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THE BOOK OF LIGHT - LIBER DE LUMINE

by Blessed Raymond Lull
Doctor Illuminatus and Martyr

GOD
With the grace and virtue of your Light
We now begin the Book of Light

FOREWORD
1. Whereas the intellect reproduces species by attracting likenesses from
physical and imaginable things to its coessential and natural intelligible part in
which it makes them intelligible, we now write this Book of Light which enables
the intellect to become fluent in the science of the General Art, and this book
proceeds according to the mode of the General Art (Ars Magna, or Ars Generalis
Ultima) whose Principles and Rules it adopts. Now this Book is like a knot tied in
a rope to prompt the memory to recollect things.

2. By virtue of its subject, this Book will enlighten the intellect and stimulate it to
understand intelligible things artificially and to discover natural beings with their
secrets; this Book is meant to be an Art of Understanding subsidiary to the
General Art from which it arises; and it deals above all with natural things
associated to the intellect in providing doctrine about the light of truth. The
subject of this Book is that illumination with which all other sciences are
illuminated.

HOW THIS BOOK IS DIVIDED
This Book has three Distinctions. The first deals with the Tree and the Principles,
Rules and Definitions of the Principles of the General Art. The second deals with
the Definitions of light and the ten Rules. The Third deals with Questions about
the nine modes of being outside of which nothing can exist.

The Tree
1. In this Book we made one Tree called the Tree or Candelabrum of Light, with
nine flowers as shown, and these flowers are named after the nine letters of the
Alphabet, namely B.C.D.E.F.G.H.I.K. To know this Art, one must know this
Alphabet by heart.

B. means Goodness, Difference, Light and Whether.
C. means Greatness, Concordance, Light and What.
D. means Duration or Eternity, Contrariety, Light and Of What.
E. means Power, Beginning, Light and Why.
F. means Wisdom, Middle, Light and How much.
G. means Will, End, Light and What kind.
H. means Virtue, Majority, Light and When.
I. means Truth, Equality, Light and Where
K. means Glory, Minority, Light, How and With what.

2. This Tree with its flowers is general for illuminating other sciences with the
light that the intellect receives from it for seeing the other sciences.

3. Here are the Conditions of this Art's Candelabrum: if there is some doubtful
issue that has to do with B, we investigate it with whatever B contains, and if this
is not sufficient, we then apply C to B and scrutinize the content of B in
conjunction with the content of C, and if C is not sufficient, we go on to D and all
the way to K, combining letters with each other; this will necessarily clarify the
issue because this set of combinations with B is both implicitly and explicitly
general to all the particular lights that can generally be mentioned with reference
to B.

4. Any investigation using the conditions of the Tree is general to every kind of
light because the Tree is general, due to the above conditions. Nonetheless,
before the Artist of light can do anything with this Tree, he must read the entire
Book from beginning to end and become thoroughly conversant with it because
the entire Book is implicitly contained in the Tree.
If the doubtful issue has more to do with C than with B, then it is applied to C and
if BC does not yield any explicit results, D is then applied and so on in sequence
all the way to CK; and the things said here about B and C apply to all other letter
combinations.

COMBINING THE FLOWERS IN THE TREE
5. In this part we give a doctrine that will enable Artists of this Art to use the
Flowers of the Tree. first let us deal with the first Flower called B. Here we
consider the things contained in B and if there is any doubt about anything
contained in B, the doubtful issue is treated with the questions "Whether" or
"What" and with reference to the things said about the Definitions of Goodness,
Difference and Rule B; after this, conclusions can be drawn by making affirmative
or negative statements following the above meanings brought to bear on the
issue at hand without distorting or destroying the definitions of Goodness,
Difference and Rule B.

6. If the doubtful issue relates to something contained in Flower C, the Artist will
proceed in the way described for Flower B, namely he will refer to the definitions
of Greatness and Concordance and to Rule C and assert whatever appears in
the light of the above terms brought to bear on the issue, using simple or
compound definitions as he sees fit.
7. If the doubtful issue has to do with terms represented by B and C, he will refer
to the content of Flowers B and C, namely the Definitions and Rules in the first
and second Distinctions, and assert the things he sees in the light of the said
terms applied to the issue; whatever we said about BC also applies to the other
flowers.

8. Let us use the Flowers to deal with doubtful issues, beginning with with Flower
B, for instance, let us ask: "Can the Goodness of light be a reason for good to do
good without any distinction or motion?" And it seems that it cannot, as signified
by the definitions of Goodness, Difference and Rule B.

9. Now if the question has to do with the content of C, for instance, if we ask:
"What is candlelight in terms of Greatness and Concordance, and what does it
contain in itself? And what is it in other things, and what does it have in other
things?" Here we apply Rule C and base the answer on what the first and second
Distinctions say about the definitions of Greatness and Concordance.

10. And if the question has to do with BC, for instance if we ask: "When the light
of a candle lights a lamp, does it cause good motion as the lamp receives its
influx; and what motion do they cause and compose?" Now heating is caused by
the heater and what is heated, and running by the runner and what is run, and an
arrow's motion by the mover and the movable, and so forth. And here the answer
is given in accordance with the things signified by BC about light in the first and
second distinctions. The above examples of questions made with BC are valid for
making questions with BD, or CD and so forth.

Definitions of the Principles
1. Goodness is the being on account of which good does good.
2. Greatness is the being on account of which Goodness, Eternity etc. are great.

repose. doubt and negation. 7. 19. Greatness etc. let us ask whether or not the intellect exists: now it apparently does. are lasting. Majority is the image of the immensity of Goodness. 14. 6. and this follows the definitions of the principles previously given here. 16. namely affirmation. or not. because the affirmation of its existence can be better remembered. 11. 12. 10. Wisdom is the being on account of which the wise understand. understood and loved than the denial of its existence. 8. Greatness etc. 5. 9. or Eternity is the being on account of which Goodness. Light is the being that illuminates substances and dispels the darkness. To have full knowledge of light. we will later define it with the help of these definitions The Ten Rules or Questions 1. The End is that in which the Beginning reposes. Equality is the subject in which the End of the Concordance of Goodness. 4. Concordance is that on account of which Goodness. 15. Virtue is the source of union among Goodness. Greatness etc. The Middle is the subject through which the End influences the Beginning and the Beginning transmits its influence back to the End. are desirable. Greatness etc.3. Minority is a being close to nothingness. Glory is the bliss in which Goodness. Difference is that on account of which Goodness. Truth is that which is true about Goodness. Contrariety is a mutual resistance of things with divergent ends. can exist and act. Greatness etc. understand and love the object: for instance. Greatness etc. It has three species. Will is the being on account of which Goodness. Greatness etc. agree in unity and plurality. 17. Its condition consists in making the affirmations or negations that help the most to remember. The Beginning is what comes before everything else on account of some priority. . Power is the being on account of which Goodness. Duration. reposes. and it naturally participates in both. The first Rule inquires into whether something is. 13. Greatness etc. 18. Greatness etc. are clear reasons without any confusion. Greatness etc.

intelligible and act of understanding. The second Rule deals with Quiddity or definition and has four species. like "To whom does the intellect belong?" or "To whom does the realm belong?" And the answer is that the intellect belongs to man and the realm belongs to the king. The first species asks what something is. nails are made of iron. likewise. but simply created inasmuch as it now is and previously was not. The fourth species asks "What does the intellect have in other things?" As in asking "What does the intellect have in the will?" And the answer is that the intellect has action in the will through the habit of conscience with which it afflicts the will. 3. The third species asks: "What is the intellect in other things?" And the answer is that in the will. is that the intellect exists because it consists of its own innate intellective. the intellect exists so that it can understand and move purposefully toward its end which is to understand God and the truths of other . man consists of his own body and soul. The second species asks: "What does the intellect have in itself co essentially and substantially?" And the answer is that the intellect has its own innate intellectivity. And with regard to agency. for instance. The fourth Question asks "Why?" and has two species: one concerns existence and the other concerns agency. The second species inquires into the constituent parts things are made of. and has three species. And this is how this Rule asks the question "of what?". intelligibility and act of understanding. The third Question or Rule inquires into Material. And this example using the intellect can be applied to everything else. and so with other similar things. "What is the intellect?" This first species simply considers the essence by asking "What is it in itself?" And the answer is that the intellect is the being of its own essence. The third species inquires into the ownership of things. as for instance "Of what origin is the intellect?" And the answer is that the intellect consists of its own original being. intelligible and act of understanding. the intellect is what enables the will to choose to love what is truly good and to hate what is truly evil. as in asking "What does the intellect consist of?" And the answer is that the intellect consists of its own co essential principles. namely its own innate intellective. 4. or reason. meaning that it is not made or created from anything that existed before it.2. The first species asks about the origin of something. like a whole that is what it is on account of its own constituent coessential parts. as in asking "Why is there an intellect?" And the answer. with regard to existence. called intelligence.

