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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DEL CENTRO DE LA PROVINCIA DE BUENOS

AIRES. FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS VETERINARIAS

Inglés Técnico para Medicina Veterinaria

Año 2021. Docentes:

Prof. Claudia A. Borgnia

Prof. Liliana Martinenghi

Prof. Luciana R. Demeo Fanchi

Prof. Angeles M. Bernabeu

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INTRODUCCIÓN A LA MATERIA:

 Ordene los pasos para realizar una lectura comprensiva.


1) Búsqueda en el diccionario.
2) Análisis de títulos y subtítulos.
3) Aplicación de la técnica semántica-morfológico-sintáctica.
4) Observación de elementos visuales y formato.
5) Colocación en español.
6) Revisión y edición del texto.
7) Identificación de palabras transparentes.
8) Identificación de nombres propios y números.

What is English for Specific Purposes?

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) or English for Special Purposes arose as a term in the 1960’s.
As English continues to dominate as the lingua franca of business, media, technology, medicine,
education, and research, the demand for ESP is growing rapidly. ESP courses offer you an
opportunity to improve your English language skills related to your specific professional area.
Adapted from a lecture by “Aleksander Moisiu”. University of Albania.

APLICACIÓN PRÁCTICA 1

 Lea el texto “English for Specific Purposes” y responda las preguntas o extrae los
contenidos requeridos:
1) ¿Quién es el autor?

2) ¿Qué porcentaje del mismo cree entender?

3) Elabore una lista de las palabras transparentes. ¿Sabe/intuye su significado?

4) ¿Puede identificar algún sustantivo?

5) ¿Puede deducir la regla de formación de plurales en inglés?

6) ¿Cómo podemos decir English for Specific or Special Purposes en español?

7) ¿Se anima a decir la última oración en español?

“ESP courses offer you an opportunity to improve your English language skills related to your
specific professional area”.

APLICACIÓN PRÁCTICA 2

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• Lea el texto “What is a Global Language” y realice las actividades que se requieren a
continuación luego de seguir los pasos sugeridos en el primer ejercicio.

What is a Global Language?

There is no official definition of "global" or "world" language, but it essentially refers to a


language that is learned and spoken internationally, and is characterized not only by the number
of its native and second language speakers, but also by its geographical distribution, and its use
in international organizations and in diplomatic relations. A global language acts as a “lingua
franca”, a common language that enables people from diverse backgrounds and ethnicities to
communicate on a more or less equitable basis.
http://www.thehistoryofenglish.com/issues_global.html

1) ¿Entiende el texto a grandes rasgos? ¿Cuál es la fuente?

2) ¿Qué le ayudó a interpretarlo en general?

3) ¿Cómo se define el inglés global? Ensaye la definición en castellano.

4) Según el texto: ¿Qué es una “lingua franca”?

5) ¿Qué puede deducir de las frases a continuación?

A- geographical distribution,

B-international organizations

C- diplomatic relations

6) Tome nota de los sustantivos en plural.

7) Anote las palabras transparentes.

GUÍA PARA USAR EL DICCIONARIO BILINGÜE

1) Mire su diccionario y complete la siguiente ficha

Nombre:
Publicado por:
Lugar y fecha de publicación:
Tipo de diccionario:
Características:

2) USO DEL DICCIONARIO. ¿A qué categorías de palabras en castellano corresponden los


siguientes términos en inglés? ¿Los conoce? ¿Para qué sirven?

Noun, pronoun, adjective, transitive verb, intransitive verb, adverb, phrase, suffix, prefix,
interjection, preposition, auxiliary verb, demonstrative, plural, singular, female, male, gerund

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3) A continuación hay una lista de abreviaciones frecuentes en los diccionarios de inglés. ¿A
qué se refieren? Escríbalas al lado de cada una:

pl. fig. m.
n. interj. f.
adv. irreg. f pl
tr.v phr. m pl
int.v prep. US
conj. pron. BR.
fam. sing. art.
esp. suff, ger.
dem. pref.

4) Observe las definiciones de la palabra “tissue” en distintos diccionarios online.

Word reference.com

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Spanishdict.com

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Linguee.com

En estos 3 casos se han utilizado diferentes diccionarios para traducir “tissue” al español, con
resultados similares. Siempre que realice una búsqueda debe tener ciertos aspectos en cuenta
para saber elegir la palabra correcta. Estos aspectos son:

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a. La función de la palabra (si es el nombre de un objeto, persona, animal, proceso,
concepto, etc).
En el diccionario la función de cada palabra se encuentra identificada con las siglas del
punto 3), de la Guía para usar el diccionario bilingüe. Entonces, repasando: n. (noun) se
utiliza para indentificar a los sustantivos; v. (verb) para identificar a los verbos; adj.
(adjective) para los adjetivos, adv. (adverb) para los adverbios, etc.

b. El contexto donde se encuentra en el idioma original (y su relación con el tema del


texto donde se encuentra).
En estos casos debe tenerse en cuenta el ámbito donde se utiliza la palabra, el tipo de
texto, qué se explica en él, si es del área de humanidades, ciencia, tecnología, etc.

c. El ejemplo que ofrece el diccionario sobre el uso de dicha palabra (si el ejemplo se
asemeja al contexto, es decir, al punto b.)
Los ejemplos nos ayudan a entender en qué contexto se usa la palabra, es por esto que
es importante que los contextos coincidan, o se aproximen, para que nuestra elección sea
la más acertada.

EJEMPLO
Le proponemos el siguiente texto para ilustrar la utilidad de los puntos a., b. y c. explicados
anteriormente.

 Veamos ahora estos aspectos con el ejemplo de “tissue”:


a. La función de dicha palabra se encuentra identificada en los diccionarios como
n., lo que quiere decir que se trata de un sustantivo.
b. El contexto varía según el ejemplo. Pero ¿cuál es el contexto en este caso? Para
averiguarlo, observemos las palabras que rodean a “tissue”, por ejemplo:
wound, healing, treatment, infection, granulation, etc. A partir de ellas
reducimos las posibilidades del contexto y nos aproximamos al ámbito de la
medicina y la cicatrización de las heridas.

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 Pasemos al siguiente punto para encontrar la traducción adecuada:
c. Basándose en las oraciones de ejemplo que se presentan en los diccionarios, y
teniendo en cuenta lo expresado en los puntos a. y b., ¿qué palabra utilizaría en
español para traducir “tissue”? La mejor opción es: tejido.

APLICACIÓN PRÁCTICA

5) Busque en el diccionario bilingüe los siguientes vocablos en inglés:

Disease – evaluate – heart rate – nutrient – digestibility – cause – failure – aim – transmission
route – fatty acid

6) Ahora busca los siguientes, que están en español:

Sangre – factores – observar - organización biológica – porcentaje – compuesto orgánico –


membrana – clasificar – diagnóstico -

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Nos familiarizamos con el perfil del estudiante

A continuación encontrará información sobre una carrera equivalente a la que está cursando,
dictada en Escocia.
 Lea el texto y:
a. Compare las materias que se incluyen en este programa con las de su carrera.
¿Qué tan distintos/similares son los programas? ¿Cree que alguna de las
materias podría incluirse en su programa?
b. Investigue: ¿cuáles son los equivalentes en español de dichas materias?
Aclaración: tenga en cuenta que no siempre es necesaria una traducción literal.
c. Compare la situación laboral en Escocia con aquella en su ciudad/Tandil. Según
el texto: ¿con qué oportunidades laborales cuentan los egresados de la carrera?
¿se asemejan a aquellas en su ciudad/Tandil?
TEXTO 1: The Royal School of Vet Science.

Programme Information
The five-year undergraduate degree is our main route into veterinary
medicine. The five-year Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and
Surgery (BVM&S) degree will prepare you for many aspects of the
veterinary profession.

Studying Veterinary Medicine at Edinburgh will give you transferable skills such as
effective communication, teambuilding and an understanding of business management.
Veterinary training also provides an outstanding background for those who wish to
pursue a career in biomedical research, including both veterinary and human medicine.
Our long-standing combination of tradition and cutting-edge veterinary teaching
benefits from a close-knit collegial community of students.
The degree of BVM&S is the equivalent of the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM)
and has the same standing worldwide. Many of our graduates go on to work across the
globe.

A Day in the Life of A Vet Student

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Accreditation
Our degrees are accredited by:

 The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)


 The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS)
 The European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE)

The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies has Full Accreditation from AVMA. The
last evaluation was in 2008, the next evaluation is scheduled for 2015.
Students will sit the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination (NAVLE) in the
UK before graduating.
The degree of Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (BVM&S) is the equivalent
to the North American Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) and has the same standing
worldwide.

Teaching and Learning


Year one

 The Animal Body 1 and 2


 Animal Life & Food Safety 1
 Professional and Clinical Skills 1

Year two

 The Animal Body 3 and 4


 Animal Life & Food Safety 2
 Student Research Component
 Professional and Clinical Skills 2

Year three

 Veterinary Pathology

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 Integrated Clinical Course - Dog and Cat
 Professional Clinical Skills 3
 Clinical Foundation Course 3

Year four

 Integrated Clinical Course: Farm Animal


 Integrated Clinical Course: Equine
 Integrated Clinical Course: Exotics
 Professional and Clinical Skills 4
 Veterinary Public Health

Year five

 Final Year Rotations


 Student Research Component

more on the 5-year structure

Extramural studies
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) requires that all students also
complete 12 weeks of mainly agricultural extramural studies (EMS) before starting the
third year of the programme.
Your extramural studies offer you the chance to gain more knowledge and experience
in particular areas of interest.
This is followed by a period of 26 weeks’ clinical EMS, where you will participate in a
wide range of veterinary-related activities at home and abroad during the vacation
periods. You can tailor some of your extra-mural experience to your own particular
interests.
Extra Mural Studies (EMS)

Example Year 1 timetable


Our teaching philosophy is based on an optimum and unique blend
of modern and traditional methods drawn from best practice and
supported by our outstanding teaching facilities.

An average day is a mix of lectures and practicals. Lectures cover all aspects of
anatomy and are often illustrated with case examples to help understand how structure
is related to function and how this is affected by disease or injury. Practicals then
follow on the same topic to put into practise the learning.
Live animals feature in classes from year one. Staff pets are used in clinical skills
classes, teaching horses, cows and sheep live on campus and are used for practical
handling classes, as we have an on-site exotic animal handling unit available for
students.
We work hard to find the best ways to relate the connections between basic sciences
and the clinical work of a veterinarian to inspire and motivate our students.
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Here is an example of how a typical week looks:

Career Prospects
Our Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery (BVM&S) has a
very high employment rate post qualification.

You will be entitled to practise as a veterinarian as soon as you have earned your
BVM&S degree and registered as a member of the Royal College of Veterinary
Surgeons (RCVS).
The European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE) and
the reciprocal arrangement between the RCVS and the Australasian Veterinary Boards
Council Inc (AVBC) allows BVM&S graduates to register to practice in Europe,
Australia and New Zealand without requiring any further qualifications.
In addition, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) will recognise your
degree as equivalent to those awarded by veterinary colleges in the United States. We
are also accredited by The South African Veterinary Council (SAVC).
Our graduates go on to enjoy a wide range of careers in veterinary medicine, including
positions in:

 Small animal practices


 Mixed practices
 Equine practices
 Farm/livestock environments
 Wild animal environments
 Wildlife conservation
 Military support
 Industry
 Research
 Government
 Academia

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ELEMENTOS PARATEXTUALES

A la hora de leer, ya sea en inglés o en español, podemos hace uso de los elementos
paratextuales para anticipar el tema del texto, es decir, anticipar el carácter de la información
que leeremos. Estos elementos paratextuales son: las ilustraciones, los títulos y las referencias
bibliográficas.

Maite Alvarado nos explica:

‘etimológicamente, “paratexto” sería lo que rodea o acompaña al texto (para = junto a,


al lado de), aunque no sea evidente cuál es la frontera que separa texto de entorno.’

EJEMPLO:

A continuación le proponemos trabajar con una imagen que pertenece a una publicación. El
texto propiamente dicho ha sido borrado, por lo que sólo pueden observarse los elementos
paratextuales, señalados con círculos.

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1. Conteste a las siguientes preguntas:
a) ¿Qué tipo de elementos paratextuales pueden observarse? Señalelos en la imagen.
b) ¿Cree que es posible anticipar el tema del texto tomando como referencia dichos
elementos paratextuales? ¿Cuál es el tema?
c) ¿Cuál/es cree que es/son el/los elemento/s paratextual/es que más utiliza a la hora
de anticipar el tema de un texto? ¿Cree que alguno es más útil que otro?

2. La siguiente imagen pertenece al texto que hemos ocultado. ¿Coincide la información


de dicho texto con su hipótesis del punto b)?

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Aplicación Práctica 1

 Una las portadas con sus correspondientes contenidos.


a) ¿Qué elementos paratextuales se lo han permitido?
b) Basándose en la portada y en los contenidos, ¿qué publicación es la más
relevante para su área de estudio/trabajo? ¿Cuál es la menos relevante?
IMAGEN 1

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IMAGEN 2

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IMAGEN 3

IMAGEN 4

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MAGEN A

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IMAGEN B

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IMAGEN C

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IMAGEN D

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ASOCIACIÓN DE TEMA CON VOCABULARIO ESPECIFICO

Actividades prácticas

Actividad 1

● Asocie las palabras debajo con los tres temas propuestos.

Tema 1:

anaplasmosis
Tema 2:

hernias
Tema 3:

colic in horses

cattle ruminants carrier

biting tick sheep

abdominal wall foal painful

inguinal calves surgery

umbilical ring goats dry ingesta

traumatic infected intestinal loops

fat dry ingesta rehydrate

surgical closure species fluid

incarceration strain inflammation

swelling dipteran bloodstream

relief dam vector

bowel dehorning intestinal content

resected losses endotoxin

stallions acute parasites

infection exposure pathogen

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Actividad 2

● Clasifique las palabras de la actividad 1 entre sustantivos y adjetivos

Adjetivos Sustantivos

Actividad 3

a) Observe los adjetivos. ¿Cómo se forman los mismos? Clasifíquelos en diferentes


grupos.
b) Identifique los sustantivos de la lista. ¿Cómo se forman los mismos? Clasifíquelos en
diferentes grupos.

Actividad 4. ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS EN LA FRASE NOMINAL.

