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We

thank
W. LET
Laura
Kay
for
discu
,....

ThisTO
NA
assis
in
the
obse
Burke
for and
resea
was
by
supp
in
par NATUREVOL.33125FEBRUARY1988
NSF.
0.8
o 10: M", '.0 =0.01
o 106M", ;.0=0.02
. 10 M",'.0 -0.1
687

fun
of
the
dim
cl
the
bin
toap
bla
ba
Thp
cu
arD
la
bt
mo
s
Received 29 October; accepted 23 November 1987.

Theor
Divis
Los
Alam
Nati
Lab
Losof
bla
Alaba
an
th
se
ax
oto
Th
1.Lynds,R.&Petrosian,V.Bu!LAm.astroSoe.18,1014(1986).2.Paczynski,B.Nalure325,572-573(1987).
0.6

New
Mexi
USA sm
Dm
plo
fo
ea
of
tw
m
3. Robinson, L. B. el aL OpIo Engng 26, 795-805 (1987).

w
4.Soucail,G.,Fort,B.,Mellier,Y.&Picat,J.P.Astr.Astrophys.172,Ll4-Ll6(1987).5.Stone,R.P.S.Astrophys.J.218,767-769(1977).6.Home,K.PubisastroSoe.Paci{.98,609-617(1986).7.Soucail,G.,Mellier,Y.,Fort,B.,Matbez,G.&d'Odorico,S.IAUCire.No.4456(1987).8.Dressfer.A.&Gunn.J.E.Aslrophys.J.270,7-19(1983).9.Soucaif,G.elal.IAUCire.No.4482(1987).
"-

A
c4,000
but
newto
enco
lose
betw
at
bou
bin
igh
exc
10
M0
pc
(re
9)
so
cl
en
0.4

and
a
1
M0
black
bote
caus
ORe
bina
06
com
to
bec ~10:M",
. 107M",
. 10M",

km
S-l.
The
disco
of
even
such
hyp
star
me
At
eac
im
pa
25
ru
wmu
0.2

for
mbote.
The
new
com
ofdif
thebin
or
blac
assi
bot ra
chrt
Hyper-velocity and tidal stars

V=
2
km
S-l
At
thi
ve
th
50
to
e
ot
25 50 75 100 125 150
from binaries disrupted

0.0
AV
(by
de
so
th
enar
tl
I
i
Dmln

by a massive Galactic black boJe Fig. 1 Probability of an exchange collision in which the black

The
dynam
of
gas
in
the
Gala
cent
(GC
sug
tha
bale replaces one of the original binary components, plotted as a

it
may
have
a
1
M0
black
hole
Such
a
m
06
blac
baleas
J.G.HilIs
radius
grow
ofin
less
than
109
yr
to
108
M0,
black
holes
expe
lumista
Be
V
i
m
bin
whi
is
quas
AG wi
the
mas
s le
th
s
ei
res
to
blth
v
ba
at
cl
Caot
is just inside the last stable circular orbit.

bale
more
mass
it
do
es4
x
1
M0
notis sho
pred
non-sto
radia
isthe
GC no
emi
mo
obse04
from
due
totall
rule
out
aGC to
Th
blac be
sen
ch
bin
bale
06isva
1,5o
V
tim
its
se
f br
are common. '

bound to the black bote and the other to beejected at up to I simulated encounters having a wide range of impact para-

so
the
co
to
pe
wt
b a
h
coming from the Galactic centre would be nearly definitive evidence
the approaching intruder, whlich has a velocity at infinity of

gravit
bindi
energ
of
the
bina
incr
with
the
has a high orbital velocity which increases further as its orbit
shrinks by tidal dissipation. The gravitational energy released by =

MI
is
100
times
the
mas
s
ocom
I
s
f
her
ho
body system (binary plus black ~ole) is positive even for ao

that
this
trend
conti
for
encosta
with
muc
morbec
masof
the
re
lo
de
A
1M
m
the orbit shrinkage of a such a tidal star can be comparable to

seq
sta
is
tor
ap
by
a1
Mbi
pe
0f
its total nuclear energy release. energetically possible for the encounter to dissociate the binary,

intrud
The
comp
were
done
the
Sha15
R0
=
0
Ao
th
(B
.a
but in almost every case the encounter left behind either the