for instance when the intellect is practically engaged in a subject. And if we ask the same question by the second species. This Rule serves to inquire into proper and appropriated qualities. With this rule we inquire into the "Why and wherefore" of things. third. for instance. namely its own innate intellective. intelligible and act of understanding. Likewise. intelligible and act of understanding of which it consists. By the second species we answer that the intellect exists when it has its own innate coessential parts. the answer is that the intellect has the qualities of the habit or intelligibility that it appropriates when it acts within its own intelligibility whereby it attains other intelligible beings. The sixth Question asks about Quality and has two species. 7. Let us ask: "When does the intellect exist?" And by the first species we answer that the intellect exists when its being exists. by the first species: "What quality does the intellect have?" And the answer is that the intellect has the quality of its own innate intellective. and what we say about them applies to the remainder. namely proper and appropriated quality. Any topic can be dealt with in the same way as we dealt with the intellect. let us ask "What is the quantity of intellect in the simplicity of its essence?" And the answer is that the intellect has the quantity of its essential being. 6. And this Rule serves to inquire into the number and measure of things. it is a being with the power to dry out air. As for composition. namely simple and compound: for instance. The fourth species asks "When does the intellect have something in other things?" The answer is that the intellect has something in other things when it has an understanding of their likenesses. by the third species we answer that the intellect exists in other things when it acts in them. let us ask "What is the quality of fire in its own quality. and so forth. This Rule inquires into things as they exist within time and outside of time: for instance the intellect is within time by the third . namely heat?" And the answer is that fire is a being that heats. ninth and tenth Rules as we said in the chapter on the Seventh Rule in the Major Art. the answer is that the intellect has the quantity of its essence and agency. The seventh Question asks about Time and has as many species as the second. and with the dryness it appropriates to itself from earth. Further. But here we want to give an example of the Seventh Rule using only the four species of the second Rule. The fifth Question asks about Quantity and has two species. 5. Let us ask.things or entities and to have the habit of science.

for instance. let us ask: "How can the intellect transmit its likenesses outside itself?" And we answer that the intellect can transmit its likenesses . With the fourth species. or in man. which is its own being and essence. The third asks about the way parts are in the whole and the whole in its parts. By the second species the intellect is in its own essence and being as its parts constitute a whole. The first asks how a thing exists in itself. By the third species. we want to give an example using only the four species of the second Rule. 8. and so forth.and fourth species of C but it simply exists outside of time by the first and second species of the same. is in its own coessential and natural locus. 9. but here. like a man existing in his humanity. Third. for instance. let us ask. intelligible and act of understanding with the full participation of these three correlatives. The second asks how one thing exists in another. The second species asks: "How is the intellect in other things and other things in it?" And we answer that the intellect has a way of existing in the will and the will in the intellect inasmuch as the intellect and the will together with memory constitute the rational soul. and it has four species. And by the fourth species. Now the intellect. and it is also in the subjects in which it has practical habits. or about how things exist. for instance: "How is the intellect in its parts and its parts in it?" And the answer is that the intellect has a way of being in its parts and its parts in it by the natural mode implemented by its own intellective. for instance: the intellect is located in space by the third and fourth species but does not occupy any location by the first and second species. for the sake of brevity. The eighth Rule asks about location. With the third species. The fourth asks how a thing transmits its likenesses outside itself. The ninth Question is about mode. let us ask: "Where is the intellect?" And this Rule has as many species as the second. the intellect is in the soul. for instance: "How does the intellect exist as a being per se?" And we answer that the intellect has a mode of existing as a being per se inasmuch as its own essence is distinct from all other essences. This Rule serves to inquire about things located in space and about things that simply exist without occupying any space. With the first species let us ask. or in the location where man happens to be. Ninth and Tenth Rules together as was said in the General Art. the intellect is located in the virtue or habit with which it has its habit of knowledge.

10. . The Tenth Rule. Light is a good being that naturally does good in its own way. For instance. let us ask: "With what does the intellect understand things other than itself?" And we answer that the intellect understands things by acquiring species and combining them together as it places them in its own innate intelligible where it makes them intelligible and understands them. With the fourth species. and daylight is a good thing because it is instrumental in destroying darkness and enabling animals to see. and its own Goodness is its natural reason to do good: now candlelight is a good being that naturally does its own kind of good by lighting lamps and lighting up the air. This Rule serves to inquire about spiritual and physical instruments. This Rule serves to ask about modes according to the way in which things exist in themselves or in other things. With the second species. asks about what things exist with and what they act with. and it has four species similar to those in the Rule of modality. First Part Light defined with the Principles 1. concordance and power. like an eye viewing its reflection in a mirror. let us ask: "With what does the intellect transmit its likenesses outside itself?" And we answer that the intellect transmits its likeness outside itself with its own intellective. concerning instrumentality. intelligible and act of understanding with which it produces intelligible species that can be recalled by the memory so the will can choose to love or hate them. as said above. and with all the other principles except contrariety. let us ask: "With what is the intellect a part of the soul?" And we answer that the intellect is a part of the soul with difference. and it is particular when it descends to practical considerations and understands some specific species it has acquired and stored in memory.outside itself through its habit of science with which it understands many things as it makes them intelligible in its own innate intelligible part. With the third species let us ask: "With what is the intellect universal and particular?" And we answer that the intellect is universal inasmuch as it has one formal active intellective power with which it attains many things within one universal intelligible that reflects many intelligible likenesses. We have dealt with the Questions or Rules. and they contain the solutions to the questions in the Third distinction and to all peregrine questions that can be reduced to the explicit terms in the way shown in the second distinction. like many images displayed in one mirror. the Sun illuminates the atmosphere to cause daylight.

5. so much so that if light never ran out of matter. Greatness etc. candlelight. the Moon shines at night to dispel the darkness that does evil against good when it hinders the sight from seeing. it could effectively last forever. 3. for instance.likewise. the light of a candle has an Instinct for lighting a lamp by using all of its own active mode and the lamp's entire passive mode: candlelight cannot light a lamp without the entirety of its mode because its Instinct cannot perform without a mode just as the intellect cannot understand things unless it has a mode for understanding them. Instinct. Light is a being with its own natural Appetite for illuminating things and reproducing its likenesses. . in its own understanding of itself. for instance. sustain its identity. 4. the intellect reproduces the likenesses it acquires to make them intelligible and exercise the natural acts of its own Goodness. and they cannot do this if the light runs out of material. Light is a being that arises with its own Virtue from a flame. it would last forever without decreasing in quantity: if candlelight never ran out of wick and wax. or if the wind blows it out. extinguished candle to which it is drawn through the smoke by its appetite for lighting things. Greatness. Appetite and Virtue of light to last in air. as when a candle lights a lamp and lights up the air and when it extends its flame down to another. it would grow into a flame so huge that it would light up the entire sphere of air and consume all darkness and shadow. as when candlelight lights a lamp without decreasing or vanishing: this is because its own Goodness. And likewise. as we know by experience. Power. Greatness etc. 2. as when the Virtue of candlelight lights up air and lights lamps with its own Virtue. given that light enclosed on all sides in a small space cannot move. And light has a great act potentially existing in its own great. namely its wick and its wax. Light is a powerful being by its very nature: its innate Power enables it to maintain its size and identity and to produce other light or lights without decreasing or going out. or if it is placed where it cannot move. Light is a great being on account of its own natural Greatness with which it produces great Illumination. and its Appetite reposes in the act of illuminating. Light is a being with a natural Instinct for doing things proper to its own nature. 7. natural and coessential Greatness: now if candlelight had enough fuel. Light is a being that lasts in its own natural Duration with which it causes the Goodness. does its great act by illuminating lamps and air. 6. and as it is infused in the air or in a lamp. it optimizes its virtuous Goodness and magnifies its virtuous Greatness.

this is because darkness and shadow are the colors of earth which air receives in its great transparency. blue or red colors receives and takes on these colors. Light is a being that truly illuminates air and lamps with itself. is the color of fire and of the Sun. from itself. for instance. now the colors of the luminaries in heaven are not in the same genus as the colors of earth. it delights in attracting to itself the things it can reach through the senses and the imagination. and with its own Goodness. from its own Goodness. now if there is no light. and it has two kinds of quantity. 11. Greatness etc. It is continuous. in this way. Light is the supreme source of color because the luminaries of heaven convene with the light of fire in the same genus. in its own way. Light. Light is a being that lights up colors and shapes and enables the power of sight to see colored objects: as the intellect attains the truth about things by telling them apart. fire and air agree in heat while light drives out and dispels darkness and lends its color to air as we see when the Sun shines by day and when candles illuminate courtyards at night. Light is a being that delights in existing and acting: in existing because it is what it is and in acting because it reproduces itself. likewise.8. while Truth makes this a true visual experience. likewise. 9. truly enlightens scholars with the science it teaches when its matter and the scholar's matter are not impeded by ignorance. and so do sunlight and firelight because the Sun effectively increases the heat of fire as the Sun convenes with fire in the genus of light and heats bodies here below with the heat of fire. or brightness. when the intellect is joined to a body. namely continuous and discrete. Greatness etc. Light is a being that accords visibility to visible subjects so that the power of sight can objectify things and attain one light through its concordance with another light: now candlelight and lamplight both belong to the same genus as they light up a house. in the . 13. Light is the form used by fire to move lightable matter that is lit whenever form and matter repose in light. and darkness cannot resist this color unless some opaque body impedes it. and it delights in making all this intelligible within itself so it can have repose. 12. light disposes distinct colors and figures in the physically visible world. the light of intellect delights in understanding and reproducing its likenesses in itself and in the humans who use it to learn science. taking on these colors wherever light is partly blocked out as when a crystal placed on green. now transparency is the color of air. Light is a being that quantifies things with its quantity. like candlelight that has natural delight in lighting up lamps and space. and the intellect. And likewise. the power of sight cannot perform its act of seeing. 15. 14. 10. water or air.