● Retome la teoría sobre la frase nominal y la técnica morfológica, semántica y


sintáctica y proponga una posible división de los títulos de artículos en unidades más
pequeñas. Justifique su propuesta con información del material teórico.

Título 1: Post-anesthetic colic in horses: a preventable complication?


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................

Título 2: Risk factors associated with colic in horses.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................

Título 3: Diagnostic tools of caprine and ovine anaplasmosis: a direct comparative study.

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………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Título 4: Double-layer mesh hernioplasty for repairing umbilical hernias in 10 goats.


………………………………………………………………………………………………….........................................

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Actividad 5

● Elabore una versión en español para los títulos completos.

Título 1:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….............................................

Título 2:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................

…………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................

Título 3:

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….............................................

Título 4:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................

…………………………………………………………………………………………………............................................

REVISITANDO LA FRASE NOMINAL

A. Repasando. Relea las páginas 9 a 12 del cuadernillo sobre una carrera afín a la suya en la

Universidad de Edimburgo y vuelque al español las frases nominales a continuación.

Recuerde identificar los componentes de la frase nominal (NÚCLEO, MODIFICADORES,

DETERMINADORES). Recuerde el método de ordenamiento de los elementos de la FN.

1) five-year undergraduate degree.

2) Veterinary training.

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3) many aspects of the veterinary profession.

4) The American Veterinary Medical Association.

5) The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons.

6) The North American Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.

7) Animal Life and Food Safety.

8) Professional and Clinical Skills 1.

9) veterinary-related activities at home and abroad during the vacation periods.

10) The European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education.

B-INTERPRETACIÓN DE TÍTULOS

Cuando buscamos información específica (ya sea en español o en inglés) recurrimos al


título para saber si el texto será de utilidad. En su mayoría, los títulos de, por ejemplo,
artículos científicos, son frases nominales. Entonces, para una correcta interpretación
de dichos títulos es importante conocer qué elementos conforman la frase nominal.

Repasando lo explicado en la unidad 4 del trabajo Curso de lectura comprensiva en


inglés, existen 3 elementos básicos dentro de una frase nominal:

I. El núcleo
II. El o los modificadores
III. El o los determinadores

Recuerde que de estos tres elementos, los modificadores y los determinadores podrían
no estar presentes, sin embargo, el núcleo siempre lo estará.

Recuerde también que las preposiciones le permiten dividir el título en partes para que
el análisis sea más sencillo (puede consultar las preposiciones en la unidad 3 de Curso
de Lectura Comprensiva en Inglés)

ACTIVIDAD PRÁCTICA 1

A. A continuación encontrará algunos títulos de artículos científicos. Léalos y realice las


consignas:

NOTA: si lo cree necesario, puede identificar las preposiciones primero para dividir el título en partes
y luego realizar las consignas A, B y C.

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A. Identifique el núcleo
B. Identifique el o los modificadores
C. Identifique el o los determinadores

TÍTULO 1

TÍTULO 2

TÍTULO 3

TÍTULO 4

D. En el título ¿en qué orden se encuentran los ítems identificados en A, B y C? ¿Qué


estructura sugieren?

E. Ahora vuelque al español los títulos de artículos a continuación:

1) Immuno-diffusion reaction in equine infectious anemia.

2) Equine Contribution in Methane Emission and Its Mitigation Strategies.

3) Equine Personality: Association With Breed, Use, and Husbandry

Factors.

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4) Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Horses Grazing Alfalfa, Cool-

Season Perennial Grasses, and Teff.

5) Molecular Detection of Equus caballus Papillomavirus Type 2 in Genital

Swabs From Healthy Horses in the Republic of Korea.

MATERIAL AMPLIATORIO SOBRE LA FRASE NOMINAL. POSTMODIFICACIÓN.

Recuerde que como ha leído ya en la páginas 34, 35, 36, 37 y 38 del Curso de Lectura
Comprensiva en Inglés de Bertazzi, además de las palabras que se anteponen al núcleo
en una FN -frase nominal- (premodificadores), también existen construcciones que se
encuentran a continuación del núcleo (postmodificadores). Por ejemplo, en la frase “food
supplies available”, SUPPLIES es núcleo, FOOD es premodificador y AVAILABLE es
postmodificador. La traducción de la frase completa sería “suministro de alimentos
disponibles”. Lea la teoría que complementa el material de Bertazzi con otros casos de
postmodificación. Se ha extraído del Manual de gramática inglesa aplicada a la lecto-
comprensión, de Celia Nieto (2009). Luego, realice la ejercitación propuesta.

Post-modificadores introducidos por “which” – “that” – “who” – “whose” –


“where” –“when” (pronombres relativos)
Ejemplos:
1. Anatomy is the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals
2. A pathologist is a doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells and
tissues under a microscope.
3. A large hospital which deals with all types of ill people is a general hospital.
4. A doctor whose practice is not oriented to a specific medical specialty is a
general practitioner (GP).
5. A health farm is a place where you go for a holiday and eat healthy food,
take
exercise, etc.
6. The time when someone is a baby or a very young child is called infancy.

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Verbo conjugado
Núcleo de la FN, Pronombre de la
post-modificado relativo proposición que
post-modifica
branch that deals with
doctor who identifies
hospital which deals with
doctor whose practice is not
place where (you) go
time when (someone) is

Estas oraciones tienen siempre un mínimo de dos verbos conjugados: uno en


la parte principal de la oración (mostrado en tamaño de letra más grande), y
otro en el postmodificador:

Anatomy is the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of


animals.

A pathologist is a doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells


and tissues under a
microscope.
A large hospital which deals with all types of ill people is a general
hospital.
A doctor whose practice is not oriented to a specific medical
specialty is a general
practitioner (GP).
A health farm consists of a place where you go for a holiday and eat
healthy food, take
exercise, etc.

The time when someone is a baby or a very young child is called


infancy.

Los pronombres relativos también pueden aparecer detrás de una coma, como
en (7) o detrás de una preposición, como en (8) y (9):

7. Women have a layer of subcutaneous fat, which provides them with better
insulation than men.

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8. Adolescence is the transitional stage of human development in which a
juvenile
matures into an adult.

9. Louis Pasteur married Marie Laurent, by whom he had five children, only two
of
whom survived childhood.

Normalmente se los traduce al castellano por: que, quien, el cual, los cuales,
cuyo, donde
(por ejemplo, “La anatomía es la rama de la morfología que se ocupa de…”)

APLICACIÓN PRACTICA 2

Lea el fragmento extraído del libro de textos Redhun’s diseases of Dairy Cattle
(2018) y realice las siguientes actividades:

a. Identifique diferentes frases nominales con postmodificadores de


cualquiera de los tipos estudiados.
b. Subraye los pronombres relativos que encuentre en el fragmento.
c. Identifique las frases nominales con postmodificadores introducidos por
pronombres relativos y a continuación, subraye los núcleos de las frases
nominales.
d. Intente traducir dichas frases nominales.

The clinical examination is an art, not a science. The basic structure of the
clinical examination can be taught, but the actual performance and
interpretation involved require practice and experience. Clinicians who are
lazy, who are poor observers, or who fail to interact well with clients will
never develop good clinical skills.
The clinical examination is a search for clues in an attempt to solve the
mystery of a patient’s illness. These clues are found usually in the form of
“signs” that are demonstrated to the examiner through inspection,
palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Signs are the veterinary counterpart
to the symptoms possessed by human patients.

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… A clinician who cannot integrate data or recognize signs cannot
recognize problems and will not formulate accurate plans. Therefore, the
problem oriented approach is not a panacea and in fact is merely an
offshoot of the thought processes that a skilled diagnostician practices on a
regular basis.

ACTIVIDADES DE ACTIVACION DE VOCABULARIO ESPECÍFICO: Leer e


identificar

Anatomía de los equinos

Anatomía de los vacunos

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Anatomía de los rumiantes

Anatomía de los cerdos

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Anatomía de las ovejas

Anatomía de los gatos

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Anatomía de los perros

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EJERCITACION
Actividad 1
Escriba las partes del cuerpo de los siguientes animales:

Actividad 2

En las siguientes figuras, se han identificado algunas partes del cuerpo de diversos animales. Sin
embargo, hay algunos errores. Lea con atención y corrija lo que está mal. Luego, complete lo que
falta clasificar.

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A)
AA: loin C: pin F: udder H: hoof J: flank L: sole N: declaw
P: elbow S: muzzle Q: wattle V: poll Z: rump
B: D: E: G: I: K: M: O:
R: T: U: W: X: Y:

B)
A: muzzle C: forearm D: pinna E: flank
B: F: G:

C)

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A: pinna B: rump C: stifle H: tail
D: E: F: G:

Actividad 3
En las siguientes sopas de letras, encontrará las principales partes del cuerpo de los diferentes
animales. Encuéntrelas y asegúrese que conoce su significado en español.

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ACTIVIDAD 4:
Clasifique las siguientes palabras y escríbalas en la columna correcta.

muzzle cheek gaskin hock shoulder ergot hook chestnut stifle poll mane
tailhead flank wattle withers fetlock forelock crest teat cannon bone
dewlap switch dewclaw heel chest brisket pin paralumbar fossa
toe elbow rump udder chine loin knee sole dock back chin

Head/Cabeza Legs and feet/ Patas Body/ Cuerpo

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ACTIVIDAD 5
Mire nuevamente las imágenes de la anatomía de los diversos tipos de animales .Escriba las
palabras en el diagrama de Ven que son comunes a las tres categorías de animales.

bovinos

rumiantes equinos

cerdos

perros gatos

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GENERACION DE VOCABULARIO SOBRE ANIMALES Y SUS CRIAS: EQUINOS, BOVINOS,
PORCINOS, AVES DE CORRAL, CAPRINOS, OVINOS, CANINOS Y FELINOS.

-A continuación, encontrará grupos de palabras para denotar nombres de animales en


distinta etapa de crecimiento (nombres de las crías y jóvenes), estatus (castrado, sin
castrar, etc. ) y otras palabras relacionadas con el proceso de parición y los nombres
de los grupos de animales. Para cada especie, identificar cual es cual y traducir al
español. Cuidado, en cada grupo, habrá una palabra que no pertenece a ese grupo de
animales.

EQUINOS

Band, stallion, barren mare, gelding, mare, wether- ridgeling (rig), brood mare, foaling,
foal, maiden mare, herd, wet mare, yearling, filly, colt, weanling, agalactic mare.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

_____________
MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

PORCINOS

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farrowing, boar, herd, stag, pig, gilt, piglet, sow, barrow, swine, litter, porcine

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

BOVINOS

cattle, bull, calf, stag, jumper bull, heifer, calving, freshening, teaser bull, kid, herd,
freemartin, gomer bull, cow, steer, springing heifer.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

____________
MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

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OVINOS

ewe, wether, yearling, flock, lambing, lamb, ram, kid, spring lamb, sheep, hot house
lamb.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

CAPRINOS

goat, buck, kid, stag, kidding, herd, freshening, wether, doe

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

MACHO

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Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

CANINOS

whelping, pack, dog, litter, bitch, stud, whelp, ewe.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

FELINOS

flock, kitten, queen, cat, tom, queening.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

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46
MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_

____________ Traducción:______________

AVES DE CORRAL

chick, calf, poult, flock, rooster, hen, pullet, capon, cockerel, chicken, lay eggs.

CLASIFICACION CLASIFICACION VERBO DE ESTATUS GRUPO


POR EDAD POR SEXO PARICION

HEMBRA

____________
MACHO

Palabra que no pertenece al grupo:_____________ Traducción:______________

Interpretación y traducción de títulos de publicaciones. Lea y escriba el


equivalente de los títulos en español.

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1. Most frequent feline tumors – a breed approach 10-year restrospective
study
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……

2. Seizure-participating factors in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy


……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……

3. Risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Listeria monocytogenes by


dairy cows and claves
……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………

4. Efficacy of tamoxifen for the treatment of severe equine asthma


……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
……

5. Long term in vitro growth of lymphoblastoid cells in the dog

……………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………
6. Heritable Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia
……………………………………………………………………………………

7. Demonstration of collection of cerebrospinal fluid from the lumbosacral


space in cattle.
……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

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8. 5-year-old Holstein cow with fever, decreased production, and muffled
heart sounds.
……………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………..…..

9. Sow productivity on commercial pig farms in the Republic of Macedonia


……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

10. An outbreak of virulent systemic feline calicivirus disease


……………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………….

ENFERMEDAD EN ANIMALES. Lectura de textos descriptivos. Aplicación de técnicas


de lectura global y de la frase verbal. Be (am, is, are). There is/are. Have/has

Texto # 1: “Pediculosis Infection in Horses”.

1. Lea el siguiente texto. A partir de él resuelva las consignas que se encuentran a


continuación:
a. ¿A qué enfermedad se hace referencia en el texto?
b. ¿Quién la causa? ¿Cuántos tipos existen? Describa en detalle sus
características
c. ¿Quién contrae la enfermedad? Mencione las partes del cuerpo que se
ven afectadas.
d. En pares, escriba dos oraciones, una verdadera y otra falsa, para que
lean otros compañeros.
e. There is/there are, have/has, be (presente simple). Consulte la teoría
sobre el uso de estas estructuras.

Significado de las palabras

1. Responda a las preguntas:


a. ¿Cómo se traduce “chewing mandibles”, “increasing size”, “horse
biting” y “horse sucking”?

49

49
b. ¿Qué significan las palabras “feed” y “breed” en este contexto?

50

50
Los tiempos verbales simples. Oraciones condicionales.

Texto 2: “Colic in Horses”.

1-Antes de leer el texto complete el cuadro:

Para completar el cuadro tenga en cuenta las palabras subrayadas y:

 La función de las palabras en el texto, es decir, cómo las utilizamos (como


sustantivos, verbos, adjetivos, etc.)
 Si existen variantes de dichas palabras (singular, plural, conjugaciones, etc.)
 Los ejemplos que proporciona el texto (puede elegir cualquiera de ellos)
 Los ejemplos que proporciona el Curso de lectura comprensiva en inglés
(puede consultarlo a modo de repaso y para comparar ejemplos encontrados
en el texto).
Frase nominal Be Have

Función de la palabra

¿Existen variantes?
¿Cuáles?

Ejemplo del texto:

Equivalente del ejemplo


en español:

2-Ahora lea el texto.

