HP-UX Patch Management

A guide to patching HP-UX 11.X systems

5967-3578 June 2001 © 2001 Hewlett-Packard Company

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Hewlett-Packard makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this manual, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Hewlett-Packard shall not be held liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this material. Warranty. A copy of the specific warranty terms applicable to your Hewlett-Packard product and replacement parts can be obtained from your local Sales and Service Office. Restricted Rights Legend. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the U.S. Government Department is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 for DOD agencies, and subparagraphs (c) (1) and (c) (2) of the Commercial Computer Software Restricted Rights clause at FAR 52.227-19 for other agencies. HEWLETT-PACKARD COMPANY 3000 Hanover Street Palo Alto, California 94304 U.S.A. Copyright Notices. © 2001 Hewlett-Packard Company, all rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation, or translation of this document without prior written permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright laws. Trademark Notices.
HP-UX is a registered trademark of the Hewlett-Packard Company. Motif, OSF/1, UNIX, the “X” device and The Open Group are registered trademarks of The Open Group in the US and other countries. Adobe® and Acrobat® are trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Revision History.
January 2000, Preliminary Edition. December 2000, Edition 1, part no. B3782-90829. June 2001, Edition 1, new part number.

This guide’s printing date and part number indicate the current edition. The printing date changes when a new edition is printed. Minor corrections and updates incorporated at reprint do not cause the date to change. The part number changes when extensive technical changes are incorporated. New editions of this manual will incorporate all material updated since the previous edition. For the latest version, see the Patch Management sections of: http://docs.hp.com/os/11.00/ or http://docs.hp.com/os/11i/ For additional help with patching HP-UX systems, see: http://itrc.hp.com/ or http://software.hp.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/


Please direct comments regarding this guide to: Hewlett-Packard Company HP-UX Learning Products, MS 11 3404 East Harmony Road Fort Collins, Colorado, 80528-9599 You can also send your questions and comments to patchguide@hp.com. If appropriate, include page numbers and document revision with your comments.

HP-UX Patch Management



CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 Overview 1 Getting Help 3 Other Sources of Information 3 HP-UX Technical Documentation 3 HP Software Depot 3 Interex 3 HP-UX Administrators Mailing List 4 Other Web Resources 4 CHAPTER 2 Planning for Recovery 5 Recovery Planning and Patching The Root Volume Group 5 5 Separating Volatile Data from Stable System Data 6 Preserving Configuration via NIS or DHCP 6 File System Guidelines 7 Ignite-UX 7 Plan for Reinstallation Have a Wish List 8 8 CHAPTER 3 Acquiring Patches 9 The Patch Database 10 Searching for HP-UX Patches by Keywords 11 Searching by Patch IDs 13 Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database 14 HP Patch Bundles 15 Obtaining Patch Bundles from Software Depot 15 Support Plus Media 15 Custom Patch Manager 18 About CPM 18 Using CPM 18 Step 1: Collect Configuration Informations 18 Step 2: Perform Patch Analysis 20 Step 3: Conflict Analysis 22 Step 4: Package and Download Your Patches 23 Custom Patch Notification 23 The Fulfillment Server 25 Accessing the Fulfillment Server via ftp 25 Web Access to FFS 25 The FFS Directories 27 Downloading the patch 27 Patch Recommendation Ratings About Patch Notes 29 Resolving Patch Conflicts 30 28 HP-UX Patch Management 5 .

X Depots 32 Patch Depots 32 Periodic Patch Depot 32 Critical Fix Patch Depot 32 Patch Hubs 33 Creating a Patch Depot 34 Preparation Tasks 34 Copying Existing Depots 34 Combining Patch Depots 34 Removing Superseded Patches 35 Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11.X vs. 11.00 35 Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i 36 Depot Access 36 36 Depot Registration 36 Access Control Lists (swacls) CHAPTER 5 Patch Installation System Preparation 37 37 Back-ups Back-ups! 37 A Note on Change Management 37 System Activity 38 Patch Committal Prior to Depot Installation 38 Committed Patch Removal 39 Planning for System Reboot When is a Reboot Needed? Timing of the Reboot 41 41 41 Installation 41 Using the SD-UX Matching Operations 41 Installing to a Committed Patch State 43 Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles 43 Step 1: Mount the CD 43 Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information 43 Step 3 (Optional): Set Up Sharing for Remote Systems Step 4 (Optional): Set Up Hard Disk Access 44 Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles 45 Usage Tip 46 44 Finishing Touches 46 The swverify command 46 Checking the Logs 46 6 .CHAPTER 4 Depot Management 31 Custom Depots 31 Benefits of Creating Depots 31 Types of Depots 32 HP-UX 10.

Appendix A Basic Patch Concepts 47 Patch Mechanics 47 Ancestors and Patches 47 Patch Supersession 48 Patch Rollback 48 Patch Commitment 49 Patch Dependencies 49 Dependency Types 50 Enforced Patch Dependencies 50 Viewing Dependency Information 51 The HP-UX Patch 51 Patch Status 51 The Critical Patch 52 Patch Identification 52 The Patch Shar File 53 Appendix B SD-UX Tools & Objects The Basic SD-UX Object Types 55 The Fileset 55 The Product 56 The Bundle 56 The Depot 56 55 Patch Related Object Attributes 56 ancestor 56 applied_patches 56 applied_to 56 category_tag 57 is_patch 57 is_sparse 57 is_reboot 57 patch_state 57 readme 58 software_spec 58 state 58 supersedes 58 superseded_by 58 Introduction to the SD-UX Commands The swinstall Command 59 59 Synopsis 59 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 59 Patch-Related Options 60 Examples 62 The swcopy Command 62 62 Synopsis 62 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 63 Examples 64 The swremove Command 64 Synopsis 64 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 65 HP-UX Patch Management 7 .

Patch Related Options 65 Examples 66 The swlist Command 66 66 Synopsis 66 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 68 Examples 68 The swreg Command 69 69 Synopsis 69 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 69 Examples 69 The swmodify command 69 70 Synopsis 69 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 70 Examples 70 The swpackage command 71 Synopsis 71 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 71 Patch Related Options 71 Examples 72 The cleanup Command 72 Synopsis 72 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 72 The show_patches Command 72 72 Synopsis 72 Patch Related Command Line Argument: Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands Software Specifications 73 Session Files 73 Setting Default Values for Command Options 74 73 Appendix C The Patch Text File 75 8 .

a patch depot should be created to use them efficiently. Overview This document is built around the concept of the patch depot.X operating systems include 11. This release has a uname -r value of 11. Patching has its own terminology and tools. The 11. • Chapter 4: Depot Management However patches are acquired. While some documentation exists. Planning for recovery can create a virtual “Undo” button that allows a system to return to a previous state. and patch management has its own motivations and methods. its contents must be installed on the target systems.X patching. but by limiting risk it can also provide the confidence needed to support a proactive patching methodology. The current set of chapters and appendices are: • Chapter 2: Planning for Recovery The first rule of system management should be to expect the best. each with different abilities. This document is intended to pull together all the technical information required to understand HP-UX 11. In this chapter. Some sources may require certain levels of support while others are free. it is usually found piecemeal in the back sections of various manuals. • Chapter 3: Acquiring Patches Patches are available from a wide variety of sources. This chapter describes an array of patch sources and how they may be used to acquire patches. but plan for the worst. HP-UX Patch Management 1 . Patch depots are a mechanism through which systems can be managed as groups rather than as individual systems. The first 11i release was introduced in December of 2000. while supporting information is provided in the appendices. Not only does it protect systems from the unexpected. This chapter discusses the basic requirements and some options for system recovery.CHAPTER 1 Introduction HP-UX system patching is one of the most confusing areas for new system administrators. The chapters provide information regarding the steps required to create and use patch depots.00 and 11i. this is the tag that you will see whenever you access the online resources and the patch text files addressed in this document.11. • Chapter 5: Patch Installation Once a depot has been created. This chapter describes the recommended steps to execute and verify patch installation. the types of patch depots and their use are covered.

Overview • Appendix A: Basic Patch Concepts Patches are different from other types of HP-UX software. For example: file not found Bold. • Appendix B: SD-UX Tools & Objects While Software Distributor (SD) has a wealth of documentation available. Typographical Conventions This guide uses the following typographical conventions: Boldface Computer User input Important concepts defined for the first time appear in boldface. enter: cd Italics Manual titles. For example. computer text indicates literal items that you type. Computer font indicates literal items displayed by the computer. 2 Introduction . For example.text file with a brief description. This appendix provides SD information related only to patching. • Appendix C: The Patch Text File The patch text file can be found in a variety of locations. you can enter any of these three items in this syntax: ls [-u | -x] Enter Text in this bold. This appendix provides a basic understanding of patch concepts. variables in commands and emphasized words appear in italics. the sections that are of specific interest to patching are not always readily apparent. This appendix lists all of the fields within the . A notation of Ctrl-Q indicates that you should hold the Ctrl key down and press Q. The vertical bar | separates syntax items in a list of choices. you would substitute an actual directory name for directory_name in this command: cd directory_name [ ] and | Brackets [] enclose optional items in command syntax. but remains the core documentation of each patch. Patches have a terminology and operations all their own. sans-serif font denotes keyboard keys and on-screen menu items. For example: To change to your account’s home directory.

org/tech/9000/index. and electronic patch management services. known as Interex. many products (such as Ignite-UX and the Support Plus patch bundles) are free.interex. Interex. HP Software Depot http://software. HP-UX releases. download. and software products is available for browsing. which provides a variety of HP-UX software.org) to learn about the benefits of membership. Interex http://www.html The International Association of Hewlett-Packard Computing Professionals. Design and Implementation—guidance to manage changes to your IT environment Other Sources of Information HP-UX Technical Documentation All HP-UX technical documentation is available at: http://docs. and white papers. Information on particular hardware platforms.com This source provides online access to HP-UX manuals.com The HP Software Depot. guides. HP-UX Patch Management 3 . which is not a part of HP. While some require purchase. software management.Getting Help Getting Help For technical support. contact HP’s IT Resource Center (ITRC): http://itrc.hp.interex. maintains this list of technical resources for HP-UX systems.hp. is also noted for the yearly Interworks and HPWorld trade shows and for regional users groups. Review the main page (http://www.hp. or purchase.com Use the ITRC to: • Quickly access customized support tools • Make informed decisions with proactive information • Access a rich knowledge database to quickly self-solve problems • Submit hardware and software calls online • Identify and download patches quickly and accurately • Get one-stop access to software updates for your entitlements • Take advantage of ITRC resources across the IT life-cycle: — Forums—a community where you can collaborate and tackle IT questions with peers — Training—including online seminars and self-paced web-based training — Planning.

hp. Other Web Resources Additional help with HP-UX patching and related resources is available on the Web: • Support Plus information: http://software.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/ • Latest hardware support tools (diagnostics) information.com/operating/ • Latest Ignite-UX information: http://software.com/hpux/diag/ • Latest HP-UX 11.X manuals and white papers: http://docs. This URL provides an interface to the list archives dating back to 1995. Japan.hp. Germany.nl and include the following command in the body of the message: subscribe hpux-admin-digest See also the Software Archive and Porting Centre for HP-UX at this URL: http://hpux.Other Sources of Information HP-UX Administrators Mailing List http://www.hp.edu/ or http://hpux.com/hpux/os/11.cae.cs.hp.nl/htbin/hpsysadmin Another resource outside of HP is the HP-UX Administrators Mailing List. including STM and EMS Hardware Monitors: http://docs. 4 Introduction .com/products/IUX/ • Software Distributor (SD): http://software.com/ Select the link to the European site.hp.utah.edu/ Mirrored sites are available for Canada.hp. Italy.0/ http://docs. send email to majordomo@dutchworks.com/SD_AT_HP/ • European information: http://itrc.com/hpux/os/11i/ • HP-UX 11i features and news: http://unix. and the UK. France. South Africa. To join the list itself.hp.dutchworks.wisc.hp. Netherlands.

These concepts also apply to users of whole-disk HFS root disks. and so on. A prudent system administrator manages risk by planning for system recovery. You can use any naming convention that you wish. Recovery Planning and Patching • Establish a recovery plan and do all necessary pre-work. You can weigh the known cost of returning to an original system state against the documented conditions of a patch. planning for system re-installation. Proactive maintenance—fixing known problems before they appear on a system—can reduce the cost of a system failure. Use patches as a form of proactive maintenance. selecting a recovery technique. usually named vg00). and change carries potential risk. and keeping a “wish list” of changes you want to make to a system when it is down. but volume groups are usually named as follows: • /dev/vg00 • /dev/vg01 • /dev/vg02. This chapter presents an overview of recovery planning and techniques. HP-UX Patch Management 5 .CHAPTER 2 Planning for Recovery A patch introduces change into a system. The documentation for each patch lists all of the defects or enhancements that the patch addresses. • • • The Root Volume Group The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) lets you subdivide a single disk or treat a group of disks as a single unit. The physical volumes in a volume group form a pool of disk space which may be allocated to one or more logical volumes. This includes setting up the root volume group. you must properly set up the volume group that contains the core system (also known as the root volume group. A volume group is a group of one or more physical volumes or disks. Use more than one recovery technique to protect yourself from events such as a bad tapes or network failures. To enable the recovery options discussed in this chapter.

An NIS client gets configuration information from the master server or a slave server instead of from its local configuration files. see the Ignite-UX Administration Guide and Installing and Administering Internet Services. /etc/hosts. Preserving Configuration via NIS or DHCP Network Information Services (NIS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) let you maintain data off of your system. and other user and application data. make sure you have some kind of alternate recovery methods. like /etc/passwd. NIS allows centralized management of common configuration files. can simplify restoration. You can then return to that image after a failure. Ignite-UX may not be able to save critical data if you have relocated parts of the directory structure. Separating Volatile Data from Stable System Data You can preserve a known system state by creating an image of the root volume group. An NIS master server holds master copies of the configuration files.The Root Volume Group By default. you must place some restrictions on the root volume group: • Limit the size of the root volume group — Reduces the size of recovery images — Reduces the cost of disk mirroring • Do not place volatile data on the root volume group — Avoids loss of data when you restore the root volume image — Saves an additional recovery step • Keep all system data within the root volume group — Avoids unexpected recovery problems. vg00 is a special volume group known as the “root volume group” which typically contains the default boot disk and the majority of the HP-UX operating system. You may have other volume groups on your system for applications. If you do break these rules. see Installing and Administering NFS Services • For more information on DHCP. See also “File System Guidelines” on page 7 for more information TIP: Do not break these rules of data separation except to meet a specific need.com/ 6 Planning for Recovery . For example. and /etc/services. • For more information on NFS.hp. These and related documents are available on http://docs. or maps. The master server may distribute copies of the maps to NIS slave servers to provide load balancing and reliability. This off-system storage of system information that changes frequently (such as networking configuration and password files). To preserve the root volume group as a whole.

go to http://software. Ignite-UX is available free of charge.) • /home This directory. is expected to hold dynamic user data and should be isolated from both the root volume group and /usr. normally used to hold the login or home directory for each user.hp. (The Ignite-UX recovery tools will preserve the full contents of the volume group that includes the /usr directories. They must exist completely within the root volume group. Ignite-UX HP’s Ignite-UX is a set of tools for system installation. Chapter 3 tells you how to use configuration files to set up system recovery information.Ignite-UX File System Guidelines To best support recovery. • backup & recovery tool In the event that additional data will need to be restored from backup media. time can be saved by including all of the backup and recovery software (such as Omniback) within the system image. use these guidelines to organize your file system: • /. /dev.com HP-UX Patch Management 7 . and /etc These directories contain the critical parts of the Core System required for booting. recovery. • /usr The /usr directory tree contains those elements of the Core System that support the post-boot system functionality.) • /opt and /var Only certain parts of /opt and /var (such as /var/adm/sw) can be considered to be part of the Core System. it should not be placed within a volume group that includes volatile data. /sbin. This is often accomplished via NIS and the NFS automounter. Chapter 11 tells you how to use the Ignite-UX system recovery tools. including: — make_tape_recovery(1M) — make_net_recovery(4) — Expert (manual) recovery procedure using Core media tools The Ignite-UX Administration Guide is also available on the Instant Information CD and at http://docs. (Ignite-UX will preserve these areas regardless of the parent volume group. • • • Chapter 2 tells you how to install and administer an Ignite-UX server. While not required to be included within the root volume group. /stand.hp.com/products/IUX The Ignite-UX Administration Guide provides complete information about using Ignite-UX. To download the latest version and to browse Ignite-UX documentation. and duplication.