20. and as every proper color is inseparable from its own subject. now light cannot be without motion.and fire both have substantial. Light is a being that habituates the things it illuminates: as when candlelight habituates and clothes illuminated air by coloring it with its light. and in a lamp in a room and in a candle in a courtyard. or when it clothes a rose with light shining through the air. peregrine light when light illuminates and colors the air. or when gold and silver are mixed in coins. coessential. in potentiality in a covered lamp and in motion when a stone is struck with iron. Light is a being that locates itself in the air that it lights up and that locates air within itself in every place to which its radiance extends. or when substance and accident are mixed in compounds. And light is a passive form or power when opaque bodies stop it from dispelling darkness and from growing and expanding in quantity and movement. light participates in sequential motion more closely than any other being does. Light is a being that acts by illuminating air and coloring and brightening it with light. And here we see how one color is contained in another. 23. . in heaven and in the Sun by day and in the Moon at night. in the triangular shape of flames. and its action overcomes darkness as was shown above. we see how bodies in mixture stand within one another as when elements mix together in elemented things. 19. Light is a being with the quality of showing things and it shows that the subject of brightness consists of its innate bright parts and this subject lends brightness to other subjects that do not shine by themselves. and since motion accords with time. Light is a being that relates to things by showing them and it shows that sunlight . and it is discrete in Saturn and Jupiter etc.various sources of light in a house. as the Sun illuminates the Moon and candlelight lights up the air. in the Sun's and Moon's roundness. etc. 16. and likewise the intellect habituates itself with science in its own innate intelligibility by acquiring peregrine species habituated with intelligibility. Light is a being that produces times and seasons and participates in motion more closely than any other being. Light is a passive form whose matter is the general illuminability in which peregrine luminaries receive light. lucificable and their act of lucification that give rise to accidental. lamps. innate related parts namely the lucificative. breadth and depth. 22. 17. namely in the air's length. 21.or the Sun's body . Light is a habit of air illuminated by the Sun in daytime or by a candle in a room and thus light is a being situated in the subject in which it exists. 18. or in sunlight by day and moonlight at night.

Virtue. Light is a subject that exists in space within a horizon in which the color of air is joined to the color of fire. 28. and as we applied them to light. beloved and act of loving. Wisdom. like motion and a collision with iron or with another stone without which it cannot manifest its act. Light is a being whose minority makes it exist in proximity to nothingness. Truth and Glory. We used definitions to show how the general Principles apply to light. Second Part The Rules Applied to Light Rule B . they can be applied to different beings in different ways. make its lucificative luminance shine out into infinity. 27. knowledge and act of knowing and in the lover. Will. 25. memory and will. Goodness. it could. which comes about in an act of illumination. And here we see the Greatness of God the creator displaying the outward signs of his intrinsic operation and Trinity. by the Sun in daylight and by the Moon at night. as when the lover is joined to the beloved and when the knower is joined to knowledge. 26. when the act of loving joins the lover to the beloved and the act of knowing joins the knower to the knowledge. Power. Light is an image of God's immense Magnitude. with its act of illuminating. this power of light only exists potentially. Light is a subject in which the final concordance between the illuminative and illuminated equally reposes in their act of illuminating. as does the light of human intellect. which cannot happen unless the light and the air mix together to make one compound that occupies the entire space within the horizon both formally and materially. and by a candle flame in a room where continuous and undivided light shines on every extreme of every wall as candlelight lights up the air and as the air lets light shine through its transparency. here we see how spiritual things are signified by corporeal ones. Eternity. and it really has minority because it is deprived of being when it is deprived of material and when its opposite.24. but since candlelight cannot do this for lack of fuel and space. now if a lit candle had an infinite amount of fuel placed at its disposal. namely darkness comes into being. Light is the end in which the colors of fire and air repose as does the power of sight which cannot see anything without light: they repose when their appetite is joined to the desired object. Light also exists in minority and close to naught when it potentially exists in a stone without the presence of external agents. and the same is understood about the light of intellect and the flame of love in the knower.

and the answer is that it does: now. and we answer that it is not because they do not have the same proper subjects. and this secondary matter exists due to the transition of prime matter into lamplight by way of generation. because if candlelight did not generate lamplight from itself it would produce it artificially and it would not belong to the same genus as lamplight.In this part we apply the ten Rules or Questions to light following the mode used in the second part of the first distinction. which is impossible. The first Rule is signified by B. we ask whether an Angel can generate another Angel? And the answer is that it cannot. 2. so does candlelight internally transmute the transparency of air into brightness while the transparency retains its identity. as we see. 1. We ask whether candlelight vegetates the light of the lamp it lights. 6. because fire's essential illuminating power illuminates air in fire's innate illuminable part. because an Angel does not have discontinuous matter. 4. 3. and deals with possibility. whereas candlelight has secondary matter under prime matter. its matter cannot reproduce. Given that candlelight. And the answer is that it does because light exists invisibly and potentially in the wick and wax and visible light brings it into act by generating its species and exhausting itself in its upward movement where it transmutes itself into the species of smoke. . We ask: "Does the light of a candle generate light in a lamp without decreasing itself? We answer that it does. We ask whether candlelight moves on its own. which is less powerful than an Angel. We ask whether a lit candle transmutes the transparency of air into its own light while the transparency of air still remains what it is. since candlelight and lamplight are purely elemented bodies in which vegetation cannot be sustained because of excessive motion and heat. and candlelight visibly produces lamplight without diminishing itself or decreasing in quantity. and the answer is that it does not. We ask whether candlelight is joined to the power of sight in viewing colored things. And now we begin with the first Rule. as imagination internally reproduces likenesses of outwardly sensible beings which still retain their own identity. although they work together like an agent with its instrument when the power of sight attains illuminated and colored objects through illuminated air. now illumination could only be air's own quality if it did not receive it in and from the illumination that is proper to fire. 5. and the illuminating quality does not belong to air itself but air appropriates it from fire. 7. and the answer is that it does. We ask whether candlelight illuminates air within its own essence. can produce lamplight.

as in the eye which is an illuminated organ joined to the power of sight that endows it with sense and the power to see. in order to constitute a full three dimensional body comprised of its own form and matter wherein the elemental accidents are sustained. What is light in other things? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction. but it does so by contingency inasmuch as the artificer does not naturally light lamplight with candlelight but rather does so through contingency occasioned by need. Light is a being that illuminates things. illuminates illuminated air and produces illuminated lamplight in its own illuminable as it brings it from potentiality into act by way of generation: likewise. We ask whether the four elements exist in act in candlelight. candlelight illuminates lamplight and air. for instance. and the answer is that they do. it does so by natural causation. 9. 2. and a Doctor enlightens himself with the habit of science as he enlightens his students. now light has action in the air it illuminates and passion in the power of sight that uses it to see color. What does light have in other things? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction. . now light is a disposing agent in air as it enables the power of sight to attain white color that disperses the sight and black color that focuses the sight. and light with its virtue has action in the power of sight. regarding Quiddity. 1. an Angel acts on things below with its innate powers in its own innate matter whereby it perceives colors in general without using eyes. We ask whether lamplight is lit by candlelight through necessity or by contingency. We solved the above questions with the first general Question which is "Whether?" and we followed its conditions. 3. and the answer is given in two distinct ways: now inasmuch as candlelight lights lamplight. in its own innate illuminable. 4. What does light have in itself coessentially and naturally? The solution to this question is signified by the second Rule in the first distinction. here we see the general nature of the said Rule with its conditions. etc. namely the illuminative. now light has in itself its own innate constituent parts. namely that things are to be affirmed or negated as the soul remembers.8. What is light? The solution to this question is signified by the second Question or Rule in the second part of the first distinction. understands and loves them more. signified by C. voices without using ears and moving bodies without using touch. Rules C to K applied to Light The second Rule. illuminable and their act of illuminating: like the light of a candle whose innate illuminative.