Treatment
Horses with colic may need either medical or surgical treatments. Almost all require some

form of medical treatment, but only those with certain mechanical obstructions of the

intestine need surgery. The type of medical treatment is determined by the cause of colic

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and the severity of the disease. In some instances, the horse may be treated medically

first and the response evaluated; this is particularly appropriate if the horse is mildly

painful and the cardiovascular system is functioning normally. Ultrasonography can be

used to evaluate the effectiveness of nonsurgical treatment. If necessary, surgery can be

used for diagnosis as well as treatment.

If evidence of intestinal obstruction with dry ingesta is found on rectal examination, a

primary aim of treatment is to rehydrate and evacuate the intestinal contents. If the horse

is severely painful and has clinical signs indicating loss of fluid from the bloodstream

(high heart rate, prolonged capillary refill time, and discoloration of the mucous

membranes), the initial aims of treatment are to relieve pain, restore tissue perfusion,

and correct any abnormalities in the composition of the blood and body fluids. If damage

to the intestinal wall (as a result of either severe inflammation or a displacement or

strangulating obstruction) is suspected, steps should be taken to prevent or counteract

the ill effects of bacterial endotoxins that cross the damaged intestinal wall and enter the

bloodstream. Finally, if there is evidence the colic episode is caused by parasites, one

aim of treatment is to eliminate the parasites.

https://www.msdvetmanual.com/digestive-system/colic-in-horses/overview-of-colic-in-
horses#v4499531

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3-Escriba el equivalente en español de las siguientes frases:

a. high heart rate


b. prolonged capillary refill time
c. damaged intestinal wall
4-Determine si los enunciados que siguen son verdaderos o falsos. Si los ítems son
total o parcialmente falsos, fundamente. Responda debajo de cada ítem.

a) Los cólicos en los caballos se deben a una obstrucción mecánica en el intestino y


deben ser operados.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

b) La ultrasonografía se usa para diagnosticar la enfermedad y como tratamiento no


quirúrgico.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

c) Se rehidrata y evacuan los intestinos si hay evidencia de obstrucción intestinal


cuando se examina el recto del animal.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

d) Cuando se sospecha que la pared intestinal puede estar dañada, se debe prevenir
y contraatacar las endotoxinas bacterianas que pueden atravesar la pared
intestinal dañada y entrar en la sangre.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………...

e) Cuando hay inflamación severa, desplazamiento u obstrucción por


estrangulamiento se deben eliminar los parásitos que dañan la pared del intestino.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

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5-Tiempos simples…De acuerdo a la Unidad 12 del Curso de lectura comprensiva
en inglés.

¿Qué significa que un verbo esté en presente simple?

a. ¿Cómo se forman dichos verbos?


b. ¿Qué facilita su búsqueda en el diccionario?
c. Analice los siguientes ejemplos:

EJEMPLO 1:

“Almost all require some form of medical treatment, but only those with
certain mechanical obstructions of the intestine need surgery”

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

EJEMPLO 2:

“…this is particularly appropriate if the horse is mildly painful and the


cardiovascular system is functioning normally”

i. Identifique los verbos subrayándolos


ii. Identifique en qué persona y en qué forma están
iii. Indique su equivalente en español
6-Con una condición…

 Las frases en inglés que presentan un condicional pueden identificarse por el uso
de la palabra “if”. La frase del EJEMPLO 2 es parte de una condición y, en este caso,
algo debe ocurrir para que un hecho tenga efecto. Es decir:

X ocurrirá si se da la condición Y

 La frase completa del EJEMPLO 2 es la siguiente:


“In some instances, the horse may be treated medically first and the response
evaluated; this is particularly appropriate if the horse is mildly painful and the
cardiovascular system is functioning normally.”

Entonces, ¿cuándo es apropiado tratar a los caballos médicamente y evaluar la


respuesta?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Lectura del texto # 3: “Diseases of the Gastroenteric System”.

Lea el texto a continuación, extraído de un manual online, y determine si los


enunciados que siguen son verdaderos o falsos. Si los ítems son total o parcialmente
falsos, fundamente y aclare qué parte no coincide con el texto original. Responda
debajo de cada ítem.

a) La enfermedad de la lengua azul se ha registrado en ovejas y vacas.


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b) El tratamiento más común para la enfermedad de la lengua azul es el de


antibióticos y antiinflamatorios.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

c) Existe una vacuna para la enfermedad de la lengua azul.


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

d) No existe tratamiento para la fiebre catarral maligna


……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

e) La fiebre catarral maligna presenta similitudes con la lengua azul, por lo que es
difícil diferenciarlas sin un estudio previo.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Lectura del texto # 4: “Clinical Findings and Lesions of BVDV”.

Lea el texto a continuación, extraído de un manual online, y determine si los


enunciados que siguen son verdaderos o falsos. Si los ítems son total o parcialmente

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falsos, fundamente y aclare qué parte no coincide con el texto original. Responda
debajo de cada ítem.

a- Se le da el nombre de diarrea viral bovina citopática o no citopática a la infección


que contraen los animales inmunes al virus BVD.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

b- Los signos agudos de diarrea viral bovina se ven entre 1-7 días luego de contraída
la infección.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

c- El virus se replica a través de los tejidos linfoides y puede ser responsable de


inmunosupresión e infecciones intercurrentes.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

d- Las formas severas de la enfermedad, asociadas al genotipo 2, se caracterizan


por una mayor tasa de mortalidad.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

e- La severidad del virus de la diarrea viral bovina no depende de la virulencia de la


cepa que infectó al animal ni del biotipo de la infección.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Clinical Findings and Lesions of BVDV (Bovine viral


diarrhea virus).

Disease induced by BVDV varies in severity, duration, and organ systems involved. Infection of

immunocompetent susceptible animals with either noncytopathic or cytopathic BVDV is termed

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acute or transient BVD. Inapparent or subclinical infection without any clinical signs that is followed

by seroconversion is the most common form of infection in the field. Acute clinical disease may range

from mild disease of high morbidity and low mortality to severe enteric disease with considerable

mortality. Biphasic fever (~104°F [40°C]), depression, decreased milk production, transient

inappetence, rapid respiration, excessive nasal secretion, excessive lacrimation, and diarrhea are

typical signs of acute clinical BVD. Clinical signs of disease usually are seen 6–12 days after infection

and last 1–3 days. Transient leukopenia may be seen with onset of signs of disease. Recovery is rapid

and coincides with production of viral neutralizing antibody. Gross lesions seldom are seen in cases

of mild disease. Lymphoid tissue is a primary target for replication of BVDV, which may lead to

immunosuppression and enhanced severity of intercurrent infections.

Some isolates of BVDV (BVD type 2) have been associated with severe clinical disease that manifests

as high fever (~107°F [41°–42°C]), oral ulcerations, eruptive lesions of the coronary band and

interdigital cleft, diarrhea, dehydration, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. In thrombocytopenic

cattle, petechial hemorrhages may be seen in the conjunctiva, sclera, nictitating membrane of the

eyes, and on mucosal surfaces of the mouth and vulva. Prolonged bleeding from injection sites also

occurs. Swollen lymph nodes, erosions and ulcerations of the GI tract, petechial and ecchymotic

hemorrhages on the serosal surfaces of the viscera, and extensive lymphoid depletion are associated

with severe forms of acute BVD. The duration of overt disease may be 3–7 days. High morbidity with

a mortality of ≥25% is common. Severity of acute BVD is related to the virulence of the viral strain

infecting the animal and does not depend on viral biotype.

Texto # 5 “Congenital and Inhereted Anomalies of the Esophagus”.

Lea el texto a continuación, extraído de un manual online, y determine si los


enunciados que siguen son verdaderos o falsos. Si los ítems son total o parcialmente
falsos, fundamente y aclare qué parte no coincide con el texto original. Responda
debajo de cada ítem.

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a-Según la autora, las anomalías del esófago se dividen en 2 tipos: congénitas y
vasculares.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

b-El uso de imágenes computarizadas permite identificar las anomalías del esófago

y prevenir futuras complicaciones.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

c- De acuerdo a lo que explica la autora, los casos de megaesófago congénito se

han observado en perros, caballos y gatos.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

d-Un control en la alimentación permite corregir la acalasia cricofaríngea.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

e-Este tipo de anomalía suele presentarse en perros y gatos, especialmente durante

los primeros meses de vida.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

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Congenital and Inherited
Anomalies of the Esophagus
By Lisa K. Pearson, DVM, MS, PhD, DACT, Washington State University

Clinically significant esophageal disorders generally manifest themselves as swallowing


dysfunction and regurgitation, especially when puppies or kittens are weaned and begin
to eat solid food. These disorders, found predominantly in small animals, can be
classified as congenital megaesophagus, vascular ring entrapment anomalies, and
achalasia. Congenital megaesophagus is thought to result from developmental
anomalies in esophageal neuromuscular innervation that controls dilation and
peristalsis. In dogs, incidence is increased in Chinese Shar-Pei, Fox Terriers, German
Shepherds, Great Danes, Irish Setters, Labrador Retrievers, Miniature Schnauzers, and
Newfoundlands. In Fox Terriers, it is an autosomal recessive trait, whereas in Miniature
Schnauzers, it is autosomal dominant. It is also seen in Siamese cats and Friesian horses.
Megaesophagus may also be a component of a more diffuse congenital neuropathy,
such as congenital myasthenia gravis. A laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex
that often includes megaesophagus has been reported in Dalmatians and Pyrenees
Mountain Dogs. Secondary megaesophagus may develop in association with
hypoadrenocorticism, neoplasia, or GI or neuromuscular disorders (see Paraneoplastic
Disorders of theanomalies
Vascular ring Nervous System).
occur due to errors in development of the third, fourth, or
sixth aortic arch and result in entrapment of the thoracic esophagus and trachea, which
lead to the clinical signs. They have been described in dogs, cats, horses, cattle, and
camelids. The most common anomaly is persistent right aortic arch, but aberrant right
and left subclavian arteries, right ligamentum arteriosum, and double aortic arch have
also been reported. In dogs, Boston Terriers, German Shepherds, and Irish Setters have
higher breed incidences. In cats, a report associated persistent right aortic arch with axial
skeletal abnormalities. Advanced imaging, including 3-D CT, is useful for diagnosis of
specific anomalies and surgical planning. Cricopharyngeal achalasia is a failure of the
upper esophageal sphincter (specifically, the cricopharyngeal muscle) to relax during
swallowing, thereby preventing the normal passage of a food bolus from the caudal
pharynx to the cranial esophagus. Cocker and Springer Spaniels appear to be at
increased risk. Treatment of congenital achalasia is cricopharyngeal myectomy. Acquired
achalasia is treated by addressing the inciting cause and implementing dietary
management. Lower esophageal sphincter achalasia is considered to be a component
of a more generalized esophageal motor disturbance (ie, megaesophagus) and no
longer a distinct entity.

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Texto # 6 “Overview of Sarcosistosis”. Repaso Recuperatorio parcial # 1

Lea el texto 1, extraído de un manual online, y determine si los enunciados que


siguen son verdaderos o falsos. Si los ítems son total o parcialmente falsos,
fundamente. Responda debajo de cada ítem.

a- El tamaño de los quistes depende de la distribución geográfica de la sarcocistosis.


_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

b- La mayoría de los animales de granja padece de infecciones por sarcocistosis en


la fase subclínica.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

c- En los casos clínicos de sarcocistosis, los animales de granja presentan


hemorragias y cardiopatías.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

d- Las zarigüeyas son los hospedadores definitivos de los parásitos que causan las
especies de sarcocistosis.
_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

e- En los equinos, la encefalitis protozooaria, causada por una especie de


sarcocistosis, suele estar relacionada con enfermedades neurológicas.

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

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Extracto de “Overview of Sarcocystosis” By Gastón A. Moré , MV, ,

DVM, Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Universidad Nacional de La Plata,


Argentina.

In sarcocystosis, the endothelium and muscles and other soft tissues are invaded by
Apicomplexan protozoans of the genus Sarcocystis. As the name implies, Sarcocystis spp (from
Greek sarkos: muscle and kystis: cysts) form cysts in muscles of various intermediate hosts—
people, horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, birds, rodents, camelids, wildlife, and reptiles. The cysts
vary in size from a few micrometers to centimeters, depending on the host and species.
Most Sarcocystis spp infections are distributed worldwide.
Sarcocystis spp infections are quite prevalent in farm animals; however, there have been
few outbreaks of clinical disease. Most animals are asymptomatic, and the parasite is discovered
only at slaughter. In cattle severely affected by S cruzi, the signs include fever, anorexia, cachexia,
decreased milk yield, diarrhea, muscle spasms, anemia, loss of tail hair, hyperexcitability,
weakness, prostration, and death. Cows infected in the last trimester of pregnancy may abort.
After recovery from acute illness, calves failed to grow well and eventually died in a cachectic state.
Anemia, hepatitis, and myocarditis were the primary lesions in acute ovine sarcocystosis after
experimental challenge with S tenella sporocysts. Cases of encephalomyelitis in sheep were
associated with a Sarcocystis sp infection. After recovery from acute illness, some sheep may lose
their wool. S tenella may also induce abortion in sheep. At necropsy, acutely affected animals have
hemorrhage of the serous membranes of the viscera and myocardium. Sarcocystis spp infections
are probably most important in growing ruminants and swine, in which they can result in
subclinical anemia and reduced weight gain.
Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is caused principally by S neurona in American
horses. Only asexual stages of this parasite have been found in horses, and they may be located in
neurons and leukocytes of the brain and spinal cord. Opossums (Didelphis virginiana and D
albiventris) are its definitive hosts. Clinical signs in horses include gait abnormalities such as ataxia,
knuckling, and crossing over. Muscle atrophy of the hindlimb, which is usually unilateral, is
frequent. The lesions are typically focal, and brain-stem involvement is common. Depression,
weakness, head tilt, and dysphagia are other possible signs. EPM can mimic many neurologic
diseases. Horses may also develop a myopathy. Multifocal myositis has been reported and is
possibly due to another Sarcocystis species with horses as the intermediate host, S fayeri. PCR is
an important diagnostic method. S calchasi can produce pigeon protozoal encephalitis with severe
brain lesions and muscle cysts at the same time.