com) and HP OpenView (http://openview. • Ignite-UX: Can you use Ignite-UX to reinstall? Ignite-UX lets you use multiple network depots and archives of system “golden” images together as a part of a single installation. • Kernel Tuning Consider tuning any kernel parameters that you can alter only by rebooting the system.Plan for Reinstallation Plan for Reinstallation Complete reinstallation of a system should not be your preferred method for system recovery. For example. see the HP Software Depot (http://software. 8 Planning for Recovery . you may want to use the opportunity to make some system changes that you can’t make at any other time. • Hardware Modifications Time will limit the extent of the hardware changes you can make during a system outage. faster model—at a relatively small incremental cost.com/products/). Do you need to reinstall multiple systems? Network depots let multiple systems share installation information. you can accomplish some performance optimizations—such as adding another SCSI controller or replacing an older root disk with a larger. use the opportunity to change the number and size of logical volumes. you may want to adjust partitions if any filesystems such as /var are too small. HPs GlancePlus can help identify opportunities for kernel tuning. can you identify the person currently using the media that you need? — Do you have an index that lists which systems require a given set of media? (Remember to account for systems and peripherals that require a specific patch level!) • Network Depots: Are your installation media too slow to quickly recover your critical systems quickly? A network depot has faster performance. Keep a “wish list” of desired changes so you can take advantage of a failure.hp. use performance tools such as HPs GlancePlus.hp. For example: • File System Layout If your recovery method requires you to recreate the root volume group. Consider these questions when creating a plan: • Your most critical systems: — Can you reinstall those systems right now? — How long would reinstallation take? • Media Library: — Where are the tapes and CDs required to rebuild the system? — If your media is kept in a central library. To identify performance bottlenecks caused by slow hardware. For more information. but sometimes you have no other options. while media works best for single systems at a time. Have a Wish List When you are forced to perform a system recovery.

hp. c. • HP patch bundles from Support Plus media or Software Depot (page 15) • Custom selection from the ITRC (page 18) • The ITRC Patch Fulfillment Server (FFS) (page 25) HP’s ITRC is a web-based support environment. Click on the register now! link.com 2. b. Some services are available at no cost. Please consult your local HP sales representative for more information about additional services. Click on the my profile link. Follow the screen instructions. HP provides proactive patch analysis in which HP monitors and selects the correct patches for your systems. To sign up for additional services: a. Click on the link a support agreement to your user id link. HP-UX Patch Management 9 . (Optional) For those with the higher levels of system support. 3. To sign up to use the ITRC: 1. Go to the ITRC web site at: http://itrc.CHAPTER 3 Acquiring Patches These are the primary sources for acquiring patches: • The patch database from the ITRC (ITRC) (page 10). others are available only if you have an HP support agreement.

hp.The Patch Database The Patch Database Use the patch database as your primary mechanism for searching for and acquiring individual patches. Go to the ITRC web site: http://itrc. To access the database: 1. 6. 3. 7. Click on the individual patches link.com Click on the log in link. Click on the hp-ux link. Click on the log-in link. This document discusses two ways of finding HP-UX patches from the search page: • Searching by keyword • Entering specific patch names Patch Database Main Screen FIGURE 1. The patch database search page appears (Figure 2). 4. 5. The patch database main page appears (Figure 1). The main ITRC page appears. 2. Click on the maintenance and support link. Enter your user name and password. 10 Acquiring Patches . The log-in screen appears.

20). Select a search criteria: • all words • any word • exact phrase • boolean — Boolean search results are limited to 200 results. — An all UPPERCASE or all lowercase search string yields a case-insensitive search. OR — Expressions are processed from left to right. — A mixed case search string yields a case-sensitive search. 4. Series 700). 3.The Patch Database Searching for HP-UX Patches by Keywords To conduct a keyword search: FIGURE 2. — The precedence of boolean operators in a search are: a. Select an OS from the pop-up menu (for example. 5. Expressions inside parentheses ( ) b. Patch Database HP-UX Search Screen (search by keyword) 1. AND c. HP-UX Patch Management 11 . Select Search by Keyword from the pop-up menu. 10. Enter one or more keywords in the text field. NOT. Expressions inside parentheses are evaluated following the same order of precedence. 2. Select the hardware by clicking on a radio button (for example.

Figure 3 shows the results of a keyword search on “LVM” and “mirrored. and a one line description of each patch. (See Appendix C . which documents the patch. Each patch name is a clickable hyperlink to the patch text file. Click SEARCH. Patch Search Results--The Candidate Patch List FIGURE 4. size in bytes. “The Patch Text File.The Patch Database 6.”) FIGURE 3. Selected Patch List Automatically selected dependencies 12 Acquiring Patches .” Listed are the patch name.

Searching by Patch IDs To search by patch ID from the patch database search screen (Figure 2): 1. 2. Series 700). Select Search by Patch IDs from the pop-up menu. 6. Select an OS from the pop-up menu (for example.The Patch Database To download a patch from the search results: 1. 5. Click Add to Selected Patch List when you have made all your selections. Select the hardware by clicking on a radio button (for example. Enter one or more patch ID numbers in the text field. Click SEARCH. See also “Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database” on page 14. Click on the DOWNLOAD button beside each listed patch to save it to your system. 3. 2. 4. HP-UX Patch Management 13 . Click on the DOWNLOAD button beside each listed patch to save it to your system. 10. (You can also use the Select All or Deselect All buttons. Click on the check box next to the patch to select it.20). A list of all your selected patches appears along with any dependent patches (see “Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database” on page 14). A list of all your selected patches appears along with any dependent patches (Figure 4). 3.

Display the patch description (Figure 5).The Patch Database Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database When you select a group of patches. Patch Description (PHSS_21980) 14 Acquiring Patches .) This analysis takes superseding and recalled patches into account. you had to manually check each patch text file for dependency information. Select the dependencies link. (Previously. FIGURE 5. (This is because a patch may support more than one architecture and HP-UX release. the patch database automatically analyzes their dependencies and lists any other patch that you require. 2. This automatic dependency analysis does not occur when you search for a single patch.) To find out about dependencies for an individual patch: 1.

HP unified the ACE and HWE bundles to form the HWEnable11i bundle.com) is an online store that provides you with instant access to HP software for free trial or purchase.hp. Obtaining Patch Bundles from Software Depot The HP Software Depot (http://www.HP Patch Bundles HP Patch Bundles HP provides pre-packaged bundles of patches designed to be installed as a unit.software. • Product Updates Some HP-UX products release a new version rather than a patch. The support contract restrictions related to the actual media do not apply to electronic access. Support Plus Media HP-UX Support Plus CDs deliver diagnostics and HP-UX system patches to you on a quarterly basis.software.hp. See: http://www.software. HP-UX Patch Management 15 . special needs dictate the creation of a unique patch bundle (for example. Software Depot provides a number of patch products. These patch products are generally available at no charge and are found in the enhancement releases area of Software Depot. (Although you can download the software for free. These bundles are subjected to stringent levels of testing to assure a high level of reliability and are periodically updated. or functionality.hp. This patch software enables new hardware and fixes known defects. As an added benefit.com/ACE • Hardware Enablement (HWE) for 11. Y2K defects or support for the European currency). you may have to register with Software Depot first.com/SUPPORT_PLUS • Additional Core Enhancements (ACE) An ACE bundle is a collection of enhancements to the HP-UX Operating System.software.hp. The contents of each Support Plus release is freely available from Software Depot.) • Support Plus Bundles The patch bundles and diagnostic utilities of the Support Plus CDs are also provided for free download from Software Depot. see: http://www. but physical media is only available to customers with an HP-UX Software Support contract. Some products available at this time include Ignite-UX and Software Distributor. which support both workstations and servers.00 HWE bundles enable new hardware or enhance OS performance. For more information. the bundles are available within Software Depot earlier than on media. These can be downloaded from Software Depot. ACE software also corrects any critical or serious defects discovered since the original system release. Each ACE release extends HPUX to support new hardware and software features for HP workstations. For more information on Support Plus see “Support Plus Media” on page 15 and: http://www.com/products/HWE • Unified ACE/Hardware Extensions (HWE) For HP-UX 11i. You can obtain HP patch bundles from the HP Software Depot on the web or (if included in your support contract) from the quarterly Support Plus media. reliability. • Specialty Patch Bundles Occasionally.

and the Instant Capacity on Demand (iCOD) client product. stable.) General Release (GR) bundle: Bring all Core OS software to current patch level without custom XSWGR1100 patch selection Install critical patches or enable new add-on hardware Prepare your server to use new iCOD functionality Support Plus Patch Bundles for 11i: Hardware/Critical (HWCR) bundle: XSWHWCR1100 iCOD Client Product (from the OnlineDiag depot. including Support Tool Manager (STM) for online diagnostics. Support Plus Patch Bundles for 11. • Quality Pack (QPK) bundle for workstations. The GR bundles have recommended HP-UX patches with the highest confidence ratings based on patch distribution and age.g. or (HP strongly recommends that you important third party applications include the latest Quality Pack as part of the OS environment for end-user systems. required for new systems and add-on hardware. Networking driver products). HP products. and successful completion of tests by the HP Enterprise Patch Test Center. including all recommended. including current patches for all Core Operating System (OS) software. and the Instant Capacity on Demand (iCOD) client product. B9073AA bundle) As needed Quarterly Quarterly As needed • Diagnostics. If you want to: Update or install all the latest diagnostic tools. • Hardware enablement patch bundle. Use this table to determine which bundle you need to install. Bundles in this depot are subjected to stringent levels of testing to assure a high level of reliability and are updated every six months. ODE (off-line diagnostics). — Gold Applications patch bundle. EMS hardware monitors. which contains defect fixes for the Operating Environment applications. 16 Acquiring Patches . and key third-party application providers. which contains: — Gold Base patch bundle. • Hardware/critical (HWCR) patches. including hardware enablement and critical patches. EMS Kernel Resource Monitor. You should install this bundle after other patch bundles (e. GR and QPK bundles) and after installation of applications (e. and third-party defect-fix patches for selected Core OS and other products. including hardware monitors You should install: Diagnostic bundle: OnlineDiag Updated: Quarterly Install selected defect-fix patches Quality Pack (QPK) bundle: QPK1100 for the Core OS. These patches may match or supersede patches found in other HP-UX patch bundles. HP application groups. including Support Tool Manager (STM) for online diagnostics. The notification letter includes a request form for physical media.HP Patch Bundles Requesting Support Plus CD-ROMs HP notifies these customers when each Support Plus release becomes available.00: • Diagnostics (OnlineDiag). • General Release (GR) patches. which contains defect fixes for core OS files. The Gold Quality Pack depot contain those patches recommended by HP Support.g. ODE (off-line diagnostics). EMS Kernel Resource Monitor. EMS hardware monitors. Predictive Support. • Gold Quality Pack depot.

HP Patch Bundles

(If you have used Support Plus on HP-UX 10.20 or 11.00: the Gold bundles replace the Quality Pack and GR bundles, combining the best features of both.) Use the following table to determine which bundle you need to install. If you want to: Update or install diagnostics and hardware monitors required for supported hardware You should install: Diagnostic bundle: OnlineDiag Updated: Quarterly

Install defect fixes for the core OS Gold Base bundle: or the network or graphics drivers GOLDBASE11i included on the OE Install defect fixes for HP-UX OE application software Enable new hardware or add-on hardware Prepare your server to use new iCOD functionality

Every six months

Gold Applications bundle: GOLDAPPS11i Every six months Hardware Enablement bundle: HWEnable11i iCOD Client Product (from the OnlineDiag depot, B9073AA bundle) Quarterly As needed

(The GOLDQPK11i depot contains the GOLDAPPS11i and GOLDBASE11i bundles.) Getting More Information For detailed information about Support Plus bundles and installation instructions, see the Support Plus User’s Guide. You can obtain this guide from these sources: • The HP documentation web site: http://docs.hp.com/hpux/os/10.x/ • • The HP Instant Information CD The Support Plus CD in the file: /cdrom/USRGUIDE.PDF

HP-UX Patch Management


Custom Patch Manager

Custom Patch Manager
The HP ITRC offers custom solutions for getting patches or informing you about them: Custom Patch Manager (CPM) and Custom Patch Notification. Both services require the phone-in level of support agreement or above and may not be available in all geographic locations. (You can also use CPM on a pay-per-use basis. Consult the ITRC for details.)

About CPM
Custom Patch Manager (CPM) is a tool for selecting and downloading patches that are appropriate for a target system. • CPM patches and patch information are updated daily.This lets you update the collection script and perform an analysis on a regular schedule. For example, you can perform a monthly check for new critical patches, which could help identify a system risk before it is seen in production machines. Automatic dependency and conflict analysis, which reduces the need for lengthy review of the patch documentation.

Using CPM
To access CPM:
1. 2. 3.

Go to the ITRC web site (http://itrc.hp.com) and log in. Click on the maintenance/support link. This takes you to the maintenance and support page. Click on the customized patch bundles (custom patch manager) link. This takes you to the custom patch manager main page (Figure 6). (If your profile indicates you do not have the appropriate support agreement, a pay-per-use notice appears. Click on BUY NOW and fill out the payment form to continue.)

Step 1: Collect Configuration Informations
This step requires that you download the cpm_collect.sh script. This shell script collects the names and revisions of all the products installed on your system. HP recommends that you download the script on a regular basis to ensure you have the latest version of the script. To use the script: 1. Click on the Collect Configurations link on the main CPM page. This displays the system information collection page. 2. Follow the instructions in the “collect system configuration” section to download and execute the script on the system you want to patch (Figure 7). The script requires no special privileges and creates a data file using the name of the system followed by a .fs suffix. 3. Follow the instructions in the “upload results to IT resource center” section to return the data file to the ITRC via ftp: • • The ftp system to use is identified on the same ITRC page used to download the collection script. Use your ITRC user name and password to log in.

• Once connected, place the data file in the incoming subdirectory on the ftp server. (This directory is subject to space limitations.)


Acquiring Patches

Custom Patch Manager


CPM main page


Executing the cpm_collect.sh script

patchsvr> ./cpm_collect.sh Copyright (c) Hewlett-Packard 1995-1998. cpm_collect.sh version: A.03.04 This script will collect information about filesets and installed patches from your system in the file /tmp/patchsvr.fs for subsequent transfer to Hewlett-Packard. Do you wish to continue, [Y] or N ?y removing /tmp/patchsvr.fs Creating list of patches in /tmp/patchsvr.fs... Creating list of products and filesets in /tmp/patchsvr.fs... The file /tmp/patchsvr.fs has been created. All Rights Reserved.

HP-UX Patch Management


Custom Patch Manager

Step 2: Perform Patch Analysis
In this step, you analyze your system configuration information to determine what patches you need.
1. 2. 3. 4.

After you have uploaded the configuration information (Step 1), return to the custom patch manager main page. Click on the Perform Patch Analysis link. This displays a list of the current configuration files found within the incoming directory. Click on the radio button beside the appropriate configuration file in the list. (Optional) Use the search and filter options at the bottom of the page to reduce the number of patches displayed. Options include: • • • • • • • • Descriptive search Boolean search Critical patches only Fileset filtering Command patches Kernel patches Network patches Subsystem patches


Click on the tips for setting filters and searching link for more information about using these search options. Click on the DISPLAY CANDIDATE PATCHES button. This displays the candidate patch list (Figure 8). (The search and filter options appear above list. Using these options regenerates the display to show only the patches that match the filter or search criteria.)

Candidate Patch List


Acquiring Patches

HP does not have a patch that is better than the patch (if any) that is already on your system.Custom Patch Manager The candidate patch list displays: • • • • A brief description of the patch The date it was installed on your system A link to a full description of an installed patch A link to the description of the corresponding HP-recommended patch. A link to the description of the corresponding latest patch. — Always use the recommended patch unless the latest patch explicitly fixes a problem on your system. You can also use the select all recommended or select all latest buttons at the bottom of the list. dependencies. Select one or more patches from the candidate list by clicking on the check box next to the patch listing. — If the recommended column is blank. Individual Patch Details (PHCO_21040) 8. • 6. This patch may have a lower patch rating than the recommended patch. deselect the check box beside the patch and click the REMOVE button. (Optional) Click on the patch name to display detailed information on the patch (Figure 8). (To remove a patch from the list. and patch age.) FIGURE 9. Click the ADD TO SELECTED PATCH LIST button to display the selected patch list (Figure 10). This list includes additional information on reboot requirements. size.) HP-UX Patch Management 21 . 7. (Click the Add button to add the patch to your list and go to the selected patch list.

