. because its nutritional moisture exists. Now the quantity sustained in the lucificative. The Tenth Rule. so the color of candlelight is a subalternate quality that rules the peregrine color of light in air where light causes color in the light reflected by a stone or a rose illuminated by light acting as an appropriated quality of air. and it is also in motion.

especially Rules B and C. candlelight exists with its Goodness because it is good. the first and second parts of the first distinction and the first and second parts of the second distinction. We have five loci to refer to for solving questions. and with the concordance of fire and air in heat and of fire and earth in dryness and with the opposition of earth and air in dryness and moisture.Rule K in the second part of the first distinction.Questions about God 1. and so forth. G. Now the questions are divided into nine parts. Angel. and I to the loci in the first and second . with its Duration with which it lasts and with its Power with which it is powerful. Further. Elements. We have dealt with the Rules applied to light. and it exists with the concordance of air and fire in heat and of air and water in moisture and with the opposition of water and fire in cold and heat. namely: the Tree. with its Greatness because it is great. There are actually no more than these nine because whatever exists or can exist must be included in its way within the nine above terms. Heaven. C. And candlelight exists with the concordance of water and air in moisture and of water and earth in cold and with the opposition of air and earth in moisture and dryness. infinite and eternal production within God? The solution to this question is signified by the definitions of Goodness. candlelight exists with the concordance of earth and fire in dryness and of earth and water in cold. now candlelight exists with the mixture of its constituting elements. Question: Is there good. namely into nine beings which are the following: God. Sense. Greatness and Eternity and by BC of the Tree. 2. Imagination. and with the opposition of fire and water in cold and heat. which shows that the motion of candlelight is derived from and influenced by the said concordances and contrarieties existing in one and the same subject. and this application is a general locus from which you can fully extract solutions to any questions that can be asked about light Third Distinction Questions This distinction deals with peregrine questions and their solutions are referred to the first distinction where they are implicit and to the second distinction where they are more explicitly signified. Artifice. Third Distinction First Part . Further. Question: Do the divine dignities or reasons have their own equal acts in God's essence? Solution: apply B. Soul. Vegetation. Now let us deal with the first part of the third distinction.

13. C. Greatness. Third Distinction Second Part . Question: Do angels exist? Solution: go to the Definitions of Goodness. G and H in the first and second . Majority.Questions about Angels 1. and G and then to the things they signify in the first and second distinctions. D. Question: Is there any properly numeral quantity in God? Solution: Go to Flowers C. 11. Question: Is there nature in God? Solution: Go to the definitions of Goodness. the ninth paragraph of rule B and to the second species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. 15. 6. Question: With what does God exist and with what does He act within Himself? Solution: Go to the definitions of Goodness. coessential and natural operation to the human intellect in this life? Solution: Go to the third species of Rule C. D and F and then to the Rules and definitions signified by them in the first and second distinctions. Question: Are there any properties in God? Solution: Go to B. Question: What does God have naturally and coessentially within Himself? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. Question: Where is God? Solution: Go to Rule I in the first and second distinctions and to the second species of Rule C. 5. and to Rule K in the divine mode and go to the second species of Rule C. Question: How does God exist and how does He act within Himself? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule C and to the ninth Rule K. but has infinite and eternal properties as indicated by Rules B and C. and all other questions about God can be solved in the same way. We have dealt with the questions about God and shown how to find solutions to questions in the above loci. 12. Greatness etc. 3. Greatness and Power and to the second species of Rules C and D.distinctions. note that God in Himself is not divided into parts. However. C and G in the Tree. Question: Must there necessarily be some differentiation within the Godhead? Solution: Go to the second distinction. 8. Question: Is God the being of his own essence? Solution: go to the first species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. Question: Does God represent his intrinsic. Question: Is God as great in his intrinsic act as in his existence? Solution: Go to Rules E and G and to Flowers B. 16. the first paragraph on B. Question: What does God have in his effect? Solution: Go to the fourth species of Rule C in the second distinction. 17. 4. Question: Is God a necessary being? Solution: Go to Rule E. C. 7. Question: Can God produce something else from Himself without diminishing Himself? Solution: Go to the first Rule in the second distinction. 10. 9. 14. Question: What does God consist of? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule D in the first and second distinctions. and to Rules B.