Gordo
varia
varia
inte
The
mea
J.
G.
Hil
in
pre
B m s
original binary or one in which the black bale had replaced one
would, by capturing the debris of stars that pass within its Roche

the
bla
ba
be
0.1
M0tid
br
has
onA
th
Ro
ra
o
a
1
M o
recoil velocity of the ejected binary component, the results

In
these
simul
each
bina
com
is
of
1
M Fo
1
M
and
3
x ma
st
R
(re
2)
so
su
asra
0
08
is
m e
lt
0
bi
capture of stellar tidal debris2, Although this is asevere problem, bale at the beginning of each computation, far enough away

the
black
bale
mass
are
Mbb
=1
lOs,
106
and
107
M0
The
04,
for the tidal field of the black bale to be small but clase enough

Fig
s
the
pr
PE
ho
of
an
ec
Simulations of clase encounters between binaries and stellar

series
of
runs
with
ao
=0
and
0.1
AV
for
Mbb
=.0206
intruders4 have shown that in exchange collisions, in which' a

Only
'hard'
binar
with
orbit
velo
larg
than
the
relatively few integration steps. I treat the stars as point masses,

Dm
=
(MR wR
it
massive intruder replaces one binary component, the average but they are broken apart if they pass within their Roche radius

mean
veloc
in
the
stella
syste
surv
enco
wit
clo
app
of
ab
w a
a e
of the black bale. While tidal breakup is not a problem for

pon
mata
bo
m
ns
MT
l
mass, MI, of the captured intruder. The increase is fivefold if neutron stars and white dwarfs, it is serious for main-sequence

are
typic
80-3
km
s-\
are
10.01
AV.
Thein
the
rang
ao
veloc=
iida
dispe
in
the
GC
is int
rad
algo
in
thisof
th
bl
=

range
avera
mass
dens
with
0.25
pc
of
the
GC
ters
We
no
tha
PE
is
ne
sa
gvo
within Rmin

fractional change in the energy of the system due to integration are denser than the Sun, they can pass significantly closer to
errors was 10-7, so the high ejection velocities found in these
simulations are not numerical artefacts. I used newtonian
mechanics. Most encounters occurred well beyond the last stable
circular orbit at three Schwarzschild radii. Schwarzschild radius if the black bale is less massive than

tidally toro apart by the black bale than to be swallowed whole.


semi-majar axis of the binary is ao =
0.01AV,exceptfortwo
as a function of the dimensionless closest approach parameter
ao)[2 + M2)]-1/3,
fellow stars of approximately the same mass6-8. The maximum
I
semi-majar axes of hard binaries in galactic nuclei, where stellar factor in the square bracket compensates for the increase in the

Exchange collisions occur in nearly 90'% of the closest encoun-


688
LEl
.1MeTO
NA
'.0
-0.1
0.1M'.
NATUREVOL.33125FEBRUARY1988
275 5

Fig.2
The
incre
in
the
dime
bind
par
250

com
aft
an
ex
co
w
tbh o10:Me'.0-0.01o106Me'.0-0.02
o.10:Me'.0'0.01'o106Me'.0=0.02
4.5
225
'j
..

Dmin
for
vario
value
of
Mbh
and
ao,
so
wepro
can
useto
Rm
Fig
1
t ora
th
to
RIf
1
%
o
ts
E
...

fiad
PE
arbitr
Rmi
and
Mbinv
in
the
cla
en
ar
b a
=
0A
200 o
:¡; o

Figur
2
sEbin
the
norm
how
(dimand
ano
1
%
abi
incrw
a
=0
Ar
... ~ 4

in
the
avera
bindi
ener
of
thos
bina
whi
Buf
175

f ,f.