) 1. Results of Conflict Analysis 22 Acquiring Patches . Click on the Analyze button below the selected patch list. (This step is optional but highly recommended. See “Resolving Patch Conflicts” on page 30 for additional information. CPM analyzes the selected patches for conflicts. Selected Patch List Step 3: Conflict Analysis In this step. FIGURE 11. (Optional) Follow the links from the conflicts display to get more information about how to resolve the conflict or to view other patches.Custom Patch Manager FIGURE 10. You can add or remove patches from your list if necessary. 2. This examines your list of patches for conflicts and displays the results (Figure 11).

You can specify whether you want to receive your reports on a weekly or monthly basis. log in to the ITRC. To get more information about a new patch. Preferences. Profiles are processed weekly or monthly.) The script is a shell script that extract scripts and provides instructions for downloading your selected patches. •To use a current configuration file. • You can have only one ITRC e-mail address.sh script and uploading the results as described in “Custom Patch Manager” on page 18. • To modify this address. select the User Info link at the top of the screen. and the underscore). One of the scripts delivered in the shell archive is used to place all of these patches into a common depot for future installation.Custom Patch Manager Step 4: Package and Download Your Patches 1. Monthly reports are generated on the last day of each month. This generates a script and places it in the outgoing subdirectory for your account on one of the FTP servers. You can also specify what patch text fields are displayed when you view your on-line report. NOTE: Custom Patch Notification does not work with depot configuration files. or for different patch categories. The preference screen lets you verify the e-mail address to which your notifications are sent. HP-UX Patch Management 23 . (This tool differs from the ITRC Support Information Digests by using configuration files and filters to narrow down the list of patches about which you are notified and by customizing the report contents. simply select the radio button next to the configuration file on which you want your notifications to be based. The selected patches are transferred individually to your system. Profiles specify the kinds of reports you want to receive. Weekly reports are sent out on Sundays. Configuration Files. Follow the instructions delivered with your script to run the script on your HP-UX system. This notification includes applicable patch names and one-line descriptions. Custom Patch Notification Custom Patch Notification is a an optional feature of Custom Patch Manager that provides you with weekly or monthly e-mail notification of newly posted patches that apply to your system. A-Z. 0-9. click the Package button.) To set up Custom Patch Notification. (CPM directs you to the appropriate server. • • • Reports are not cumulative from week to week or month to month. by keywords. After you have selected all patches. • You can add new configuration files by downloading the cpm_collect. The first character of name must be a letter. • • • • • • A profile may be based off either a Custom Patch Manager configuration file or a platform and OS revision. Profiles. You receive an e-mail if the ITRC has posted new patches that apply to any of your profiles. go to the Custom Patch Manager main page. so changing it affects all e-mails you receive from the ITRC. You may also select one or more filters for your notification list. and view the full reports on the Custom Patch Notification main screen. You may create up to 10 notification profiles Profile names may only contain alphanumeric characters (a-z. 2. select the custom patch notification link from the custom patch manager main page (Figure 6 on page 19). Reports. such as filtering for critical patches. You have the ability to specify which fields are displayed in the report by selecting the Patch Report Fields. These fields can be changed and the report re-loaded if you want to view the same report with different filters set.

Network.) Filters. Subsystem). if you pick the Command and Kernel options.20) for a profile. CPM does not let you deselect all categories. you are notified of all Command patches or all Kernel patches that fit your profile. Use the uname(1) command on your system to determine what values to enter in these fields: To determine the platform. type: uname -r (If you go from a configuration based profile to a profile based on platform and OS revision. •Custom Patch Notification can filter patch notification lists based on these categories: — Critical: Lists all patches tagged as critical by the HP (independent of the actual patch categories listed below) — Command — Kernel — Network — Subsystem • • • • All HP-UX patches are included in one of the four patch categories (Command. Kernel. Kernel and Command filters. For example.Custom Patch Manager • You can also specify configuration by platform (e.. Selecting more than one category acts as a logical OR operation. 9000/735.g.10. 9000/855) and OS revision (e. B. 24 Acquiring Patches . CPM notifies you of all patches tagged as Critical AND all Command patches OR all Kernel patches that fit your profile..g. if you pick the Critical. For example. type: uname -m To determine the OS revision. Selecting a category options and the Critical filter acts as a logical AND operator. you need to click the Reset button to clear the configuration file table so only the platform and revision fields are filled in.

The Fulfillment Server The Fulfillment Server The fulfillment server (FFS) is the patch repository used by the patch database. • The FFS server limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections. Disadvantages: • Does not work well for finding groups of related patches.hp. • Disadvantage: FFS limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections.com into your browser creates an anonymous ftp connection to the Americas/Asia/Pacific FFS system.com (Europe) HP recommends that you use the other techniques discussed in this chapter as your primary patch acquisition method. HP-UX Patch Management 25 .hp. The password used is the user’s e-mail address. (No web server is required. You may have to make several attempts if the server is busy. direct ftp access has an advantage over web ftp access. You can perform multiple downloads without having to re-establish a connection each time.external. the FFS offers these advantages • You can access patches from any system that supports the ftp command and has direct access to the Internet. • Advantage: you can browse the FFS directories graphically.com (Americas and Asia/Pacific) • ftp://europe-ffs. Two FFS systems are currently available: • ftp://us-ffs.hp. Accessing the Fulfillment Server via ftp Figure 12 shows how to use the /usr/bin/ftp command on an HP-UX system to connect to the Americas/Asia/Pacific FFS system. Because the FFS server limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections. although you can also use FFS via the web. Web Access to FFS You can also access the FFS from your web browser. and you web browser must re-establish the connection each time you change directories or download files. Simply enter an ftp address as you would a URL (Figure 13). However.external. • Works well for finding and downloading a known patch. entering ftp://us-ffs.) • Access is anonymous.external. For example. Note that the response supplied for the name prompt is anonymous. You do not need an ITRC account. You can use ftp to directly access all patches on the FFS.

hp. send email to: 220220support_feedback@us-ffs. Remote system type is UNIX.The Fulfillment Server FIGURE 12. and there is a limit of 200 simultaneous accesses.com:username): anonymous 331 Guest login ok. MPE/iX. w/CNS fixes (277) Wed Jun 24 18:02:04 PDT 1998) ready.4.com Connected to hpcc933. ftp> FIGURE 13. 220220-Log in as user "anonymous" (using your e-mail address as your password) 220-to retrieve available patches for HP-UX. 220220-If you are a user of other HP ESC services. HP ASL.external. Name (us-ffs.external. and other platforms. Using binary mode to transfer files. Connecting to the Fulfillment Server via Netscape 26 Acquiring Patches . Establishing an anonymous FTP session patchsvr(103)-> ftp us-ffs.com. 220220-If you have questions.hp. send your complete e-mail address as password.external.external.com 220220 hpcc933 FTP server (Version wu-2. access restrictions apply.com 230 Guest login ok. 220220-Welcome to the HP Electronic Support Center ftp server 220------------------------------------------------------220220-You are user 0.hp. Password:username@hp.hp. log in with your 220-HP ESC User ID and password to deposit or retrieve your files.

For example. Fibre Channel. Click on the file you want to download.. which contains a full list of every patch that has been superseded with the name of the active superseding patch. but provides useful data files. Copy to Folder. The text file contains the patch location within the FFS hierarchy as the Path Name field. Use them only if you must revert to an earlier version of a patch to resolve a specific problem. which contains the checksum for the . Patch directories contain the full shar(1) archive and the patch text file.. Use the get patch_name command to download specific files. and s700_800) and the version of HP-UX supported (10. s800. and I/O cards.) • To download by your web browser: 1. including: — hp-ux_obs_patch_list. for Netscape. for Internet Explorer). in which patch_name is the file you wish to download. but is encoded to contain only 7-bit characters. “Patch Text File Fields. Unpack the shar file by typing sh filename HP-UX Patch Management 27 .. See Appendix . • /superseded_patches/ (Patches that have been superseded by newer patches) This directory contains patches that have been replaced by newer patches. • /firmware_patches/hp (Firmware patches for HP Hardware) This directory contains patches that supply firmware updates to HP hardware.The Fulfillment Server The FFS Directories These are some of the more useful FFS directories for HP-UX patching: • /hp-ux_patches/ARCHITECTURE/OS_RELEASE/ (HP-UX patches) All active HP-UX patches are grouped by architecture (s700. 11. (Use mget for downloading multiple files. 2. graphics cards. 3. (Optional) Enter bi to specify a binary transfer.” on page 132 for more information on the text file. which lists all patches that address known security issues for each release. — hp-ux_patch_matrix. patches for Series 700 workstations on HP-UX 10.depot file of all HP-UX patches.20 are found in the /hp-ux_patches/s700/10. This downloads the shar file of the patch to your system or displays a dialog to select a location to which to download.X subdirectory.) 2. Right-click on the patch link and select the appropriate save option from the pop-up menu (Save Link As.X. — hp-ux_patch_sums.X). When files of this type are transferred through other systems such as personal computers they may be treated as text and undergo a translation step. Subdirectories exist for firmware specifically for CPUs. Patches common to both architectures are found under s700_800. (The shar archive may deliver 8-bit binary data. • /export/patches (data files) This directory does not deliver any patches. Downloading the patch • To download by ftp: 1..

Patch has been stress. patches undergo testing both in customer environments and within HP. May 1. No unwanted side effects were discovered. The Rating of a patch may be updated from 1 to 2 on a daily basis. If you defer installing a patch because it is “Not yet HP Recommended”. Patches are assigned a rating of 1 upon initial release. Not all patches undergo this testing. Subsequently. These are the most recently released patches having the highest HP Rating. If the patch has a rating of 1. re-check it after one of the quarterly dates below to determine if it has passed further testing and the status has changed. Table 1: HP Rating HP rating Description 1 Functional testing by HP to verify that a patch fixes the problem that it purports to fix. Patch has been installed in a certain number of customer environments with no problems reported. HP has verified that the patch will install and de-install in its target environments. (Not every recalled patch causes problems for every customer. The HP Rating of a qualifying patch is upgraded to 3 on or shortly after. The patches displayed in the candidate patch list (Figure 3 on page 12) are the best available patches. Read the patch description to determine why it was recalled. and November 1. HP rates patches along a three-point scale as shown below. August 1. The patch’s HP Rating is then updated accordingly as HP’s confidence in the patch increases. Patches undergo testing for promotion to an HP Rating of 3 on a quarterly basis. Also. It is no longer recommended by HP. HP releases a patch after it meets HP’s minimum patch quality standards.Patch Recommendation Ratings Patch Recommendation Ratings The “best” of the currently available patches covers a broad spectrum. Having said that. Patch is known to introduce another problem and has been recalled. HP recommends that you defer fixing the problem until more is known about the risk of the patch.) 2 3 R In the interest of timeliness. February 1. the lower the risk of side-effects and the more suitable the patch is for mission critical environments. 28 Acquiring Patches . The higher the rating. only defer installing the patch if the problem is not critical or in the case that you can not tolerate any risk to your system.and performance-tested by HP in simulated customer missioncritical environments using common application stacks.

Patches with ratings of 2 or 3 are denoted by the term “HP Recommended” in the Notes field. you must make an informed assessment of these trade-offs based on your own situation. “Fixes critical problem” or “Reboot required after installation”). As a matter of course. HP recommends waiting for a patch to gain a higher HP Rating. Upon their initial release. patches are assigned an HP Rating of 1 and are labeled “Not yet HP Recommended”. Click on the one line patch description to view the patch details to determine why it was recalled. • Recalled A patch may be labeled as recalled when it is known to introduce another problem. Patches are assigned an HP Rating of 1. or 3 based on how many quality standards they meet. Other notes include: • Not yet HP recommended All patches adhere to certain HP quality standards. These patches may fix the problem. the higher the rating becomes. As patches advance on the patch confidence scale. These are displayed in the Notes section of patch lists. not every recalled patch causes problems for every customer. The patch database recommends a replacement patch when you search by patch ID and find a recalled patch. it has a dependency that requires the installation of a product that needs to be purchased separately. If you are not facing a critical problem. Whenever the patch database suggests a patch that is not yet recommended by HP. These patches are available to give you the option of obtaining a fix sooner if you can tolerate some risk to fix a critical problem. it purposely takes time to meet the higher standards. Most notes are self-explanatory (such as. and any impact to your environment. However.About Patch Notes About Patch Notes Patches may include descriptive notes to help you determine the status or risk of a patch. but also may contain some element of risk. 2. • Patch not available A patch might be unavailable if. HP-UX Patch Management 29 . for instance.

If two selected patches conflict. For example. • Recalled A Recalled patch has been removed from distribution. Look for a recommended alternate patch. If you do not find information about an alternate patch. usually explained in the Warning/Description field or the final patch listed under Predecessor patches. To resolve dependency conflicts with selected patches: 1. 2. 30 Acquiring Patches . You must choose between the new patch and the existing one. If you choose to leave the existing patch installed. Add the recommended alternate patch.Resolving Patch Conflicts Resolving Patch Conflicts These are the possible conflicts that can come up during an analysis and how to resolve them: • Behavioral conflict: A behavioral conflicts generally means a selected patch should not be installed with a patch installed on your system. view the details for each patch and decide between them. 2. Analyze for conflicts again to verify that the conflict is resolved. This is a rare occurrence that when encountered can lead to unexpected behavior when a patch is effectively partially superseded. you should select the patch with the highest rating unless a newer patch fixes a specific problem. Check the revision numbers descriptions When two patches have structural conflicts. Click on the patch name to view its details. • Dependency Conflict: A selected patch or a patch already on your system requires another patch to be installed with it. • Structural Conflict: A structural conflict indicates that both patches will replace the same software file on your system. A structural conflict may not exclude the selected patch. it might still be in development. Click on the dependent patch. Review its description and any superseded patches listed. 4. To find an alternate patch: 1. 5. add the patch to your selected patch list. but it will generally imply special handling. This kind of conflict may be common. de-select and remove it from your selected patch list. View the details for each patch to decide which you want. you may select critical patches that have dependencies on noncritical patches. 3. you should verify the revisions and install one or both of the patches as needed. remove the conflicting patch from your selected patch list and perform another analysis. Continue checking the ITRC to check for updates. Analyze for conflicts again to verify that the conflict is resolved. If appropriate. 3. If you don’t want the patch. Generally.

or network that is used as a software source for the swinstall installation utility. installations can take place without the need to mount media. tape. the combined depot would result in a single reboot regardless of the number of patches installed.CHAPTER 4 Depot Management Depot management is a method used to simplify systems management by defining a common reservoir of software to be shared by a group of systems. By defining a depot. Custom depots can be constructed in a number of different ways. combining all software into a single depot allows for a single installation session to load everything. For more information on registering depots. Custom Depots A depot is a software container present on disk. • Separation of Patch Management From System Management Patch management requires a number of unique skills and is an ongoing task. a centralized team can define and support a standardized configuration to be used by many administrators. By creating registered depots. • Streamlined Installation When software is acquired as multiple depots and/or media. It is not uncommon to want to administer a system without ever seeing it. Benefits of Creating Depots There are many reasons to create customized depots. and are a powerful tool for managing software. the work of defining and testing a new configuration of software can be centrally managed. For patches that cause kernel rebuilds. or maybe it is just far enough away to be annoying. HP-UX Patch Management 31 . While the mechanics of system administration remain. CD-ROM. see “The swreg Command” on page 69. Adding the overhead of patch management to system administrators limits the number of systems that each can control. • Remote Administration It may be that the system is in a remote location.

depot file delivered within any patch shell archive from the Patch Database or Fulfillment Server (see Chapter 3. It is possible to use depots of layout_version=0.8 and 11. Creating dedicated patch depots is a great way to avoid duplicating this effort. Also known as a network depot.00 that you install patch PHCO_20078 (or current replacement) before creating the depots. It may be done quarterly to match the availability of the Support Plus media.8 depot.X depot is copied to an HP-UX 10. A directory depot contains each packaged file. with 10. 11. When the term depot is used in this document. as distinct files in a directory hierarchy. it often represents a significant investment in testing and analysis.X depots marked by 1. patching was significantly enhanced by extending the abilities of the SD-UX tools.X vs. analysis. as well as infrastructure. There are many arguments against changing such a depot after it has been released. and monitoring are some of the more difficult administrative tasks required for HP-UX systems. If an HP-UX 11. The price of these new abilities was to introduce several new attributes to the objects.0. Periodic depots are generated on a regular basis that will vary according to the needs of a user. but it is also true that there is always the possibility that a system will encounter a problem requiring a new patch. Several problems related to serving depots for HP-UX 10.0. this type of depot is recommended when creating a depot to be accessed from remote systems.X Depots Beginning with HP-UX 11. 32 Depot Management . Tape media is also a convenient method to allow a depot to be transferred over a network without using the swcopy command. Critical Fix Patch Depot When a periodic patch depot has been created.X from HP-UX 11. The format is specifically designed to support software delivery on tape media but it can be stored on other types of media as well. data will be lost and the depot corrupted. and no dependencies are missing.” on page 9). While this format is not readily transferable like the tape depot. HP-UX 10. A tape depot is a single data file that is accessed in a serial manner.X systems.X system to provide software for use on HP-UX 10. The layout_version attribute is used to differentiate between the old and new. and it is recommended for HP-UX 11. or just in advance of any scheduled system downtime to take advantage of the opportunity. Both styles are common and while the basic function of each is identical there are advantages to each in certain situations. “Acquiring Patches.Patch Depots Types of Depots There are two types of depots: directory and tape. Patch Depots Patch selection.X system or layout_version=0. it is much better suited to parallel access. it can be assumed that a directory depot is implied unless specified otherwise. monthly to ensure a more timely inclusion of critical fixes.X have been identified. Once created.X depots identified by the value 0. The critical aspects of such a depot are that they have been tested on the target configuration.8 on an HP-UX 11. Several different kinds of patch depots are valuable: Periodic Patch Depot A periodic patch depot is created to define the current recommended patch level. The best example of this is the . production systems need only install with an matching operation to load the required patches.

