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Chapter 4

Explicit Dynamics Basics

ANSYS Explicit Dynamics

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI Training Manual

Menus
Toolbars

Graphics Window

Tree Outline

Details View Message Window

Status Bar

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Menus Training Manual

• The menus provide much of the functionality present in Explicit Dynamics.


The more commonly used menu items are covered below:
– The title bar lists analysis type, product and active ANSYS license.

– “File > Clean” to delete mesh and / or results from database.

– “Units” to change units on-the-fly.

– “Tools > Options… ” to customize settings and options.

– “Help > Mechanical Help” to access documentation.


Analysis Type Product License

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Toolbars Training Manual

• Toolbars provide quick access to functionality.

– Toolbars can be repositioned anywhere on the top of the Mechanical window.

– The “Context” toolbar updates depending on what branch is active in the


“Outline” tree.
• Offers options similar to those available by RMB on the active branch

– Tooltips appear if the cursor is placed over a toolbar button.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Toolbars Training Manual

• “Standard” toolbar
Bring up Mechanical Wizard
(Not available for Explicit Dynamics) Annotations Comments

Capture Snapshot

Solve Model Slice Planes

• “Graphics” toolbar
– used for selection and graphics manipulation:

Select mode Viewports


Selection Tools Graphics Manipulation

– The left mouse button can be either in “selection” mode or “graphics


manipulation” mode. The above toolbar buttons are grouped as “select
entities” and “graphics manipulation” control.
– The graphics selection can be done using individual selection or box-selection.
This is controlled by the “Select Mode” icon.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Outline Tree Training Manual

• The Outline Tree provides an easy way of


organizing the model, materials, mesh,
loads, and results for the analysis.
– The “Model” branch contains the input
data required for the analysis

– The “Explicit Dynamics” branch contains


the initial conditions, loads, supports and
analysis settings required to run the
analysis.

– The “Solution” branch contains result


objects and solution information

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Outline Tree Training Manual

• The Outline Tree shows icons for each branch, along with a status
symbol. Examples of the status symbols are below:

– Checkmark indicates branch is fully defined / OK


– Question mark indicates item has incomplete data (need input)
– Lightning bolt indicates solving is required
– Exclamation mark means a problem exists
– “X” means item is suppressed (will not be solved)
– Transparent checkmark means body or part is hidden
– Green lightning bolt indicates item is currently being evaluated
– Minus sign means that mapped face meshing failed
– Check mark with a slash indicates a meshed part / body
– Red lightning bolt indicates a failed solution

• Becoming familiar with these basic status symbols lets you debug
Mechanical problems quickly.
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Details View Training Manual

• The Details View contains data input and


output fields. The contents will change
depending on the branch selected.

– White field: input data


• Data in white text field is editable

– Gray (or Red) field: information


• Data in gray fields cannot be modified.

– Yellow field: incomplete input data


• Data in yellow fields indicates missing
information.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics (Mechanical) GUI : Graphics Window Training Manual

• The Graphics Window shows the geometry and results. It can also provide
worksheet (tabular) listings, the HTML report, and a Print Preview option.

Geometry Tab Print Preview Tab

Worksheet Tab Report Preview Tab

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Geometry Training Manual

• Explicit Dynamics supports Solid,


Surface and Line bodies.
• Check that all geometric bodies
have been imported
– Line bodies are not imported by
default. If line bodies are not
shown in the tree, select Tools >
Options > Geometry Import in the
Workbench project window and
check the “Line Bodies” box

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Geometry Training Manual

• Geometry
– Solid, Surface and Line bodies
• Check that the imported material
assignment for each body is correct

• By default a linear “Structural Steel” is


assigned.

• Use RMB to assign a different material

– Surface bodies
• Specify the Thickness
– (the Thickness mode and Offset type
fields for surface bodies are not
supported for Explicit Dynamics
systems)

– Line bodies
• Only symmetric cross-sections are
supported

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Stiffness Behavior Training Manual

• Stiffness Behavior
– Flexible
• Can be assigned to any body type.