CUADERNILLO DE INGLÉS TECNICO: SEGUNDO


CUATRIMESTRE 2020
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62
SEGUNDO
CUATRIMESTRE:
EL SISTEMA NERVIOSO

PRELECTURA

Conceptos introductorios
1. ¿Cómo definiría al sistema nervioso con sus palabras?

2. Elija 5 términos que crea que se encuentran más relacionados con dicho sistema. ¿Usó
alguno de ellos en su definición?

vaccination – receptor - unicellular– mating – brain– impulse – manure management -


beef cattle – cell body – spinal cord – sample collection – taxonomy – pregnancy rate –
central nervous system – sense organs – effector organ - neurons

3. ¿Cómo se relacionan esos 5 términos entre sí? Tradúzcalos y complete el cuadro para
marcar las relaciones.

63
1
63
LECTURA

Actividad práctica 1
 Lea la sección INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS y responda
4. ¿De qué se encarga el sistema nervioso?

5. ¿Por qué una descripción del funcionamiento del cerebro sería limitada?

DESCRIPCIÓN DE PROCESOS

Actividad práctica 2
 Lea la sección THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS y:
6. Complete el siguiente cuadro extrayendo del texto cómo se relacionan los siguientes
elementos

Acción que se lleva a


Elemento Elemento
cabo

A stimulus Is recognized by A receptor organ

The reaction/response An effector organ

The receptor and effector organs A chain of neurons

7. Escriba la traducción de las 3 oraciones que se han formado:

2 64 64
La oración que se forma a partir de las partes del cuadro,
por ejemplo: “a stimulus is recognized by a receptor organ”,
representa a la voz pasiva.

 Lea la “Unidad 16: Voz Pasiva” del libro Curso de lectura comprensiva en inglés y
responda:
8. ¿Qué función cumple by en la voz pasiva?

9. ¿cuántos verbos se necesitan para formar la voz pasiva?

10. Encuentre otros 2 ejemplos de la voz pasiva en la sección THE STRUCTURAL


ELEMENTS:

con by

sin by

11. En conclusión, ¿para qué se utiliza la voz pasiva? (tanto en inglés como en español)
¿De qué sirve reconocerla en un texto en inglés?

3
65 65
LECTURA: ¿VERDADERO O FALSO?

Actividad práctica 3
12. Lea la sección STIMULUS-RESPONSE APPARATUS e indique si los siguientes
enunciados son verdaderos o falsos. En caso de ser falso, justifique su respuesta.
a) Los elementos del aparato estímulo respuesta se ve representado en la “figure 8-
1”
NOTA: se ha reemplazado el número por una estrella ( ) en el texto.

b) Un ejemplo de reflejo monosináptico es el reflejo rotuliano que se da gracias a


un golpecito en el ligamento rotuliano.

c) Las interneuronas funcionan como un puente entre las neuronas aferentes,


conectándolas entre sí.

CON UNA CONDICIÓN…

Actividad práctica 4
 En este caso retomaremos un tema que hemos mencionado en el cuatrimestre
anterior: los CONDICIONALES
13. ¿Recuerda con qué fin se utilizan las frases con condicionales? ¿Qué expresa?

14. A continuación encontrará 2 frases extraídas de la unidad THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.


Estas frases representan el uso de condicionales.

A partir de ellas:

4 66 66
a) Indique la palabra (o palabras) que le permite identificar que se trata de una
frase condicional.

b) Realice una posible traducción de dicha palabra. ¿Cómo sería su versión en


español?

c) En grupos:
 si tuvieran que dividir una frase condicional en 2, ¿con qué criterio lo
harían?
 ¿Y si tuvieran que dividirlas en 6?

En 2 partes:

En 6 partes:

RECUERDE

 Tratamos este tema el cuatrimestre anterior con el texto “Treatment”,


sobre cólicos en caballos. Al final de dicha copia encontrará un
apartado bajo el título “Con una condición…”.
 Además, puede encontrar más información en el libro Curso de
lectura comprensiva en inglés, en la sección 17.3

d) ¿Qué importancia tiene poder identificar el uso de condicionales en un texto


en inglés?

5
67 67
ES MÁS … QUE …

Actividad práctica 5
 En grupos, investigue y complete:

15. ¿Para qué sirven los adjetivos en grado comparativo?

16. ¿Cuántos tipos de adjetivos comparativos existen en inglés?

17. Encontrará ejemplos en las secciones THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS, STIMULUS-


RESPONSE APPARATUS y INTRODUCTORY SURVEY, del texto propuesto para esta
clase. Copie uno de cada tipo:

18. ¿Qué se está comparando en ambos casos?

RECUERDE

Puede utilizar el libro Curso de lectura comprensiva en inglés que se mencionó en la actividad
anterior.

6 68 68
69 69
70 70
71 71
72 72
73 73
74 74
75 75
INGLÉS TÉCNICO PARA MEDICINA VETERINARIA.

Lectura y análisis de CASOS CLÍNICOS.

Pre-lectura

1) ¿Cuáles de los elementos (a a g) espera encontrar en un caso clínico? Ordénelos de


principio a fin.

a-Prognosis
b-Long-term Management
c-Outcomes
d-Treatment
e-Anamnesis
f-Physical Examination
g-Diagnosis and Staging

2) A continuación leerá un caso clínico titulado: “Pelvic Limb Lameness in a Golden


Retriever Puppy”.

a-Analice las palabras y escriba el título en español.

b- ¿Cuántas frases nominales hay? ¿Cómo las detectó?

c- ¿Cuáles de las palabras en el cuadro podría encontrar en un caso clínico con ese
título?

Owner, weeks, breed, minutes, left, complete blood count (CBC), limp, ligaments,
age, days, fleas, strain, motion, deformities, tumor, heart rate, ticks, right, alert,
pain, hour, pins, radiography, onset.

3) Una la terminología (a a h) sobre fracturas con las definiciones (1 a 7):

a-Avulsion fracture

b-Callus

c-Closed fracture

d-Spinal fracture

e-Compression fracture

76
f-Open fracture

g-Physeal fracture

h-Immobilization

i-Patellar luxation

J-Stifle swelling

1) Broken bone produced when the bones are pressed together.


2) Act of holding, suturing, or fastening bone in a fixed position, usually with a
bandage or cast.
3) It occurs when the dog's kneecap is dislocated from its normal anatomic
position in the groove of the thigh bone (femur).
4) Broken bone in which there is no open wound in the skin; also known as a
simple fracture.
5) An abnormal bodily protuberance or localized enlargement in the joint that
connects the upper and lower leg bones—the femur and the tibia (the knee in
people).
6) Bone that is broken at the epiphyseal line or growth plate; these fractures are
further categorized as Salter-Harris I-V fractures.
7) Broken bone in which there is an open wound in the skin; also known as a
compound fracture.
8) Bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually
become bone.
9) Broken bone in which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is
detached by a forceful pull.

Lectura.

4) Realice un barrido de lectura (lectura global) del caso clínico para definir si las
partes mencionadas en el punto 1 de Pre-lectura aparecen aquí. De ser así,
márquelas en el texto.

5) En grupos, retome las notas del Curso de Lectura Comprensiva en Inglés acerca de
los tiempos verbales y complete el cuadro debajo (p. 58 a 82).

Forma Afirmativa Ejemplos en CC Forma Negativa Ejemplos en CC


Presente
Simple

77
Pasado
Simple
Regular

Pasado
Simple
Irregular

6) Retome las notas sobre el verbo BE. Analice los usos de BE en pasado (formas
was/were, p. 39, 40, 41, 42, 43 del Curso de Lectocomprensión en Inglés) en la sección
de “Physical Examination” y consigne qué tipos de palabras aparecen luego de
WAS/WERE en estos casos. ¿Qué diferencias hay entre WAS/WERE?

a-Thoracic auscultation was within normal limits.

b- Vital parameters were within normal limits, aside from (except por) an elevated heart rate
(140 bpm) presumably due to discomfort.

c-The remainder of the clinical examination was within normal limits.

d-She was nonweight-bearing (weight-bearing=soporta peso) on her right pelvic limb, and the stifle
joint was visibly swollen with palpable pain.

7) Ahora, estudie una parte de la sección “Treatment and Long-Term Management”.


Deduzca qué tipos de estructuras son las subrayadas. ¿Cómo se traducirán?

Maggie was managed overnight with analgesia (ie, hydromorphone [0.05 mg/kg IV q4-

6h]) and nursing care. The following morning, Maggie was placed under general

anesthesia and given a morphine epidural, and surgical fixation of the fracture was

performed through a craniolateral approach to the stifle.

8) Estudie las palabras “however” y “although” en la sección “Diagnosis”. Ambas son


conectores que se usan para marcar contraste. ¿Qué se contrasta en cada caso?

Although there was no known trauma, fracture remained on the differential list, as juvenile
bone is soft and the physes are weaker than the adjacent bone and ligaments, which can
lead to fractures that can occur with little or no apparent trauma.

78
Radiographic findings were within normal limits; however, lateral and craniocaudal
radiographs of the right pelvic limb revealed a Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal
femur with caudal and medial displacement.

Although Maggie’s fracture was not difficult to identify on radiographs, not all physeal
fractures are as easily identified.

9) Lea el caso clínico nuevamente y responda las preguntas o complete con la


información requerida.

a-¿Cuál era el estado general del perro?

b-Describa al perro:

c- ¿Qué provocó el motivo de la consulta al veterinario? ¿Tuvo un accidente? No

d- ¿Qué posibles causas del cuadro clínico consideró el veterinario?

e- ¿Qué se evita si se detecta tempranamente el problema mencionado?

f- ¿Qué medicación se le administró?

g- ¿Qué estudios se le realizaron a Maggie?

h- ¿Cómo se la trató?

i- ¿Se repitieron las radiografías a los 14 días?

j-¿Cómo fue el tratamiento postoperatorio?

k- ¿Por qué no es bueno inmovilizar la extremidad en estos casos?

l- ¿En cuánto tiempo pudo retomar su vida normal?

ll-¿La volvieron a intervenir para retirar los implantes metálicos?

m-¿Qué causó la fractura?

Postlectura

¿Usted hubiera realizado algún otro estudio para llegar al diagnóstico adecuado?
¿Cuál? ¿Por qué?

79
Pelvic Limb Lameness in a Golden Retriever Puppy
Mary Sarah Bergh, DVM, MS, DACVS, DACVSMR, Iowa State University

ORTHOPEDICS
|PEER REVIEWED

Pelvic Limb Lameness in a Golden Retriever Puppy


Mary Sarah Bergh, DVM, MS, DACVS, DACVSMR, Iowa State University.

Maggie, a 5-month-old female golden retriever, was presented 2 hours after her
owner observed an acute onset of right pelvic limb lameness. No causative incident
for the lameness had been observed.

Physical Examination

On physical examination, Maggie was bright, alert, and responsive. Vital parameters were
within normal limits, aside from an elevated heart rate (140 bpm) presumably due to
discomfort. Thoracic auscultation was within normal limits. She was nonweight-bearing on
her right pelvic limb, and the stifle joint was visibly swollen with palpable pain. Range of
motion in the right stifle was reduced. The remainder of the clinical examination was within
normal limits.

80
Diagnosis

Differential diagnoses for this patient’s stifle swelling, pain, and lameness included fracture,
patellar luxation, cranial cruciate ligament injury or avulsion, muscle or tendon strain,
osteochondritis dissecans, and septic arthritis. Although there was no known trauma,
fracture remained on the differential list, as juvenile bone is soft and the physesare weaker
than the adjacent bone and ligaments, which can lead to fractures that canoccur with
little or no apparent trauma. Early identification and treatment of physeal fractures are
important to minimize the risk for development of significant limb deformities, joint
incongruities, and intractable lameness.
Hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg IV) was administered for analgesia, and lateral and
ventrodorsal thoracic radiographs were obtained to evaluate for thoracic trauma.
Radiographic findings were within normal limits; however, lateral and craniocaudal
radiographs of the right pelvic limb revealed a Salter-Harris type II fracture of the distal
femur with caudal and medial displacement.
Although Maggie’s fracture was not difficult to identify on radiographs, not all physeal
fractures are as easily identified. Radiography of the contralateral joint for comparison can
help confirm diagnosis. Radiography can also be repeated 10 to 14 days later to look for
signs of physeal damage if the diagnosis remains unclear.

Treatment & Long-Term Management

Early surgical repair of physeal fractures is key to restoring limb function and minimizing
damage to the fractured physis. The basic principles for treatment of physeal fractures are
preservation of blood supply, anatomic reduction, and stable fixation. Gentle soft tissue
handling during fracture reduction and stabilization is essential to avoid damage to the soft
juvenile bone and soft tissue surrounding the fracture site. When applied nearly
perpendicular to the physeal surface, smooth pins can allow for continued growth, as the
proliferating cartilage can slide along the pins. Implants should be placed so they do not
interfere with joint function.
Maggie was managed overnight with analgesia (ie, hydromorphone [0.05 mg/kg IV q4- 6h])
and nursing care. The following morning, Maggie was placed under general anesthesia and
given a morphine epidural, and surgical fixation of the fracture was performed through a
craniolateral approach to the stifle. The distal femoral physis is W- shaped and has inherent
stability when reduced; however, additional stabilization is required to provide adequate
resistance to the forces applied across the fracture and to allow for the stability needed for
healing. Two smooth pins were placed obliquely across the fracture site. The pins should
cross proximal to the fracture site to provide maximal repair stability.
Postoperation, Maggie’s pain was managed with cryotherapy and hydromorphone (0.05
mg/kg IV q4-6h) until she was eating, at which time she was transitioned to carprofen (2.2
mg/kg PO q12h); her comfort level was determined to be good. Additional analgesic options
to consider could include gabapentin or codeine if deemed necessary. Physical rehabilitation
was initiated the first day postoperation and included massage and range-of- motion
exercises of the limb. Exercise restriction and continued physical rehabilitation

81
therapy were advised until radiographic follow-up could be performed 5 weeks
postoperation. Early mobilization of the limb is important to encourage mobility, prevent
periarticular fibrosis, and, in cases of distal femoral fractures, help prevent the development
of quadriceps contracture.

