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Language Definition Example Effect

Alliteration The repetition of Behemoth, biggest born of In regular writing and speech, alliteration provides emphasis,
consonants at the earth, upheaved His and sometimes aids in memory because it is catchy and
beginning of two or more vastness. - Milton. perhaps humorous. For instance, if you title your speech "The
words immediately Fly o'er waste fens and Menace of Money" rather than "Money is Bad," people will be
succeeding each other, or windy fields. - Alfred more likely to remember it.
at short intervals Tennyson. In poetry, sometimes it adds to the spoken form of a poem as
well (many poets consider the spoken form of a poem part of
the art).
Allusion An allusion is a reference “I bathed in the It allows the author to incorporate other texts into their own text
to, or representation of, a Euphrates…” - A Negro and therefore imports new meanings. It is often used for
place, event, literary work, Speaks of Rivers makes use humorous effect or to create an 'in-joke' where the reader gains
myth, or work of art, either of historical allusion. satisfaction by 'getting' the reference and seeing themselves
directly or by implication. (and possibly the product in question) as witty and intelligent.

Anacoluthon A construction involving a I warned him that if he Sometimes used for rhetorical effect. It adds a pause where the
break in grammatical continues to drink...what reader/listener can think and take the sentence in. It also helps
sequence - particularly will become of him? to represent true human speech and how we think in
common in conversational fragmented, non-logical patterns.
speech where we jump Should we go to the...Oh my
from one thought to God, did anyone just see
another without using that?
linking grammar.
Analogy Similarity in some respects The analogy between the Comparing one thing to another to simplify the meaning of it.
between things that are heart and a pump. This process often creates simple images for the reader/listener
otherwise dissimilar. to consider in order to help them understand more complex

Antithesis The direct or exact Hope is the antithesis of Using two strongly contrasting ideas in juxtaposition can create
opposite despair. tension and can also draw the readers attention to the space
inbetween the two extremes.
Language Definition Example Effect
Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds which in 1) Do you like blue? Assonance helps with the flow of the verse
turn creates internal rhyming within 2) And murmuring of (especially in poetry), however it is used a lot in
phrases or sentences. Assonance innumerable bees advertising to catch consumers' eyes. Assonance
together with alliteration (repeating the 3) Hear the mellow wedding can help to tie the verse together with the
beginning letter of a word) and bells correct rhythm, and it also pushes the words
consonance (repeating the ending of a forward.
word sound) serves at the building
blocks of verse.
Balanced A balanced sentence is a sentence 1) It was the best of times, it The main effect of a balanced effect is to
Sentence which employs a parallel structure of was the worst of times... highlight the differences and the similarities in
approximately the same length and 2) White chickens lay white the sentence. It also parallels the two parts of
importance. It is a sentence with two eggs, and brown chickens lay the sentence to highlight the important ideas
clauses of fairly equal length and brown eggs; so if white cows within the sentence as well.
clarity. give white milk, do brown cows
give chocolate milk?
3) Control it before it controls
Cliché A trite or overused expression, often a 1) Can't get a word in A cliché is used in modern culture for an action
figure of speech whose effectiveness edgewise or idea which is expected or predictable, based
has been worn out through overuse and 2) Saved by the bell on a prior event. It is likely to be used
excessive familiarity. 3) Take the day off pejoratively. A cliché may sometimes be used in
4) Wearing your heart on your a work of fiction for comedic effect.
5) You're no spring chicken
Circumlocuti An indirect expression which uses more "An electronic cupboard with a Circumlocution can be used as a form of
on words than necessary to express an series of drawers to put your food euphemism, implying that the author is reluctant
idea. in to make it cold." (refrigerator) to mention a particular word or idea due to it
"He is no longer with us." (he died) being upsetting to themselves or their audience.
It may add ambiguity which can have a
humorous effect or make an idea seem more
significant than it actually is. By extending an
idea, the author is also able to create suspense.
Colloquialis An informal expression that is more "Friends of the chancellor
m often used in casual conversation than revealed that he had described
in formal speech or writing - often only Labour MSPs as disappointing
makes sense in the country or culture 'numpties,'" - a
of origin. colloquialism meaning idiots.
She was recently dumped by
her fiancé.
"Sweet as"