11. Question: What does an angel's willing consist of? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule D in the first distinction. . 18. 12. 5. Question: What does an angel consist of? Solution: go to the first and second species of Rule D in the first distinction. Question: Is the devil evil by necessity or by contingency? Solution: go to the ninth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction and to the definition of Minority. hear and move physical things with and within its own innate species? Solution: go to the fourth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: What is an angel's Power? Solution: Go to the definition of Power in the second distinction. 3. to Rules C and D and to the first species of Rule E in the second distinction. 9. Question: What is an angel's Greatness? Solution: Go to the definition of Greatness in the second distinction. Question: Does an angel have innate species with which it acts upon things here below? Solution: go to the fourth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. 14. 2. Question: Does an angel move on its own? Solution: go to the second species of Rule C. Question: What is an angel in its effect and what is it in its Greatness? Solution: Go to the third paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. Question: What coessential and natural things does an angel have in itself? Solution: Go to the second paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. 7. Question: Does a good angel merit glory necessarily or by contingency? Solution: go to the ninth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction and to the definition of Majority. 8. Question: What is an angel? Solution: Go to the first paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. Question: Is an angel made of angelic parts? Solution: go to the eighth paragraph in the part on Rule B. 16. Question: Are physical things inherently proportioned to the innate species of angels? Solution: go to the seventh paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. 13. 15. Question: What does an angel have in other things? Solution: Go to the fourth species of rule C in the second distinction. Question: Does an angel participate in things below effectively with its innate species like an efficient cause in its effect? Solution: go to the fifth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Can one angel generate another? Solution: go to the second distinction. 10. 6. 17. Question: Why do angels exist? Solution: go to the first and second species of Rule E in the first distinction. 19. the second paragraph in the part on Rule B. 4. Question: Does an angel see.Distinctions.

Question: Is there any essential truth in the essence of heaven? Solution: go to the definition of Truth in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Does the contrariety of heat and cold between Aries and Saturn belong to their essence? Solution: go to the definition of Contrariety in the first part of the second distinction. 23. Question: Does the concordance in dryness between Aries and Saturn belong to their essence? Solution: go to the definition of Concordance in the first part of the second distinction. sometimes through likenesses. Question: Does heaven's motion move under the influence of its own virtue? Solution: go to the definition of Virtue in the first part of the second distinction. 9. Question: How and with what does an angel exist? Solution: go to Rule K in the first distinction. Question: Is delight an innate part of heaven? Solution: go to the definition of Glory in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Is the greatness of heaven a reason for it to produce great motion? Solution: go to the definition of greatness in the first part of the second distinction. Third Distinction Third Part . Question: Does heaven have a natural appetite for moving things here below? Solution: go to the definition of Will in the first part of the second distinction. 24.Questions about Heaven 1. 10. sometimes literally. 3. 21. Question: What qualities does an angel have? Solution: go to Rule G in the first distinction. Question: Is the goodness of heaven a cause for it to do good? Solution: go to the definition of Goodness in the first part of the first distinction. 5. 11.20. 13. Question: Does the motion of heaven last on its own? Solution: go to the definition of Duration in the first part of the second distinction. Question: What quantity does an angel have? Solution: go to Rule F in the first distinction. 4. Question: Is there some essential difference in the essence of heaven with which it differentiates things below? Solution: go to the definition of Difference in the first part of the second distinction. Question: When did the angels come into being? Solution: go to Rule H in the first distinction. 6. 7. Question: Are heat and cold in the elements caused by the contrariety . Question: Where are the angels? Solution: go to Rule I in the first distinction. Question: Does heaven have a natural instinct for moving things here below? Solution: go to the definition of Wisdom in the first part of the second distinction. 8. 2. Question: Can heaven move itself and the planets with its own power? Solution: go to the definition of Power in the first part of the second distinction. 12. and other questions about angels can be solved in the same way. We have solved questions about the angels by referring to the above loci. 22.

16. greater than sunlight? Solution: go to the definition of Majority in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Does the Sun illuminate moonlight from its essence? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. 20. 30. 25. Question: Are the planetary spheres joined together and is their motion continuous? Solution: go to the definition of Middle in the first part of the second distinction. 17. 14. Question: What are the natural coessential moving parts of heaven? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. 15. Question: Are sunlight and firelight joined together in daylight? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does the power of combustion make candlelight into an image of divine Goodness. is there anything potential that does not come into act? Solution: go to the definition of Minority in the first part of the second distinction.between Saturn and Jupiter? Solution: go to the definition of Beginning in the first part of the second distinction. 26. 21. 29. Question: Could it be that heaven generates Saturn and Saturn generates Jupiter? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does the Sun generate the light of Venus. and this is signified by Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. 18. 27. 23. 24. Greatness etc. Question: Does the Sun transmute the transparency of air into sunlight? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does sunlight illuminate the Moon through contingency or by necessity? And do heavenly bodies cause contingencies in bodies here below? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Do the lucificative. Mars and the Sun? Solution: go to the definition of Equality in the first part of the second distinction. 19. Question: Does moonlight potentially exist in sunlight? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. 28. 22. Question: Why are equal things more compatible than unequal ones for a native of Leo. Question: Does sunlight shining on the Moon produce moonlight? Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: What is the motion of heaven? Solution: The motion of heaven is the universal cause of all natural physical motion. Question: Are sunlight and moonlight essentially joined together? Solution: go to the definition of Middle in the first part of the second distinction. then Venus the light of Mercury. lucificable and their lucificating exist in act in sunlight? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: In heaven. 31. Question: What is the motion of heaven in that of Saturn and so on in a . Question: Do Mars and the Sun repose in each other through motion? Solution: go to the definition of End in the first part of the second distinction. then Mercury the light of the Moon and Moon the light of Fire? Solution: Go to the first paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction.