com
are
M
m st
thh
o ~104Me.105Me.107Me
104 Me

3.5
150 . 105 Me

0.0
A
lto
ti
b
eo
t
i
. 107 Me

125

We
note
that
the
resul
Mbhare
agai
as
afnear
wheninde
given
of
Dmiof
ao
and
unc
Fro
Fig
3
wse
th
tyvV
e
100

the
dis
bin
co
is
-4
k
S
fa
25 50 75 100 125 15ó 25 50 75 125 150

IDO
Dmln

0.0
AV
an
1,4
km
S-
fo
ao
=
0A
iM
=
1M
f
Dmln

Be
it
tak
hy
st
w
V4k
S
Fig. 3 The ejection velocity parameter of the unbound binary

abo
2
x
1
yr
to
re
Su
do-t
meter of the binary as the result of an exchange collision with a

GC
are
ab
20
of
be
th
Gas
black bale.

for
the
ejecte
star
in
these
exch Vo
=
colli
Her
V
0
iskm
S-
theat
le
0
eve
if
we6
x
1
y
ign
th
gr,4
t
tr
t
d
so
a0
closer binaries suffers an exchange collision about every 104yr
and one of the more distant binaries every 103yr. (Ir the binary

behav
so
it
is
easy
to
deter
V
0for
arbi
valu
of
0
exchange collisions. Here

Mbh
and
ao.
For
a
bhole
with
Mbh
=1Mo,
c.m
lack
ejec
06
wit
the
inv
sq
of
th
di
fr
th
G
wt
-1/3
Increase in binding energy
( )( the encounters which are clase enough to produce an exchange

veloc
at
infini
are
abou
V
043,00
and
1,40
km
S-I
0
,00
clo
on
to
the
GC
be
w
4p
f
V=
4k
S
o
2Mbh
+ Mz) ) . collision for ao =

for
ao
=
00.02
and
0.1
AV
resp
.01,
The
velo
and
wi
1
p
fo
Vo
1,
km
SPc
ms
Ebind '= Original binding energy 106(MI
stars by the black hole, but the fraction of stars broken up is

fie
ne
bu
ab
G sb
negligible in exchange collisions in which ao = 0.1 AV.)

two
highe
ones
much
large
than
the
esca
from
Figure 3 shows the ejection velocity parameter

mo
of
a
h st
at
8k
iy
0
ay
A
-1/6
(
2Mbh
Vejection'= Voo 106(MI+Mz) )

comp
exper
an
aver
chan
invel
itssta
wi
velo
witbe
cl
br
a
hlp
[

Vor\
x circle if one is produced every 104 yr. Hyper-velocity stars with
(O.O::U)(~I:~z)rl/z
specif
kinet
energ
is
i>KE
Vorb
Vbr
Mb
=
1the
no
For
Mobe
rep
is
th
d
06
tha
ma
of
th
G
b n
e
ho
is
mw
t
1i
l
M
e
r.m.s. velocity at infinity of the ejected star as found in the more than 6,000 ofthem inside the solar circle if one is produced

Vbrea
=
0=
l
Vorb
for
ao
=0
Oz
AV,
.14c
so
the
cha
in
the
.01
Alt
ob
mh th
oa
numerical experiments. Figure 3 shows that Vejectionis well- every 103 yr.
The average space density of hyper-velocity stars decreases

to
the
black
in
anhole
more
For
a
b than
totwo
orde
have
an
encou
with
a
1
Mo of
mag
exchlarg
prob
inar
50%
or
mo
blac
bale
requ
it
to
06
pas
Bu
rad
ve
ar
eto
dt
x
greatly exceed that of any known star in the Galaxy, and the

within
about
100a
of
the
10AV
forhole
ao=O
andor
0.1
AV with
Rm
=
1
a
resp
For
a
sma
s nd
tel
for detecting hyper-velocity stars.

densi
at
the
GC
107
Mo
pC-3
a
spass
A
of
tar
Hy V
sta
mw
b
pc se
the Galaxy. For Voo=4,OOOkms-I=800AV yr-\ the maximum proper
The high ejection velocities occur because Vbreak, the centre-

asectio
1Mo
black
bale
abou
ever
100y
06
and
10
AV
eve
of-mass velocity of the binary at the point where the tidal field solar-luminosity star at this distance would be at magnitud e 19
of the black hole pulls it apart, is much greater than the internal in the absence of interstellar extinction. Many other hyper-

passi
with
dista
Rmi
0[.
the
blac
hol
is
orbital velocity, of the binary components. Ir each binary
motions. If hyper-velocity stars exist, Borne may be included in
respect to the black hole on the arder of Vorbbecause of the existing proper motion surveys. The simplest explanation for
perturbation of its companion, the corresponding change in its

specific kinetic energy of the binary components with respect velocities implied by a facile interpretation of their proper
motions and assumed these stars to be peculiar and much closer
than their original orbital binding energy. to us than they actually are. Hyper-velocity stars should algo
have large radial velocities which are hard to rationalize away.