00 the user still has the responsibility of including all dependencies. As with the periodic depots. but provides the system administrator with a variety of ways to perform an incorrect operation that could leave a system in an unknown state. Such a bundle can be explicitly selected for installation.*. The swmodify command is used to create new category tags. after listing all selected patch filesets in the file P2000_Q1. • Patch Bundles Patch bundles may be acquired from HP directly. or as a local resource to ensure local access to any needed patch. If the risks are understood and are acceptable. or created using the Ignite-UX make_bundles command or externally available tools such as those available through the Interex Users Group (see the paper. but numerous issues exist.list @ /hub Category tags had some initial problems. It may be used as a method to conserve disk space. it is not uncommon to desire a “kitchen sink” depot that contains every patch that may ever be needed.c=P2000_Q1 selects all of the patches in the /hub depot that include the category tag P2000_Q1. This responsibility is handled by the SD-UX tools in 11i. Patch Hubs While not recommended for general use. Session files provide the additional ability to specify options in addition to the software list. Both a software file (specified with the -f option) and a session file (specified with the -C option) provide a mechanism to explicitly select a set of software. • Category Tags Introduced to patches in HP-UX 11.interex. see“The swinstall Command” on page 59 and the“The swcopy Command” on page 62. • Software/Session Files Software and session files can be used to select patches for installation (with swinstall) or to copy (with swcopy) from a patch hub. swinstall -s /hub -x patch_match_target=true -x patch_filter=*. it may be advisable to place a newer patch in both the periodic and the critical fix depot. such as the lack of a working mechanism to delete them. Providing direct access to a patch hub can be done. This problem was corrected with patch PHC)_22526.Patch Depots In these environments. Creating Custom Patch Bundles by Dominguez & Scott in the Interworks 1998 proceedings or at http://www. it may be useful to create a depot that contains fixes to known problems in the current environment. dependencies of the patches in the depot should also be included.list issue the command: swmodify -a category_tag=P2000_Q1 -f P2000_Q1. Such a patch hub is no longer suitable for general use and the result of an matching operation does not produce a defined or necessarily tested environment. It is recommended that a patch hub is unregistered or be given restricted access (see “Depot Access” on page 36). The swmodify command can be used to add an arbitrary category tag to existing patches. For more information. For example. as well as a starting point for the next version of the periodic depot. alternate mechanisms may be used to define subsets of the full patch hub. For 11. Depending on the severity or probability of a given failure. This can be particularly useful when working with bundle wrappers.org).00. This depot can be used to update any system that encounters a known failure. See Chapter 6. The advantage of category tags over patch bundles or software/session files is that they may be used with the patch_filter and a matching operation to avoid the problems of explicit selection. To define the P2000_Q1 category used above. category tags are attributes that can be used to mark a patch. HP-UX Patch Management 33 . “Patch Installation” for more on this topic.

Combining Patch Depots You may want to combine patch depots so that you can perform a single install and reboot for a given session. Even if you are the only person that will use the depots. This may result in the depot containing patches and their replacements together. While an installation using such a depot should be successful. each is simply copied in turn. creating mirror depots may be a valuable option. • Network Considerations Not only should the performance of the networking interfaces be taken into account. If the availability of the depot is critical. This can be done by setting the option register_new_depot to false during the initial swcopy session. • Naming a depot One of the features of the interactive user interfaces is the ability to select from a list of available depots on a system.Creating a Patch Depot Creating a Patch Depot Once the decision has been made to create a patch depot and the patches have been selected and acquired. it is time to create a depot to house them. As this document will not address the creation of a patch. Both disk space and network bandwidth can be conserved by setting the swcopy option compress_files to true. A depot can be copied to a directory depot using the swcopy command. Copying Existing Depots All packaged software exists in a depot. For example. it can be assumed that an initial depot is always available. and depots involved. • Disk Considerations Depot operations can involve a significant amount of disk activity. When multiple patch depots are combined. it is automatically registered. The more individuals. Both the performance of the server and the impact on others are to be addressed. • Compression Depots are created in an uncompressed state by default. • Depot Access When a depot is created using swcopy. If groups of remote systems are accessible only via a congested or expensive link. the depot should be made inaccessible during the creation process. 34 Depot Management .\* @ /depots/testdepot The swcopy command is described in more detail within the swcopy(1m) man page or in “The swcopy Command” on page 62. the superseded patches will never be used and are a waste of disk space. or to a tape depot via the swpackage command. systems. Disk space must be available. Preparation Tasks There are a number of issues to consider before a depot is put into production. If the final form of the depot will require more than a single swcopy. It is particularly useful to specify a depot path that identifies the contents if several different depots and/or depot revisions are present. the more time and energy should be devoted to preparation. /depots/order_db/Y2000Q1 might contain the periodic patch bundle for the first quarter of the year 2000 to be used on systems hosting the order entry database. location within the network should be considered. The following example shows how a depot on the default tape drive could be copied as /depots/testdepot to the current system while ensuring that all files are compressed: swcopy -s /dev/rmt/0m -x compress_files=true \*. and if the depot usage is expected to be high the performance of the disk devices and interface cards must be taken into account. creating the right environment today can help support any changes the future may bring. high availability storage solutions such as disk arrays or mirroring should be considered.

Creating a Patch Depot Removing Superseded Patches For HP-UX 11.00 Although the patch database and the SD-UX tools perform automatic dependency analysis. For example. and you are prompted before the command removes them. but it has been superseded by PHNE_19899. For example. they are listed. two supersession chains are shown that have a mutual dependency. searching for PHNE_17017 shows that the patch is recalled and is not available. Read the PHNE_17051 text file. HP-UX Patch Management 35 . this would be done via: /usr/sbin/cleanup -d /depots/testdepot If any superseded patches are found. The supersession chains are each in a vertical column. cleanup will remove any superseded patches within the depot. Example of Inter-Patch Dependencies PHNE_18972 PHNE_19899 Patch Dependency Supersession Chain PHNE_17662 PHNE_17051 PHNE_17017 For example. A patch dependency is indicated by a dashed arrow pointing from a patch to the patch it is dependent on.00 systems. with the older patches on the bottom. FIGURE 14. Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. suppose that you need a critical fix found in patch PHNE_17051. 2. you may occasionally have to perform the analysis manually. For testdepot created above. the PHNE_17051 file lists a dependency on PHNE_17017. In Figure 14. superseded patches can be removed from a depot via the cleanup utility (delivered by patch PHCO_19550 or current replacement). This section describes how to analyze dependencies. When given the -d option and the full path to a depot. Search the patch database for any dependent patches. 1. See “The cleanup Command” on page 72 for more information.

PHNE_17662 itself has been replaced by PHNE_19899. For patch depots. Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i The 10.00” above. even if you only selected one of them. the cumulative nature of HPUX patches ensures that the replacement patches include the needed functionality. Chapter 3. The rights can be further divided by the type of access granted. These are the possible scenarios for 11i patch analysis: 1. For this reason. swcopy or swinstall would automatically copy or install PHNE_18972 and PHNE_19899 together. Depot Access It may be desirable to restrict access to depots.00 process of manually analyzing patch dependencies is time-consuming and cumbersome.) For example. Access rights can be specified for individual products within a depot and given to individual users on specific systems. suppose that you need a critical fix found in patch PHNE_17051. 2.text file or the patch database) shows that PHNE_18972 has replaced PHNE_17051. if all the patches in Figure 14 are in the same depot. See “Enforced Patch Dependencies” on page 50 for more information. For example. 36 Depot Management . “Acquiring Patches” has more information about using the patch database and dependency analysis. Registration tasks are done using the swreg command (see “The swreg Command” on page 69).text file for PHNE_19899 shows a dependency on PHNE_18972.com/. This could be due to entitlements. Check the dependency information for any superseding patches. Depot Registration A registered depot is visible and accessible to remote systems. and you can install patches PHNE_18972 and PHNE_19899 onto the system. the . no unresolved dependencies remain. Even though you did not install the original patch (PHNE_17051). You then need to follow the analysis outlined in “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. consult the swacl(1m) man page or the SD-UX documentation available from http://docs. or example. the swacl command provides the ability to restrict access to a high level of granularity. depot registration and access control lists. You copy or install a patch from a depot that does not contain the dependent patches. or the depot not being prepared for production. The patch contains a manual_dependency tag. When unregistered. HP enabled “enforced dependency” functionality for the HP-UX 11i release. (This capability results from the requirement that every patch with a dependency enforces or records that dependency in its product specification file. which you already selected. At this point. training. 3. The patch and all of its dependencies are in the depot from which you are installing or copying your patch. For a full description of swacl. This tag indicates that the patch has one or more dependencies that cannot be resolved by SD-UX. The Supersedes field (in the patch .20 and 11.Depot Access 3. geography. This means that the SD-UX commands for installing and copying patches automatically include patch dependencies.hp. You must go through the dependency analysis as outlined above. a depot remains accessible on its own system without being visible to remote systems. swinstall or swcopy detect the patch dependency on another patch and automatically include the dependent patch in the install or copy operation. Two mechanisms exist to restrict access. Access Control Lists (swacls) If complex access control is required. this is usually sufficient for most needs. PHNE 18972 also has a dependency on PHNE_17662.

If there is any question regarding the stability or reproducibility of the user data it must be resolved before proceeding. it can be easy for confusion to lead to mistakes and/or complicate analysis of system failures. Computer systems are complex environments and system administrators are often driven by constant and critical interruptions. In a large environment it may be beneficial to create a formal change control process for critical systems. it provides a general checklist of tasks that can be used as a starting point for a local process. this is not meant to infer that data is not important. software failures and operator error are not hindered in their destructive ability.CHAPTER 5 Patch Installation This chapter describes a basic process for performing the installation of patches onto an HP-UX system. A Note on Change Management When working with multiple systems and system administrators. there is more to be done to prepare for any system modification. While the risks may be small. It is assumed that prior to installation the following tasks have been completed: • A current system recovery image has been completed • Patches have been selected and acquired • The installation depot contains all dependencies System Preparation Even when the depot is ready. Back-ups Back-ups! While this document only addresses issues involving system software. While disk arrays and mirroring provide terrific protection from hardware failures. While not the only method available. the costs can be huge. Some of the aspects of such a process include: HP-UX Patch Management 37 .

it becomes necessary to return to the initial state by removing the new patches. such as a Support Plus patch bundle.System Preparation • Clear Ownership of each Change The submitter of a change request becomes the initial owner of a task. HP strongly recommends that you create a recovery image. While less valuable in smaller operations. Commands and libraries may not match the currently running kernel. If this is the case. and the current patch level becomes a low-water mark. By requiring a formal handoff to any new owners. Scripts may kill and restart daemons. This image can be used to return to the uncommitted state. However if you don’t perform a committal before the installation of the new patches. This is not meant to indicate that updates should take place on active systems from beginning to end. For this reason. most documentation has recommended that the system be in run-level (init) 2 or higher. the individual responsible for executing the change can quickly be identified. However. Patch Committal Prior to Depot Installation When installing a large number of patches. to commit all patches on your system: swmodify -x patch_commit=true \* Before you commit patches. you may inadvertently remove patches that were installed on the system before the bundle installation. Both the initial state prior to the installation and the final state upon completion should be supported and stable environments. Remember that the risk is not only to the failure of an application. The installation of large numbers of patches might create unwanted side effects on your system. • Change Review and Approval By requiring a period of review and authorization. System Activity The Software Distributor tools rely on the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and networking support for even the most basic functions. This can result in the removal of a patch that fulfills a dependency. it is not uncommon for some of the patches to already be present or superseded on the target system. and commands are gradually changed. libraries. they are not lost when a system failure is encountered. An attempt to remove all active patches can only delete those that are newly delivered. The system will be between supportable configurations. • Centralized Change Database By keeping change records on a central system. senior administrators and management can provide guidance and ensure that business needs are not controlled by technical decisions. One method that can be used to avoid these issues is to perform a system-wide commitment of all patches prior to the installation of the new set. Experience and recovery planning should be your guide. The database can be constructed to provide access to the experience of other administrators as well as visibility of upcoming changes to system users. Applications that are not critical should be halted. This causes the initial patched state to become the minimum system environment. a growing data center should consider implementing a change control process before it is needed. but to the system being left in a partially installed and corrupted state. The recommended method for performing a system-wide patch committal is to use the SD-UX swmodify command. and no new processing should be started. For example. during the installation process. These are multi-user states that are usually associated with active systems. The committed patches cannot be removed. Patches should also never be committed without an immediate need such as reclaim- 38 Patch Installation . system files.