44. and great on account of its own natural Greatness etc. Question: Does the Sun's active virtue in things here below come from the virtue of heaven? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Is heaven's motion successive from Saturn's standpoint. Question: Does motion belong to time past? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. 41. in the mode of generation. Question: Does heaven have its own appetite to go somewhere on its own? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. Where is heaven? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. 50. 48. 36. 46. Question: Do time and motion exist continuously? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. 34. 39. or is it appropriated? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. 49. Question: What does the light of lightning consist of? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. 35. Question: Does heaven's motion actively participate in the motion of snow? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Supposing that there were no prime universal physical form.? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does heaven have its own motion for moving itself? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. 51. 37. 43. Question: What does heaven's motion consist of? Solution: Go to the first paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. 32. 38. to the motion of a rose? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. Question: What does the motion of rain belong to? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. Question: What is the motion of heaven for? Solution: Go to Rule E in the second part of the second distinction. but continuous in itself? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. 47. Question: Do plants have their own motion. could there be a continuous diametrical line from Cancer to Capricorn? Solution: Go to Rule F in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Is heaven good on account of its own natural Goodness. 45. 42. Question: Does the Sun alone cause the natural daily cycle? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Can there be motion without time? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Is heaven contained by something? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. 40. Question: Does the motion of heaven exist in a rose? Solution: Go to Rule I . Question: Why is there heaven? Solution: Go to Rule E in the second part of the second distinction. 33.straight line.

3. Question: With what do Aries and Pisces agree and disagree? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: How is the motion of heaven continuous? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction.Questions about the Rational Soul 1. 59. 6. or Instinct of light. or Appetite of light. Question: Does the will's appetite desire the Beloved sooner and more fervently than it desires good things? Solution: go to the definition of the Will. Question: With what do the heavenly bodies cause bodies here below? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. 61. 2. Question: How is the motion of heaven circular? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Are the planets moved by contrary innate virtues? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does the rational soul have a natural appetite for doing good? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light. 58. 60. 4. does the human soul still have the same power it had while it was in the body? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. 57. Third Distinction Fourth Part . 62. 54. Question: Is the intellect more readily attracted to what it understands than to the truth? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Question: How does heaven move? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. 55. Question: Does the soul have innate virtue? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 56. 7. Question: Does the motion of heaven exist in a stone while it rises and falls? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. 8. 53. Question: Does a separated soul naturally have appetite for remembering and understanding things? Solution: go to the definition of the Wisdom. 5. Question: Does the rational soul have as much natural appetite for a great intellectual act as for a great act of the will? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light.Question: After death. Question: With what does the Sun cause heat and the Moon cause cold? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: How does the natural motion of things last here below? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: How does the motion of heaven arouse heat in fire or in summer? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: What does the motion of the planetary virtues exist with? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction.in the second part of the second distinction. 52. . Question: Does the soul joined to the body make the body last? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light.

why does it make errors? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. 25. 12.9. Question: Does the Intellect have an intrinsic habit whereby it habituates itself with its extrinsic habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. intrinsic difference with which it performs distinct acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. or Delight of light. why are the intellect and will sometimes in opposition? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. Question: Is there any matter in the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. Question: Is the Soul located in the body and vice versa? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. 27. 14. Question: Do the soul and its powers have an internal structure? Solution: go to the definition of the situational Principle of light. Question: Given that the soul is not composed of contrary things. memory and will equal powers in the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light. Question: Does the soul have primordial intelligibility in which it gives rise to the intelligibilities of other beings? Solution: go to the definition of the substantial Principle of light. Question: Does the soul have innate. Question: Does the soul truly indicate God? Solution: go to the definition of the quality of light. 10. 22. 26. Question: Can the intellect act against ignorance? Solution: go to the definition of the active Principle of light. Question: Does the intellect reproduce species without corrupting itself? . Question: Does each power of the soul have its own innate relations? Solution: go to the definition of the relative Principle of light. 19. 16. 15. intrinsic concordance with which it performs concordant acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. 21. Question: Are the intellect. 17. Question: Is the intellect an image of God in existence and action? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. Question: With what does the intellect come to rest? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light.. Question: Solution: Does the intellect belong to the passive genus? go to the definition of the passive Principle of light. given that its essence is unmovable and inalterable? Solution: go to the definition of the time producing Principle of light. Question: Why does the intellect understand things sequentially. 29. 13. Question: Given that the intellect has innate instinct. Question: Is there any innate medium within the Intellect? Solution: go to the definition of the Middle of light. 11. 28. Question: Does the soul have quantity? Solution: go to the definition of the quantity of light. 18. Question: Does the soul have innate. Question: Why does the intellect want knowledge? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory. 20. 23. 24.