– Rigid
• Can only be assigned to Solid and Surface bodies.
• Only the density of the rigid body is used.
– Mass and inertia is derived from the density of all
elements
• Rigid bodies must be discretized with a Full Mesh.
– This is the default for the explicit meshing physics
preference
• Kinematic rigid body motion depends on the resultant
forces and moments applied through interaction with
other parts of the model
• Constraints can only be applied to an entire rigid body.
– e.g. a fixed displacement cannot be applied to one
edge of a rigid body, it must be applied to the whole
body
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Coordinate Systems Training Manual

• Co-ordinate Systems
– Local Cartesian co-ordinate systems can be
assigned to bodies.
• Used to define the material directions when using
the Orthotropic Elasticity property in a material
definition.

• Can also used to perform mesh refinements


• Material directions 1, 2, 3 are aligned with the local
x, y and z axes of the local co-ordinate system.

– Cylindrical co-ordinate systems are not supported


for Explicit Dynamics systems.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Connections - Body Interactions Training Manual

• The Body Interactions folder, under Connections, is


used to define global connection options for Explicit
Dynamics
– Two options for Contact Detection
• Trajectory (default)
• Proximity Based

– Four options for the Type of Body Interaction


• Bonded (joined)
• Frictionless (sliding contact)
• Frictional (sliding contact)
• Reinforcement (for embedded beams)

• A default Frictionless interaction, using Trajectory


Contact detection, is scoped to all bodies.
– Activates frictionless contact between any external
node and face in the entire model that may come into
contact during the simulation.
• Safe, but may be relatively inefficient

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Connections - Contact Region Training Manual

• By default, if two faces of


any Bodies are touching,
or within a certain Automatically
generated
tolerance, a bonded bonded
Contact Region will be contact

scoped automatically to
the two faces
– The tolerance can be
changed in Details of
“Connections”
– AutoDetection can be turned
Off in Options if you wish
• By default it is On

• Always check the Objects


automatically generated
under Connections to
make sure they are what
you need
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Mesh Training Manual

• To generate the best meshes for


Explicit Dynamics:
– Select Explicit for the Physical
preference
• Sets the preferred defaults to
generate a mesh for an explicit
analysis
– Open Meshing Options panel
and select Automatic (Patch
Conforming/Sweeping) for the
default Mesh method
• Ensures that hex elements are
generated automatically when a
body can be “swept”
• But not the best method if a
tetrahedron mesh is generated
– Override the default using the
Patch Independent tetrahedron
method
These selections are default for Explicit Dynamics (ANSYS)
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Physics Preference Training Manual

How the Physics filter affects a model

Physics Preference Sets the following automatically ...


Option Solid Element Midside Relevance smoothing transition
Midside Nodes Nodes Center
Default Default
Mechanical Kept Curved Coarse low fast

CFD Dropped Curved Fine medium slow


Electromagnetic Kept Straight Medium medium fast

Explicit Dropped Curved Medium high slow

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Relevance and Relevance Center Training Manual

• Relevance is a single setting that may be adjusted to


provide a coarser or finer mesh
– The slider bar toggles the “Relevance” setting between
–100 (coarsest) and +100 (finest)
– The mesh size level corresponding to the center
position of the Relevance slider bar can be set to
Coarse, Medium, or Fine using the Relevance Center
setting
– Different Physics settings have different defaults for the
Relevance Center setting (Explicit: Medium)

Relevance: 0 Relevance: 0 Relevance: 0


Relevance Center: Coarse Relevance Center: Medium Relevance Center: Fine

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Relevance and Relevance Center Training Manual

Relevance: -100
Relevance Center: Medium

Relevance: 0
Relevance Center: Medium

Relevance: 100
Relevance Center: Medium

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Smoothing Training Manual

Low High
Explicit Default
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Transition Training Manual

Fast Slow
Explicit Default
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Default Mesh method for Explicit Dynamics Training Manual

• Automatic (Patch Conforming/Sweeping)


• Sweepable bodies are automatically meshed with Hex and Wedge
Elements
Produces better mesh if a size control is
used on the swept face or body

Swept Face
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Default Mesh method for Explicit Dynamics Training Manual

• Automatic (Patch Conforming/Sweeping)


• Non-sweepable bodies are automatically meshed using the Patch
Conforming tetrahedron mesher
• All Faces, Edges, Vertices of the geometry are respected during mesh
generation (Delaunay Method)
• Not recommended for Explicit Dynamics

Curves in Geometry are Reflected in the Mesh


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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Default Mesh method for Explicit Dynamics Training Manual

• Patch Independent tetrahedron


mesher
• Recommended for Explicit Dynamics
• Faces, Edges, Vertices are not always
respected (Octree Method)
• Override the default tetrahedron mesher
(Patch Conforming)
Max. Element Size = 2.5 mm Max. Element Size = 1.0 mm

Curves in Geometry NOT reflected in the Mesh


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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamics Training Manual

• Once all the bodies used in a


simulation have been meshed and
their modes of interaction defined,
setup is completed in the Explicit
Dynamics folder by defining:

– Initial Conditions

– Loads and Constraints

– Analysis Settings

– Solution Information

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Initial Conditions Training Manual

• By default, all bodies in an Explicit


Dynamics system are at rest,
unconstrained and stress free.