Language Definition Example Effect

Connotatio Connotation is an emotional A stubborn person may be By making careful word choice based on connotations, a
n meaning of any specific described as being either strong- writer can easily change how we view a character or
word or phrase in a willed or pig-headed. Although product. An advertiser will always ensure they use words
language, i.e. emotional these have the same literal with strongly positive connotations to paint their product
association with a word. meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong- in a positive light - by investigating
willed connotes admiration for the
level of someone's will, while pig-
headed connotes frustration in
dealing with someone.
Dissonance A disagreement, whether in "Fierce-throated beauty! Dissonance is used deliberately in poetry to create a
terms of sounds (as in Roll through my chant with all thy harsh-toned effect.
music) or a conflict of lawless music, thy swinging lamps
people’s opinions or actions. at night." – from Walt Whitman’s
A lack of harmony. In poetry “To a Locomotive Winter”
dissonance is the deliberate
use of inharmonious
syllables/words/phrases in
order to create a harsh-
toned effect.
Euphemism A less offensive term used “The wrong side of the blanket” – The purpose of a euphemism is to be able to
to replace a word born out of wed-lock. communicate a message in a less direct or less offensive
considered offensive, rude “Pushing up daisies” – dead. way, so as to make the situation less awkward or
or harsh. “Powder your nose” – go to the uncomfortable.

Hyperbole These are statements that "I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse Hyperbole's often have a comic effect and are useful for
have been exaggerated right now" - whereas the speaker the author to show the extremity of a character's feelings
used to provoke a vivid probably physically could never or attitudes. It blows things up to abnormal proportions so
image or a strong eat an entire horse. that the reader becomes aware of the author's desire to
impression. However, they draw attention to a certain aspect within their writing.
are not meant to be taken
Imperative These are verbs used to Give me the pen" - there is no hint Imperatives demand action and so are really valuable for
give orders/commands. of a question asked; this is a advertisers as they can be used to incite action in the
Imperatives are used when demand reader. This creates a sense of immediacy in the writing
you want people to listen to “Give” is the imperative here. in an attempt to get people to go out and buy now!
you and follow your
instructions. It gives the
speaker a sense of
authority. It can occasionally

Languag Definition Example Effect

Irony A form of sarcasm. For An example of this: "If a tow The effect of irony is a dry humorous one.
example hypocrisy, deception. truck got towed away it would
be an ironic situation."

Jargon Technical language specific to “I have a 5gb RAM.” The effect of jargon is to sound intellectual. This is
a particular area or subject. particularly useful for advertisers who want to play up to
people's desires for the latest technology. Jargon makes
the product seem more advanced and so not only plays on
people's desires for the latest tech, but also includes the
reader in the ad as the reader must know what the word
refers to if they are to fully understand the intention of the
Malapropi A substitution of a word for a "Why not? Play captains against The effect of malapropism is to create a comic effect. It
sm word with a similar sound. each other, create a little often shows the lack of education of a speaker who is
dysentery in the ranks." - the trying to sound more intelligent than they actually are.
correct word here would be
dissension, our understanding
of this makes the speaker look
Metaphor A metaphor is an analogy "Her hair is straw" The effect of this is to create a poetic and descriptive
between two objects or ideas, imagery. This has particularly emotive effect - the choice of
conveyed by the use of a word metaphor determines how we see the object. It determines
instead of another. whether we see it positively or negatively, as beautiful or
ugly, etc. Advertisers will aim to use metaphors that
associate their products with objects and emotions that
have positive connotations in order to make their products
seem more desirable.
Metonymy A figure of speech in which "Broadway" as a substitute for The effect here is to draw on cultural knowledge to make a
one word or phrase is the word 'musical' or the point more informally. It links somewhat to metaphor as it
substituted for another with theatre district in New York. uses words that have more imagery attached to them -
which it is closely associated. Broadway has much more flamboyant and sophisticated
imagery attached to it than saying 'the theatre district'.

Language Definition Example Effect

Onomatopoei The formation of a the moan of doves in You can imagine the sounds of the animals easily . Creates
a word, as cuckoo or immemorial elms, atmosphere by bringing sound into the writing and therefore
boom, by imitation And murmuring of innumerable drawing on a different sense response from the reader.
of a sound made by bees.
or associated with
its referent.