Prognosis & Outcome

At the 5-week postoperative examination, Maggie was fully weight-bearing on her right
pelvic limb and the stifle had full and pain-free range of motion. Radiography of the stifle
revealed that the fracture was healed, the implants were stable, and the distal femoral physis
was closed. A closed distal femoral physis is a common finding after fracturerepair,
as the germinal cells, which are responsible for physis growth, are frequently irreversibly
damaged during the fracture event. Premature physeal closure can result in shortening of the
femur, particularly if the animal is young and has large remaining growth potential.
However, a closed distal femoral physis in a dog of Maggie’s age does not usually result in
a clinical problem, as dogs are generally able to compensate for mild limb length
discrepancies through extension of adjacent joints and compensatory overgrowth of the
tibia.

82
INGLES TECNICO PARA MEDICINA VETERIANARIA-2019
2
0

LEXICO TECNICO Y EL ARTICULO DE INVESTIGACION

A-Clasifique las palabras a continuación con las áreas o materias con las
cuales se relacionan:

animal husbandry , vaccination, management, procaryotes, spore, epithelial


tissue, heat, broth, virus isolation, ovocyte, pregnancy rate, water trough,
secrete, weaning, zygote, chute, fattening, mating, stroma, follicle, livestock,
pharynx, capsule, susceptibility, media, breed, strain, forage, pen, pyogenic,
poultry, slaughter house, infection, gene expression, ewe, suckling, natural
breeding service, cranial pairs, housing facilities, feed trough, ram, connective
tissue, feedlot/drylot, continuous grazing system, livestock, gastrulation,
blastocyst, discoblastula, jugular groove, foal, sow, abattoir,visceral space of
the neck

VIROLOGÍA

PRODUCCION ANIMAL

83
ANATOMÍA

MICROBIOLOGIA

FISIOLOGIA DE LA REPRODUCCION

HISTOLOGIA, EMBRIOLOGÍA Y TERATOLOGÍA

84
INTRODUCCION A LA LECTURA DE ARTICULOS DE INVESTIGACION

A-Lea la descripción del artículo de investigación:

¿Qué es?

El artículo científico es un texto escrito que informa por primera vez de los resultados
de una investigación, y que es redactado y publicado en una revista científica o journal
siguiendo unas normas muy concretas, aceptadas por la comunidad científica
internacional, cuyo uso asegura la comunicación efectiva de la información científica
en todo el mundo. Robert Day define el artículo científico como: "Un informe escrito y
publicado que describe resultados originales de investigación [...], que debe ser
escrito y publicado de una cierta forma, definida por tres siglos de tradiciones
cambiantes, de práctica editorial, de ética científica y de influencia recíproca de los
procedimientos de impresión y de publicación."

¿Para qué sirve?

Según la UNESCO, la finalidad esencial de un artículo científico es comunicar los


resultados de investigaciones, ideas y debates de una manera
clara, concisa y fidedigna; la publicación es uno de los métodos inherentes al trabajo
científico.
Existen diversos tipos de texto que sirven para la comunicación científica y que
son de gran importancia, además del artículo científico. Se trata de publicaciones
como
¿Quélas comunicaciones
tipos breves,
de publicaciones en que hay?
científicas los temas son similares a los de los
artículos originales pero la información es preliminar o solamente sugerente (su
extensión admite hasta 750 palabras, 10 referencias y 2 tablas, más figuras en la
investigación médica). En Medicina y Medicina Veterinaria se utiliza también el
caso clínico, con una extensión similar a la de los artículos breves, y que puede
ampliarse si incluye más de un solo caso. Los artículos de revisión son
investigaciones realizadas sobre un tema determinado, en el que se reúnen,
analizan y discuten informaciones ya publicadas. Su alcance depende de la
publicación a la que se destina. El autor de un estudio recapitulativo debe tener en
cuenta todos los trabajos publicados que han hecho avanzar el tema. Por último,
el artículo científico es un texto científico primario, es decir, fundamental para el
avance de la Ciencia. Los artículos científicos constan de los siguientes elementos
constitutivos en cuanto a su estructura:

85
Título
Autoría

Resumen analítico
Palabras clave
Introducción
Material y métodos
Resultados
Discusión
Agradecimientos

Referencias
En: bibliográficas
https://parles.upf.edu/llocs/cr/casacd/articlecs.htm

En todas estas publicaciones se utiliza el mismo tipo de lenguaje:


claro, bien estructurado, con tendencia a las frases cortas y al orden lógico (sintaxis
muy sencilla), con mucha terminología, y espíritu de síntesis yde concisión. El
texto es, en general, lingüísticamente demodalizado, es decir, impersonal, sin marcas
del "yo" ni elementos que se puedan entender como subjetivos. Domina el tono de
imparcialidad y de rigurosidad que se espera de las obras científicas.

B-Lea la tapa y la reseña de una revista o journal relacionada con la Medicina


Veterinaria.

86
Journal of Animal Veterinary advances is a peer-reviewed, open-access scientific journal which publishes articles
related to experiments, treatment, analysis, biological elements and other methods of research connected with
veterinary medicine. JAVA started publishing activity in 2002, since that time is updated twice a month, and is
available in online and print formats. The publications are reviewed by Editorial Board in accordance with the
standards and novelty of the subject, while strictly following ethical guidelines.

Subject areas suitable for publication include, but are not limited to the following fields

:: Veterinary science
:: Animal husbandry
:: Animal nutrition
:: Anatomy
:: Biological science
:: Pathology

87
:: Infectious diseases
:: Animal physiology
:: Animal breeding
:: Animal biotechnology
:: Transgenic animal production
:: Animal parasitology
:: Veterinary medicine
:: Animal feed and nutrition
:: Equine

C-Resuma la descripción de la revista.

D-¿Sobre qué temas se publica en esta revista?

E-Ahora, lea la primera página de un artículo. Identifique y marque las partes


(elementos constitutivos). Luego responda:

¿A qué hacen referencia las siguientes palabras?

Elsevier:
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture:
74:
2010:
129-136:
C.F. Machado:
Rule-driven:

88
F-A continuación, escriba el equivalente en español de los artículos y
determine en qué área o materia de la carrera los podría leer.
1) Molecular Characterization of African Swine Fever Viruses from Outbreaks in Peri-
Urban Kampala, Uganda.

2) Comparative Histomorphological Study of Endometrium in Mares.

3) Farm Animal Welfare and Handling in the Tropics: The Ethiopia Case.

89
4) Distribution of Bovine Herpes Virus Type 1 in the Nervous System of
Experimentally-infected Calves.

5) The Future of Cattle Veterinary Practice: Insights from a Qualitative Study.

6) Histomorphological Study of the Lymphoid Tissues of Broiler Chickens.

7) Analysis of Nucleotide Alterations in the E6 Genomic Acuminatum Samples from


Brazil.

8) Effect of Sward Height on Short-Term Intake by Steers Grazing Winter Oat


Pastures.

9) Tissular Distribution of Argentinean Strains of Bovine Herpes Virus Type 4 (BOHV-


in Experimentally-infected Calves.

10) Phytochemical Benefits of Agroresidues as Alternative Nutritive Dietary Resource


for Pig and Poultry Farming.

90
G-Lea los pasos recomendados para realizar una lectura efectiva (de papers)
en el trabajo publicado Guía Práctica de lectura Crítica de Artículos
Científicos Originales en Ciencias de la Salud (Díaz Portillo 2008: 16-24).
Tome nota de los más importantes:

91
INGLÉS TÉCNICO PARA MEDICINA VETERINARIA - 2020

ESTRUCTURA PROTOTÍPICA DEL ARTÍCULO DE INVESTIGACIÓN

A.ORGANIZACIÓN Y FUNCIÓN DE LAS DISTINTAS PARTES


1. A continuación encontrará las partes prototípicas de un paper.
Indique qué descripción le corresponde a cada una (A-L).

Contenido adaptado de texto fuente disponible en:


https://parles.upf.edu/llocs/cr/casacd/articlecs.htm

Abstract o resumen analítico – Agradecimientos – Apéndice – Autoría -


Discusión - Introducción - Líneas de palabras clave - Material y métodos -
Referencias bibliográficas – Resultados - Título

A.

Debe ser corto, no debe exceder las 15 palabras.

Describe el contenido de forma clara y precisa, permite al lector identificar el tema


fácilmente, y a los servicios de información, catalogar y clasificar el material con
exactitud.

B.

En esta sección figuran aquellos que han realizado una contribución intelectual
sustancial y los que por ello deben asumir la responsabilidad del contenido del artículo.

C.

92
Tiene el objetivo de orientar al lector para que pueda identificar el contenido básico del
artículo de forma rápida y precisa. De esta forma el lector puede determinar su nivel de
relevancia y distribuir la información a toda la comunidad internacional de científicos.

El contenido debe expresar de manera clara y breve los objetivos y el alcance del
estudio, los procedimientos básicos, los métodos analíticos y de observación y los
principales hallazgos y conclusiones.

D.

Al final del resumen el autor debe definir de 3 a 10 … que ayuden a la indización


cruzada del artículo

E.

En esta sección debe identificarse nítidamente el problema o cuestión de que trata el


artículo y encuadrarlo en el momento actual, exponiendo brevemente cuáles son los
trabajos más relevantes, y destacando las contribuciones de otros autores al tema
objeto de estudio.

Aquí hay que justificar las razones por las que se ha emprendido el estudio y formular las
hipótesis y los objetivos pertinentes.

Ejemplos de frases comunes para presentar la hipótesis y los objetivos:

 this study + verbo

 The study aimed to + verbo

93
 The purpose of this study was to + verbo

F.

Su contenido debe permitir a cualquier científico especializado en el tema replicar la


investigación, por lo que debe suministrar la base para que puedan ampliar los
resultados o bien para llegar a conclusiones distintas.

Aquí habrá que definir la muestra o grupo de estudio y la intervención por parte de los
investigadores, entre otras cosas.

Se dará solo la referencia de los … que ya son conocidos por la mayor parte de los
científicos, pero sobre los nuevos o los que se hayan modificado sustancialmente, se
explicarán las razones por las cuales se usan y sus limitaciones, si las tuvieran.

Frases comunes utilizadas en esta sección son:

 This study was conducted on + animal/es

 Samples were collected/obtained from + animal/es

94
G.

En esta sección debe presentarse solo la información pertinente a los objetivos del
estudio, los hallazgos deben seguir una secuencia lógica, mencionándose los más
relevantes, incluso aquellos contrarios a las hipótesis; se debe informar con el detalle
suficiente que permita justificar las conclusiones.

H.

El lector debe obtener en este punto respuestas claras y directas sobre si el estudio ha
dado respuesta al problema planteado en la introducción. Habrá que explicar aquí cuál
es la contribución real del artículo, a qué conclusiones se ha llegado y las implicaciones
teórico-prácticas que se pueden inferir del estudio. Además, aquí emergen los nuevos
conocimientos y las hipótesis que deberán ser verificadas en estudios posteriores.

En muchas revistas el capítulo de las conclusiones está incluido en los últimos párrafos
de esta sección.

I.

En este apartado el autor reconoce la cooperación de las personas y de las instituciones


que le han ayudado en sus investigaciones, a los que han revisado el manuscrito del
artículo y a los que han contribuido a la redacción del mismo.

J.

Estas permiten identificar las fuentes originales de las ideas, los conceptos y los métodos,
las técnicas y los resultados que provienen de estudios anteriores, a los que el autor ha
tenido acceso y que de alguna manera le han orientado en su trabajo.

95
K.

En estos apartados podemos incluir toda la información que por su extensión o


configuración no encuadre bien dentro del cuerpo del artículo y que, en cambio, sea
necesaria para su adecuada comprensión.

2. Observe el ‘paper’ e indique cuáles de las secciones anteriores se


han incluido en él. ¿Es posible encontrar dichas secciones observando
sólo los elementos paratextuales?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

B.ESTRUCTURA DEL ‘PAPER’ Y LOS ELEMENTOS


PARATEXTUALES
1. Haga uso de los elementos paratextuales del ‘paper’ e identifique:
A. El nombre del journal o revista científica

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

B. El campo de estudio al que pertenece el estudio

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

C. El año de publicación

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

D. Las páginas donde puede encontrarse este ‘paper’

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

E. El título del ‘paper’

96
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

F. Los autores del trabajo

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

C. IDENTIFICACIÓN DEL ABSTRACT Y DE LA INFORMACIÓN


QUE PRESENTA

1. Identifique qué información se ha incluido en el abstract propuesto


para esta clase a partir de la descripción de abstract del punto A. 1.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6
6
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INGLÉS TÉCNICO PARA MEDICINA VETERIANARIA-2019 2
LÉXICO TÉCNICO Y EL ARTÍCULO DE INVESTIGACIÓN0

FUENTE:

98
CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 16

Qué no se debe hacer

1. No te preocupes si no entiendes una parte o todo el artículo en la primera lectura.


En un principio, el profesor del curso de lectura crítica no espera que entiendas el artículo
completo, sino alguna de las ideas principales.
La literatura científica requiere la familiarización con una serie de conceptos específicos de
cada disciplina y es natural que un sanitario con poca experiencia en investigación no los
domine inicialmente.

99
CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 17

Qué no se debe hacer

2. No trates de entender el artículo palabra por palabra:


No se trata de un libro de texto que hay que estudiar y memorizar. Por otra parte,
con frecuencia no hay nada del artículo que valga la pena guardar en la memoria.
Parafraseando a Yancey en su artículo sobre las 10 reglas para el lector de artículos
científicos:
“Seamos escépticos, existen bastantes probabilidades de que los autores hayan
llegado a conclusiones no válidas en su artículo”.

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 18

Qué no se debe hacer

3. No traduzcas literalmente el artículo:


Muchos profesionales de nuestro entorno sanitario no leen artículos en inglés.
Cuando no les queda mas remedio que hacerlo, tienden a traducir el artículo letra por
letra antes de entenderlo. Esto es engorroso y toma muchísimo tiempo y esfuerzo
innecesario y requiere un conocimiento que muchos no tienen. Además, muchas
veces su frustración tiene que ver más con la dificultad de entender el lenguaje de la
disciplina que con el inglés.

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Pasos recomendados

1. Hojea el artículo.
• Lee los nombres de los autores.
• Mira el año en que fue escrito.
• Interpreta el título del artículo.
• Identifica las secciones en que está dividido.
• Mira las gráficas, figuras, tablas o fotos.
• Mira la bibliografía, si es reciente y relacionada con el tema.

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Pasos recomendados

2. Lee el resumen del artículo.


• Trata de entenderlo lo más posible.
• Identifica el argumento central del artículo.
• Mira sus conclusiones.