“Planning for Recovery”. can fix the problem.v=HP From the swlist output. ProgSupport. In the example.00.v=HP PHKL_22759.00. # # Target: phsvr703:/ # # PHKL_22759 PHKL_22759. The best way to do this is to manage your patch depots in such a way that you can re-install a committed patch’s ancestor patches. You must re-install the patched products to provide the older versions of files or manage your patch depots in such a way that you can re-install a committed patch’s ancestor patches.KERN2-RUN OS-Core.00. staying as close as possible to the patches already on the system. using the swinstall preview mode: swinstall -p -s /var/tmp/REBUILD_DEPOT -x autoreboot=true \ -x autoselect_patches=true -x reinstall=true \ -x reinstall_files=true OS-Core ProgSupport SCSI-Passthru HP-UX Patch Management 39 .fr=B. # Contacting target "phsvr703". The remaining patches are those delivered in the XSWGR1100 bundle.KERN2-RUN.fr=B. To remove the committed patch and reinstall PHKL_21989: 1. 3. Committed Patch Removal The primary disadvantage of system-wide patch committal is that you cannot as easily roll back the committed patches. you determine that you need to reload the OS-Core.11.C-INC ProgSupport. The depot should include all patches desired for the final system. Therefore. To ensure that you can return your system to its current state..fr=B.SPT2-DVRSCSI-Passthru. but an older patch.System Preparation ing disk space or preparing for the installation of a new bundle. create a recovery image.CORE2-KRN.) Create a recovery depot that contains the original products as well as all required patches. Removing any patch might cause another patch to lose a required dependency.SPT2-DVR. For example. PHKL_21989.v=HP PHKL_22759.CORE2-KRN OS-Core. Use the swlist command to determine all ancestors of patches to be changed (because you need to reload all of the filesets modified by the patch): swlist -l fileset -a ancestor PHKL_22759 # Initializing. 2. this would mean copying PHKL_21989 into the recovery depot and removing PHKL_22759. (See “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11.00..) Reload the ancestor patches. Failure to perform this analysis for all patches to be removed may cause unpredictable results.. (See Chapter 2.2) installed with all patches committed and that you need to remove PHKL_22759. suppose that a system has the XSWGR1100 bundle (revision 11.11. such as an Ignite-UX recovery tape or network image. See “Committed Patch Removal” and “Patch Commitment” on page 49 for more information. Perform a dependency analysis.. you must perform an analysis to ensure that the final set of patches will function correctly.00” on page 35 or “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i” on page 36 for more information.C-INC.There are also disadvantages.fr=B. No newer patches are acceptable.52. 4.00. All are confirmed to be in the depot.11. Selected re-installation and IPD modification can be a complex and risky operation. and SCSIPassthru products.11. 5.v=HP PHKL_22759.

use the swinstall program’s preview mode (include a -p in the command line) to analyze the install before trying to perform it.CORE-KRN" gave a global error return (exit code "11"). this time with the addition of the LVM product: swinstall -p -s /var/tmp/REBUILD_DEPOT -x autoreboot=true \ -x autoselect_patches=true -x reinstall=true \ -x reinstall_files=true OS-Core ProgSupport SCSI-Passthru LVM Run the same command without the -p option to perform the actual installation. This is because there is either an "/etc/lvmtab" file which contains lvm configuration information on the system. Unless you are installing patches into a committed state.00" has previous analysis errors. the actual usage of /var/adm/sw may increase and cause swinstall to fail.LVM-RUN must be selected in order to ensure that all disks will be accessible after the new kernel is put into place. but the actual increase never exceeds of 10 Mbytes. TIP: Whenever possible. the following error is listed: ERROR: The filesets LVM. 8. TIP: Reloading of products and patches may cause SD-UX to issue a disk space analysis (DSA) error. data will be lost without LVM. use a test system to verify impacts and changes before you change any production environment systems. Theses messages tell you that you need to include the LVM product. TIP: SD-UX affords you a greater level of safety and error checking when you work at the product level. The corequisite "OS.CORE2-KRN.00" for fileset "OS-Core. 40 Patch Installation . For the example.CORE-KRN. which turns off automatic dependency checking and increases the risk of error. * The software "OS-Core. Whenever possible.r=B. Installing the example products causes swinstall to expect the size of /usr to increase by more than 100 Mbytes.r=B. but this requires that you change the default behavior of additional SD-UX options including autoselect_dependencies and enforce_dependencies.11. TIP: Patches may include checkinstall scripts that do not support dependency checking and other patch management features.r=B. (If necessary) check the log files if errors occur. Because the disk space used by the reloaded products and patches merely replaces existing disk space. or the command "/etc/sdsadmin" indicates that there is a multiple disk software disk striping (SDS) array on the system (or cluster). Preview the installation again.Core. You can avoid this error setting the enforce_dsa option to false. 7. ERROR: The "checkinstall" script for "OS-Core. Use this option with extreme caution.00" cannot be successfully resolved. In either case.LVM-KRN and LVM. You can replace individual filesets to remove committed patches and restore ancestors level.11.CORE-KRN.System Preparation 6. most of which is transient use only.11.

*. When is a Reboot Needed? Each patch “knows” if it will require a system reboot to install on a system. and some are mentioned in this document. It should now be made clear that this ambiguous condition exists until any required system reboot and configuration steps are completed. avoid using these complex methods unnecessarily.X releases.Planning for System Reboot Planning for System Reboot The core of the HP-UX operating system is known as the kernel. Installation The previous work outlined in this document was concentrated in creating the depots and with the preparation complete the installation should be simple and quick. • All patches in the source depot that corresponded to software on the target system were selected. but how can you tell? A flag is recorded both within the patch documentation as well as a fileset attribute within the patch itself. but it should also not be unecessarily delayed. This complicated the process of software updates and required that patches be kept in a separate depot. it does not allow any time or warning before the system is halted. There was no way to filter them according to their type or level of severity. the fact that the system is in an unknown state until the installation process completes is discussed. If specified. the autoreboot option instructs swinstall to reboot the system whenever it is required. the interactive versions of the swinstall command will display a dialog that announces the required reboot. Patches that were superseded had to be manually removed from a depot. While useful for automated and unattended installations. patches were generally selected and installed using the match_target option of swinstall. While solutions for the future are under investigation. Most kernel (PHKL) and many networking (PHNE) patches require that the kernel be rebuilt and restarted. it is certain that at times users and applications will remain active during an install and need to be prepared before a reboot can occur. • SD-UX had no way to determine whether some patches in a depot were superseded by other patches. This also made it impossible to install both the product and its patch(es) in a single step. The patches in a local depot (/MyDepot) can be checked with the following: swlist -d -l fileset -a is_reboot *.c=patch @ /MyDepot | grep true Timing of the Reboot In “System Preparation” on page 37. Not only is a reboot often required. The goal is to have all systems at a common level with the least amount of overhead. Using the SD-UX Matching Operations In the HP-UX 10. Unless a special need exists. the only method currently available to restart an HP-UX kernel is to shut down and restart the system. There are complex methods of patch installation. HP-UX Patch Management 41 . Despite this and the cautions regarding system activity. This becomes an issue when the swinstall command line interface (CLI) is used. The CLI will not allow an installation that will require a system reboot to begin unless an override option (-x autoreboot=true) is specified. This was an improvement over manual selection of patches but there were several problems: • The match_target option applied to both patches and non-patch software in the same depot and there was no way to ensure that the patches and non-patch software would be installed in the correct order. In addition. A depot can be checked for patches requiring a reboot by using the swlist command to display the is_reboot attribute of the patch filesets. Any filesets with this attribute set to true will reboot the system if loaded.

the match_target option has been modified so that it applies only to non-patch software.*") The autoselect_patches option is used when installing software. they will not be handled by SD-UX.00 must not have external dependencies. If you want to install from a depot of patches. This is most often used to install the proper set of patches from a patch bundle. For example.00” on page 35 for a detailed explanation of analysis. patch_filter automatically selects the patches which contain myTag as a category tag in addition to their dependencies.X. the match_target option was changed to select only non-patch software. In other words. Non-patch software can be identified through the is_patch attribute described in “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56. If patches that apply to the software selected (by a swinstall or swcopy command) are present in the source depot. The following command installs patches from a depot which correspond to currently installed software products: swinstall -s /mydepot -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true Finally. you have additional control over patches selected when using either autoselect_patches or patch_match_target through the use of the patch_filter option. they will be selected and installed with the software. When installing from a depot. they can be applied during the initial installation or update of the software. Three new selection options were added to improve management of patches: -x autoselect_patches=true|false -x patch_match_target=true|false -x patch_filter=<selection> (default=true) (default=false) (default="*. when patch_filter is used to select patches which contain the myTag category tag. there are exceptions to this enforcement. For 11i. always check for the manual_dependencies tag which indicates that although the patch has one or more dependencies. the patch_match_target option can be used to select those patches which correspond to any product installed on the system. Note that in HP-UX 11. Each patch contains tags (the category_tag attribute) which characterize the patch. it only selects those patches which have that tag so if the dependency does not contain it. The benefit to the user is that a separate swinstall session is not required to install patches to a product. the command: swinstall -s /mydepot MYPRODUCT by default also selects and installs any patches applying to MYPRODUCT that also exist in the source depot. you must go through and do a manual dependency analysis. This functionality has been enabled in 11i through the use of requisite tags. Most patches contain dependency information within their PSF in the form of corequisites or prerequisites. 42 Patch Installation . to install only patches with a category_tag of myTag that apply to a system: swinstall -s /mydepot -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true \ -x patch_filter="*.Installation With HP-UX 11. However. any subset generated through a patch_filter operation in 11. See “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11.00.c=myTag" The patch_filter option can also be applied in conjunction with the autoselect_patches option to control which patches are selected when software is initially installed. This simplifies the process and protects the system from careless activity. It must be emphasized that as with depots. See “Enforced Patch Dependencies” on page 50 for detailed information on the manual_dependencies tag. For example.*. it does not select the dependencies for those patches.

deselect the Actions-->Save files replaced by patch for later rollback. (Note that the Support Plus CD has depots contained in subdirectories. If necessary. the cleanup utility (delivered via patch PHCO_22044 or current replacement) provides a simple interface consistent with the version provided on HP-UX 10.00.) There are two different methods that may be used to commit patches after they have been installed. switch it on. The file name will be something similar to /dev/dsk/c1t2d0. (From the GUI. HP strongly recommends that you read the documentation for each bundle or patch you wish to load. 4. Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information Support Plus often contains last-minute information. define a new directory as the mount point for the CD drive. enter: mkdir /cdrom 5. Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles Follow this procedure to install patch bundles from the Support Plus CD. For example.) Step 1: Mount the CD 1. identify the drive device file: ioscan -fnC disk This command lists all recognized CD drives and their associated device files. The cleanup command is discussed in more detail in “The cleanup Command” on page 72.com. 3. they are not all at the top level of the CD. use the name you found using ioscan in Step 5 above. If necessary. Wait for the busy light to stop blinking. For complete information on Support Plus. For example: ls /cdrom 6. If the CD drive is external. For 11. Before proceeding. to define /cdrom as the mount point. Mount the CD drive to the mount-point directory: mount -r /dev/dsk/c1t2d0 /cdrom If the CD drive’s device-file name is not c1t2d0. then select the appropriate patching tools. Put the appropriate Support Plus CD into the drive. 2. You can now access the CD via the mount-point directory. Open a terminal window and become root on your system. see “HP Patch Bundles” on page 31 and the Support Plus User’s Guide. 7. HP-UX Patch Management 43 . or after the fact.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles Installing to a Committed Patch State Patch commitment may take place during patch installation. There are several important sources of information: • Check the HP IT Resource Center for information about recommended patches: http://itrc.hp. If it is desired that the patches be installed directly into a committed state. the swinstall option -x patch_save_files=false may be used.com/ Select the Maintenance and Support page.hp. available on the Support Plus CD and at http://docs. and the swmodify command allows the patch commitment to be managed down to the fileset level with the patch_commit=true option.X releases.

This file provides detailed information about the patch. For example: more /cdrom/HWEnable11i. You can enter a URL into a web browser to view these files directly from the CD. Register the depot: swreg -l depot /cdrom/HWEnable11i 2. These files contain hyperlinks to the patch text files. changes since the last release.com TIP To simplify sharing of patch information.readme.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles • Refer to the Support Plus web site for additional information: http://software.txt • Each bundle readme file is also available in HTML format. you may wish to copy the documentation files onto your own system.) You can print or view these directly from the CD. a list of patches (and their dependencies) in the bundle. For example: file:/cdrom/HWEnable11i. This file contains additional installation instructions. HP recommends that you copy the patch depots to a hard disk using the swcopy command. or if you cannot dedicate the CD drive to the Support Plus CD. Disable remote access by unregistering the depot before unmounting the CD: swreg -u -l depot /cdrom/HWEnable11i NOTE: You cannot access or register 11. Step 3 (Optional): Set Up Sharing for Remote Systems To enable direct access from one or two other systems. Each patch bundle has its own readme file. For example. For example. You can print or view these files directly from the CD.hp.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/ • • Refer to the Read Before Installing document that accompanies the Support Plus CD. proceed to “Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles” on page 45.adobe. (Patch text files are also included with individual patches that you retrieve from HP. use: swcopy -s /cdrom/HWEnable11i \* @ /var/tmp/MyDepot Patch Installation 44 .x depots from HP-UX 10.readme (for 11i) • Each patch has an accompanying text file in the /cdrom/TEXT_FILES directory. notes about problems in current and previous releases.20 systems. This short document contains up-to-date information about known problems with patches in recent Support Plus releases. Some information is in Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The hyperlinks from the HTML bundle readme files to the patch text files will work as long as the HTML files reside in the same directory as the TEXT_FILES subdirectory. to register the HWEnable11i depot. Step 4 (Optional): Set Up Hard Disk Access If more than two systems must access the depot. with the CD mounted at /cdrom. and a listing of disk space usage. For example: more /cdrom/TEXT_FILES/PHSS_22540.html (for 11i) • Diagnostic products have readme files and additional information in the /cdrom/DIAGNOSTICS directory. If you mounted the CD on the system that is the target for the patch or diagnostic installation. Install the bundles (see “Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles” on page 45). 3. assuming the Support Plus CD is mounted to /cdrom: 1. you must register a depot on the Support Plus CD using the swreg command. A free version of the Adobe Acrobat® Reader is available at: http://www.

it is wise to recheck the readme files before installing. tested. You may need to enter additional information or take other action.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles This command copies the contents of the HWEnable11i depot to the local system under the /var/tmp/MyDepot directory. an unexpected condition was encountered. Also. Support Plus bundles commonly include patches that require a system reboot. 3. Plan for system down time. HP recommends that both the host system and depot should have the same major HP-UX version (for example. If the swcopy interactive user interface appears. HP recommends that after you have selected a bundle for installation (see “HP Patch Bundles” on page 15). Although you can select individual patches from the bundles.x). The bundle readme files may contain additional installation instructions and other important information. To ensure greatest reliability. Notes • • HP recommends that you do not merge depots created on different versions of HP-UX. this requires additional analysis of the readme files to ensure you do not overlook software dependencies. For example: swinstall -p -s grendel:/cdrom/HWEnable11i \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true NOTE: If the swinstall interactive user interface appears. Therefore. it is prudent to limit system activity during any installation. Install the patch bundles. For example. Also. 2. 4. See “Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information” on page 43. and intended for use as a unit. One recovery technique is to use HP’s Ignite-UX tools (provided on HP-UX 11i Operating Environment CD1) to create recovery images. Although you should already have reviewed the patch documentation. Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles The bundles on the Support Plus CD are built. Some amount of risk is involved in any system modification. Review the documentation. you should plan the installation for an appropriate time and announce a system outage to the users ahead of time. Even though the swinstall command used for installing the bundles requires that the system has networking enabled. 11. HP-UX Patch Management 45 . HP recommends the following tasks for all systems: 1. The new depot is automatically registered for use by remote systems. to install from a CD mounted and registered on the system grendel: swinstall -s grendel:/cdrom/HWEnable11i \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true You can use the swinstall command’s preview mode (-p option) to get an idea of what to expect for the bundle you want to install. Create a system backup. an unexpected condition was encountered and you may need to enter additional information or take other action. You should implement a recovery plan as an insurance policy against a system failure. you install the bundle using the matching operations of the swinstall command.

This contains a terse summary of command activity. /var/spool/sw/swagent. (You can specify a different logfile by modifying the logfile option. If you experience problems with one of the SD-UX commands. The swverify command can be used to verify a patch bundle or even a single patch. dependency relationships. This can be done using: swverify \* Checking the Logs Each SD-UX command logs messages to /var/adm/sw/sw<task>..) A swagent process performs the actual operations for each of the many SD-UX commands. swcopy. where task is the name of the command.log beneath the depot directory (for example.log. a few final steps are required. and swremove. WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 229. WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 64. 46 Patch Installation . These verify the actions taken and begin the preparations as the next cycle begins.. but it is recommended that a wildcard be used to verify all products and patches on the system. The swverify command is provided as a method to compare the data within the IPD with the actual system directories and files.00 system to list bundles on an HP-UX 11i system may generate warnings. This log is located at /var/adm/sw/swagent. which would not be in the command log file for swinstall. For example.Finishing Touches Usage Tip Using the swlist command on an HP-UX 11. See “Cleanup Command” on page 22 or “The cleanup Command” on page 72. The cleanup command can also help you manage SD-UX log files. swverify checks software states. The swverify command Software Distributor maintains a database of software that it controls known as the Installed Products Database or IPD. file existence and integrity.log). For example: swlist -d -l bundle @ 11isys:/cdrom/HWEnable11i/GOLDAPPS11i # Initializing. # Contacting target "hpfclc1". When verifying installed software. swagent logs messages to the file swagent... This log file is much more complete. For depot operations. WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 142.log. including swinstall. the swagent log is a good place to look for more information. it includes the output from installation scripts. Finishing Touches Once the installation has completed. See the SD-UX manual for more information.