• At least one Initial Condition, Constraint


or Load must be applied to the model.
– otherwise the initial solution is the final
solution and there is need to Solve.

• Two forms of velocity are available as


Initial Conditions for Explicit Dynamics:
– Velocity (Translational)

– Angular Velocity (Rotational)

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Initial Conditions Training Manual

• Applied to single or multiple bodies in global or


local Cartesian co-ordinate systems.
– If rotational and translational velocities are applied
to the same body, the initial velocity of the body
will be calculated as the sum of these two
conditions

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Loads and constraints that can be


applied for Explicit Dynamics
analyses:

– Acceleration
– Standard Earth Gravity
– Pressure
– Force
– Line Pressure
– Fixed Support
– Displacement
– Velocity
– Impedance Boundary

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Acceleration
– A constant body acceleration can be
applied to all bodies in the model. This
results in a body acceleration vector,
defined via three Cartesian components
being applied to all nodes in the model
prior to any constraints
Fi
&x& i = +bi
m
• Any constraints applied to the model will
over-ride an applied body acceleration

• Standard Earth Gravity


– Special case of an Acceleration load
which is applied to all bodies.
– Magnitude of acceleration is fixed at
standard earth gravitational acceleration
– Acting direction can be applied in ± x, y, z
directions.
• Any constraints applied to the model will
over-ride any applied gravity

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Pressure
– Constant and tabular Pressure loads can only be
applied to faces of flexible bodies.
• Pressure is applied normal to element faces of scoped
bodies.
• Direction of applied pressure rotates with deformation
of faces.

• Force
– Constant and tabular Force loads can be applied
to flexible and rigid bodies.
• Flexible bodies
– Force loads can be scoped to points, lines and faces.
• Rigid bodies
– Force loads can only be scoped to bodies.
• User defines total force load applied to mesh nodes of
scoped bodies.
• Force applied to each node is equal to total force
divided by number of mesh nodes in the scoping.
– Resulting distribution of force is mesh dependent.
• When defining tabular forces, define the analysis end
time first.
• Force can be applied in global or local Cartesian co-
ordinate systems.

• Line Pressure
– Constant and tabular Line Pressure loads can be
applied to edges of flexible bodies.
• Applied in a specified direction.
• Does not rotate with the deformation of the model.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Fixed Support
– A Fixed Support can be scoped to flexible and
rigid bodies to constrain all degrees of freedom.
• Flexible bodies:
– Fixed supports can be scoped to points, lines and faces.
• Rigid bodies:
– Fixed supports can only be scoped to bodies.

• Displacement
– Constant and tabular Displacement constraints
can be applied to flexible and rigid bodies.
• Flexible bodies:
– Displacements can be scoped to points, lines and faces.
• Rigid bodies:
– Displacements can only be scoped to bodies.
– Displacements are ramped linearly over analysis
time.
• For tabular displacements, the initial value at time
zero should be zero.
– For rigid bodies, the rotational degrees of freedom
will automatically be constrained if a displacement
object is scoped to the body.
– Displacements can be applied in global or local
Cartesian co-ordinate systems.
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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Velocity
– Constant and tabular Velocity
constraints can be applied to
flexible and rigid bodies.
• Flexible bodies:
– Velocity constraints can be scoped
to points, lines and faces.
• Rigid bodies:
– Velocity constraints can only be
scoped to bodies.
– For rigid bodies, the rotational
degrees of freedom will be
automatically constrained if a
displacement object is scoped to
the body.
– When defining tabular velocities,
define the analysis end time first.
– Velocities can be applied in global
or local Cartesian co-ordinate
systems.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Loads and Constraints Training Manual

• Impedance Boundary
– Allows outward traveling waves to pass out of the
mesh without reflection
• e.g. an expanding air blast or an underwater or
underground explosion.

where uN is the normal velocity


[ρc]boundary is the Material Impedance
pref is the Reference Pressure
uref is the Reference Velocity
(for an initially stationary structure at zero pressure, pref
and uref are zero).