we will put some questions about the human imagination and some . Question: Is the soul joined to the body moved along its course by man? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule C. 51. Question: Can one soul generate another soul? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule B. 44. 49. Question: What does the soul consist of? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule D. Question: Does the soul encounter old vegetative and sensitive powers in the body it joins? Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph of Rule B. Question: Does the essence of a soul joined to a body cause a human essence? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Does the intellect act inwardly by necessity and outwardly by contingency?? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph of Rule B. Question: When does the soul exist? Solution: Rule H. 36. Question: Why does the soul exist? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule E. Question: Does the soul belong to man? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule D. Question: What does the soul exist with? Solution: Rule K. Question: Does the intellect have a general primordial act of understanding? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule D. 35.Questions about the Imagination Given that there are two kinds of imagination. 33. Question: Does the intellect make the species it acquires intelligible within its own essence? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule B. Question: What is the soul's quantity? Solution: Go to Rule F. 30. Question: Can a soul joined to a body move by itself? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule B. 41. Question: What is the soul? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. namely that of beasts and that of humans. 47. 45. Question: What does the soul joined to the body have in the powers under it? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule C. 32. 48. Question: What are the soul's qualities? Solution: Rule G. 34. Question: Does the soul join the body to constitute a human being? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph of Rule B. Question: How does the soul exist? Solution: Rule K. 43. Question: Where is the soul? Solution: Rule I. Third Distinction Fifth Part . 38. 37. 46. 40. 42. 50. 39. Question: What are the natural and coessential inner parts of the soul and its powers? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule C.Solution: Go to Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does each power of the soul have its own innate act? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Does the soul exist as much for itself as for its purpose? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule B. 52. 31.

3. similar to the intellect in humans which stands above the imagination because it can understand unimaginable separate substances without using the imagination? Solution: go to the definition of the Principle of light. Question: What are the imagination's shadows? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. the imagination of irrational animals cannot act without some subject that has color or shape. and why do humans fear snakes on sight? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. 16. 10. does a beast's imagination move form before it moves matter? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. 14. Question: Does the imagination acquire shadows in an extra sensory way. 15. 2. Question: What is the imagination's enemy? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Question: With what does one imagination agree with another? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. 6. Question: Does the imagination have an innate act with which it acquires its peregrine acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 4. 9. 5. Question: Is a beast's imagination subject to another power. and are these shadows that we call species a vestige of sense impressions? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction.about the imagination of irrational animals. Question: Why does the imagination reproduce its acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. 1. Question: Why does a newly hatched chick recognize edible grain without ever having seen it before? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. estimation and appetite. 11. Question: In procreating. both species of imagination require different kinds of questions and solutions. Question: Why can the imagination freely expand or diminish its acts? Solution: go to the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. Question: Why do goats fear wolves on sight. differently understood and extracted from the examples given about light. Question: With what does the imagination perform its distinctive acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. Question: In sensing things. Question: Does the imagination illuminate the intellect's perception of physical beings just as candlelight illuminates air so the power of sight can see colored objects? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light in the first part of the second distinction. 7. does a man generate his child's imagination? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. and although it has under it the powers of memory. Question: Why does the imagination move the sensitive power to sense things? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Question: Is the imagination a being that truly informs the intellect about what is sensed by the senses? Solution: go to the definition of the qualitative Principle . 13. therefore. 8. now the human imagination exists in the middle between the rational soul and the senses whereas the imagination of irrational animals has no other power above itself. 12.

Question: Does a beast's imagination move on its own? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule B. Question: How are the acts of the Imaginative and sensitive powers joined together? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. or in a higher power. 22. estimation and appetite active in the sensitive power of the animal to which it is joined? Solution: go to the definition of the active Principle of light. Question: Can the imaginative tell whether an object is bitter or sweet when the eyes do not see it? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule B. 29. 17. Question: Can the imagination diminish its act without diminishing itself? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Why can't a man imagine a horse just while he is looking right at it? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. Question: Does the imagination convert the species it acquires into imaginable ones with its own innate imaginable part? Solution: go to the definition of the passive Principle of light. Question: When does the act of the imagination exist in time? Solution: go to the definition of the time producing Principle of light. 21. or vice versa? . Question: Does the imagination have equal innate powers? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light. like the shadow of a tree. Question: Does a beast acquire the peregrine habits of its imaginative through an innate imaginative habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. 30. 32. Question: Does a beast's imagination repose in itself. 19. 26. 25. or in a lower power? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light. 31. Question: Can the light of the sensitive power. 20. Question: In what does the imagination move the sensitive power to sense things? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. Question: Does the imagination have its own relative coessential constituent parts? Solution: go to the definition of the relative Principle of light. 33. 34. Question: Is the imaginative rooted in the sensitive power. Question: Why is the imaginative on this side of the earth unable to imagine that people at the antipodes can move upward just like people can do here? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. which is a shadow made of darkness due to the absence of light? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph of Rule B. 35. dispose the imagination to imagine things? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph of Rule B. 18. 23. Question: Why does the imagination situate its act in relation to the imagined object? Solution: go to the definition of the situational Principle of light. Question: Are species reproduced by the imagination in the same way as the shadows of sense objects. when disconnected from the imaginative. Question: Is there one general imaginative power shared by several senses? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. 28.of light. Question: Is the imagination with its powers of memory. 24. 27.