Appendix A Basic Patch Concepts Patch management differs in many ways from standard forms of software management. performance enhancements. This appendix defines the basic patch terminology and concepts. in practice ancestors are managed between grouping of files known as filesets (see Appendix B.FSD is not present. This fileset is given the same name as that ancestor. This indicates that the FSD fileset was not needed by that system.X patches. The importance of this can be seen through a simple thought experiment of loading PHCO_0100 onto a system that has Prod installed without fileset FSD. For a patch that delivers a new version of a single file. the patch can be installed again.FSD fileset actually being processed. While the concept of ancestry can be applied to a single file. If Prod. it is possible for several patches to modify a single product or for a single patch to modify several products. “SD-UX Tools & Objects”). it would rely on external tools or people that do have an understanding.FSD. Patch Mechanics Ancestors and Patches Ancestry is one of the basic concepts of patch operations. For HP-UX 11. When PHCO_0100 is installed. the system will determine that fileset Prod. and will not load PHCO_0100.FSD is loaded at a later date. A patch is an incremental change to the released software. Certain terms and actions exist solely within the patch space. A patch may be loaded in reaction to a system failure. HP-UX Patch Management 47 . It may deliver defect fixes. the ancestor delivered the original version of that file. While it is possible to create a support solution without an understanding of these concepts. The ancestor of a patch is defined as the preexisting software that is being modified or replaced. and in some cases new functionality. or to proactively avoid encountering a known problem in the future. Working with groups of files. a fileset is created for each ancestor fileset. with only the PHCO_0100. The specific details regarding execution are left to the following chapters. Figure 15 provides a simple example of the four filesets of product Prod being modified by the patch PHCO_0100.

is initially patched by PHCO_1000. Only the active member of a supersession chain can be removed. the default behavior is to save copies of all files patched prior to loading the new versions. the presence of a superseding patch will prevent the installation of any preceding patch.FSA Prod.FS fileset contains the relocatable object files foo.0) is stored in a save area associated with PHCO_1000. Figure 17 shows the save areas for the Prod. The Prod. When PHCO_1000 is loaded. One of the key differences is the ability to perform patch rollback to restore the pre-patched behavior.o. each replacing the previous patch.0. an earlier patch could replace files with earlier or outdated versions. If the patch is removed. The newer patch is said to supersede all earlier patches. Only the top patch of the chain is in the active (applied) state. it remains on the system.FSC Prod. This means that any individual patch supplied by HP must completely contain all aspects of any preceding patch. the version delivered with the original product (v1.FS supersession chain of Figure 16. but as each superseded patch returns to the active state it becomes a candidate for removal in future sessions.FSB One Patch Multiple Filesets Product Prod Prod. A series of patches.Patch Mechanics FIGURE 15. Patch Supersession Chain PROD. FIGURE 16. the patch numbers increase along a patch supersession chain. In fact. these saved files are restored. forms a supersession chain (Figure 16).FS PHCO_1000 PHCO_2000 PHCO_3000 The SD-UX-packaged product Prod.X Patch and Ancestors Patch PHCO_0100 PHCO_0100. both having a of revision 1. In general.o and bar. If this were not the case.FSD Patch Supersession Patches for HP-UX products are required to be cumulative. HP-UX 11.o. When a patch is loaded onto a system.FSC PHCO_0100.FSA PHCO_0100. This patch is superseded by PHCO_2000 which is superseded in turn by PHCO_3000.FSB Prod. When this happens. Since patches are designed to be cumulative. Patch Rollback The installation of a patch differs from the installation of a product in several ways. it is not required to have all patches in a supersession chain installed. 48 .FSD PHCO_0100. but is not active. When a patch is superseded. it delivers a new version of foo.

r=1.) HP-UX Patch Management 49 . Patch Commitment The rollback mechanism is not without cost.o. the files found within its save area are restored to the system. it delivers a new version of bar.r=1. It requires disk space that may be needed for other applications or data.1 PHCO_3000 foo.r=1. it is important that the areas affected by a single patch are limited. any prior patches lose the ability to be restored. Finally.o.2 bar. In these cases. (See Appendix C.0 foo. a patch may document a dependency against patches responsible for these other areas.r=1. Patch Rollback PHCO_1000 PHCO_2000 foo.r=1. it must also deliver the version of foo. As a cumulative patch.1 bar. patch PHCO_3000 delivers new version of both files. and the existing files on the system are preserved in a save area associated with PHCO_3000.o.o. The versions of foo.text file field(s) used will be noted as appropriate for each type.o.o. When a patch is committed to the system.o.Patch Dependencies FIGURE 17.0 foo.FS to the original state.r=1.o that are on the system before loading PHCO_2000 are then stored in the save area.2 PROD. eventually returning Prod. cumulative patching ensures that the amount of change delivered by a patch will increase during the life of a supersession chain.o.0 bar.o.0 Patch Save Area foo. Also.o.r=1. Because patches are cumulative.o that was delivered by PHCO_1000. The disk space used to support patch rollback may be reclaimed through patch commitment.o. “The Patch Text File” for more information.1 bar. reinstalling the committed patch will not restore the rollback ability. the associated save area is deleted and the patch cannot be directly removed.o and bar. if any patch in a supersession chain is committed. If patch PHCO_3000 is removed from the system.r=1. and in some cases multiple copies of the same file will be preserved. As can be seen in the diagram.1 foo.1 When PHCO_2000 is loaded. Each patch could be removed in turn. Patch Dependencies To become fully active. The different types of dependencies are documented in the text file or readme attribute of each patch. and the save area disk space for those patches is also reclaimed. The product remains patched until updated to a new version or removed from the system.o.FS foo. a patch may require changes in other areas of the system.o. and patch PHCO_2000 again becomes the active patch.r=1. even though it did not change.r=1. The.r=1.r=1.1 bar. How? Because the information lost is of the state prior to the installation of the patch.

SD-UX can register and automatically manage required patch levels. A dependency that is not directly enforceable by SD-UX (although patch scripts can provide indirect enforcement). • Hardware Dependency Certain patches are only applicable to specific system models. An example would be that the commands in PHCO_1000 cannot be used without the kernel support of patch PHKL_1234. The ability to automatically resolve superseded dependencies for patches was not implemented because of time constraints. This is why SD-UX can resolve static dependencies: they don’t run the risk of being superseded. Enforced Patch Dependencies The ability to manage patch dependencies was not included in the original design of the SD-UX. These system-level dependencies are documented in the Hardware Dependencies field. • Standard Dependency The standard dependency is an execution-time software dependency without any exceptions or conditions. • Ordered Dependency An ordered dependency is an installation-time software dependency without any exceptions or conditions. All such miscellaneous dependencies are explained in the Other Dependencies field. 50 . The contents of these patches may be modified by subsequent patches but they are not meant to be superseded. • Other Dependencies There are dependencies that cannot be described in a simple manner. their supersessions and their dependencies and then install the appropriate patches. there is no way for SD-UX to recognize that the latest patch in the supersession chain has to be loaded. Three types of dependencies are used in HP-UX 11i: Table 2: HP-UX 11i Dependency Handling Dependency Type Description Corequisite Prerequisite Manual dependency A standard dependency listed in the PDep field of the patch text file and automatically enforced by SD-UX. These are documented in the Patch Dependencies field and/or the Special Installation Instructions field. Standard dependencies are documented in the Patch Dependencies field. In 11. (See “Viewing Dependency Information” on page 51.Patch Dependencies Dependency Types While the dependencies of a patch are generally quite simple.) As long as the desired patch and its dependencies are loaded on the depot. there are some cases where special types of dependencies may be encountered. swinstall and swcopy will analyze the patches.00. However in 11i. These include optional dependencies that are required under specific circumstances or hardware dependencies below the system level.00. but the dependency must be loaded first for the requirement to be satisfied. This analysis is done by the SD-UX tools through some additional attributes within patches and by enforcing the registration of patch dependencies within each patch. Manual dependencies are indicated by the manual_dependency category tag and are listed in the PDep or Other Dependency field of the patch text file or readme attribute. Static dependencies are those which involve a consolidated patch. if a patch has a dependency on a superseded patch. SD-UX tools acquired the ability to manage patches natively (without scripts) and thus static dependencies. An ordered dependency listed in the PDep field of the patch text file and automatically enforced by SD-UX. In 11. otherwise known as a line-in-the-sand patch.

you must perform a manual dependency analysis such as the one outlined in “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. Also. This is the manual_dependencies tag. The following command checks for this tag in the patches within depot /MyDepot: swlist -d -l product *. can be found within the . you must consult the following fields in the patch text file: • Pdep—patches listed in this field are not enforceable but can be detected and listed by the patch database. This section examines some of these properties. Patch Status Almost every patch created is intended for general release to all customers. When this happens.00” on page 35.text file and is also displayed when viewing patches within the ITRC. then for each of those patches. The ITRC data. 11. The data within the . the. “The Patch Text File”. the requirement of requisite registration is waived. • General Release A status of General Release indicates a patch that is approved for widespread use and is the active member of the supersession chain. If not then proceed with the copy or installation. The current release state. In addition. Any value other than those listed here denotes a patch that should be restricted and used only with full understanding and great caution. • Other Dependencies—patches listed in this field are conditional dependencies but are not detected by the patch database. known as the patch status. For example: swlist -d -l product -a readme PHKL_23400 @ /MyDepot The HP-UX Patch An HP-UX patch is a partial delivery of software that fixes defects found in the original. HP-UX Patch Management 51 .c=manual_dependencies @ /MyDepot If this command yields some patch names.X patches include internal readme files that you can view with the swlist command. You should check for this tag every time that you want to install from a bundle or depot to make sure that there are no external dependencies.text file is described in detail in Appendix C. it will contain all known fixes to date for the target software. but the patch may transition into different release states. or in some cases extends the original functionality.The HP-UX Patch Two situations may result in unregistered dependencies.00 cannot handle the new functionality) the patch will not register its dependencies. and in particular the Patch Database itself. provide the current patch state. Viewing Dependency Information To review patches with manual dependencies. As the newest available patch. If the patch is multi-release then (since 11. Each patch includes a set of properties that are documented in an associated text file. if the dependency relationship is more complex than the grammar for requisites can support.text file reflects the initial state of the patch due to the static nature of the file. • Special Installation Instructions—this field often includes explanatory text for patches listed in the Other Dependencies field. the patch will contain a category tag which states that the user must manually resolve any dependencies. The following patch states are used by all patches that should be available to customers.

Examples of conditions that cause a patch to be marked critical include data loss. As with superseded patches. Patches are marked as being critical in response to the severity of a failure. it enters the superseded state. • General/Special Superseded When an active patch is replaced by a newer version. they may not be critical. The known qualities of an older patch may have greater value than the non-critical improvements. certain patches address issues of the highest priority and are considered critical. While the newer patch should contain additional fixes. or system hang. there is no reason to take any immediate action. Patch Identification An HP-UX patch name consists of a four-character type identifier followed by an underscore followed by a four or five digit numeric field. The Critical Patch While each patch is created to improve upon the original version of the ancestor software. the correct action for a specific system may vary. a patch may be recalled and removed from general distribution. Applicable to both General and Special Release patches. is unique for a patch regardless of patch type. A patch can be classified into one of three categories: • Not critical No part of the patch addresses a critical failure. system panic. The severity of the defect is such that the patch should be evaluated for applicability to local systems and environments. patch supersession should not be considered in a negative manner. Patches cannot be partially recalled. • Not critical. data corruption. The numeric field. Even if you take a very conservative approach to changing your system. While there may still be compelling reasons to install such a patch (such as a performance enhancement). • General/Special Recalled Under certain conditions. you may choose to proactively load a critical patch to avoid a possible failure. • Critical The patch delivers a new fix for a critical failure. The currently defined patch types are: PHCO PHKL PHNE PHSS Commands and libraries Kernel Networking All other HP-UX subsystems 52 . and not the probability that it will be encountered. but supersedes a critical patch The patch does not contain critical fixes. called the patch number. and while the generic recommendation will be to remove and replace the patch.The HP-UX Patch • Special Release A special release patch is an active patch that was not intended for use by all customers. Patches may be created as special release if a set of customers require nonstandard behavior or configuration-specific change that would cause problems for others. each system administrator should review the issues documented in the recall notice with the value of the current patch fixes and cost of system change. but delivers critical content that was introduced within a patch that has been superseded within the same patch chain.

text file is the complete documentation for the patch. For more information on these and other attributes. HP-UX 11.depot file is an SD-UX tape-style depot containing the actual patch. see “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56. The Patch Shar File The shar(1) utility is used to produce a shell archive file. When exercised by the shell. including descriptions of the symptoms and defects repaired by the patch.The HP-UX Patch This naming convention is not recognized by the SD-UX software management tools.text files. and the list of files contained within the patch.depot and . Shell archives are a useful and portable method to package groups of files for transfer between Unix-based systems. The . These are the . the patch shell archive will recreate two files within the current working directory. dependencies. it is packaged as a shell archive. “Acquiring Patches”. special installation instructions (if any). HP-UX Patch Management 53 . The . These sources are described in more detail in chapter 3.X patches are also marked through the is_patch and is_sparse attributes and the patch category tag. When a patch is acquired individually from the Patch Database within the ITRC or from the Fulfillment Server (FFS).

The HP-UX Patch 54 .

It describes a unique subset of the files that make up a product. Selecting patches by fileset level may cause a fix to be only partially applied. This appendix does not discuss SD-UX remote operations or installations involving alternate roots. In general. consult the SD-UX manuals: • Managing HP-UX Software with SD-UX (for 11.Appendix B SD-UX Tools & Objects This appendix provides an overview of Software Distributor commands for HP-UX (SD-UX-UX) commands and concepts as they apply to patching. This section gives you a simplified view of the object types that relate to patches. You can find formal definitions in the SD-UX manual or the sd(4) man page. SD-UX functionality that is not appropriate for patching is not discussed.hp. Consult the SD-UX manual for more information. Therefore. SD-UX is included with the HP-UX Operating System and by default manages software on the local host only. but you need only a small subset of SD-UX functionality for patching operations.com. This appendix does not present a comprehensive view of SD-UX. You can also enable SD-UX to install and manage software simultaneously on multiple remote hosts from a central controller.00) • Software Distributor Administration Guide (for 11i) These manuals are available at http://docs. A fileset may include scripts that control installation and removal. you should avoid selecting patches at the fileset level. even though SD-UX permits this kind of selection. The Basic SD-UX Object Types Software Distributor uses a variety of object types. and patch filesets are delivered only within a patch product. The Fileset A fileset is one or more related files. grouped into a manageable unit. For in-depth information. patches are created and managed at the product level. Many patch operations involve some aspects of the SD-UX tools. HP-UX Patch Management 55 .

v=HP JournalFS.VXFS-BASE-KRN PHKL_18543. The patch-related attributes are described below. CD or tape) or a single. Bundles provide a convenient way to group software objects together for easy selection. • The following example shows patch PHKL_18543. (See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information on software_spec.00 release.v=HP JournalFS.11. applied_to • Applies to patch filesets. ancestor • Applies to filesets. • Contains the software_spec of the ancestor fileset that this patch fileset modified when it was installed. See “The swlist Command” on page 66 for more information. The Bundle A bundle encapsulates products and filesets into a single software object.C-INC PHKL_18543. each modifying a different fileset found on the HP-UX 11. Attributes control aspects of patch behavior and define patch properties and relationships. HP-UX 11.C-INC. More than one bundle can contain the same software objects.fr=B.) 56 . You can change the contents of a depot. which contains three filesets. • Lists all of the patch filesets that have modified this fileset. The Depot A depot is a directory that contains software products or bundles that are available for direct or remote installation.00.fr=B. serial file that contains products or bundles.00. See “HP Patch Bundles” on page 15 for more information. A depot can also be a distribution media (e. A bundle can be thought of as a virtual “configuration” of software.v=HP applied_patches • Applies to base (non-patch) filesets. HP provides several types of standard patch bundles.11.11.VXFS-PRG. You can view SD-UX object attributes with the swlist command. Patch Related Object Attributes Each of the objects described in “The Basic SD-UX Object Types” has a set of properties known as attributes.VXFS-BASE-KRN.Patch Related Object Attributes The Product An HP-UX patch is structured as a single SD-UX product that contains one or more filesets..fr=B.VXFS-PRG ProgSupport.g. swlist -l fileset -a ancestor PHKL_18543 # PHKL_18543 PHKL_18543. • Indicates the fileset that this fileset modifies.X patches that require customization include SD-UX control scripts at the product level.00.