2. namely candlelight that causes the peregrine light in air. and the light in air exists because its cause exists. Of what origin is light? The solution to this question is signified by the third Rule in the second part of the first distinction. namely the lucificative. 2. and the heat of fire possesses the heat of air and that of hot water. What does light consist of? The solution to this question is signified by the third Rule in the second part of the first distinction: now light consists of its own coessential lucificative. and Saturn's motion consists of the motion of the eighth sphere at the antipodes that drives planets from west to east in our side of the sky like water moving a mill wheel by driving its lower part so that the upper part moves. and the light of a lamp is naturally caused by candlelight but it is occasioned by contingency when someone happens to light a lamp with light from a candle. "Of What" signified by D. signified by F What is the quantity of candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule F in the second part of the first distinction. one proper and one appropriated or peregrine. now candlelight in continuous quantity is one body in one undivided quantity through all its discrete quantities sustained in its physical parts. like divine intellect possesses human intellect. Why is there candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by the fourth Rule in the second part of the first distinction. now the Sun's light exists primordially in its own right. lucificable and their act of lucification. 1. 3. Why is there light? The solution to this question is signified by the fourth Rule in the second part of the first distinction. and moonlight is made of sunlight. now candlelight is necessarily caused by its own constituting coessential. "Why?" signified by E 1. substantial and natural lucificative. and the light of air is peregrine because it accidentally consists of candlelight. now candlelight exists for lighting up the air and light exists in air to dispel the darkness in it so that sighted beings can see objects that cannot be seen if the air is not lit up. as does the motion of the eighth sphere because at their natural origin they are not derived from anything else. Its proper quantity is its own quantifying quantity and its peregrine . lucificable and their act of lucification. lucificable and lucification.The third Rule. the light of a lamp is made from that of a candle and elemented candlelight consists of the light of simple fire. outwardly in its own necessary lucificable. And candlelight has two quantities. To whom does light belong? The solution to this question is signified by the third species of the Rule in the first distinction: now candlelight belongs to sunlight because the heavenly bodies above effectively and virtually possess bodies here below. The Fifth Rule or Rule of Quantity. The Fourth Rule.

lucificable and their act of lucification is neither visible nor measurable. like its form in its matter and vice versa. and so forth. now candlelight exists when its own being and number exist. it existed potentially in stone and iron and in a candle before it was lit. Now the quantity sustained in the lucificative. or the Rule of "When?" signified by the letter H. because its nutritional moisture exists. it is only visible as the light of a flame with shape and color and situation inasmuch as it is joined to physical being. it also has a way of existing because of its innate mobility. or Rule of "Where?" signified by I. When is there candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule H in the second part of the first distinction. and it is also in motion. etc. so the color of candlelight is a subalternate quality that rules the peregrine color of light in air where light causes color in the light reflected by a stone or a rose illuminated by light acting as an appropriated quality of air. or Rule of "How?" signified by K How does candlelight exist? The solution to this question is signified by Rule K in the second part of the first distinction. now candlelight has two qualities: proper and appropriated. lucificable and their lucification. candlelight could never move from potentiality to act. and it exists because it contains parts that exist within one another. as a body it is in substance and accident because physical bodies are composed of substance and accidents. and even so it cannot be sensed by touch although its color is visible. and it is in the room where it exists like the content in its container. The Eighth Rule. The Sixth Rule. and it is in air. And candlelight is in successive becoming when it moves from potentiality to act and it is in corruption when it gradually consumes the wick and wax of the candle. like a flame whose mobility enables it to live from wax and wick. or Rule of Quality. signified by G. and this peregrine quantity illuminates stones. like the efficient cause in its effect. The Seventh Rule. The proper quality is the light of simple fire whose color causes compound candlelight. or Rule of "With What?" signified by K With what does candlelight exist? The solution to this question is signified by . without this. now candlelight has a way to be what it is and not to be what it is not. Where is candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule I in the second part of the first distinction. now candlelight is in its own number and it is sustained in its own constituent lucificative. What is the quality of candlelight? The solution to this question is signified by Rule G in the second part of the first distinction. horses. The Tenth Rule.quantity is the quantity of light in air derived from the said proper quantity. The Ninth Rule. It also exists in numeric alteration when the light that potentially existed in the wick and wax actually corrupts the flame's body by successively depriving its previous number.

Rule K in the second part of the first distinction. and I to the loci in the first and second . Now let us deal with the first part of the third distinction. We have five loci to refer to for solving questions. We have dealt with the Rules applied to light. Question: Do the divine dignities or reasons have their own equal acts in God's essence? Solution: apply B. Vegetation. Sense. G. with its Greatness because it is great. namely: the Tree. Third Distinction First Part . Imagination. and so forth.Questions about God 1. There are actually no more than these nine because whatever exists or can exist must be included in its way within the nine above terms. candlelight exists with its Goodness because it is good. Further. namely into nine beings which are the following: God. especially Rules B and C. and with the concordance of fire and air in heat and of fire and earth in dryness and with the opposition of earth and air in dryness and moisture. 2. Heaven. with its Duration with which it lasts and with its Power with which it is powerful. Angel. C. and it exists with the concordance of air and fire in heat and of air and water in moisture and with the opposition of water and fire in cold and heat. Further. Now the questions are divided into nine parts. the first and second parts of the first distinction and the first and second parts of the second distinction. And candlelight exists with the concordance of water and air in moisture and of water and earth in cold and with the opposition of air and earth in moisture and dryness. Soul. and with the opposition of fire and water in cold and heat. Artifice. Elements. infinite and eternal production within God? The solution to this question is signified by the definitions of Goodness. Question: Is there good. Greatness and Eternity and by BC of the Tree. and this application is a general locus from which you can fully extract solutions to any questions that can be asked about light Third Distinction Questions This distinction deals with peregrine questions and their solutions are referred to the first distinction where they are implicit and to the second distinction where they are more explicitly signified. now candlelight exists with the mixture of its constituting elements. candlelight exists with the concordance of earth and fire in dryness and of earth and water in cold. which shows that the motion of candlelight is derived from and influenced by the said concordances and contrarieties existing in one and the same subject.

9. 14. Question: How does God exist and how does He act within Himself? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule C and to the ninth Rule K. 5. D. the first paragraph on B. but has infinite and eternal properties as indicated by Rules B and C. We have dealt with the questions about God and shown how to find solutions to questions in the above loci. Question: Where is God? Solution: Go to Rule I in the first and second distinctions and to the second species of Rule C. Question: What does God consist of? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule D in the first and second distinctions. G and H in the first and second . Question: Is God as great in his intrinsic act as in his existence? Solution: Go to Rules E and G and to Flowers B. 7. 6. 8. Majority. Question: Is there nature in God? Solution: Go to the definitions of Goodness. 13. Question: Does God represent his intrinsic. Question: Must there necessarily be some differentiation within the Godhead? Solution: Go to the second distinction. 15. 3. C. Question: What does God have naturally and coessentially within Himself? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. Question: Are there any properties in God? Solution: Go to B. and to Rule K in the divine mode and go to the second species of Rule C. Greatness and Power and to the second species of Rules C and D. 16. the ninth paragraph of rule B and to the second species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. Question: Is God a necessary being? Solution: Go to Rule E. 4. Greatness. Third Distinction Second Part . C. 17. and all other questions about God can be solved in the same way. and to Rules B. Question: Is God the being of his own essence? Solution: go to the first species of Rule C in the first and second distinctions. However. Question: Do angels exist? Solution: go to the Definitions of Goodness. Question: Is there any properly numeral quantity in God? Solution: Go to Flowers C. 12. Greatness etc. and G and then to the things they signify in the first and second distinctions. 10.Questions about Angels 1. C and G in the Tree.distinctions. Question: Can God produce something else from Himself without diminishing Himself? Solution: Go to the first Rule in the second distinction. Question: What does God have in his effect? Solution: Go to the fourth species of Rule C in the second distinction. Question: With what does God exist and with what does He act within Himself? Solution: Go to the definitions of Goodness. note that God in Himself is not divided into parts. D and F and then to the Rules and definitions signified by them in the first and second distinctions. 11. coessential and natural operation to the human intellect in this life? Solution: Go to the third species of Rule C.

Question: Does an angel participate in things below effectively with its innate species like an efficient cause in its effect? Solution: go to the fifth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. 15. Question: What does an angel's willing consist of? Solution: Go to the second species of Rule D in the first distinction. Question: Why do angels exist? Solution: go to the first and second species of Rule E in the first distinction. Question: What does an angel consist of? Solution: go to the first and second species of Rule D in the first distinction. Question: Does an angel see.Distinctions. 4. 13. 7. the second paragraph in the part on Rule B. to Rules C and D and to the first species of Rule E in the second distinction. 5. hear and move physical things with and within its own innate species? Solution: go to the fourth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: What is an angel? Solution: Go to the first paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. 14. Question: What does an angel have in other things? Solution: Go to the fourth species of rule C in the second distinction. Question: Are physical things inherently proportioned to the innate species of angels? Solution: go to the seventh paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. 18. 3. 10. Question: Does a good angel merit glory necessarily or by contingency? Solution: go to the ninth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction and to the definition of Majority. Question: What is an angel's Greatness? Solution: Go to the definition of Greatness in the second distinction. 12. 17. Question: Is an angel made of angelic parts? Solution: go to the eighth paragraph in the part on Rule B. Question: What is an angel in its effect and what is it in its Greatness? Solution: Go to the third paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. 19. Question: Can one angel generate another? Solution: go to the second distinction. Question: What coessential and natural things does an angel have in itself? Solution: Go to the second paragraph in the part on Rule C in the second distinction. Question: Does an angel have innate species with which it acts upon things here below? Solution: go to the fourth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: What is an angel's Power? Solution: Go to the definition of Power in the second distinction. Question: Is the devil evil by necessity or by contingency? Solution: go to the ninth paragraph in the part on Rule B in the second distinction and to the definition of Minority. 8. Question: Does an angel move on its own? Solution: go to the second species of Rule C. . 6. 11. 16. 9. 2.