Question: Is the imagination of the same essence as the body? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule D.Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph of Rule B. we compare it to the substantial flame from which candlelight accidentally arises. Question: Is there one act of imagining that is innate and another act that is peregrine? Solution: Go to Rule G. 49. Question: Are the imagination's habits formed at random? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph of Rule B. Question: What innate coessential things does the imagination have? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule C. 38. Is the sensitive power a reason for a sentient being to naturally produce good sentient beings. Given that the sensitive power is a substance. Question: Is there one general imaginative power from which all particular Imaginative powers come? Solution: Go to Rule F. just like candlelight is accidental. Third Distinction Sixth Part . Question: What does the imagination come from? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule D. 47. 40. 42. 44. 43. 46. lions produce lions. Question: With what does the imagination exist? Solution: Go to Rule K. 41. 36. Solution: . etc. Question: Does the peregrine act of the imagination exist potentially in its innate act? Solution: Go to Rule H. 52. 45. 51. Question: What is the imaginative power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. Question: What does the imagination have in the soul? Solution: The fourth paragraph of Rule C. Question: To whom does the imagination belong? The third paragraph of Rule D. Question: How does the imagination exist? Solution: Go to Rule K. Question: Where is the imagination? Solution: Go to Rule I. and thus the questions sometimes refer to the former and sometimes to the latter. and sometimes include both. as humans produce humans. 39.Questions about the Sensitive Power Questions about the sensitive power can be considered in two ways. Question: Is the imagination an instrument of the intellect? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule E. Question: Why is there an imaginative power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule E. namely. because we consider the sensitive power's acts with its sensible luminaries as accidental. with regard to the sensitive power of men and that of beasts. Question: Is the imaginative rooted in the elementative and sensitive powers of beasts? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 50. 37. Question: What is the imagination in the soul to which it is joined? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule C. 1. 48.

Is the sensitive power passive in its own right. 8. Is the sensitive power corruptible per se or by accident? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. .go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction. 15. or due to the matter of the subject in which it exists? Solution: go to the definition of the Passion of light. 3. Does the eyesight really see colors and shapes. Is the essence and virtue of the sensitive power as great as the essence and virtue of candlelight? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of candlelight. the sensible and the act of sensing? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. 11. 12. innate situation with regard to each particular sense? Solution: go to the definition of the Situation of light. 22. Does pain debilitate and darken the sensitive power's appetite? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. Does the sensitive power have an innate virtue for sensing things? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 2. 17. Does the sensitive power dispose the imaginative to imagine things. 21. Can the sensitive power exist without motion? Solution: go to the definition of the Time of light. Is the sensitive power of a generating being corrupted by the act of generation? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. 16. 4. or only likenesses of them? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Is the sensitive power in some way an innate habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. Does the sensitive power have an intrinsic. Are the lights of the imaginative and sensitive powers joined together? Solution: go to the definition of the substantial Principle of light. 6. 13. 5. Does the sensitive power have innate relative substantial parts? Solution: go to the definition of the Relation of light. 10. 19. Is the sensitive power active in the vegetative power to which it is joined? Solution: go to the definition of the Action of light. 9. Are sensual appetite and pain to the sensitive power what love and hate are to the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. 20. 7. 14. must there be innate concordance among the sensitive. 18. What does the sensitive power delight in? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. or vice versa? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. Does man have one common sense with which he makes judgments about specific things? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. Is the sensitive power instinctively active? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. Does the sensitive power have quantity? Solution: go to the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. In the sensitive power. Does the sensitive power exist as a potential habit in a dead man? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light.

28. 38. Is the sensitive power a compound entity? Solution: second paragraph of Rule D. 41. Does the sensitive power produce its sensible object within itself? Solution: fourth paragraph of Rule B. 43. In which act of sensing does the sensitive power mostly engage in? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. What is the sensitive power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 40. Is one sensitive power derived from another? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. 31. Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B. or does the body contain it? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. 34. Does the sensitive power vegetate sensible objects? Solution: seventh paragraph of Rule B. Why is there a common sense? Solution: first paragraph of Rule E. Is the sensitive power subject to a higher power? Solution: third paragraph of Rule D. Does the sensitive power move on its own. 27. In the sensitive power. Why do the senses feel both pleasure and pain? Solution: second paragraph of Rule E. 46. What innate coessential parts does the sensitive power have? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. Do the species of the sensitive power influence the imaginative? Solution: fifth paragraph of Rule B. 26. With what does the sensitive power attain its object? Solution: sixth paragraph of Rule B.23. Does the sensitive power move on its own in sensing things? Solution: third paragraph of Rule B. Does the sensitive power contain the body. 24. 33. 30. In which act of sensing does the sensitive power repose the most? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light. . 35. What does the sensitive power have in other things? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. 39. Did the sensitive power which is now in act formerly exist in potentiality while awaiting generation? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. 37. Can the sensitive power actually exist without the elementative? Solution: eighth paragraph of Rule B. 44. 25. Are there divisions in the sensitive power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B. Are there equal coessential parts in the sensitive power? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light. Does the sensitive power originate in itself? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule D. Is the sensitive power active as a form and passive as a power? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. 42. is there one act that proceeds by necessity and another that proceeds by opportunity? Solution: ninth paragraph of Rule B. 29. 36. or is it moved by the sentient being in which it exists? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. 45. 32.