• When set to true. committed/superseded: A committed/superseded patch is committed and superseded. is_patch • Applies to both patch products and filesets. Several tags are defined during patch creation. patch filesets exist in one of four conditions: applied: Same as above. • When set to true. which records the installation states of software. You may install PHCO_22526 to obtain the committed/superseded state described below. A committed patch is applied but not superseded. is_reboot • Applies to filesets. A patch in the applied state has not been committed or superseded. This ensures that a patch fileset cannot be explicitly selected when not appropriate. In HP-UX 11. install patch PHCO_22526. the patch_state attribute records the condition of patches. depending on the order of the patch operation: applied: An applied patch contains the software that is currently active on the system and is the most recent member of its supersession chain (of one or more patches) to have been loaded. • Provides a label for a fileset or product. superseded: Has been replaced by a newer member of its supersession chain. is_sparse • Applies to patch filesets.00.Patch Related Object Attributes category_tag • Applies to filesets or products. This attribute gets rid of the ambiguity created by the committed attribute above. is_patch indicates that the object is a patch. To obtain this state in 11. • In addition to the state attribute (also described in this section). is_reboot indicates that installation of the fileset will cause the system to reboot. In 11i. superseded: A patch in the superseded state has been replaced by a newer member of its supersession chain. patch_state • Applies to patch filesets. A patch in the superseded state may or may not have been committed. committed: A committed patch cannot be directly removed from the system.00 systems. A category_tag can be used as a selection mechanism (see “Patch Hubs” on page 33). A committed fileset is also in either the applied or superseded state (which state applies cannot be determined from the patch_state field). • When set to true. Not committed. patch filesets exist in one of three conditions. committed: A committed patch cannot be removed from the system. HP-UX Patch Management 57 . The is_patch attribute is required for patches to be managed via the autoselect_patches or patch_match_target options of swinstall and swcopy. and others may be created by customers with the swmodify command. is_sparse indicates that the current fileset is incomplete and cannot be loaded in the absence of the fileset’s ancestor.

Patch Related Object Attributes readme • Applied to products. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information. • Records the software specification of the fileset that superseded the fileset on a given system. Note that all superseded filesets are included. No further operations are required. software_spec • Applies to bundles. (Note that 11. available (depot only): The software is ready for access.X SD-UX-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system. This attribute is only set for installed patch filesets. Some attributes are stored in the IPD only): installed (IPD only): The software was successfully installed but not configured. HP recommends that you move all patches left in the installed state to the configured state with the swconfig command. Although not every patch requires configuration. consult the swconfig(1m) man page or the SD-UX manual for more information. configured (IPD only): The product was successfully installed AND configured. or filesets. or fileset. SD-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system. • The readme attribute of an HP-UX patch contains the text file. The swconfig command is not discussed in this tutorial. The software_spec contains the object name and any version or architecture information. superseded_by • Applies to patch filesets. state • Applies to filesets. 58 . It can be used by a swinstall or swcopy session using the depot as the source. corrupt: Indicates that errors detected in the execution phase of a swcopy or swinstall process left the software in an unknown state and that the software should not be used. An SD-UX operation leaves a fileset in one of the following states and records it in the fileset’s state attribute. but the ordering of the superseded filesets may not match the order of the supersession chain itself. transient: Indicates that swinstall or swcopy was killed or aborted during the execution phase leaving the software in an unknown and incomplete state. The transient state differs from the corrupt state in that SD-UX did not detect the failure when it initially occurred. products. • The software_spec attribute (short for software specification) contains the fully qualified identifier for the bundle. and never in software depots. • A fileset’s state attribute (also used for non-patch software) provides useful information about the installation state of software. supersedes • Applies to patch filesets. • Lists all prior filesets that a patch fileset supersedes. product.

swremove .registers or unregisters depots or roots. swinstall. Synopsis swinstall [-i] [-p] [-v] [-s source] [-x option=value]. Requests verbose mode. Additional concepts for using the SD-UX commands are discussed in “Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands” on page 73. swcopy . swpackage . All SD-UX commands run from the command line. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. -p -v HP-UX Patch Management 59 . If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. swmodify . Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. the automatic matching options(autoselect_patches. Previews the install operation without performing the actual installation. ordered by those most commonly used: • • • • • • • swinstall .unconfigures and removes software products.displays information about software products. swremove. swlist .. The following list shows the commands.packages software products into a depot (directory or tape). The swinstall Command The swinstall command is used to load patch software from a source depot and onto a target system. and swlist have an optional GUI mode. swreg . TIPS: • Because many patches aren’t designed for individual installation. HP recommends that you use only the options discussed below. Preview mode is not enabled by default.modifies software product information in a target root or depot.installs and configures software products. patch_match_target) should be the preferred method for installing patches. • swinstall has numerous options that you should not use for patching because they lack dependency support.copies software products for subsequent installation or distribution. [software_selections] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. a graphical user interface is invoked.Introduction to the SD-UX Commands Introduction to the SD-UX Commands This appendix discusses the SD-UX commands that relate to patching.. swcopy. The GUI starts by default if you enter swinstall without any software_selections.

All 11i patches will contain enforced dependencies except for those that meet strict exception rules. When software is selected for installation with an SD-UX-enforced dependency. This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. any patches within the same depot for that product will automatically be selected for installation. any bundle wrappers within the source depot that contain software selected for installation will be automatically selected if the is_reference attribute is set to true. Sets the specified command option to the value given. if the dependency is not present on the target system and is not selected for installation from the source depot.00 patches exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. overriding any other values for that option. those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and load order. default values are shown. 60 . autoselect_reference_bundles=true None When set to true. enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. While few 11. that software will automatically be selected for installation if present in the source depot and autoselect_dependencies is set to true.The swinstall Command -s source -x option=value Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be installed. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information software_selections Patch-Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. it is especially important that this option is taken advantage of in selecting patches and avoiding unwanted configurations. consult the swinstall(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. only the bundle wrapper itself. autoselect_patches=true Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Automatically select patches for software to be installed When loading a software product. One or more software specifications. this option becomes even more important and helpful. Note that this does not mean all of the software listed in the wrapper will be selected. While few 11. installation will only proceed if enforce_dependencies is set to false. Where appropriate. those that do employ them are enforcing critical requirements of content and load order. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information.0 patches exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. Patch related command options are specified below. Since all 11i patch dependencies will be enforced by SDUX. option=default value Description autoreboot=false autoselect_dependencies=true Menu Path in Interactive Interface None (GUI waits for permission to reboot) Actions→→Autoselect dependencies Enables an automatic reboot upon completion of the software installation. eliminating lengthy. manual patch dependency analysis. As a result. For the full set of available options. (when marking software) When software is selected for installation with an SD-UX-enforced dependency.

patch_save_files=true Options→Change Options→Save files replaced by patch for later rollback If set to false. this option can be used for 11. mount_all_filesystems=true Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist By default.0 as no provision is made for dependencies. source_cdrom=/SD-UX_CDROM source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m write_remote_files=false None (default cannot be changed within GUI) None (default cannot be changed within GUI) None Specify the device file of the CD-ROM to be used as the default. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system. the remote files are installed. This option should not be used unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. the patch_match_target option is the preferred method for HP-UX 11. filesets will be reinstalled. By default. “Planning for Recovery. patch_filter=software_specification Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Filter The patch_filter option can be used to specify a subset of software available to load. HP-UX Patch Management 61 . patches are loaded directly to the committed state and cannot be rolled back. match_target=false Actions→Match What Target Has Selects all software within the source depot with an ancestor attribute that matches a fileset currently on the target system. Prevents installation of files to a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system.” on page 5 for notes on other options.X releases to provide this functionality. patch_match_target=false Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Automatically select patches for software installed on the target Select all patches within the source depot that modify the existing system software. This is the recommended method to install patches from a managed depot (such as those provided by HP).X systems this option was used to select patches within a depot that applied to the target system. Setting this option to false removes this restriction. swinstall skips files that would be installed to a remote (NFS) file system (or that are already there). However. While a convenient way to control disk usage. These scripts may issue errors to protect the system from incorrect patch usage. reinstall=false Options→Change Options→Reinstall filesets even if the same revision exists Prevents SD-UX from re-installing (overwriting) an existing revision of a fileset.00 patch selection when combined with user-defined category tags. swinstall requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to installation. Specify the device file of the tape drive to be used as the default. If set to true. This option is not yet recommended for general use in 11. It is also an especially powerful tool for depot management in 11i since dependencies are dealt with correctly. this option is not recommended unless alternative recovery mechanisms are available. See Chapter 2. While on HP-UX 10.The swinstall Command enforce_scripts=true Options→Change Options→Enforce script failures Each patch may have several installation scripts associated with it.

Requests verbose mode. domain name. One or more software specifications. The GUI starts by default if you enter swcopy without any software_selections.) Synopsis swcopy [-i] [-p] [-v] [-s source] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [@ target_selection] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. you can copy all of the contents of individual patches into a single depot from which the group can be loaded in a single session and with a single reboot (if needed). This can be particularly useful if software exists in several depots. the syntax is host:/directory where the host name can be a name. Note that the swcopy command automatically registers (enables remote access to) any depot that it creates. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. Sets the specified option to the value given. (See “The swreg Command” on page 69 for more information. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. For example. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information The absolute path name (directory location) to which you want the software_selections to be copied. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. Previews the copy operation without performing the actual copy. or internet address. You do not need to use the swreg command on depots created by swcopy. Preview mode is not enabled by default. -p -v -s source -x option=value software_selections target_selections 62 . a graphical user interface is invoked. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be copied. Patch related options are specified below. For example: swinstall -p -s grendel:/cdrom/XSWGR1100 \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true The swcopy Command The swcopy command copies software from one depot to another. If you specify a host with the directory. overriding any other values for that option.The swcopy Command Examples • Install from a CD mounted and registered on the system grendel: swinstall -s grendel:/cdrom/XSWGR1100 \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true • Use the swinstall command’s preview mode (-p option) to get an idea of what to expect for the bundle you want to install.

only the bundle wrapper itself. This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. Where appropriate. consult the swcopy(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. if that dependency is not present on the target system and is not marked for copying from the source depot the copy will only proceed if enforce_dependencies is set to false. See also the compress_files option. compress_files=false Options→Change Options→Compress files during transfer Setting this option to true causes swcopy to compress file before transfer to the target depot. reinstall=false Options→Change Options→Recopy filesets even if the same revision exists Prevents SD-UX from overwriting an existing revision of a fileset. files are uncompressed before swcopy puts them into the target depot. Setting this option to false removes this restriction. mount_all_filesystems=true Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist By default. although it may not improve fast networks. source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m uncompress_files=false None (default cannot be changed within GUI) Options→Change Options→Uncompress files after transfer Specifies the device file of the tape drive to be used as the default.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. . any bundle wrappers within the source depot that contain software selected for copying will be automatically selected if the is_reference attribute set to true. For the full set of available options. filesets will be recopied. Note that this does not mean all of the software listed in the wrapper will be selected. When set to true.The swcopy Command Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. The majority of 11i patches have SD-UX-enforced dependencies. HP-UX Patch Management 63 . While few 11. autoselect_reference_bundles=true None (default cannot be changed within GUI) When set to true. that other software will automatically be selected to be copied if present in the source depot and autoselect_dependencies is set to true. those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and load order. option=default value Description autoselect_dependencies=true Menu Path in Interactive Interface Actions→Autoselect dependencies (when marking software) When software is selected for copying with a registered dependency on other software. This will conserve disk space and can enhance performance on slower networks (50 Kilobytes/second or less). making this option very useful. If set to true. When software to be copied has an SD-UX-enforced dependency. swcopy requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to installation. default values are shown.

• swremove may not always be your first and best solution for error recovery.depot do swcopy -s $PATCHDEPOT \* @ /hub/patches done • Copy a HP-UX 10.00 system and you use swremove to remove a patch. • Removal of a patch bundle does not automatically return you to the patch state prior to loading that bundle. see “The cleanup Command” on page 72. Examples • With the CD mounted at /cdrom. you must make sure you didn’t “break” any software dependencies. The swremove command will fail if the unwanted patch fulfills a dependency. In HP-UX 11i you cannot remove a patch that is required by another patch. swcopy skips files that would be copied to an NFS file system (or that are already there). It also removes software from depots.The swremove Command write_remote_files=false None Prevents copying of files to a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. • You should not use swremove to remove patch information that remains in the IPD after installing a new version of HP-UX. Synopsis swremove [-i] [-d] [-p] [-v] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [ @ target] 64 . Note that swremove has several limitations when used for patch operations: • You cannot use swremove to remove committed patches. files are copied to remote systems. copy the contents of the XSWGR1100 depot to the local system under the /var/tmp/MyDepot directory. By default.X style depot from the system oldsys to an HP-UX 11.8 \* @ /depots/oldsys The swremove Command The swremove command deletes software that has been installed on your system. swcopy -s /cdrom/XSWGR1100 \* @ /var/tmp/MyDepot • Invoke an interactive session. Make sure your other recovery methods are not more appropriate before you use this command. swcopy -s oldsys:/depot -x layout_version=0. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system.X system. • If you are on an 11. If the patch was needed to fulfill a documented dependency then patches to satisfy the dependency must be activated via rollback or installation. using the default depot at hostX as the source: swcopy -i -s hostX • Copy all patches in current directory to the depot /hub/patches (assuming root shell is /sbin/sh): for PATCHDEPOT in *.

The swremove Command Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. the bundles will not be automatically removed. -d -p -v -x option=value software_selections target Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). default values are shown. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. Sets the specified command option to the value given. overriding any other values for that option. The GUI starts by default if you enter swremove without any software_selections. Operate on a depot rather than installed software. If false. While few 11. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. Where appropriate. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. if the dependency is not present on the target system or also selected for removal from the source depot. If not specified. enforce_scripts=true Options→Change Options→Enforce script failures Each patch may have several removal scripts associated with it. When software selected for removal has a registered dependency. Patch related command options are specified below. those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and removal order. Preview mode is not enabled by default. consult the swremove(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. since all 11i patches enforce dependencies.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. a graphical user interface is invoked. enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. . this option is very useful in maintaining patch integrity and system stability. bundles that have the is_reference attribute set to true will be automatically removed when the last of its contents is removed. One or more software specifications. This option should not be used unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. option=default value Description autoselect_reference_bundles=true Menu Path in Interactive Interface None If true. Verbose mode is enabled by default. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information The depot from which software is to be removed. Requests verbose mode. the target is assumed to be the system itself. HP-UX Patch Management 65 . Do not set this option to false unless directed to do so by an HP Support Engineer. For the full set of available options. Previews the remove operation without performing the actual removal. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. However. removal only proceeds if enforce_dependencies is set to false. These scripts may issue errors to protect the system from incorrect patch usage.

/depots/MyDepot: swremove -d \* @ /depots/MyDepot The swlist Command The swlist command provides information on software installed on a system or located in a depot. leaving any contents present (Note that the trailing period (. Examples • Remove only the bundle wrapper XSWHWCR1100 from the system. then list all the attributes for an object. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. 66 . You must specify -i to invoke the GUI. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display.The swlist Command mount_all_filesystems=true Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist By default. one attribute per line. then list the selected attributes in the above format. a graphical user interface is invoked. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system. See what depots are available on remote systems. If no -a options are specified. Browse the patch documentation. • Remove all contents of the depot. write_remote_files=false None (default cannot be changed within GUI) Prevents removal of files from a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. See what software is in a depot. Synopsis swlist [-i] [-d] [-v] [-a attribute] [-l level] [-s source] [software_selections] [ @ target] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Invokes a GUI interface that lets you perform interactive software selections. swremove skips files that would be removed from an NFS file system. The attributes are listed in the format: -d -v keyword value If one or more -a options are specified. it never starts by default. Check attributes of software. More specifically: • • • • • See what’s installed on a system. SD-UX requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to removal. files are removed from remote systems. By default. Setting this option to false removes this restriction.) is essential to removing the wrapper only): swremove XSWHWCR1100. Lists software depots instead of software currently installed on the target system.

While this option may be specified multiple times. • fileset List all filesets recorded in the IPD (in product. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes each block giving the name. The listing is sorted by ancestor. The listing may be limited in scope by the software_selections specification. swlist displays all bundles within the depot followed by any products not contained within a bundle. the ordering of the arguments does not control the format of the list. revision. the target is assumed to be the system itself. • default (no level specified) When no level is specified. and description of the product or fileset to be listed. HP-UX Patch Management 67 . Specifies the detail of the swlist output. • patch List all patch filesets using the full software specification. If not specified. and all products and filesets are listed as a comment showing revision and description before any patch fileset that apply to it. Each file is preceded by the product and fileset that is the registered owner of that file. One or more software specifications.fileset format) with the associated revision and description. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information The depot to be listed. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes each block giving the name. As is the case with their respective levels. • product List all products with revision and description for each. • bundle List all bundles with revision and description for each. You can also specify the sources as target depots and list them using the -d option. revision. This is an alternative way to list a source depot.The swlist Command -a attribute The named attribute is included in the listing when defined at the specified level. the bundles and products are listed with revision and one-line description. • category List all category tags currently defined within the target depot. Specifies the software source to list. • depot List all registered depots on the target system. and description of the product. The values used include: -s source software_selections target -l level • file List all files recorded in the IPD. followed by the associated description and current patch_state.

