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Sc, PhD(c)

ing.leonelrozo@gmail.com

2010

Decision tree learning is one of the most widely used and practical

methods for inductive inference. It is a method for approximating

discrete-valued functions that is robust to noisy data and capable of

learning disjunctive expressions.

1. Decision tree representation

from the root to some leaf node, which provides the classification

of the instance.

instance, and each branch descending from that node

corresponds to one of the possible values for this attribute.

2. Appropriate problems for decision tree learning

described by a fixed set of attributes (e.g., Temperature) and

their values (e.g., Hot).

• The target function has discrete output values - The decision tree

assigns a boolean classification (e.g., yes or no) to each

example.

3. The basic decision tree learning algorithm

2. The best attribute is selected and used as the test at the root

node of the tree.

value of this attribute, and the training examples are sorted to

the appropriate descendant node.

associated with each descendant node to select the best attribute

to test at that point in the tree.

3. The basic decision tree learning algorithm

at each node in the tree. We would like to select the attribute that is

most useful for classifying examples.

3.1. Which attribute is the best classifier ?

Defining a measure commonly used in information theory, called

entropy, that characterizes the (im)purity of an arbitrary collection of

examples.

some target concept, the entropy of S relative to this boolean

classification is:

3.1. Which attribute is the best classifier ?

Information gain is simply the expected reduction in entropy caused

by partitioning the examples according to this attribute. More

precisely, the information gain, Gain(S, A) of an attribute A, relative

to a collection of examples S, is defined as:

Subset of S for

which attribute A

has value v

values for attribute A

3.1. Which attribute is the best classifier ?

An illustrative example

4. Issues in decision tree learning

each branch of the tree just deeply enough

to perfectly classify the training examples.

While this is sometimes a reasonable

strategy, in fact it can lead to difficulties

when:

small to produce a representative

sample of the true target function.

4. Issues in decision tree learning

that fits the training examples less well actually performs better over the

entire distribution of instances (i.e., including instances beyond the

training set).

4. Issues in decision tree learning

learning. These can be grouped into two classes:

Approaches that stop growing the tree earlier, before it reaches the

point where it perfectly classifies the training data.

Approaches that allow the tree to overfit the data, and then post-prune

the tree.

4. Issues in decision tree learning

Consider each of the decision nodes in the tree to be candidates for

pruning. Pruning a decision node consists of removing the subtree

rooted at that node, making it a leaf node, and assigning it the most

common classification of the training examples affiliated with that

node.

worse than the original over the validation set.

removal most increases the decision tree accuracy over the validation

set.

4. Issues in decision tree learning

4. Issues in decision tree learning

Rule post-pruning

result in improving its estimated accuracy.

iv. Sort the pruned rules by their estimated accuracy, and consider them

in this sequence when classifying subsequent instances.

4. Issues in decision tree learning

attributes that partition the continuous attribute value into a discrete set

of intervals.

algorithm can dynamically create a new boolean attribute Ac, that

is true if A < c and false otherwise.

Many tasks involving intelligence or

pattern recognition are extremely

difficult to automate, but appear to be

performed very easily by animals.

recognize various objects and

make sense out of the large

amount of visual information in

their surroundings, apparently

requiring very little effort.

1. Introduction

of its nervous system, containing a large

number of interconnected neurons

(nerve cells).

structure.

systems whose central theme is borrowed

from the analogy of biological neural

networks

2. History of neural networks

“The amount of activity at any given point in the brain cortex is the sum

of the tendencies of all other points to discharge into it, such tendencies

being proportionate…” (William James)

accompanied that of the point in question.

the first point, into which the discharges may be diverted.

2. History of neural networks

known as neural field theory, representing activation and

propagation in neural networks in terms of differential

equations.

for biological neurons using simple binary threshold

functions.

activation of one neuron by another, across a particular

synapse, increases its conductance.

2. History of neural networks

descent to obtain “optimal” weights that minimize the MSE

between the observed output signal and a signal generated

based upon the past information.

learning method for the McCulloch and Pitts neuron model.

training multilayer networks.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

and a multitude of hair-like dendrites.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

The small gap between an end bulb and a dendrite is called a synapse,

across which information is propagated. The axon of a single neuron

forms synaptic connections with many other neurons.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

a neuron at its dendrites’ synapses . The magnitude of the signal

received by a neuron (from another) depends on the efficiency of the

synaptic transmission.

excited by the neurons making synapses onto this neuron.

A neuron will fire if sufficient signals from other neurons fall upon its

dendrites in a short period of time, called the period of latent

summation.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

the incoming synapse (connection) is

irrelevant.

distributed to other nodes via

outgoing links, irrespective their

positions.

remain activated at the same level

long enough for computation of f to

occur.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

inputs are summed.

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

Ramp functions

Step functions

3. Structure and function of a single neuron

Sigmoid functions

4. Neural net architectures

networks with a large number of nodes are frequently used. The

way nodes are connected determines how computations proceed

and constitutes an important early design decision by a neural

network developer.

4. Neural net architectures

Layered networks

Acyclic networks

4. Neural net architectures

Feedforward networks

Modular networks

5. Neural learning

Correlation learning

enough to excite a cell B and

repeatedly or persistently takes

place in firing it, some growth

process or metabolic change takes

place in one or both cells such that

A’s efficiency, as one of the cells

firing B, is increased.

5. Neural learning

Competitive learning

input pattern is presented to a network, different nodes

compete to be " winners" with high levels of activity. The

competitive process involves self-excitation and mutual

inhibition among nodes, until a single winner emerges.

The connections between input nodes and the winner node are

then modified , increasing the likelihood that the same winner

continues to win in future competitions.

neural network models.

5. Neural learning

to diminished performance or

larger error, then that weight is

decreased as the network is trained

to perform better.

step is very small in most networks to

ensure that a network does not stray too

far from its partially evolved state, and so

that the network withstands some

mistakes made by the teacher, feedback,

or performance evaluation mechanism.

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Classification

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Clustering

each other…

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Pattern association

performed by neural networks, the presentation of an input

sample should trigger the generation of a specific output pattern

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Function approximation

mapping some numerical input vectors to numerical

outputs. The outputs corresponding to some input vectors

may be known from training data, but we may not know the

mathematical function describing the actual process that

generates the outputs from the input vectors.

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Forescasting

must be predicted on the basis of past history. An example

task is that of predicting the behavior of stock market

indices.

6. What can neural networks be used for ?

Control applications

variables in order to achieve desired values for output variables.

7. Evaluation of networks

Quality of results

terms of an error measure.

• Euclidean distance

fraction of misclassified samples.

7. Evaluation of networks

Generalizability

on which it has been trained. But good generalizability is

also necessary, i.e., the system must perform well on new

test data distinct from training data.

Computational resources

up very little time in their execution or application to a specific

problem. However, training the networks or applying a learning

algorithm can take a very long time.

8. Real applications of neural networks

8. Real applications of neural networks

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