Does a man share the same sensitive power with his son? Solution: Go to Rule F. What gives duration to the vegetative? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Third Distinction Seventh Part . Is a human father as much the father of his son by reason of the sensitive power. Is there an appropriated sensitive power? Solution: Go to Rule G. 4. What does the sensitive power exist with? Solution: Go to the second Rule K. 61. Can the sensitive power be separated from its own subject without corrupting the subject? Solution: Go back to Rule G. How is the sensitive power divided into five senses? Solution: Go back to the first rule K. 60. Do the sensible object and the act of sensing both belong to the essence of the sensitive power? Solution: Go back to Rule I. 55. 51. 52. 63. Does the same sensitive power exist at the moment of its subject's corruption as existed at the moment of generation? Solution: Go to Rule H. How does the sensitive power acquire species? Solution: Go to the first Rule K. 57. 58. as a donkey is the father of his colt? Solution: Go to Rule F. Is the sensitive power that senses heat the same as the one that senses cold? Solution: Go back to Rule H. How is the sensitive power joined to its subject? Solution: Go to the first rule K. 48. Does the same sensitive power exist both intensively and extensively in the same subject? Solution: Go back to Rule I. 54. 49. With what does the sensitive power reproduce its species? Solution: Go to the second Rule K. does the sensitive power migrate to another subject? Solution: Go back to Rule G. Is the sensitive power inherently enabled to sense the subject in which it exists? Solution: Go to Rule G. Does the sensitive power exist in the entire human body? Solution: Go to Rule I. 2.47.Questions about the Vegetative Power 1. Does a father's vegetative vegetate the offspring's radical and nutritional moisture when semen is introduced into the matrix? Solution: go to the definition . 3. 50. Is the act of the vegetative proportioned to it? Solution: Third paragraph of Rule B. Is the vegetative power in humans a good reason for a vegetating entity to produce a good vegetated entity by transmuting food into the human species? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light. When its subject is corrupted. 53. 56. With what does the sensitive power cause happiness and sadness? Solution: Go back to the second Rule K. Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. 62. 59.

As the vegetative vegetates. retaining. Does the vegetative have extended quantity? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. Is there one vegetative general to all others? Solution: go to the definition of the Principle. 14. does it clothe itself with the Elementative by digesting. Is elemented substance the original source of vegetated substance in the vegetative? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 13. 15. . When lettuce is eaten. 7. Is the vegetative a habit with which vegetated beings are habituated? Solution: in the definition of the habitual Principle of light. 17. Does the vegetative have an innate appetite to vegetate on its own? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. 20. 16. or successive motion? Solution: in the definition of the local Principle of light. 5. 12. Does the vegetative have its own situation in the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the situation of light. Is there a proper vegetative as well as a peregrine one? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. Is elemented substance active in the passive part of the vegetative that vegetates it? Solution: in the definition of the passion of light. 23. or does the subject contain it? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. Is the vegetative an innate form in the essence of the body? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light. 9. When the vegetative is placed in the elementative. 8. When the vegetative vegetates. is it active in elemented substance? Solution: in the definition of the action of light. 6. is the vegetative that is potentially and habitually in it brought into act by the animal's vegetative by way of generation and transmutation of species? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. Does the vegetative in humans take over the vegetative matter ingested as food to live from it? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. does the lettuce's vegetative agree with that of the animal in cold and moisture? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. does it instinctively turn the vegetated substance into its own species? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. When an animal eats lettuce. Does the vegetative move with instantaneous. 21. Is the vegetative engendered in an embryo pleased when the soul is introduced into the body? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. or Beginning of light. 11. Does the vegetative contain the subject in which it exists. Does the vegetative truly take over elemented substance to turn it into vegetated substance? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. 22. attracting and expelling it? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. 19.of the Power of light. 18. 10.