– Deals only with the normal component of wave


velocity
• Velocity component parallel to the boundary is ignored.
• Place boundaries well away from regions of interest

– If the Impedance is Program Controlled (default,


recommended), the transient impedances of the
elements to which the boundary is applied are used

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Analysis Settings Training Manual

• Analysis Settings are grouped in six


categories
– Step Controls
– Solver Controls
– Damping Controls
– Erosion Controls
– Output Controls
– Analysis Data Management

• End Time is the only required input


– All other options have defaults, e.g.
• Time step is program controlled
• Results saved 20 times
• Restart files saved 5 times
• Time history data saved every cycle

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Explicit Dynamic Project Files Training Manual

Project files created while solving a model


File type Description

Results file (binary) Contains results data used for the main post-processing operations in Explicit
Dynamics.
name_{base_cycle_no}_{results_cycle_no}.adres
e.g. admodel_0_100.adres is the result file for cycle 100, referencing a base file
for cycle 0.
Results base file (binary) Contains base data that results files use.
name_{base_cycle_no}_.adbase
e.g. admodel_0.adbase is the result base file for cycle 0.
Restart file (binary) Contains complete model database. A solve can be resumed from any restart file.
name_{save_cycle_no}.ad
e.g. admodel_500.ad is the save file for cycle 500.
Print file (ASCII) Contains a brief summary of the initial model definition and a summary of the
energy and momentum distribution in the model over time.
name.prt
e.g. admodel.prt is the print file for the model

Log file (ASCII) Contains cycle increment data and error / warning messages
name.log
e.g. admodel.log is the log file

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Training Manual

• Solver Mechanisms
– My Computer, In Process (default)
• Solution is automatically monitored in
Workbench as it executes

– My Computer, Background
• Solution is obtained on the local
machine in the background.

• Most current results can be retrieved


while Solve is in process

– Remote Processing
– Calculation is executed on remote
(networked) machines

– Set up through Tools > Solve Process


Settings

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• My Computer, In Process provides five Solution Output Defaults


options to view automatically while the calculation is running:
– Solver Output (default)
• Shows the progress of the simulation.
– Cycle summaries
– Warning or error messages
– Estimated clock time to remaining
• A “best guess” based on time currently taken to solve a cycle and current time
increment and the simulation time remaining.
• May be significantly over-predicted in early cycles.

– Time Increment
• Shows how the time step varies with time.
– Fluctuations should be expected, but a reduction greater than a factor of 10
often indicates a problem in the model setup / progress.

– Energy Conservation
• Shows how the energy is being conserved over time

– Momentum Summary
• Shows how the momentum of the system varies with time

– Energy Summary
• Shows how the energy components of the system vary with time

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Solver Output (default)


– Shows the progress of the simulation.

• Estimated clock time


remaining is a “best
guess” based on
– the time currently taken
to solve a cycle
– the current time step
– the remaining
simulation time.
• It may be significantly
over-predict in early
cycles.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Time Increment
– Show how the time step varies with time.

• Fluctuations in time
step size should be
expected.
• However, a reduction
in time step greater
than a factor of 10,
often indicates a
problem in the model
setup / progress.

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Energy Conservation
– Shows how the total energy of the system is conserved over time

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Momentum Summary
– Shows how the momentum of the system varies with time

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Energy Summary
– Shows how the energy components of the system vary with time

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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Solution Information Training Manual

• Adding additional solution outputs


– RMB Solution > Insert allows customized results to be specified

More details in Chapter 5: Results Processing


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Explicit Dynamics Basics
Workshop 1 – Taylor Test (Cylinder Impact) Training Manual

Goal:
Simulate the impact of rod into a plate (typically known as a “Taylor Test”)
Procedure:
Create an Explicit Dynamics (ANSYS) Analysis System Project
Select the unit system and assign the material properties
Create the rod and plate geometry in DesignModeler
Mesh the two parts and set the initial velocity condition of the rod
Define the analysis settings, boundary conditions, and applied loads
Initiate the solution (AUTODYN - STR) and review the results

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