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Pasos recomendados

3. Dale una primera leída rápida.


• Marca todos los conceptos y palabras técnicas que no entiendes.
• Al terminar la primera lectura, reflexiona y toma nota sobre lo que entendiste así
como de las dudas que te hayan surgido.

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Pasos recomendados

4. Busca en un diccionario especializado o en páginas web acreditadas los conceptos


que no entendiste.
• No necesariamente tienes que buscar todas las palabras y conceptos que no
entendiste, sino aquellos que tu piensas que son fundamentales paras comprender
y enjuiciar las ideas principales del artículo.

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Pasos recomendados

5. Vuelve a leer por segunda vez el artículo, esta vez detenidamente y conociendo la
terminología científica del tema tratado.
• Toma nota de las preguntas que te vayan surgiendo (las dudas que apuntes es
muy probable que puedan ser errores o deficiencias del artículo).
• Resume las ideas y las principales conclusiones.
• Intenta contestar las preguntas directrices durante la segunda o tercera lectura
del artículo.

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Pasos recomendados

5. Reflexiona con espíritu crítico sobre el artículo leído.


• Pon a prueba la validez del artículo.
• Disecciona con precisión sus partes fundamentales.
• Puedes utilizar las preguntas críticas como guía.

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INGLÉS TÉCNICO PARA MEDICINA VETERINARIA - 2020

EL ARTÍCULO DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Lectura del artículo “A web-based model for simulating whole-


farm beef cattle systems” (Machado et. al. 2010).

1. Título
a. Retome la teoría sobre la frase nominal y la técnica morfológica, semántica y sintáctica
y proponga una posible división del título en unidades más pequeñas.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
b. Elabore una versión en español del título de este artículo de investigación.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

2. Partes del artículo de investigación y las frases o palabras


prototípicas

a. Ordene las partes típicas de un artículo de investigación según aparecen en el paper


de Machado et al ( 2010).

Abstract – Agradecimientos – Apéndice – Autoría - Discusión

Introducción - Líneas de palabras clave - Material y métodos- Referencias

bibliográficas – Resultados – Título

b. ¿Cuáles de las siguientes palabras considera que pueden aparecer en cada sección
del paper? Identifíquelas en este artículo.

performance- stocking rate- research- transference- describe- graph – aim-


interfaces- selected- based on- evaluated- simulation study -replicate- designed-
percentage- estimated- empirical- scenario-handle- target-strategy-development-

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 2

c. ¿En que sección del paper podríamos encontrar las siguientes expresiones?

1. We thank……
2. The main finding in this study….
3. This study was supported by….
4. Data were analyzed….
5. A total of …. were used in experimental treatment.
6. The aim of this study is……..
7. The conclusions are that…..
8. Different components were selected….

d. ESTRATEGIA DE LECTURA: PALABRAS DE ALTA FRECUENCIA

Las palabras de alta frecuencia son aquellas palabras que suelen aparecen en
determinados textos y contextos recurrentemente. En el ámbito de la Medicina
Veterinaria, dentro de las palabras de alta frecuencia se encuentran numerosas
abreviaciones y acrónimos. Por ejemplo, “sp” es la abreviación de “species” en
singular, mientras que “spp” es la abreviación de “species” en plural. Los acrónimos
pueden ser siglas que se pronuncian como una palabra o bien palabras formadas por
partes de otras palabras. Un ejemplo de acrónimo como sigla es: “IFA”: indirect
flourescent antibody (anticuerpo fluorescente indirecto).

Es conveniente estar familiarizado con las palabras frecuentes ya que hacen la


interpretación del texto más efectiva y veloz. Generalmente, Ud encontrará queciertas
siglas y acrónimos aparecen explicitados al comienzo de un paper, con la palabra
completa entre paréntesis o en nota al pié. A partir de ese momento, verá la
abreviación.
e. Con ayuda de diccionarios, glosarios, del listado de palabras de alta frecuencia y del
link a las abreviaciones y acrónimos que se encuentran en el aula virtual, busque en
el texto palabras
CONSEJO: de altao frecuencia,
Use resaltador subraye lasabreviaciones
palabras que sey repiten
acrónimos.
en el Márquelas en el
texto para poder
mismoatexto.
volver Luego
ellas con másbusque y anote su significado.
facilidad.
Ejemplo:
SR : stocking rate: carga ganadera. Se refiere a la cantidad de animales que el
agricultor decide pastar en las tierras.

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 3

3. Luego de leer el artículo de investigación citado, responda las siguientes


preguntas:

a. ¿Cuáles son los objetivos de este artículo?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

b. ¿Qué pasos se llevaron a cabo para realizar la investigación? MATERIALES Y


METODOLOGÍA (número y tipo de muestras, diseño de la investigación,
participantes, equipamiento, estudios, análisis, materiales, variables, información
estadística y acciones desarrolladas por los investigadores. AQUÍ NO SE VUELCAN LOS
RESULTADOS. ESTA SECCION VA EN VERBO PASADO.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

c. ¿A qué conclusión general se llegó? Puede ser más de una. REDACTAR EN FORMADE
ORACIÓN/TEXTO.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………

ACLARACIÓN: Si las ideas no están expresadas con claridad, en forma completa,


con puntuación, ortografía y vocabulario adecuados, no se da por efectiva la
comprensión del texto. Las respuestas que contengan información que no
responda a la consigna se consideran “fuera de tema”. Por ejemplo, si se incluye en
la respuesta sobre la conclusión información de los resultados o de la metodología,
se entiende que el estudiante no distingue entre una y otra partedel paper.

EL ARTICULO DE INVESTIGACION: FOCO EN SECCION DE


MATERIALES Y METODOS.

Debido a las grandes dificultades que presenta la interpretación de esta


sección de los papers en exámenes parciales y finales, hemos elaborado la
presente guía, que consta de una explicación de la información que suele
presentarse y ejemplos de ejercicios realizados por estudiantes de la
facultad de promociones anteriores.

UN POCO DE TEORIA…

La sección de materiales y métodos tiene como propósito informar a la


comunidad científica acerca de la manera en que se ha realizado el estudio
para que quienes deseen replicarlo a futuro encuentren ahí todas las
herramientas.

Ofrecemos a continuación un extracto de un artículo acerca del formato de los


artículos científicos en las Ciencias Veterinarias. En este artículo se hace hincapié
en la información que debe incluir cada sección del paper. Lo siguiente es lo
relacionado a los materiales y métodos:
Diseño: se describe el diseño del experimento (aleatorio, controlado, casos y
controles, ensayo clínico, prospectivo, etc.)

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 5

Población: sobre la que se ha hecho el estudio. Describe el marco de la


muestra y cómo se ha hecho su selección.
Entorno: indica dónde se ha hecho el estudio (hospital veterinario, granja,
fincas, escuela, etc.).
Análisis estadístico: señala los métodos utilizados y cómo se han analizado
los datos.
Disponible en: Rodríguez, Dominga Ernestina; Antúnez, G.; Ramírez, W.; del Pilar Murillo, Guadalupe; Plaza, L.;
Reyes, J.; Alemán, F. Elementos para escribir y publicar un artículo científico en las Ciencias Veterinarias REDVET.
Revista Electrónica de Veterinaria, vol. 17, núm. 4, abril, 2016, pp. 1-11 Veterinaria Organización Málaga, España.

INFORMACION CLAVE: Para escribir efectivamente en el examen parcial o


final acerca de la lectura de esta sección, se deberá incluir información clara
acerca de TODOS los ítems antes mencionados. Para asegurarse de incluir
toda la información necesaria, puede resumir cada una de las subsecciones
de los Materiales y Métodos.

EJERCITACION

1) Lea a continuación la sección de materiales y métodos de un examen


final.

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 7

2) Responda:
¿Encuentra alguna subdivisión?
¿Qué información no sirve para trabajar con materiales y
métodos?

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CAPÍTULO 0 PÁGINA 8

¿Qué es lo más importante de esta sección?

3) Analice la respuesta al punto b del examen de tres estudiantes de la


carrera y determine cuál es la más efectiva.

a-

b-

c-

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4) En base a la teoría y a la ejercitación previa, ensaye su propia respuesta


a la pregunta.
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________
________________________________

PRACTICA EXTRA PARA EL PARCIAL.

LEA EL ARTICULO “SYSTEMIC AND INTESTINAL PORCINE EPIDEMIC


DIARRHEA VIRUS-SPECIFIC ANTIBODY RESPONSE AND
DISTRIBUTION OF ANTIBODY-SECRETING CELLS IN
EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED CONVENTIONAL PIGS”.

A-¿De qué se trata? Título.


B-¿Cuáles son los objetivos del trabajo?
C-¿Qué materiales y metodología se utilizó para llevar a cabo la
investigación? (número y tipo de muestras, diseño de la investigación, participantes,
equipamiento, estudios, análisis, materiales, variables, información estadística y
acciones desarrolladas por los investigadores).
D-¿A qué conclusiones llegaron los autores?

116
Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-020-00880-z

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access

Systemic and intestinal porcine epidemic


diarrhea virus‑specific antibody response
and distribution of antibody‑secreting cells
in experimentally infected conventional pigs
Yuto Suda1,2*  , Ayako Miyazaki2, Kohtaro Miyazawa2, Tomoyuki Shibahara3,4 and Seiichi Ohashi2

Abstract 
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a coronavirus disease characterized by the rapid spread of severe diarrhea among
pigs. PED virus (PEDV) infects and replicates mainly in the epithelial cells of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon.
Serum or mucosal IgA antibody levels have been used to predict both vaccine efficacy and the level of protective
immunity to enteric infectious diseases in individuals or herds. Details of the B-cell immune response upon PEDV
infection, such as the systemic and mucosal PEDV IgA antibody response, the distribution of IgA antibody-secreting
cells (ASCs), and their role in virus clearance are not yet clear. In this experimental infection study, we observed similar
fluctuations in PEDV IgA antibody levels in serum and intestinal contents of the upper and lower jejunum and ileum,
but not fecal samples, over the 4-week experimental course. ASCs that actively secrete PEDV IgA antibody without
in vitro stimulation were distributed mainly in the upper jejunum, whereas memory B cells that showed enhanced
PEDV IgA antibody production upon in vitro stimulation were observed in mesenteric lymph nodes and the ileum.
Our findings will contribute to the development of effective vaccines and diagnostic methods for PEDV.
Keywords:  porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, mucosal immune responses, antibody-secreting cells

Introduction mainly in European and east Asian countries up until


Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an emerging and re- the 1980s. From the 1990s to 2000s, however, the virus
emerging swine disease caused by PED virus (PEDV), was problematic in east Asian countries such as China
a member of the family Coronaviridae, genus Alphac- and Korea, but not in Europe. From 2013, new highly
oronavirus. PED is characterized by the rapid spread of pathogenic PEDV strains that emerged in 2010 in China
acute and severe diarrhea within pig herds. Mortality [4] have spread to North and South American coun-
reaches nearly 100% in suckling piglets at susceptible tries where PED had not reported before [5–8] and re-
seronegative farms [1–3]. With age, however, the sever- emerged in Asian countries [9–12]. A single outbreak of
ity of clinical signs becomes milder and the mortality rate the pathogenic strain has also reported in Ukraine [13].
decreases, although older pigs are still susceptible to viral Approximately 8  million pigs died in the United States
infection. After its appearance in 1974, PED caused losses during the 2013 to 2014 epidemic [14]. PED is now con-
sidered an important emerging and re-emerging diseases
that causes severe economic loss to the swine industry
*Correspondence: suday965@affrc.go.jp [15].
1
Kyushu Research Station, National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH),
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2702 PEDV is transmitted by the fecal–oral routes and rep-
Chuzan, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 891‑0105, Japan licates mainly in the epithelium of the small intestine
Full list of author information is available at the end of the article (especially in the jejunum and ileum) and colon [16].

© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing,
adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and
the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material
in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material
is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the
permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creat​iveco​
mmons​.org/licen​ses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creat​iveco​mmons​.org/publi​cdoma​in/
zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

117
Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 2 of 11

Viral replication causes vacuolization and destruction of Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) at 37  ℃ with 5%
cells, leading to villous atrophy and watery diarrhea [17, ­CO2. The PEDV strain OKN-1/JPN/2013, a Japanese
18]. Although the PEDV genome is often detected in strain in Group II that was isolated from a homogenate
serum from infected suckling and weaned pigs [16, 19– obtained from a diarrheal piglet in 2013 [33], was propa-
21], active viral replication in cells other than intestinal gated in Vero cells in EMEM supplemented with 10 μg/
epithelial cells has yet to be reported in pigs [16, 18]. mL trypsin 1:250 (Gibco, Grand Island, NY, USA) and
For enteric viruses that replicate mainly in intestinal used as a virus inoculum. Pigs were inoculated with a
epithelial cells, locally produced virus-specific IgA anti- dose of 3 × 105 ­TCID50/2 mL/pig at the 9
­ th cell passage.
bodies are the most important function for the primary
adaptive defense at mucosal surfaces [22, 23]. While Study design
serum neutralizing and IgG antibody responses are rarely The animal experiment was approved and performed
correlated with protection against infection and onsets according to the regulations and guidelines of the Animal
of most enteric virus infections [22, 24–26], serum or Ethics Committee of National Institute of Animal Health
mucosal IgA antibody levels have been used to predict (NIAH), National Agriculture and Food Research Organ-
both vaccine efficacy and the immune status of individ- ization (NARO) ([18-078] and [18-088]). A total of 24
uals or herds against enteric infectious diseases such as PEDV seronegative 4-week-old pigs were used; 16 were
rotavirus infection [25]. However, despite the wide use orally inoculated with PEDV OKN-1/JPN/2013 and the
of serum PEDV IgA antibody testing to assess infection other eight were used as negative controls. Fecal samples
and vaccine immunity against PEDV [27, 28], few stud- were collected directly from the rectum of each pig every
ies have investigated the relationship between serum and day from 0 to 5  days post-inoculation (dpi) and twice a
intestinal PEDV antibody responses. week from 7 to 28 dpi for quantification of viral RNA by
The mucosal immune system is unique in that it reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-
includes both induction sites such as Peyer’s patches and PCR) and antibody detection.
mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), where naïve B cells are Virus-inoculated pigs were euthanized at 2, 7, 14 and
activated and differentiate into antibody-secreting cells 28  dpi (n = 4 each dpi). The small intestine (upper jeju-
(ASCs) and memory B cells, and effector sites such as num and ileum), spleen, MLNs, and blood were col-
the lamina propria of the small intestine, to which ASCs lected for the isolation of mononuclear cells (MNCs).
migrate and secrete antibodies to induce immune-exclu- Serum and small intestinal contents (SICs) of the upper
sion at the mucosal surface [22, 29–31]. The elucidation and lower jejunum and ileum were collected for antibody
of not only antibody levels in serum and body fluids but detection at necropsy. Among the eight control pigs, four
also the distribution of ASCs is therefore fundamental to were sacrificed for the isolation and analysis of MNCs.
understanding the intestinal immune system for vaccine SICs were only available from six of the eight pigs in the
development and improvement. The distribution of ASCs control group because the small intestine was empty in
in systemic and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of the other two control pigs. After making a 20% suspen-
PEDV-infected pigs has been evaluated [32]. However, sion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and centrifuging
the relationship between PEDV antibody levels in serum at 2000 × g for 15 min, the supernatants were collected
and those in intestinal contents remains unclear. Further, and stored at − 80  ℃ until RNA extraction (fecal sam-
details of the distribution of PEDV-specific ASCs and ples) and antibody detection (fecal and SIC samples).
their antibody production in the small intestine are also
unclear. qRT‑PCR for PEDV nucleocapsid gene
Here, we analyzed the kinetics of antibody responses RNA was extracted from 250 µL of the 20% fecal suspen-
to PEDV in serum and intestinal contents in an experi- sion using ISOGEN-LS (Nippon Gene, Tokyo, Japan)
mental PEDV infection study of 4-week-old pigs. We according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA was