Are the elements in the vegetative? Solution: in the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 44. 38. 43. What is the vegetative? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 30. Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. Does the vegetative stand as a medium of conjunction between the sensitive and elementative powers that enables them to join each other? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. 33. namely the actual vegetative and the potential vegetative? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. What innate. Is the vegetative power in contact with the elementative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B. natural and coessential parts does the vegetative have? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. 35. What does the vegetative have in other things? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. 37. What is the vegetative power's origin? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. Does the vegetative move vegetated substance to vegetate? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. Is a new vegetative produced from an old vegetative. Does a farmer sowing seed in a field cause the vegetative power? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B. 40. 32.24. or when the old is corrupted without corrupting the subject in which it exists and the new vegetative is introduced by way of creation? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. 41. What is the vegetative in other things? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. 27. 31. Are both the generating vegetative and the generated vegetative parts of the general vegetative? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. To whom does the vegetative belong? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule . Is the vegetative an image of the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. is there a minor and a major vegetative. Does the vegetative have innate equal coessential parts? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. 39. 26. 25. Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B. 28. Does the vegetative vegetate vegetated substance in its own essence? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. either when the old is corrupted without corrupting the subject in which it exists and the new vegetative is introduced by way of generation. What does the vegetative consist of? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. Does the vegetative reproduce species? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B. Is the vegetative the material of life? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. 29. 36. 34. Is the vegetative power in contact with the sensitive power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B. 42. In vegetated bodies.

When does the vegetative exist? Solution: in Rule H. Does the elementative have an appetite for mixing simple elements? Solution: in the definition of the Appetite of light. Again. 10. 7. Given that a rose is elemented. can its matter exist under the form of another elemented thing? Solution: in the definition of the Power of light. Is the elementative as great a power in elementing elemented substance as the vegetative is in vegetating vegetated substance? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. Does the elementative power have virtue? Solution: in the definition of the Virtue of light. Does the elementative cause the duration of elemented things just like the vegetative causes the duration of vegetated things? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Third Distinction Eighth Part Questions about the Elementative Power 1. 47. What does the vegetative power exist with? Solution: in Rule K. 45. Can one elementative element another elementative? Solution: in the definition of the Truth of light. 9. does it have an elementing instinct? Solution: in the definition of the Instinct of light. 48. 46. 13. Is there one general elementative whose species are the elemental complexions? . 52. why is there a vegetative power? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E. Is the elementative comprised of contrary things? Solution: in the definition of the Contrariety of light. 12. Is the elementative power a compound? Solution: in the definition of the Concordance of light. How does the vegetative power exist? Solution: in Rule K. Where is the vegetative power? Solution: in Rule I. 49. Does the elementative power differentiate anything? Solution: in the definition of the Difference of light. 8. What are the vegetative power's qualities? Solution: in Rule G. Do the elements delight in elementing things just like the sensitive power delights in sensing things? Solution: in the definition of the Glory of light. 50. 3.D. 11. Does the elementative cause the mixture of simple elements to give rise to good elemented substances? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction. 5. 6. What is the quantity of the vegetative? Solution: in Rule F. 2. Why is there a vegetative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. When one elemented thing is corrupted. 51. 4.

Does the elementative cause the distribution of elemental qualities? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. Does the elementative have relations? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light.Solution: in the definition of the substantial Principle of light. 28. Is the elementative a reproductive power? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. Does the elementative cause the motion of the elements through growth. influence any passions? Solution: in the definition of the passive Principle of light. Does the elementative. decrease and alteration? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. 23. Does the elementative accord with privation and corruption? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. as a form. Did all the forms of elemented things exist potentially in the elementative which exists as a universal form? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. Does the elementative cause the quantity of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. 16. 20. 17. 25. 26. 30. 18. 15. Can one Elemented thing arise from another? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. as matter. Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. influence any actions? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light. Does the elementing entity initiate the generation of elemented beings within itself? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. Does the elementative power mediate between things and join them together? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. 31. 19. Does the elementative repose in elementing things just as does the vegetative in vegetating things and the sensitive power in sensing things? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. within one another? Solution: in the definition of the local principle of light. Does the elementative. Is a flame a species of the elementative? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. 24. Is the elementative the source of the innate habits of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the habit of light. Is the elementative a form that moves matter to element things? Solution: in the definition of the formal Principle of light. 33. 29. . 27. 32. Is the elementative the source of the innate situations of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the situation of light. 21. Does the elementative equalize and temper the elemental qualities and their subjects? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. Does the elementative power generate anything? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B. Does the elementative power cause beings to exist in a continuous line. 14. 22.

35. 44.34. what does the elementative originate from? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. Again. namely the acquired sciences. Is the elementative both intensive and extended so it can produce bodies? Solution: go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 41. the Mechanical and the Moral Arts by giving a few examples while observing the same natural mode as above. 46. Third Distinction Ninth Part . Why is there an elementative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. 39. such as the Liberal. To whom does the elementative belong? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. 40. 48. What is the elementative in other things? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. 38. What are the qualities of the elementative? Solution: in Rule G. 52.Questions about Artificial Works We have put questions about natural causes and now we intend to put questions that deal with well being. Does the elementative transmute species? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B. What does the elementative have in other things? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. What does the elementative originate from? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. corruption and privation as it brings the flame from potentiality into act? Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. Does the elementative cause freaks of nature? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B. 45. Is the elementative diffused like a cause in its effect? Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B. 49. 1. 53. Given that the intellect is a power general to all that is intelligible. 36. What does the elementative exist with? Solution: in Rule K. 2. What quantity does the elementative have? Solution: in Rule F. Is the General Art a light to other Arts? Solution: go to its Principles and to what is said by this Art in this Book. What does the elementative have in itself? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. 37. or science of Light. When does the elementative exist? Solution: in Rule H. What is the elementative in itself? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule C. Does the elementative in a candle flame cause generation. 42. 43. 47. is there one . Where is the elementative? Solution: in Rule I. How does the elementative exist? Solution: in Rule K. What is the elementative power for? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E. 51. 50.