Question: Does the motion of heaven last on its own? Solution: go to the definition of Duration in the first part of the second distinction. 21. Question: Does the concordance in dryness between Aries and Saturn belong to their essence? Solution: go to the definition of Concordance in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Where are the angels? Solution: go to Rule I in the first distinction. 10. Question: Is the greatness of heaven a reason for it to produce great motion? Solution: go to the definition of greatness in the first part of the second distinction. 2. Question: Is the goodness of heaven a cause for it to do good? Solution: go to the definition of Goodness in the first part of the first distinction. 11. Question: Are heat and cold in the elements caused by the contrariety . 9. sometimes through likenesses. Third Distinction Third Part . 13. We have solved questions about the angels by referring to the above loci. 7. Question: How and with what does an angel exist? Solution: go to Rule K in the first distinction. 5. Question: Can heaven move itself and the planets with its own power? Solution: go to the definition of Power in the first part of the second distinction. 22. 24. 23. Question: When did the angels come into being? Solution: go to Rule H in the first distinction. 6. Question: Is there any essential truth in the essence of heaven? Solution: go to the definition of Truth in the first part of the second distinction. 3. Question: Is there some essential difference in the essence of heaven with which it differentiates things below? Solution: go to the definition of Difference in the first part of the second distinction. 8. Question: What qualities does an angel have? Solution: go to Rule G in the first distinction. 12. Question: Does heaven's motion move under the influence of its own virtue? Solution: go to the definition of Virtue in the first part of the second distinction. and other questions about angels can be solved in the same way.Questions about Heaven 1. Question: Is delight an innate part of heaven? Solution: go to the definition of Glory in the first part of the second distinction. 4. Question: Does heaven have a natural instinct for moving things here below? Solution: go to the definition of Wisdom in the first part of the second distinction. Question: What quantity does an angel have? Solution: go to Rule F in the first distinction. Question: Does the contrariety of heat and cold between Aries and Saturn belong to their essence? Solution: go to the definition of Contrariety in the first part of the second distinction. sometimes literally. Question: Does heaven have a natural appetite for moving things here below? Solution: go to the definition of Will in the first part of the second distinction.20.

Question: What are the natural coessential moving parts of heaven? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. Greatness etc. greater than sunlight? Solution: go to the definition of Majority in the first part of the second distinction. is there anything potential that does not come into act? Solution: go to the definition of Minority in the first part of the second distinction. Question: What is the motion of heaven? Solution: The motion of heaven is the universal cause of all natural physical motion. 25. 31. Question: Does sunlight illuminate the Moon through contingency or by necessity? And do heavenly bodies cause contingencies in bodies here below? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. 21. 14. Question: Why are equal things more compatible than unequal ones for a native of Leo. 27. then Venus the light of Mercury. Question: Does the Sun generate the light of Venus. Question: Does moonlight potentially exist in sunlight? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: In heaven. Question: Are sunlight and moonlight essentially joined together? Solution: go to the definition of Middle in the first part of the second distinction. 23. Question: Does the power of combustion make candlelight into an image of divine Goodness. Question: Do the lucificative. and this is signified by Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. 15. 17.between Saturn and Jupiter? Solution: go to the definition of Beginning in the first part of the second distinction. 30. Question: Are the planetary spheres joined together and is their motion continuous? Solution: go to the definition of Middle in the first part of the second distinction. 24. 18. 20. 28. then Mercury the light of the Moon and Moon the light of Fire? Solution: Go to the first paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does the Sun illuminate moonlight from its essence? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. 26. 16. 29. 22. Question: What is the motion of heaven in that of Saturn and so on in a . Question: Do Mars and the Sun repose in each other through motion? Solution: go to the definition of End in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Could it be that heaven generates Saturn and Saturn generates Jupiter? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Are sunlight and firelight joined together in daylight? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. 19. Question: Does sunlight shining on the Moon produce moonlight? Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Mars and the Sun? Solution: go to the definition of Equality in the first part of the second distinction. lucificable and their lucificating exist in act in sunlight? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction. Question: Does the Sun transmute the transparency of air into sunlight? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph on Rule B in the second distinction.

in the mode of generation. to the motion of a rose? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. Where is heaven? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Is heaven good on account of its own natural Goodness. 37. 47. Question: Does the Sun's active virtue in things here below come from the virtue of heaven? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. 41. or is it appropriated? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. 43. Question: What is the motion of heaven for? Solution: Go to Rule E in the second part of the second distinction. 35. 40. Question: Can there be motion without time? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does heaven have its own appetite to go somewhere on its own? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. could there be a continuous diametrical line from Cancer to Capricorn? Solution: Go to Rule F in the second part of the second distinction. 44. Question: Do plants have their own motion. Question: Supposing that there were no prime universal physical form. Question: Why is there heaven? Solution: Go to Rule E in the second part of the second distinction. 51. 33. 49. but continuous in itself? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. 39. 32. 34. 50. Question: Does motion belong to time past? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction.? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Is heaven contained by something? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does heaven's motion actively participate in the motion of snow? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph on Rule C in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does the Sun alone cause the natural daily cycle? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction. Question: What does the light of lightning consist of? Solution: Go to the second paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does heaven have its own motion for moving itself? Solution: Go to Rule G in the second part of the second distinction. 45. 38. Question: Is heaven's motion successive from Saturn's standpoint. 48. 36. Question: Does the motion of heaven exist in a rose? Solution: Go to Rule I . and great on account of its own natural Greatness etc. 42. Question: What does heaven's motion consist of? Solution: Go to the first paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Do time and motion exist continuously? Solution: Go to Rule H in the second part of the second distinction.straight line. Question: What does the motion of rain belong to? Solution: Go to the third paragraph on Rule D in the second part of the second distinction. 46.

5. Question: Is the intellect more readily attracted to what it understands than to the truth? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Question: Does the will's appetite desire the Beloved sooner and more fervently than it desires good things? Solution: go to the definition of the Will. Question: With what do Aries and Pisces agree and disagree? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. does the human soul still have the same power it had while it was in the body? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. 58. . 57. 55. 4. Question: What does the motion of the planetary virtues exist with? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. or Instinct of light. 59. 61. 53. 54. 7. Question: Does the motion of heaven exist in a stone while it rises and falls? Solution: Go to Rule I in the second part of the second distinction.Questions about the Rational Soul 1. 60. 56.Question: After death. 8. Question: Does the soul have innate virtue? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. Question: With what do the heavenly bodies cause bodies here below? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: With what does the Sun cause heat and the Moon cause cold? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Are the planets moved by contrary innate virtues? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Third Distinction Fourth Part . Question: Does the rational soul have a natural appetite for doing good? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light. 62. 6. Question: Does the rational soul have as much natural appetite for a great intellectual act as for a great act of the will? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. or Appetite of light. Question: How is the motion of heaven circular? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: How is the motion of heaven continuous? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. 52.in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does the soul joined to the body make the body last? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. 3. Question: How does the natural motion of things last here below? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does a separated soul naturally have appetite for remembering and understanding things? Solution: go to the definition of the Wisdom. 2. Question: How does heaven move? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction. Question: How does the motion of heaven arouse heat in fire or in summer? Solution: Go to Rule K in the second part of the second distinction.

15. Question: Why does the intellect understand things sequentially. Question: Does the soul have primordial intelligibility in which it gives rise to the intelligibilities of other beings? Solution: go to the definition of the substantial Principle of light. 23. 10. 17. 29. Question: Does the soul have innate. 14. Question: Given that the soul is not composed of contrary things.9. intrinsic difference with which it performs distinct acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. Question: Why does the intellect want knowledge? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory. 16. Question: Is the Soul located in the body and vice versa? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. Question: Is there any innate medium within the Intellect? Solution: go to the definition of the Middle of light. 19. Question: Can the intellect act against ignorance? Solution: go to the definition of the active Principle of light. why does it make errors? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. 13. given that its essence is unmovable and inalterable? Solution: go to the definition of the time producing Principle of light. 24. why are the intellect and will sometimes in opposition? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. Question: Are the intellect. 25. 28. Question: Does the Intellect have an intrinsic habit whereby it habituates itself with its extrinsic habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. Question: Is there any matter in the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. Question: With what does the intellect come to rest? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light. 18. 11. 26. 27. 12. 20. 21. Question: Does the soul have innate. Question: Does the soul have quantity? Solution: go to the definition of the quantity of light. Question: Does the soul truly indicate God? Solution: go to the definition of the quality of light. 22. Question: Does each power of the soul have its own innate relations? Solution: go to the definition of the relative Principle of light. Question: Is the intellect an image of God in existence and action? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. Question: Does the intellect reproduce species without corrupting itself? . Question: Solution: Does the intellect belong to the passive genus? go to the definition of the passive Principle of light. Question: Do the soul and its powers have an internal structure? Solution: go to the definition of the situational Principle of light. memory and will equal powers in the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light. Question: Given that the intellect has innate instinct.. intrinsic concordance with which it performs concordant acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. or Delight of light.