Oxymoron Is a figure of "And faith unfaithful kept him Intentionally used for rhetorical effect, by emphasising the
speech that falsely true" contradictory terms used.
combines “Agree to disagree” The effect is also for humour
contradictory The confusion that arises in these statements draws the readers
terms. attention to the statement

Paradox A statement or "War is peace." The effect of a paradox is initially to confuse the reader in order
proposition that "Freedom is slavery." to gain their attention - this is similar to how oxymoron's work.
seems self- "Ignorance is strength." The effect is less humourous here and demands that the reader
contradictory or (George Orwell, 1984) engage with the statement in order to make sense of it. The
absurd but in "Some day you will be old 'oddness' of the statement gives it memorable qualities and
reality expresses a enough to start reading fairy associations of cleverness, which can be valuable tools for
possible truth. tales again." advertisers.
Motif A recurring subject, In ‘The Sixth Sense’, a motif is Motifs convey important themes or ideas in literature or film. Can
theme, idea, etc., the colour red. The character be used to connect different scenes or points in time. In
especially in a Cole wears a red jersey, a red advertising a motif may link a number of different ads in order to
literary, artistic, or balloon floats up toward the attic connect them together as a single campaign. This allows TV, web
musical work. in the birthday party scene, and print advertising to link together and work together to further
Bruce Willis's character Malcolm bombard the consumer with a single campaign rather than
jiggles a red doorknob several individual, fragmented ads.
Personificatio Personification is a " the house was mocking me.." Personification is able to bring inanimate objects and ideas to life,
n metaphor in where "I could feel the sand tickling my possibly making them more dramatic, appealing and interesting.
an animal, object toes.." It can also promote a new way of looking at something and helps
or abstract idea is the author to convey a certain mood.
given human In the case of animals, Personification can make their emotions
qualities. and appearance seem more relevant to humans and can also
help the author to convey a specific idea about them.

Language Definition Example Effect

Polysyllabic A word consisting of more "extraordinary", "polysallabic", the use of polysyllabic words adds sophistication and the
words than three syllables. "irrepressible" effect this has on the reader is that it makes what the
seller is trying to sell seem more complex. it also gives
more definition to the product and better describes the

Pun The humorous use of a “Have you heard about that A pun can be used as a comedic device bringing humour to
word or phrase so as to online origami store? It folded.” a text which can help the text become more informal or
emphasize or suggest its “The student was an aggressive draw the reader in by ‘sharing’ a joke with them. It can also
different meanings or learner - he hit the books.” be used to help make something more memorable –
applications, or the use of Tiecoon Tie Shop for example.
words that are alike or
nearly alike in sound but
different in meaning; a
play on words.
Repetition The simple repeating of a “I rise This is a simple device that is used to draw attention to a
word, within a sentence or I rise particular idea. It could be closely related to the idea of
a poetical line, with no I rise” – Maya Angelou’s Still I motif in the way that it brings a reader/viewer back to a
particular placement of the Rise familiar element in a text and so allows them to draw links
words, in order to between different parts of a text – or different parts of an
emphasise. This is such a Langston Hughes’ repetition of advertising campaign. Repetition helps an audience see
common literary device the word ‘river’ in A Negro what is important to take note of or remember.
that it is almost never even Speaks of Rivers
noted as a figure of
Rhetorical It is a figure of speech in "Marriage is a wonderful The question is posed for its persuasive effect. It asks the
Question form of a question without institution, but who would want reader to consider whether their 'answer' to the question
the expectation of a reply. to live in an institution?" fits in with what the speaker is suggesting. It asks the
“Does my sassiness upset you?” reader to more deeply consider an issue that they may not
– Maya Angelou in Still I Rise. have taken time to consider properly.

Simile when you compare two 'The road was like a ribbon of The effect is to create an unusual, interesting, emotional or
nouns (persons, places or moonlight.' other effect using the words ‘like’ and ‘as’. It is closely
things) that are unlike with linked to the effect of metaphor and the way that images
‘like’ or ‘as’. It is a form of tie in to certain emotional responses. Advertisers will want
comparison which allows to create images that make their products seem more
the two ideas to remain desirable to their readers.
distinct in spite of their