15. 4. Can scientific habits be quantified? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light.science general to all intelligible things? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. Is the habit of science durable in its own right? Solution: in the definition of the Duration of light. Is the intellect passive under the habit of faith? Solution: in the definition of the passive Principle of light. 21. Can the intellect be more active in Theology than in any other science? Solution: in the definition of the active Principle of light. 20. Is the conscience active and passive at one and the same time? Solution: in the definition of the Concordance of light. 18. Is prudence a loftier virtue than fortitude? Solution: in the definition of the Glory of light. In this mortal life. 6. or a Doctor in Medicine without understanding natural causes. Is the intellect in this mortal life. Does hope take on the habit of delight just as charity takes on the habit of love? Solution: in the definition of the habitual Principle of light. like the will. Can the intellect have science without discernment? Solution: in the definition of the Difference of light. can God be understood as much as He can be loved? Solution: in the definition of the Appetite of light. 8. 14. 16. 5. Can a physician stave off death by improving one's health? Solution: in the definition of the Contrariety of light. 13. Can a Theologian advance in his science without understanding God. Is moral virtue naturally possible? Solution: in the definition of the Virtue of light. 12. 19. 7. Can a Theologian's understanding reach to the relation within Godhead? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light. like Logic is for judging about first and second intentions? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. with the grace and wisdom that comes from the supreme Lord. 17. as the will is disposed to love It with the help of divine grace? Solution: in the definition of the Power of light. Does the imagination enlighten the intellect through acquired habits? Solution: in the definition of the Truth of light. Can a Theologian reach higher levels of understanding than a Philosopher or Lawyer can? Solution: in the definition of the substantial Principle of light. or a Lawyer in the science of Law without understanding the conditions necessary to judgment? Solution: in the definition of the formal Principle of light. 9. have its own act proportioned to it? Solution: in the definition of the Instinct of light. Is the science of Law situated in the memory more by contingency than by . Is Theology in itself a science of judgment for judging what is true about God. Does the intellect. 3. 10. 11. as well disposed to understand the Most Holy Trinity.

24. 37. .causality? Solution: in the definition of the situating Principle of light. 45. 31. 38. Is sin committed in a time sequence. Does virtue enable man to act against sin? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. Does sin have even less entity in other things than an accident innate to substance? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. Does sin belong to man? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule D. or instantaneously? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. Can one virtue be acquired through another? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction 30. 32. Does one virtue arise from another? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. 27. 44. 40. can the will have an act of loving greater than the intellect's act of understanding? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. What is morality? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule C. Does sin cause punishment by causing guilt? Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. Are the virtues interconnected? Solution: in the definition of the local Principle of light. 26. 25. Does Rhetoric have innate or peregrine parts in the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. In Theology. 43. 28. Is sin equal to naught? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. 35. Can virtue be transmuted into sin? Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B. 42. 39. Can the intellect and the will both equally repose in Theology? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. Is moral virtue natural. Is Justice a habit comprised of equal things? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. Is virtue found in the middle and in the extremes of the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. Why is a man virtuous? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. Does moral virtue originate in natural virtue? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. 41.Does man move on his own in doing good or evil? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. 29. What does morality arise from? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. Is a house a full body? Solution: in the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 33. 23. Can virtue be transmuted into merit? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B. 22. Does sin have anything with which to constitute its own being? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. 36. and sin unnatural? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B. 34.

50. With what qualities do Astronomers draw their judgments? Solution: in Rule G. Clearly. In what place does a Musician form harmony among voices? Solution: in Rule I. We have dealt with the above questions and what we said about them provides a doctrine for solving other. 48. 49. 52. its science also makes it easy to learn the General Art because it uses the Principles and Rules of the General Art and follows its mode. How do mores exist? Solution: in Rule K. Amen. 53. does he set numbers into motion and time? Solution: in Rule H. Given that sin has no being per se. 51.46. Raymond completed the Book of Light in Montpelier in the month of November in the year 1303 of the Incarnation of Our Lord Jesus Christ. When a Mathematician counts. With what do virtues and vices oppose one another? Solution: in Rule K. as was shown with candlelight and other things mentioned in this book. Which of the powers is the passion most appropriate to Geometry? Solution: in Rule G. 47. Why are there Mechanical Arts? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E. this book has many uses: it is good for preaching because it deals with all subjects and teaches how to extract and apply likenesses to the issue at hand. how come it grows in quantity? Solution: in Rule F. peregrine questions. THANKS BE TO GOD . In GOD's honor.

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