TB Green™ PrimeScript™ PLUS RT-PCR Kit (Perfect


further investigated the distribution of PEDV-specific reverse transcribed and amplified using a One Step
ASCs in the upper and lower jejunum and ileum as well
as in blood and spleen to understand the local immune Real Time) (Takara Bio, Shiga, Japan) and an ABI 7500
responses in PEDV-infected pigs. Fast Real-Time PCR System (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The primers
Materials and methods used for qRT-PCR were as follows; forward: 5′-GAA​TTC​
Cells and viruses CCA​AGG​GCG​AAA​AT-3′ and reverse: 5′-TTT​TCG​ACA​
Vero cells were cultured in Eagle’s minimum essential AAT​TCC​GCA​TCT-3′ [34]. Viral RNA standards with
medium (EMEM, Nissui Pharmaceutical, Tokyo, Japan) known titers were used for quantification. The detection
supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS, Thermo limit was determined to be 6000 genome copies/g.

118
Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 3 of 11

Indirect ELISA for PEDV‑specific IgG and IgA antibody Isolation of MNCs


detection MNCs were isolated from the blood, spleen, MLNs, and
The lysate of OKN-1/JPN/2013 or mock-inoculated lamina propria of the small intestine (upper jejunum and
Vero cells was prepared as a virus or control antigen ileum) as described previously [32, 35, 36] with some
for indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay modification. Blood was aseptically collected into tubes
(ELISA), respectively. Vero cells (4 × 10 6 cells) were containing EDTA 2Na (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan). Periph-
inoculated with PEDV at an MOI of 1. After 24  h eral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated
post-inoculation, the cells were lysed in 1  mL of 1% from 4  mL of blood by density gradient centrifugation
Triton X-100 (Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan) in PBS using 60% Percoll (GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA).
on ice for 30  min. Supernatants of the cell lysate PBMCs collected from the interface were washed twice
were collected after centrifugation at 2000  ×  g for with PBS and resuspended in RPMI-1640 (Nissui Phar-
10  min to remove cell debris and used as the virus maceutical) containing 10% FBS and antibiotics: 100 μg/
ELISA antigen. The control antigen was prepared mL kanamycin (Wako Pure Chemical Corporation,
in the same manner using mock-inoculated cells. Osaka, Japan) and 50 μg/mL gentamycin (Wako).
The microwell plates (Maxisorp, Thermo Fisher Pig spleens and MLNs were collected and placed in ice-
Scientific) were coated using the virus and control cold wash buffer (RPMI-1640 containing antibiotics and
antigens, which were diluted to 1:2000 with coat- HEPES (Wako); 10  mM). Spleens and MLNs were dis-
ing buffer (15  mM N ­ a 2CO 3 and 35  mM N ­ aHCO 3), sociated by pressing the tissues through a stainless-steel
overnight at 4 ℃. Lysates were not treated to remove mesh. The cell suspensions were washed and centrifuged
Triton X-100 prior to use for coating plates. Virus at 800 × g for 20 min at 4 ℃. After removing cell debris
or control antigen-coated plates were treated by gradient centrifugation in 33% Percoll at 1800 × g for
with blocking solution containing 5% skim milk 20  min at 4  ℃, MNCs were collected. MNCs were fur-
(Morinaga, Tokyo, Japan) in PBS containing 0.1% ther enriched by additional collection at the interface fol-
Tween 20 (PBS-T) for 1  h at 37  ℃. Serum samples, lowing gradient centrifugation in 43% and 70% Percoll at
20% fecal suspension, and 20% SIC suspension were 1800  ×  g for 20  min at 4  ℃. After a washing step with
diluted 1:100, 1:2 and 1:16, respectively with PBS-T PBS, the MNCs were resuspended in RPMI-1640 con-
containing 5% skim milk and added to pairs of wells taining 10% FBS and antibiotics, and the cell concentra-
containing virus or control antigen. The plates were tion was adjusted to 1 × 107 cells/mL.
incubated for 1  h at 37  ℃ for serum, or overnight at Small intestinal fragments (upper jejunum and ileum)
4 ℃ for fecal samples and SICs. of approximately 20  cm were collected aseptically and
After a washing step with PBS-T, horseradish perox- placed in ice-cold wash buffer. Peyer’s patches were not
idase-conjugated secondary antibodies against porcine removed for isolation of MNCs. The intestinal fragments
IgG or IgA (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA) were added were transferred to 40  mL of Hank’s balanced salt solu-
to each well, and the plates were incubated for 1  h at tion without calcium and magnesium (Wako) but con-
37  ℃. The reaction was visualized by adding ABTS taining 40  mM HEPES, 5  mM EDTA (Wako), 1  mM
(2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic DTT (Wako), 0.28% N ­ aHCO3 (Wako) and antibiotics,
acid)) substrate solution (Roche, Basel, Switzerland) and shaken at 190 rpm for 25 min at 37 ℃. The fragments
to each well after a washing step. Optical density (OD) were then washed and cut into small pieces. The pieces
values were measured using an Infinite F50R absorb- were suspended in 40 mL of RPMI-1640 containing anti-
ance microplate reader (TECAN, Männedorf, Zürich, biotics, 20  mM HEPES, 5  mM EDTA, 1  mM DTT, and
Switzerland). Antibody levels are expressed as sample- 0.11% of type II collagenase (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
to-positive (S/P) ratios: S/P ratio = ((OD value of sam- and shaken at 190 rpm for 25 min at 37 ℃. Supernatants
ple in viral antigen well − OD value of sample in control containing MNCs were collected, and the remaining tis-
antigen well)/(OD value of positive control sera in viral sues were pressed through a stainless-steel mesh for col-
antigen well − OD value of positive control sera in con- lection of additional MNCs. After removing cell debris
trol antigen well)). Positive control sera for detecting by gradient centrifugation in 33% Percoll at 1800 × g for
specific IgG and IgA antibodies were obtained from 20  min at 4  ℃, the MNCs were collected. MNCs were
a sow that had been experimentally inoculated with further enriched by collection from the interface follow-
PEDV OKN-1/JPN/2013. Cut-off values were deter- ing gradient centrifugation in 43% and 70% Percoll at
mined to be the mean + three standard deviations of 1800  ×  g for 20  min at 4  ℃. After a washing step with
S/P ratios of serum and fecal samples collected from PBS, the MNCs were resuspended in RPMI-1640 con-
virus-inoculated pigs at 0  dpi or those collected from taining 10% FBS and antibiotics, and the cell concentra-
control pigs. tion was adjusted to 1 × 107 cells/mL.

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Culture and in vitro stimulation of MNCs RNA peaked at around 2 to 5 dpi, and all inoculated pigs
MNCs isolated from blood and each tissue were sus- shed the virus (Figure  1). All 16 inoculated pigs recov-
pended at 5 × 106  cells/500  µL/well and cultured in ered from the clinical signs, and the amount of detectable
RPMI-1640 containing 10% FBS and antibiotics with or fecal PEDV RNA started to decrease after 7 dpi. The per-
without 1 μg/mL R848 (resiquimod) (AdipoGen Life Sci- centage of pigs that shed PEDV in feces also dropped off
ences, San Diego, CA, USA), which induces polyclonal to 50% (4/8) at 11 dpi, 75% (6/8) at 14 dpi, and 25% (1/4)
activation of memory B cells [37]. Cells were added to at 18 dpi and 21 dpi. Viral RNA could not be detected in
each well of 24-well culture plates and incubated at 37 ℃ feces after 25 dpi (Figure 1).
for 4  days in a 5% ­CO2 incubator. Cell culture superna-
tants were collected and analyzed for specific IgA and S/P ratios of serum IgG and IgA and fecal IgA antibody
IgG antibodies by indirect PEDV ELISA. against PEDV
Along with the diminished clinical signs and drop in
Statistical analyses fecal viral RNA shedding (decrease in both the number
One-tailed Student’s t-test, Dunnett’s test, or Tukey’s test of copies of the viral RNA and the percentage of positive
were used to compare the differences in specific IgA or pigs), PEDV IgG antibody was detected in the serum of
IgG antibody S/P ratios among the different time points 66.7% (8/12) of inoculated pigs at 7 dpi. The S/P ratio of
or different organs. p-values of p < 0.10, p < 0.05, and PEDV IgG antibody was significantly increased at 14 dpi
p < 0.01 were considered to be suggestive, significant, and compared to that at 0  dpi, and peaked at 28  dpi (Fig-
highly significant, respectively, for all comparisons. Sta- ure 2A). The correlation coefficient between the S/P ratio
tistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel of serum PEDV IgG antibody and fecal virus shedding
and R. Correlation coefficients (r) between viral RNA load was r = − 0.993 (p < 0.001). The PEDV IgA antibody
copies (log copies/g) and antibody S/P ratios were calcu- S/P ratio showed a similar trend to that of the PEDV IgG
lated using Microsoft Excel. Viral RNA copy data from 0 antibody S/P ratio: PEDV IgA antibody was detected in
dpi were omitted as they were not related to a decrease in the serum of 58.3% (7/12) of inoculated pigs at 7 dpi, and
viral shedding. its S/P ratio peaked at 14 dpi and remained at the same
level until the end of the study (28 dpi) (Figure 2B). The
Results correlation coefficient between the S/P ratio of serum
Clinical signs and fecal viral shedding IgA and fecal viral load was r = − 0.952 (p = 0.012).
All 16 virus-inoculated pigs developed clinical signs such Although PEDV antibodies were detected in serum
as decreased or complete loss of appetite, vomiting, and/ from all inoculated pigs at high S/P ratios after 14  dpi,
or soft-to-watery feces from 1 to 7 dpi. At the same time they were only detected in the feces of 37.5% (3/8), 50%
that clinical signs were observed, fecal shedding of PEDV (2/4), and 100% (4/4) of inoculated pigs at 14, 21, and

11

10

9
Log copies /g

3
0 1 2 3 4 5 7 11 14 18 21 25 28
Day post inoculation
Figure 1  Fecal shedding of PEDV RNA in inoculated pigs determined by qRT-PCR. PEDV-seronegative 4-week-old pigs were orally inoculated
with PEDV strain OKN-1/JPN/2013. Fecal samples were serially collected, and PEDV RNA was detected and quantified by qRT-PCR.

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A Serum IgG B Serum IgA


2.5 0.7
** **
2 ** 0.6
**
** 0.5

1.5 ** 0.4
S/P

S/P
0.3
1

0.2
0.5
0.1

0 0
0 2 7 14 21 28 0 2 7 14 21 28
Day post inoculation Day post inoculation

C Fecal IgA
0.12

**
0.1

0.08
S/P

0.06
*

0.04

0.02

0
0 2 7 14 21 28
Day post inoculation
Figure 2  S/P ratios of PEDV IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and fecal samples serially collected from pigs inoculated with PEDV.
Antibodies to PEDV in collected serum samples were detected by IgG (A) and IgA (B) ELISAs. Antibodies to PEDV in collected fecal samples were
detected by IgA ELISA (C). *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 (significant and highly significant, respectively) determined using Dunnett’s test. Cut-off values
were the mean + three standard deviations of sample values at 0 dpi in infected pigs and negative controls. Solid line: PEDV-inoculated group.
Dotted line: cut-off value.