43. 38. Question: Why does the soul exist? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule E. Question: Where is the soul? Solution: Rule I. Question: What are the natural and coessential inner parts of the soul and its powers? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule C. 49. Question: Does the intellect make the species it acquires intelligible within its own essence? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule B.Solution: Go to Rule B in the second distinction. Question: What are the soul's qualities? Solution: Rule G. 37. Question: Does the soul encounter old vegetative and sensitive powers in the body it joins? Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph of Rule B. 44. Question: What does the soul exist with? Solution: Rule K. Question: What does the soul consist of? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule D. 52. we will put some questions about the human imagination and some . 31. Third Distinction Fifth Part . Question: Can a soul joined to a body move by itself? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule B. 35. Question: Does the soul exist as much for itself as for its purpose? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule B. 47. Question: What does the soul joined to the body have in the powers under it? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule C. Question: Is the soul joined to the body moved along its course by man? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule C. Question: How does the soul exist? Solution: Rule K. Question: What is the soul's quantity? Solution: Go to Rule F. Question: When does the soul exist? Solution: Rule H. 32. 50. Question: What is the soul? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 34. 39. Question: Does the intellect act inwardly by necessity and outwardly by contingency?? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph of Rule B. 48. 42. 40. 51. 41. 33. Question: Does the intellect have a general primordial act of understanding? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule D. 46. 36. Question: Does the soul join the body to constitute a human being? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph of Rule B.Questions about the Imagination Given that there are two kinds of imagination. 45. Question: Does each power of the soul have its own innate act? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. namely that of beasts and that of humans. 30. Question: Does the essence of a soul joined to a body cause a human essence? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Can one soul generate another soul? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule B. Question: Does the soul belong to man? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule D.

about the imagination of irrational animals. Question: In sensing things. estimation and appetite. 3. differently understood and extracted from the examples given about light. 7. 12. similar to the intellect in humans which stands above the imagination because it can understand unimaginable separate substances without using the imagination? Solution: go to the definition of the Principle of light. Question: Is a beast's imagination subject to another power. both species of imagination require different kinds of questions and solutions. Question: Why does the imagination move the sensitive power to sense things? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Question: Why do goats fear wolves on sight. now the human imagination exists in the middle between the rational soul and the senses whereas the imagination of irrational animals has no other power above itself. does a man generate his child's imagination? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. 10. Question: With what does the imagination perform its distinctive acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. 16. Question: Why does the imagination reproduce its acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. Question: Why can the imagination freely expand or diminish its acts? Solution: go to the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. 15. Question: Does the imagination illuminate the intellect's perception of physical beings just as candlelight illuminates air so the power of sight can see colored objects? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light in the first part of the second distinction. 13. Question: Why does a newly hatched chick recognize edible grain without ever having seen it before? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. does a beast's imagination move form before it moves matter? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. 14. and are these shadows that we call species a vestige of sense impressions? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction. Question: Is the imagination a being that truly informs the intellect about what is sensed by the senses? Solution: go to the definition of the qualitative Principle . and why do humans fear snakes on sight? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. 5. Question: What are the imagination's shadows? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. 2. Question: What is the imagination's enemy? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Question: In procreating. Question: Does the imagination have an innate act with which it acquires its peregrine acts? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 4. the imagination of irrational animals cannot act without some subject that has color or shape. 1. Question: Does the imagination acquire shadows in an extra sensory way. 9. and although it has under it the powers of memory. 8. Question: With what does one imagination agree with another? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. therefore. 11. 6.

or in a higher power. or in a lower power? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light. Question: Can the light of the sensitive power. Question: In what does the imagination move the sensitive power to sense things? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. Question: Why is the imaginative on this side of the earth unable to imagine that people at the antipodes can move upward just like people can do here? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. 29. Question: Is the imagination with its powers of memory. Question: Does the imagination convert the species it acquires into imaginable ones with its own innate imaginable part? Solution: go to the definition of the passive Principle of light. Question: Can the imaginative tell whether an object is bitter or sweet when the eyes do not see it? Solution: Go to the fourth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Does the imagination have equal innate powers? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light. 31. like the shadow of a tree. 34. 30. 23. Question: Is there one general imaginative power shared by several senses? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. Question: Does a beast acquire the peregrine habits of its imaginative through an innate imaginative habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. Question: Why can't a man imagine a horse just while he is looking right at it? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. Question: How are the acts of the Imaginative and sensitive powers joined together? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. or vice versa? . 17. when disconnected from the imaginative. Question: Does a beast's imagination repose in itself. Question: Can the imagination diminish its act without diminishing itself? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second distinction. 28. 26. which is a shadow made of darkness due to the absence of light? Solution: Go to the fifth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Is the imaginative rooted in the sensitive power. 20. estimation and appetite active in the sensitive power of the animal to which it is joined? Solution: go to the definition of the active Principle of light. 25. 22. 24. Question: Does the imagination have its own relative coessential constituent parts? Solution: go to the definition of the relative Principle of light. 35. dispose the imagination to imagine things? Solution: Go to the sixth paragraph of Rule B. 18. 21. 19. Question: Are species reproduced by the imagination in the same way as the shadows of sense objects. Question: When does the act of the imagination exist in time? Solution: go to the definition of the time producing Principle of light. Question: Does a beast's imagination move on its own? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule B. 27. 32. Question: Why does the imagination situate its act in relation to the imagined object? Solution: go to the definition of the situational Principle of light.of light. 33.

Solution: . Question: How does the imagination exist? Solution: Go to Rule K. lions produce lions. 44. 48. namely. Third Distinction Sixth Part . because we consider the sensitive power's acts with its sensible luminaries as accidental. just like candlelight is accidental. 46. Question: Is the imaginative rooted in the elementative and sensitive powers of beasts? Solution: Go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 43. with regard to the sensitive power of men and that of beasts. Question: What does the imagination come from? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule D. 36. Question: Why is there an imaginative power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule E. Question: What is the imaginative power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 42. 52. 45. 47. Is the sensitive power a reason for a sentient being to naturally produce good sentient beings. 37. Given that the sensitive power is a substance. 50. 49. and sometimes include both. Question: Are the imagination's habits formed at random? Solution: Go to the ninth paragraph of Rule B. Question: Where is the imagination? Solution: Go to Rule I. 38. and thus the questions sometimes refer to the former and sometimes to the latter. as humans produce humans. Question: What innate coessential things does the imagination have? Solution: Go to the second paragraph of Rule C. Question: Does the peregrine act of the imagination exist potentially in its innate act? Solution: Go to Rule H. Question: What does the imagination have in the soul? Solution: The fourth paragraph of Rule C. 1. 51. Question: What is the imagination in the soul to which it is joined? Solution: Go to the third paragraph of Rule C. 40.Questions about the Sensitive Power Questions about the sensitive power can be considered in two ways. Question: Is there one general imaginative power from which all particular Imaginative powers come? Solution: Go to Rule F.Solution: Go to the seventh paragraph of Rule B. Question: With what does the imagination exist? Solution: Go to Rule K. etc. we compare it to the substantial flame from which candlelight accidentally arises. Question: Is the imagination an instrument of the intellect? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule E. Question: Is the imagination of the same essence as the body? Solution: The second paragraph of Rule D. 41. Question: Is there one act of imagining that is innate and another act that is peregrine? Solution: Go to Rule G. 39. Question: To whom does the imagination belong? The third paragraph of Rule D.

Does the sensitive power have quantity? Solution: go to the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. Is the sensitive power in some way an innate habit? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. or vice versa? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. Can the sensitive power exist without motion? Solution: go to the definition of the Time of light. 4. Does the sensitive power dispose the imaginative to imagine things. 7. Does the sensitive power have innate relative substantial parts? Solution: go to the definition of the Relation of light. Is the sensitive power instinctively active? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. 12. In the sensitive power. 2. Is the sensitive power corruptible per se or by accident? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Does the eyesight really see colors and shapes. 5. 14.go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction. Does the sensitive power exist as a potential habit in a dead man? Solution: go to the definition of the habitual Principle of light. 10. Is the sensitive power of a generating being corrupted by the act of generation? Solution: go to the definition of the Power of light. 21. Are the lights of the imaginative and sensitive powers joined together? Solution: go to the definition of the substantial Principle of light. or due to the matter of the subject in which it exists? Solution: go to the definition of the Passion of light. Is the sensitive power passive in its own right. Does pain debilitate and darken the sensitive power's appetite? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. What does the sensitive power delight in? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. 13. 3. innate situation with regard to each particular sense? Solution: go to the definition of the Situation of light. the sensible and the act of sensing? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. 17. Does the sensitive power have an innate virtue for sensing things? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. 6. 18. Does man have one common sense with which he makes judgments about specific things? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. 15. or only likenesses of them? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. Is the essence and virtue of the sensitive power as great as the essence and virtue of candlelight? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of candlelight. . 11. 9. must there be innate concordance among the sensitive. Are sensual appetite and pain to the sensitive power what love and hate are to the soul? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. 22. 19. 20. Does the sensitive power have an intrinsic. Is the sensitive power active in the vegetative power to which it is joined? Solution: go to the definition of the Action of light. 16. 8.