The swlist Command Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73).00 systems. In 11. whether or not they are superseded.c=critical • List all category tags defined in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel swlist -d -l category @ grendel:/var/MyDepot Also see “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more examples.depot • List all patches that have modified the LVM product swlist -l patch LVM • Display the documentation for all patches containing critical functionality swlist -a readme -l product *. For the full set of available options. In 11i. patch PHCO_22526 must be installed and swlist. to get the 11i functionality on an 11. However. swlist lists all patches in the IPD. default values are shown. Where appropriate. By setting this option to true the 11. consult the swlist(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. swlist only lists those patches which are active on the system. show_superseded_patches=false Examples • List all patches in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel: swlist -d -l product *.show_superseded_patches=false must be added to the /var/adm/sw/ defaults file.00 system.c=patch @ grendel:/var/MyDepot • List the filesets modified by installed patch PHSS_8675 swlist -a ancestor PHSS_8675 • List all of the files delivered within patch PHCO_12140 after downloading from the ITRC: swlist -d -l file @ /tmp/PHCO_12140.00 swlist functionality can be turned on in an 11i system (all patches in the IPD are listed). 68 . option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface The swlist command lists the contents of the IPD.

the swmodify command is not recommended for general usage. (For the full set of available options. Unregistration of a depot can be a convenient way to limit access during development. When a depot is registered. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. it can be accessed from remote systems. Specifies the path to the object[s] to be registered or unregistered. WARNING: With the exception of committing patches and creating category tags. they are not within the scope of this tutorial. Examples • Register the patch depot XSWGR1100: swreg -l depot /cdrom/XSWGR1100 • Disable remote access by unregistering the depot XSWGR1100 (local access is still enabled): swreg -u -l depot /cdrom/XSWGR1100 The swmodify command SD-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system. Improper alteration of the information in the IPD could cause unexpected behavior during subsequent patching or system updates and leave your system in an unsupportable state. Synopsis swmodify [-d] [-p] [-v] ]-a attribute[=value]] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [ @ target] HP-UX Patch Management 69 . Although you cannot edit the IPD or catalog files directly. While other levels of SD-UX objects may be modified by swreg. (Note that unregistered depots are still available locally. Causes swreg to unregister the specified objects instead of registering them. Requests verbose mode. consult the swreg(1m) man page or the SD-UX manual.) Synopsis swreg -l depot [-u] [-v] [objects] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -l depot Perform operations on depots. the swmodify command lets you change the contents of these files via the command line. -u -v objects Patch Related Options None.The swreg Command The swreg Command The swreg command registers or unregisters an existing depot.

If the -u option is specified. If not specified. default values are shown. Patch related command options are specified below. The default value is false. Multiple -a options can be specified. Otherwise add/modify the attribute for each software_selection by setting it to the given value. Once you have run this option on a patch. option=default value patch_commit=false Examples • Commit the patch PHKL_1234 and remove its corresponding rollback files: swmodify -x patch_commit=true PHKL_1234 • Mark all patches in the depot /depots/newpatches with a new category tag to indicate that they have been approved: swmodify -a category=approved \* @ /depots/newpatches 70 . then delete the attribute from the given software_selections (or delete the value from the set of values currently defined for the attribute). One or more software specifications. consult the swmodify(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual Menu Path in Interactive Interface Commits a patch by removing files saved for patch rollback. When set to true. or delete the value of the given attribute. modify. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. For the full set of available options. the target is assumed to be the system itself. Where appropriate. Previews the modify operation without modifying anything. Requests verbose mode. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. Each attribute modification will be applied to every software_selection.The swmodify command Patch Related Command Line Arguments -a attribute[=value] Add. this option removes the saved files for the patches specified in the software selections for the command. -d -p -v -x option=value Perform modifications on a depot. overriding any other values for that option. you cannot remove the patch unless you remove the associated base software that the patch modified. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information The depot to be modified. software_selections target Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). Sets the specified command option to the value given. Preview mode is not enabled by default. The given target must be a depot.

See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information If you are creating a distribution depot (directory). Either method can be used to transport the contents of a depot to another system for local access. Specifies the POSIX layout version to which the SD-UX commands conform when writing distributions.0 Menu Path in Interactive Interface Setting this option to true causes swpackage to compress files before packaging them. Requests verbose mode. option=default value compress_files=false layout_version=1. Supported values are 1. consult the swpackage(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. this operand defines the location of the directory. Synopsis swpackage [-p] [-v] [-s directory] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [@ target] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -p -v -s directory -x option=value Previews the package operation without performing the actual packaging. software_selections target Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). If you are creating a distribution tape. target_type=directory HP-UX Patch Management 71 . /var/spool/sw is used as the default depot directory. The device file must exist so that swpackage can determine if the media is a DDS tape or a disk file. The recognized types are directory and tape. Defines the type of distribution to create. For the full set of available options. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. Where appropriate. overriding any other values for that option. swpackage uses the device file /dev/swtape.0 (default) and 0. This creates smaller depots. Refer to the swpackage(1m) manpage or the SD-UX manual for more information.8. Patch related command options are specified below. Sets the specified command option to the value given. default values are shown. Without this operand. and the tape depot could be provided via ftp(1). The tape can be used in the absence of networking support. this command allows the transfer of software onto a tape or into a tape depot which can then be used as a software source. this operand names the device file on which to write the tar archive. Without this operand. Preview mode is not enabled by default. An existing directory depot (which already contains products) to be used as the source. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information.The swpackage command The swpackage command While primarily used to create depots from source files. One or more software specifications.

Display the patch information at the SD-UX product or fileset level. It is used to remove any patches for earlier releases from the Installed Product Database after updating to a newer version of HP-UX. Synopsis show_patches [-a] [-s] [-l product|fileset] Patch Related Command Line Argument: default -a -s -l level If no options are specified. Currently available as patch PHCO_19550. Notify the user of cleanup tasks and request confirmation before actually removing any patch information. Synopsis cleanup [-n|-p] -i cleanup [-n|-p] -d <depot> Patch Related Command Line Arguments -p -n -i Preview the cleanup task but do not actually remove any patch information. It is also used to remove patches from a software depot if they have been superseded by patches also available in the same depot.X patches that are remnants from an upgrade to HP-UX 11. These patches are removed from the IPD so that they are no longer displayed in the output of the swlist command. The cleanup command is not delivered with HP-UX. These superseded patches will be removed from the software depot. The cleanup command logs all information to /var/adm/cleanup. Display the superseded patches on the system. Determine which patches in the software depot have been superseded by patches also available from the depot. Active patches are those which have not been superseded by newer patches on the system. -d The show_patches Command The show_patches utility displays active and superseded patches in a formatted output.X. but as a patch. Superseded patches are those that have been replaced by newer patches on the system. show_patches displays the active patches at the SD-UX product level. 72 . The utility uses the SD-UX patch attributes patch_state and superseded_by to determine which patches are active and which are superseded.The cleanup Command Examples • Re-package the entire contents of the depot /var/spool/sw onto the tape at /dev/rmt/0m: swpackage -s /var/spool/sw -x target_type=tape @ /dev/rmt/0m The cleanup Command The cleanup command provides functions useful when dealing with HP-UX patches.log. The cleanup utility also allows patches to be committed across the entire system. Display the active patches on the system. which may be easier to interpret than the output of the swlist command. Determine which patches that are included in the Installed Product Database are 10.

r=1.0.VXFS-PRG.last.a=HP-UX_B.0.sw/sessions/{command}.version] where the version has the form: [r=revision][.l=/.00_32/64.l=/.l=/.11.v=vendor][. # swlist -l fileset -a software_spec PHKL_18543 # PHKL_18543 PHKL_18543.11.a=HP-UX_B.l=/.r=1.a=HP-UX_B. If you do not specify a directory.v=HP.c=category] (The version may also have a l=location component that applies only to installed software and refers to software installed to a location other than the default product directory.l=/.a=arch][.11.r=1.fa=HP-UX_B.v=HP PHKL_18543. The invocation options.11. From an interactive session.a=HP-UX_B.fa=HP-UX_B.a=HP-UX_B.0. save session information by executing swinstall or swcopy with the -C session__file option.00_32/64 PHKL_18543.KERN2-RUN PHKL_18543.0.0. the selection is comprised of one or more software specifications. A software specification must name either a product or a bundle.r=1.0.00_32 PHKL_18543.C-INC. For patch operations.CORE2-KRN PHKL_18543.r=1. This lets you re.fileset]][.VXFS-PRG PHKL_18543.CORE-KRN PHKL_18543.a=HP-UX_B.sw/sessions/. the default location for a session file is $HOME/.00_32/64.11.v=HP. Each invocation of an SD-UX command defines a session. You can specify an absolute path for a session file. You can also save session information from interactive or command-line sessions. This file is overwritten on each invocation. The software specification takes one of the following formats: product[.VXFS-ADV-KRN.11.VXFS-BASE-KRN PHKL_18543.11.product[. A software specification is a unique identifier for an SD-UX software object.fileset][.11. If you explicitly select a bundle. The software specification for the patch product appears in the output as a comment.00_32 PHKL_18543.fa=HP-UX_B.00_32/64.Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands Software Specifications When an SD-UX command can be supplied a software selection.l=/.fa=HP-UX_B.11. or patch (see “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56).v=HP.r=1.00_32/64.v=HP. software selections.KERN2-RUN. product.v=HP. HP-UX Patch Management 73 .) The software_spec attribute contains the full software specification for any bundle.a=HP-UX_B.r=1.fa=HP-UX_B.11.fa=HP-UX_B. The following example shows how swlist can create a list of the software specifications for a patch at the fileset level.11.00_32 PHKL_18543.version] bundle[.0.00_32/64 Session Files Session files let you save your work from a command session.VXFS-ADV-KRN PHKL_18543. you can save session information into a file at any time by selecting the Save Session or Save Session As option from the File menu.v=HP.0.11.VXFS-BASE-KRN. and target hosts are saved before command execution actually commences.11.v=HP.00_32 PHKL_18543. A session file uses the same syntax as the defaults files (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74). all products within the bundle are also selected. You can use the swlist command to display this information.a=HP-UX_B.00_32/64. all filesets within that product are also selected.11.C-INC PHKL_18543.CORE2-KRN.CORE-KRN. and filesets can be specified only within a product. source information. Each session is saved to the file $HOME/.l=/. From a command-line session.r=1.00_32/64.00_32/64. you usually only need to refer to a patch or bundle name. If you select a product.l=/.11.fa=HP-UX_B.00_32/64.execute the command even if the session ends before proper completion.00_32/64 PHKL_18543.

They can also be changed using the GUI Options Editor. 4. To restart the daemon. 5.defaults is only usable as a template for copying to other option files. or command line changes. Option values in /usr/lib/sw/sys. the daemon must be restarted for these options to be recognized. and the resulting system behavior for each.sw. Likewise.sw/defaults file. type: /usr/sbin/swagentd -r 74 . that individual users may override these values with their own $HOME/. after changing daemon options. Because the daemon is already running. Option values changed on the command line affect only that activity. Options in the defaults file are read as part of command initialization. For system-wide policy setting. use the Recall Session option from the File menu. use the /var/adm/sw/defaults file. Note that when you re-execute a session file. 2. session files. any command line options or parameters that you specify when you invoke swinstall or swcopy take precedence over the values in the session file. 3.defaults file is a template that lists and explains each option. Keep in mind. however.]option=value These rules govern the way the defaults work: 1. Setting Default Values for Command Options SD-UX commands have extensive options that alter command behavior. These values can also be overridden by specifying an options file with the -X option_file command-line option or with one or more -x option=value options directly on the command line. Option values in /var/adm/sw/defaults file affect all users in a system. all other allowable values. NOTE: Use of session files is not recommended with swremove because the session file could include software selections that you do not want included in the removal operation. These options are listed as comments that you can copy into the system defaults file (/var/adm/sw/defaults) or your personal defaults file ($HOME/.Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands To re-execute a saved session from an interactive session.defaults). default values. specify the session file as the argument for the -S session__file option of swinstall or swcopy. The /usr/lib/sw/sys. Option values in your personal $HOME/. To re-execute a session from a command-line. Option values in a session file affect activities only for that session and revert when that session is completed. Altering option values and storing them in a defaults file can help when you want the SD-UX command to behave the same way each time the command is invoked. Values in these option files are specified using this syntax: [command.sw/defaults file affect only you and not the entire system. the values in the session file take precedence over values in the system defaults file.

xx = area patched: CO . Patch Description A one-line description that describes this cumulative patch. text. yyyyy = a unique number Example: PHSS_14014 . and depot files as well as the patch product and (in HP-UX 10.general HP-UX commands. This identifier is used for the patch shar. Starbase. Format is: PHxx_yyyy where: PH = Patch HP-UX.network specific patches. NE .an HP-UX subsystem patch name. KL .Appendix C The Patch Text File The Patch Text File Fields Patch Name The name of the patch.kernel patches.all other subsystems: X11. Creation Date The date that the patch was created. etc.X releases) the patch fileset. SS . HP-UX Patch Management 75 .

If the patch is for the core operating system.hp.OS Releases The hardware platforms and HP-UX OS releases on which this patch can be installed. and other non-GR patches. the value in this field is N/A. Products This field lists the product name and all product revisions to which this patch applies if it is a patch for an optional product. This flags the Critical status of this patch and all superseded patches.external. Delivers a fix related to processing dates in the year 2000 and beyond.e. Automatic Reboot? Yes/No (whether or not this patch requires a reboot after installation). Critical Yes/No followed by text. and dependency requirements. a non-core operating system product. product. Filesets This is a list of all the filesets which contain one or more files included in this patch. A patch is considered critical if it fixes a critical problem or it supersedes a patch fixing a critical problem.The Patch Text File Fields Post Date The date that the patch was posted for general distribution.com). • SP = Special Release site-specific patches for installation at one specific customer or set of customers. either GR or SP. where: • GR = General Release patch should be installed on all systems meeting the OS. Path Name The path name is the patch’s storage location on the HP Electronic Support Center ftp server (ftp://us-ffs.X/PHxx_yyyy 76 . i. Causes a major application to fail such that the system’s operation is severely impacted. Status This is the support status of the patch. Hardware Platforms . The current choices for supported releases are: /hp-ux_patches/s700_800/11. A problem is critical if it: • • • • Causes the system (OS/kernel) to fail/crash/panic. Causes data loss or corruption.

specifically what a user would experience. For example. Patch Dependencies All patches that must be installed to insure proper operation of this patch.13 $ Patch Conflicts All known patch conflicts. HP-UX Patch Management 77 . An SR is a formal request from a customer to have a defect resolved or a feature added to HP software. and how to reproduce the problem (if known). the full path of the library is listed with the object module following in parentheses. verify that the patch is installed. what(1) Output The output from what(1) for each file or library object file listed in the Patch Files field.o in the library /usr/conf/lib/libhp-ux. if a patch replaces the object module vers. Supersedes A list of all patches replaced by this patch.o). and thereby. SR All Service Request (SR) numbers addressed by this patch and all its predecessors. If the patch replaces an object module in a library. Patch Files The full installed path name of all files in this patch. Example: $Revision: 1. Also include methods to verify if the patch needs to be installed.The Patch Text File Fields Symptoms The external symptoms of the problem. Other Dependencies Any non-patch and non-hardware dependencies that may exist. The what string is a way to identify the software version. Hardware Dependencies Specific system models to which this patch is limited.a(vers.a the path listed would be /usr/conf/lib/libhp-ux. Defect Description A detailed description of the defect that specifically addresses the explicit conditions which caused the problem (if known). both on a file basis as well as on a behavioral basis.

Patch Package Size The SD depot size in Kilobytes. Installation Instructions The standard installation instructions common to all patches. 78 .The Patch Text File Fields Equivalent Patches All equivalent patches for other hardware platforms and OS releases not including this patch. Special Installation Instructions Any special instructions not included in those mentioned above. These instructions have been included in this tutorial.

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