28  dpi, respectively. The fecal S/P ratios of PEDV IgA 28  dpi (Figure  3), with higher S/P ratios at 14  dpi than
antibodies were lower than those in serum (Figure 2B, C). 28 dpi, which coincided with the decrease in viral shed-
In contrast, the S/P ratios of PEDV IgG and IgA antibod- ding (Figure 1). The correlation coefficients between the
ies from control pigs were below the cut-off value in both PEDV IgA antibody S/P ratio in SICs of the upper jeju-
the serum and fecal samples throughout the study. num, lower jejunum, and ileum and the number viral
copies shed in fecal samples were r = − 0.932 (p = 0.068),
Comparison of S/P ratios of PEDV IgA antibody in the SICs r = −  0.986 (p  =  0.014) and r = −  0.975 (p  = 0.025),
of the upper and lower jejunum, and ileum respectively. The PEDV IgA antibody S/P ratio in the
PEDV IgA antibodies were detected in the SICs of the SICs of the upper jejunum was significantly higher than
upper jejunum, lower jejunum, and ileum at 14 and that in SICs of the lower jejunum and ileum at 28  dpi,

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Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 6 of 11

2

1.8 **
1.6

1.4
Upper jejunum
1.2
Lower jejunum
S/P

1
Ileum
0.8 *
** **
0.6
* *

0.4

0.2

0
control 2dpi 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi

Figure 3  S/P ratios of PEDV IgA antibody in SICs. SICs in the upper jejunum, lower jejunum and ileum were collected at 2, 7, 14, and 28 dpi
from pigs inoculated with PEDV. The IgA ELISA was used to detect antibodies to PEDV in SICs collected from the upper jejunum, lower jejunum,
and ileum. *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 (significant and highly significant differences between control and inoculated pigs euthanized at the indicated
times, respectively) determined using Dunnett’s test. ‡p < 0.05 (significant difference among tissues) determined using Tukey’s test. Black bar: upper
jejunum. Gray bar: lower jejunum. Open bar: ileum.

although no significant difference was observed among antibody from MNCs from the blood, spleen, and MLNs
these sites at 14 dpi (Figure 3). of PEDV-inoculated pigs was significantly increased at
28  dpi compared to that of control pigs (Figure  5). No
PEDV IgG antibody secretion was observed from MNCs
Distribution of MNCs which actively produce PEDV IgA
from the upper jejunum and ileum of PEDV-inoculated
antibody
pigs throughout the experimental period (data not
To understand the systemic and intestinal distributions
shown).
of PEDV IgG and IgA ASCs, we analyzed PEDV IgA and
IgG antibody levels in the culture supernatants of MNCs
isolated from systemic (blood and spleen) and mucosal
Distribution of memory/resting B cells that can produce
(MLNs, upper jejunum and ileum) tissues without
PEDV IgA or IgG antibodies upon in vitro stimulation
in  vitro stimulation (Figure  4). PEDV IgA antibody was
detected in the supernatants of MNCs isolated from the To investigate the distribution of memory/resting B
blood and spleen of PEDV-inoculated pigs euthanized at cells, we stimulated isolated MNCs in  vitro with R848,
7  dpi. At 28  dpi, PEDV IgA antibody levels from PEDV a TLR7/8 agonist that is known to stimulate polyclonal
inoculated pigs were significantly higher than those from activation of memory B cells and induce antibody secre-
control pigs (Figure  4A, B). Similarly, PEDV IgA anti- tion [37]. In vitro stimulation had no effect on PEDV IgA
body was detected in the supernatants of MNCs iso- and IgG antibody secretion by MNCs isolated from pigs
lated from the upper jejunum of PEDV-inoculated pigs in the control group (Figures 4, 5).
euthanized as early as 7  dpi. PEDV IgA antibody levels In contrast, in vitro stimulation of MNCs from PEDV-
were significantly enhanced in PEDV-inoculated pigs inoculated pigs significantly enhanced PEDV-specific IgA
compared to control pigs at 14 dpi (Figure 4D), concur- antibody secretion from MLNs at 28 dpi and the ileum
rently with the rise in the PEDV IgA antibody S/P ratio in at 7 dpi, and showed a trend towards enhancing secre-
SICs (Figure 3). A similar trend was observed for PEDV tion from the ileum at 28 dpi (p = 0.057), compared to
IgA antibody levels in the supernatants of MNCs from no stimulation (Figure  4). These findings suggest that
MLNs and the ileum, although no significant differences memory/resting B cells, which can produce PEDV IgA
were observed between inoculated and control pigs (Fig- antibodies upon antigen stimulation, were present in the
ure 4C, E). MLNs and ileum of PEDV-inoculated animals. In  vitro
Although PEDV IgG antibody was detected as early stimulation did not significantly enhance PEDV IgA
as 14  dpi in serum (Figure  2A), secretion of PEDV IgG antibody secretion from MNCs isolated from the blood,

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Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 7 of 11

A Blood MNCs B Spleen MNCs


1.2 0.6

1 0.5
*
0.8 0.4

Without in vitro stimulation


*
S/P

0.6

S/P
0.3

With in vitro stimulation


0.4 0.2

0.2 0.1

0 0
control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi

C MLN MNCs D Upper jejunum MNCs E Ileum MNCs


*
0.9
0.18
* 0.14 †
0.8
0.16
0.12
0.7
0.14
0.6 0.1
0.12
0.5 0.08
0.1
S/P

S/P

S/P
0.4
0.08 0.06
0.3
0.06
0.2
0.04
0.04
**
0.1 0.02
0.02
0
control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi 0 0
control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi
Figure 4  S/P ratios of PEDV IgA antibody in culture supernatants of MNCs isolated from the blood, spleen, MLN, upper jejunum and
ileum of PEDV-inoculated pigs, with or without in vitro stimulation. MNCs were isolated from the blood (A), spleen (B), MLN (C), upper
jejunum (D) and ileum (E) of PEDV-inoculated pigs. The MNCs were cultured for 4 days to evaluate the responses of specific ASCs. In the other wells,
the MNCs were cultured with R848 for 4 days for stimulation of memory B cells. Cell supernatants were collected and PEDV-specific antibodies in
the supernatants were detected by an IgA ELISA. *p < 0.05 vs. unstimulated group, by Dunnett’s test. †p < 0.1, *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 (suggestive,
significant, and highly significant differences, respectively) for unstimulated vs. stimulated groups, by one-tailed Student’s t-test. Black bar: without
in vitro stimulation. Open bar: with in vitro stimulation.

spleen, or jejunum of PEDV-inoculated pigs compared to developed vaccines are available, many swine farmers
no stimulation (Figure 4A, B, D). choose to implement “controlled exposure”, in which ani-
In vitro stimulation significantly increased the secre- mals are fed infectious PEDV contained in feces and/or
tion of PEDV IgG antibodies from blood MNCs of PEDV- intestinal homogenates from infected animals, to manage
inoculated pigs euthanized at 14 and 28 dpi compared PED at their farms [38]. Understanding the mechanisms
to no stimulation (Figure  5A), suggesting that memory/ of antibody-mediated protection during PEDV infec-
resting B cells which can produce PEDV IgG antibodies tion is fundamental to the development of a better vac-
upon antigen stimulation were circulating in the blood at cine against PED. Here, we elucidated the systemic and
28 dpi. No effect of in  vitro stimulation was evident on intestinal IgA and IgG antibody responses and the distri-
PEDV IgG antibody secretion by MNCs isolated from the bution of IgA and IgG ASCs and memory B cells against
spleen (Figure 5B), MLNs (Figure 5C), or upper jejunum PEDV in experimentally inoculated pigs over the course
and ileum throughout the experiment (data not shown). of 4 weeks.
Antibody levels in serum and/or fecal samples from
Discussion infected animals are typically monitored to understand
PED emerged or re-emerged globally in 2013–2015 and the humoral immune response, which plays a pivotal role
caused devastating economic losses to the pork indus- in virus clearance and protection against subsequent re-
try. While, inactivated, live-attenuated, and other newly infection. The present study showed that, at the same

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Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 8 of 11

Spleen MNCs
A Blood MNCs B
1.6 * 0.35

1.4
*
0.3

1.2
0.25
1
0.2
S/P

S/P
0.8
0.15
0.6
* ** 0.1
0.4

0.2 0.05

0 0
control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi

C MLN MNCs
1.6
*
1.4 Without in vitro stimulation
1.2
With in vitro stimulation
1
S/P

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
control 7dpi 14dpi 28dpi
Figure 5  S/P ratios of PEDV IgG antibody in culture supernatants of MNCs isolated from the blood, spleen and MLN of PEDV-inoculated
pigs, with or without in vitro stimulation. MNCs were isolated from the blood (A), spleen (B) and MLN (C) of PEDV inoculated pigs. MNCs were
cultured for 4 days to evaluate the responses of specific ASCs. In the other wells, the MNCs were cultured with R848 for 4 days for the stimulation of
memory B cells. Cell supernatants were collected, and PEDV-specific antibodies in the supernatants were detected by an IgG ELISA. *p < 0.05 and
**p < 0.01 vs. the unstimulated group (significant and highly significant differences, respectively) by Dunnett’s test. *p < 0.05 for unstimulated vs.
stimulated groups, by one-tailed Student’s t-test. Black bar: without in vitro stimulation. Open bar: with in vitro stimulation.

time that they were showing recovery from clinical signs levels in fecal samples were reported by Gerber et al. [28].
and a decrease in virus shedding, more than half of the 16 Although fecal sample collection has the advantage over
virus-inoculated pigs had detectable PEDV IgA and IgG serum sample collection of being noninvasive and easy
antibodies in their serum at 7 dpi. IgA and IgG antibody to perform at any time by animal caretakers, the findings
S/P ratios significantly increased after 14 dpi until 28 dpi obtained in the present study and by other groups sug-
in all inoculated pigs compared to control pigs (Figure 2). gest that, compared to fecal samples, serum samples may
Similar results have been described by other research provide more precise data regarding immune response.
groups [39–41]. We next investigated whether PEDV antibody
In contrast, PEDV IgA antibody was detected in fecal responses in serum reflect those in the small intestine. In
samples from less than half of the pigs until 14 dpi. While an experimental infection study, Tô et  al. reported that
PEDV IgA antibody was detectable in all inoculated pigs the serum rotavirus IgA antibody level may serve as an
at 28  dpi, levels were lower than those in serum and indicator of the rotavirus IgA antibody level in the intes-
SICs (Figures 2B, 3). Similarly, lower PEDV IgA antibody tine of gnotobiotic pigs [25]. Similar to their findings, we

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Suda et al. Vet Res (2021) 52:2 Page 9 of 11

observed fluctuations in PEDV IgA antibody levels in Because B-cell responses can vary depending on the
contents from the upper and lower jejunum and ileum dose and virus proteins used for stimulation [32, 51], we
that were similar to the fluctuations in serum: IgA anti- hypothesized that in  vitro stimulation with R848 may
body levels in SICs started to increase from 7–14  dpi provide a clearer picture of memory B-cell responses to
and peaked at 28 dpi, when the highest IgA antibody PEDV than stimulation with recombinant proteins or
level was observed in upper jejunal contents (Figure  3). partially purified viruses.
The correlation coefficients between the S/P ratio of the Overall, compared with no stimulation, in vitro stimu-
upper jejunum, lower jejunum, and ileum IgA and serum lation with R848 significantly enhanced PEDV IgA anti-
IgA were r = 0.837 (p = 0.077), r = 0.934 (p = 0.020) and body secretion from MNCs isolated from MLNs at 28 dpi
r = 0.910 (p = 0.032), respectively. Furthermore, the cor- and the ileum significantly at 7 dpi, and showed a trend
relation coefficients between the S/P ratio of the upper towards enhancing secretion from MNCs from the ileum
jejunum, lower jejunum, and ileum IgA and serum IgG at 28 dpi, the intestinal secondary lymphoid organ where
were r  = 0.955 (p = 0.011), r = 0.997 (p < 0.001) and naïve B-cell activation and differentiation take place
r = 0.991 (p = 0.001), respectively. These findings suggest (Figure  4). However, in  vitro R848 stimulation did not
that, at least during the 4-week period following PEDV enhance IgA antibody secretion from MNCs in the jeju-
inoculation, PEDV IgA and IgG antibody levels in serum num, where active production of the IgA antibody was
may well reflect levels in the SICs. observed without stimulation. These findings demon-
Intestinal IgA antibodies are typically produced by strate the importance of MLNs and the ileum as induc-
plasma cells in the lamina propria and secreted into the tive sites and the jejunum as an effective site of adaptive
gut lumen through cell-translocation via binding with humoral immunity to PEDV infection.
polymeric immunoglobulin receptors [42]. To eluci- Active production of PEDV IgA and IgG antibodies
date the distribution and antibody-producing levels of was also observed in culture supernatants of MNCs iso-
PEDV ASCs, we analyzed antibody levels in the culture lated from the blood and spleen of PEDV-inoculated pigs
supernatant of MNCs isolated from blood and tissues (Figure 4). Similarly, an earlier study also detected PEDV
using ELISA. However, we did not determine the num- IgA and IgG ASCs in both systemic and intestinal tissues
ber of ASCs using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELIS- [32]. Possible explanations for this observation are that
POT) assay, as was done in a previous PEDV study [27, B cells that become activated and differentiated follow-
32, 35] and enteric virus studies [43, 44]. The decision to ing activation by the virus are transported from the gut
use ELISA but not ELISPOT was based on reports that to the blood and other secondary lymphoid organs prior
antibody levels in culture supernatants of MNCs meas- to antibody secretion [52], and/or B cells are activated in
ured by ELISA or another method correlate well with the systemic secondary lymphoid tissues by PEDV antigens
number of ASCs determined by ELISPOT in analyses of in systemic circulation [18, 53]. We observed lower IgA
mucosal immune responses [45, 46]. In our present study, antibody levels in the culture supernatants of MNCs iso-
ASCs showing active production of PEDV IgA antibody lated from intestinal tissues than those from blood and
without in vitro stimulation were identified in the upper spleen (Figure  3). This observation may be ascribable to
jejunum but not in the ileum or MLNs of PEDV-inocu- the lower frequencies of B cells in intestinal tissues than
lated pigs euthanized at 14 dpi, which coincided with the in blood and spleen, as reported by Pasternak et al. [54].
significant increase in PEDV IgA antibody levels in upper However, further studies are required to clarify these
jejunum contents (Figures  3, 4). Considering together phenomena.
with previous findings that IgA-positive cell numbers In conclusion, we elucidated the kinetics of PEDV IgA
were higher in the upper than lower small intestine in and IgG antibody secretion and the distribution of ASCs
pigs [47], these findings may indicate that the upper jeju- in systemic and mucosal tissues. To our knowledge, this
num is the major site of intestinal IgA production and is the first report to investigate PEDV IgA antibody levels
secretion upon PEDV infection. in various parts of the small intestine and to demonstrate
Memory B cells play important roles in the protec- the inductive and effective sites of the adaptive immune
tion of individual animals from subsequent re-infection. response in PEDV infection in young piglets in an experi-
We thus further analyzed the distribution of memory B mental setting. Our findings will contribute to the under-
cells in PEDV-inoculated pigs by examining the level of standing of immunity against enteric virus infection
antibodies produced by MNCs isolated from blood and and the development of a more effective vaccine against
each tissue following in vitro stimulation. We stimulated PEDV.
isolated MNCs with the TLR7/8 agonist R848, which
Acknowledgements
induces polyclonal memory B-cell expansion and anti- We thank S. Okano, T. Bohda, N. Okada, K. Nakajima, S. Yokotsuka, M. Tsukada,
body production without a specific antigen [37, 48–50]. A. Yoshitake, H. Ohta and K. Tsubomi (NARO) for assisting with animal care;

125
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