33. Are there divisions in the sensitive power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B. is there one act that proceeds by necessity and another that proceeds by opportunity? Solution: ninth paragraph of Rule B. What is the sensitive power? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 45. Did the sensitive power which is now in act formerly exist in potentiality while awaiting generation? Solution: go to the definition of the Minority of light. Does the sensitive power contain the body. Does the sensitive power move on its own. or is it moved by the sentient being in which it exists? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. Does the sensitive power vegetate sensible objects? Solution: seventh paragraph of Rule B. In which act of sensing does the sensitive power repose the most? Solution: go to the definition of the End of light. Does the sensitive power originate in itself? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule D. 42. . Why is there a common sense? Solution: first paragraph of Rule E. With what does the sensitive power attain its object? Solution: sixth paragraph of Rule B. 36. In which act of sensing does the sensitive power mostly engage in? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. Is the sensitive power subject to a higher power? Solution: third paragraph of Rule D. 40. 31. 25. 27. 46. Is one sensitive power derived from another? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. 32. 37. 44. or does the body contain it? Solution: go to the definition of the local Principle of light. 34. Does the sensitive power produce its sensible object within itself? Solution: fourth paragraph of Rule B. 24. 35. Why do the senses feel both pleasure and pain? Solution: second paragraph of Rule E. 28. 41.23. Is the sensitive power a compound entity? Solution: second paragraph of Rule D. 26. 43. What does the sensitive power have in other things? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. Do the species of the sensitive power influence the imaginative? Solution: fifth paragraph of Rule B. Can the sensitive power actually exist without the elementative? Solution: eighth paragraph of Rule B. Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B. 39. In the sensitive power. 30. 29. 38. What innate coessential parts does the sensitive power have? Solution: second paragraph of Rule C. Does the sensitive power move on its own in sensing things? Solution: third paragraph of Rule B. Is the sensitive power active as a form and passive as a power? Solution: go to the definition of the Majority of light. Are there equal coessential parts in the sensitive power? Solution: go to the definition of the Equality of light.

When its subject is corrupted. Does the same sensitive power exist both intensively and extensively in the same subject? Solution: Go back to Rule I. 2. 59. Is a human father as much the father of his son by reason of the sensitive power.Questions about the Vegetative Power 1. 48. With what does the sensitive power reproduce its species? Solution: Go to the second Rule K. does the sensitive power migrate to another subject? Solution: Go back to Rule G. as a donkey is the father of his colt? Solution: Go to Rule F. Is the sensitive power inherently enabled to sense the subject in which it exists? Solution: Go to Rule G. 58. 56.47. How is the sensitive power joined to its subject? Solution: Go to the first rule K. 50. 4. 57. Do the sensible object and the act of sensing both belong to the essence of the sensitive power? Solution: Go back to Rule I. 49. What gives duration to the vegetative? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. Can the sensitive power be separated from its own subject without corrupting the subject? Solution: Go back to Rule G. 60. Is the vegetative power in humans a good reason for a vegetating entity to produce a good vegetated entity by transmuting food into the human species? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light. With what does the sensitive power cause happiness and sadness? Solution: Go back to the second Rule K. Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. How is the sensitive power divided into five senses? Solution: Go back to the first rule K. 55. Does the sensitive power exist in the entire human body? Solution: Go to Rule I. Does a man share the same sensitive power with his son? Solution: Go to Rule F. 61. Is there an appropriated sensitive power? Solution: Go to Rule G. 63. 51. 53. 52. Is the act of the vegetative proportioned to it? Solution: Third paragraph of Rule B. 54. Third Distinction Seventh Part . Does the same sensitive power exist at the moment of its subject's corruption as existed at the moment of generation? Solution: Go to Rule H. What does the sensitive power exist with? Solution: Go to the second Rule K. How does the sensitive power acquire species? Solution: Go to the first Rule K. Does a father's vegetative vegetate the offspring's radical and nutritional moisture when semen is introduced into the matrix? Solution: go to the definition . 62. 3. Is the sensitive power that senses heat the same as the one that senses cold? Solution: Go back to Rule H.

20. 5. or successive motion? Solution: in the definition of the local Principle of light. Does the vegetative have its own situation in the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the situation of light. 7. When the vegetative is placed in the elementative. 17. Is elemented substance the original source of vegetated substance in the vegetative? Solution: go to the definition of the Virtue of light. Is elemented substance active in the passive part of the vegetative that vegetates it? Solution: in the definition of the passion of light. attracting and expelling it? Solution: go to the definition of the Contrariety of light. Does the vegetative truly take over elemented substance to turn it into vegetated substance? Solution: go to the definition of the Truth of light. 22. is the vegetative that is potentially and habitually in it brought into act by the animal's vegetative by way of generation and transmutation of species? Solution: go to the definition of the formal Principle of light. does it instinctively turn the vegetated substance into its own species? Solution: go to the definition of the Instinct of light. 8. 13. Is there a proper vegetative as well as a peregrine one? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. 15. When lettuce is eaten. 14. 16. Does the vegetative have extended quantity? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. 6. does it clothe itself with the Elementative by digesting. or does the subject contain it? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. 12. 23. When an animal eats lettuce. Does the vegetative contain the subject in which it exists. Does the vegetative have an innate appetite to vegetate on its own? Solution: go to the definition of the Appetite of light. 19. 21. Is there one vegetative general to all others? Solution: go to the definition of the Principle. 10. retaining. As the vegetative vegetates. is it active in elemented substance? Solution: in the definition of the action of light. or Beginning of light.of the Power of light. 9. . 11. Is the vegetative engendered in an embryo pleased when the soul is introduced into the body? Solution: go to the definition of the Glory of light. 18. Does the vegetative in humans take over the vegetative matter ingested as food to live from it? Solution: go to the definition of the Difference of light. does the lettuce's vegetative agree with that of the animal in cold and moisture? Solution: go to the definition of the Concordance of light. Is the vegetative a habit with which vegetated beings are habituated? Solution: in the definition of the habitual Principle of light. Does the vegetative move with instantaneous. Is the vegetative an innate form in the essence of the body? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light. When the vegetative vegetates.

Are both the generating vegetative and the generated vegetative parts of the general vegetative? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. 28. 39. Is the vegetative power in contact with the sensitive power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B. What does the vegetative have in other things? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. Does the vegetative stand as a medium of conjunction between the sensitive and elementative powers that enables them to join each other? Solution: go to the definition of the Medium of light. To whom does the vegetative belong? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule . 27. What is the vegetative in other things? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. 25. 29. Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B. namely the actual vegetative and the potential vegetative? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. Is the vegetative power in contact with the elementative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B.24. Is the vegetative an image of the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. natural and coessential parts does the vegetative have? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. Is a new vegetative produced from an old vegetative. What does the vegetative consist of? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. 31. What innate. 43. is there a minor and a major vegetative. 37. 26. 38. or when the old is corrupted without corrupting the subject in which it exists and the new vegetative is introduced by way of creation? Solution: Go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. 40. 32. 36. 34. 44. Does the vegetative move vegetated substance to vegetate? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. 30. Does the vegetative vegetate vegetated substance in its own essence? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. Does the vegetative have innate equal coessential parts? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. What is the vegetative power's origin? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. Are the elements in the vegetative? Solution: in the eighth paragraph of Rule B. Does the vegetative reproduce species? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B. 41. 35. 33. Is the vegetative the material of life? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. What is the vegetative? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule C. either when the old is corrupted without corrupting the subject in which it exists and the new vegetative is introduced by way of generation. In vegetated bodies. 42. Does a farmer sowing seed in a field cause the vegetative power? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B.

11. 5. Why is there a vegetative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. 9. Is the elementative comprised of contrary things? Solution: in the definition of the Contrariety of light. 49. Again. 3. Third Distinction Eighth Part Questions about the Elementative Power 1. 51. Does the elementative power differentiate anything? Solution: in the definition of the Difference of light. Can one elementative element another elementative? Solution: in the definition of the Truth of light. 4. What is the quantity of the vegetative? Solution: in Rule F. 6. 12.D. 45. Is the elementative as great a power in elementing elemented substance as the vegetative is in vegetating vegetated substance? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. Is the elementative power a compound? Solution: in the definition of the Concordance of light. 2. 10. 48. Does the elementative cause the mixture of simple elements to give rise to good elemented substances? Solution: go to the definition of the Goodness of light in the first part of the second distinction. Does the elementative power have virtue? Solution: in the definition of the Virtue of light. Where is the vegetative power? Solution: in Rule I. How does the vegetative power exist? Solution: in Rule K. 7. Does the elementative have an appetite for mixing simple elements? Solution: in the definition of the Appetite of light. does it have an elementing instinct? Solution: in the definition of the Instinct of light. 46. 52. 47. Is there one general elementative whose species are the elemental complexions? . What does the vegetative power exist with? Solution: in Rule K. What are the vegetative power's qualities? Solution: in Rule G. 8. Given that a rose is elemented. can its matter exist under the form of another elemented thing? Solution: in the definition of the Power of light. When one elemented thing is corrupted. 13. Do the elements delight in elementing things just like the sensitive power delights in sensing things? Solution: in the definition of the Glory of light. Does the elementative cause the duration of elemented things just like the vegetative causes the duration of vegetated things? Solution: go to the definition of the Duration of light. When does the vegetative exist? Solution: in Rule H. 50. why is there a vegetative power? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E.

33. Did all the forms of elemented things exist potentially in the elementative which exists as a universal form? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. 24. influence any actions? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light.Solution: in the definition of the substantial Principle of light. 19. 16. Does the elementing entity initiate the generation of elemented beings within itself? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. 22. Does the elementative power cause beings to exist in a continuous line. Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. Does the elementative accord with privation and corruption? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. 21. Does the elementative power mediate between things and join them together? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. within one another? Solution: in the definition of the local principle of light. Does the elementative cause the distribution of elemental qualities? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. Does the elementative equalize and temper the elemental qualities and their subjects? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. influence any passions? Solution: in the definition of the passive Principle of light. 27. 30. 32. Is a flame a species of the elementative? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. Does the elementative repose in elementing things just as does the vegetative in vegetating things and the sensitive power in sensing things? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. 14. Can one Elemented thing arise from another? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction. Is the elementative the source of the innate situations of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the situation of light. 25. as matter. Is the elementative a reproductive power? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. Does the elementative have relations? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. 18. 29. Does the elementative. Is the elementative a form that moves matter to element things? Solution: in the definition of the formal Principle of light. 15. Does the elementative cause the motion of the elements through growth. Is the elementative the source of the innate habits of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the habit of light. Does the elementative power generate anything? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule B. 23. decrease and alteration? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. 28. 17. Does the elementative. . 26. 31. 20. Does the elementative cause the quantity of elemented things? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. as a form.

34. 41. What are the qualities of the elementative? Solution: in Rule G. 42. Given that the intellect is a power general to all that is intelligible. What does the elementative have in other things? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. 35. To whom does the elementative belong? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. What quantity does the elementative have? Solution: in Rule F. 38. 52. Why is there an elementative power? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. namely the acquired sciences. What is the elementative in itself? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule C. 50. Does the elementative cause freaks of nature? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B. Is the elementative diffused like a cause in its effect? Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B.Questions about Artificial Works We have put questions about natural causes and now we intend to put questions that deal with well being. what does the elementative originate from? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. 47. What is the elementative in other things? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. corruption and privation as it brings the flame from potentiality into act? Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. 36. Does the elementative in a candle flame cause generation. When does the elementative exist? Solution: in Rule H. 48. Third Distinction Ninth Part . or science of Light. 45. How does the elementative exist? Solution: in Rule K. What does the elementative have in itself? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. is there one . 49. 53. What is the elementative power for? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E. Is the General Art a light to other Arts? Solution: go to its Principles and to what is said by this Art in this Book. the Mechanical and the Moral Arts by giving a few examples while observing the same natural mode as above. 1. 43. 2. Does the elementative transmute species? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B. 44. 39. such as the Liberal. What does the elementative originate from? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. 51. Where is the elementative? Solution: in Rule I. Again. 37. 46. Is the elementative both intensive and extended so it can produce bodies? Solution: go to the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 40. What does the elementative exist with? Solution: in Rule K.

15.science general to all intelligible things? Solution: go to the definition of the Greatness of light. 16. 11. Can a Theologian advance in his science without understanding God. 18. or a Doctor in Medicine without understanding natural causes. 6. Is the intellect in this mortal life. 7. Does hope take on the habit of delight just as charity takes on the habit of love? Solution: in the definition of the habitual Principle of light. or a Lawyer in the science of Law without understanding the conditions necessary to judgment? Solution: in the definition of the formal Principle of light. 21. 20. can God be understood as much as He can be loved? Solution: in the definition of the Appetite of light. Is the science of Law situated in the memory more by contingency than by . 3. 19. 9. as the will is disposed to love It with the help of divine grace? Solution: in the definition of the Power of light. Does the imagination enlighten the intellect through acquired habits? Solution: in the definition of the Truth of light. 10. Is the habit of science durable in its own right? Solution: in the definition of the Duration of light. 13. as well disposed to understand the Most Holy Trinity. Is the conscience active and passive at one and the same time? Solution: in the definition of the Concordance of light. Is prudence a loftier virtue than fortitude? Solution: in the definition of the Glory of light. Is moral virtue naturally possible? Solution: in the definition of the Virtue of light. Is Theology in itself a science of judgment for judging what is true about God. Does the intellect. Can a Theologian's understanding reach to the relation within Godhead? Solution: in the definition of the relative Principle of light. like Logic is for judging about first and second intentions? Solution: in the definition of the qualitative Principle of light. Can scientific habits be quantified? Solution: in the definition of the quantitative Principle of light. 4. 5. In this mortal life. Can the intellect be more active in Theology than in any other science? Solution: in the definition of the active Principle of light. with the grace and wisdom that comes from the supreme Lord. Is the intellect passive under the habit of faith? Solution: in the definition of the passive Principle of light. 14. Can a Theologian reach higher levels of understanding than a Philosopher or Lawyer can? Solution: in the definition of the substantial Principle of light. Can a physician stave off death by improving one's health? Solution: in the definition of the Contrariety of light. Can the intellect have science without discernment? Solution: in the definition of the Difference of light. 17. 8. 12. have its own act proportioned to it? Solution: in the definition of the Instinct of light. like the will.

Is Justice a habit comprised of equal things? Solution: in the definition of the Equality of light. . Does moral virtue originate in natural virtue? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule B. 44.causality? Solution: in the definition of the situating Principle of light. Does sin cause punishment by causing guilt? Solution: in the seventh paragraph of Rule B. 25. 33. 42. 41. What does morality arise from? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule D. Does virtue enable man to act against sin? Solution: in the fourth paragraph of Rule C. 43. can the will have an act of loving greater than the intellect's act of understanding? Solution: in the definition of the Majority of light. Is moral virtue natural. 45. 39. 27. 28. Is a house a full body? Solution: in the eighth paragraph of Rule B. 24. In Theology. Does Rhetoric have innate or peregrine parts in the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule C. Does sin have even less entity in other things than an accident innate to substance? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule C. Are the virtues interconnected? Solution: in the definition of the local Principle of light. Is sin committed in a time sequence. Why is a man virtuous? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule E. 40. 36. 26. 35. 23. Does sin have anything with which to constitute its own being? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule D. 38. or instantaneously? Solution: in the definition of the time producing Principle of light. Can one virtue be acquired through another? Solution: go to the first paragraph of Rule B in the second part of the second distinction 30. 22. Is virtue found in the middle and in the extremes of the subject in which it exists? Solution: in the definition of the Medium of light. 29. 34. Does one virtue arise from another? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule B. Is sin equal to naught? Solution: in the definition of the Minority of light. 32. 37. What is morality? Solution: in the first paragraph of Rule C. Can virtue be transmuted into sin? Solution: in the sixth paragraph of Rule B. and sin unnatural? Solution: in the ninth paragraph of Rule B.Does man move on his own in doing good or evil? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule B. Does sin belong to man? Solution: in the third paragraph of Rule D. Can the intellect and the will both equally repose in Theology? Solution: in the definition of the End of light. 31. Can virtue be transmuted into merit? Solution: in the fifth paragraph of Rule B.

46. Raymond completed the Book of Light in Montpelier in the month of November in the year 1303 of the Incarnation of Our Lord Jesus Christ. its science also makes it easy to learn the General Art because it uses the Principles and Rules of the General Art and follows its mode. 52. Why are there Mechanical Arts? Solution: in the second paragraph of Rule E. In what place does a Musician form harmony among voices? Solution: in Rule I. 49. With what do virtues and vices oppose one another? Solution: in Rule K. 53. Amen. 50. We have dealt with the above questions and what we said about them provides a doctrine for solving other. peregrine questions. In GOD's honor. as was shown with candlelight and other things mentioned in this book. does he set numbers into motion and time? Solution: in Rule H. 51. With what qualities do Astronomers draw their judgments? Solution: in Rule G. Which of the powers is the passion most appropriate to Geometry? Solution: in Rule G. Clearly. THANKS BE TO GOD . When a Mathematician counts. 48. Given that sin has no being per se. 47. this book has many uses: it is good for preaching because it deals with all subjects and teaches how to extract and apply likenesses to the issue at hand. How do mores exist? Solution: in Rule K. how come it grows in quantity? Solution: in Rule F.

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