proper motions, so relatively few proper motion stars have


known radial velocities.

in the solar neighborhood. Because they originate in the core


10 y?3. (Here gravitational focusing is important, so the cross- of the Galaxy, their metal abundances may actually be several
times greater than solar, and because they reach the solar

# j
-r

distan
from
(W.the
GC
theyin
may
not
have
Benz
and
J.
G. LET
muchTO
less
than
the
retum
to
the
main
strong
by
Hills
AII
which
verseprep
active
galac
nucle
(AG
gradu
they
are
from ofNA
sola
Kel
tim
wh
dw
sequ
pertu
theif do
no
they
wer
tidal
field
of
blac
bale
As Bu
ap
ten
to
rem
in
the
or
tro
rem
orb
wi
se
orb
vel
ejec
hyp
becomthe
slows
flowthem
dow of
uni
with
captu
AGNby
gala
mayHyp
const
am
impu
of ti
po
1,0
star
interg
tram
The
expa
pas
nea
resp
untilto
Hub
met km
S-
the
inaTd
o
ax
5
a's
t
T
G
A
a
gI
toretain
the
hypo
of
GC
blac
bale
by
argu
ass
i

that
my
estím
the
binar
optimfrequ
in
that
most
GC the
GC
is
toa
stars
are
less
mas
so
fain
than
689
NATUREVOL.33125FEBRUARY1988
remna
(whit
dwar
haveneutr
stars
and
sma
allowblac
thesebot
hard-
main-obje
to
repl
so
stars
in man
bina
that
few
mai
black bale can accumulate a large number of these stellar

stars
are
left
in
them
But
velocthe
dete
SIalof
even
comione
from
GC
wou
behyp
near
defi
I tidal perturbation would algo cause them to be in rapid rotation

which help pro vide fuel for their master, the central black bale,

After
an
excha
collis
with
a1
M0
blac
bale
the
06
by tearing material from main-sequence stars and giants that

semi-
axis
of
the
binar
and
500
AV
oftheis
typic
for
ao
=
0 50
AV
AV.for
ao
=
0
The
aboutAV
r.m.s
orbi
velo
.1
Vor
black
bale
near
the
sam
as .01
Joe
So
theSt
ejec
CeD
for
NoM
Dy&
H
an
th
D oL
S
P Received18August;accepted18November1987.1.Oort,J.H.ARev.Asir.Aslrvphy.15.295-362(1977).2.Hills,J.G.Nature254.295-298(1975).3.Hills,J.G.Mon.Nat.R.asir.SocoSoco
in the Galactic halo.

1,400
km
S-1
respe
for
these
two
bina
Th
Un
of
Te
Au
Te
78
U
If hyper-velocity stárs are not found, it may still be possible

The
veloc
an
unbo
SIal
whic
coll
with
one
of
182.517-536 (1978).

these
bound
stars
excee
the
local
para
spee
whi
Vorb
so is,
stars
at
an
ave
atm
an
mo
re
on
Sa
Te o
s 4.Hills,J.G.&Fullerton,L.W.Asir.J.85,1281-1291(1980).5.Shampine,L.F&Gordon,M.K.ComputerSolutionoiOrdinaryDifferentialEquations:TheInitia!ValueProblem(Freeman,SanFrancisco,1975).6.Aarseth,S.J.&Hills,J.G.Asir.Aslrophy.21,255-263(1972).7.Heggie,O.C.Mon.Nat.R.asir.Soco
173,729-788 (1975).

the Son, or that exchange collisions between binaries and stellar

cases.
minim
collis
equalvelo
requ
massi
main
isto
brea
up
two
only
abou
2.3
tim
the 8.Hills,J.G.AsIr.1.80,809-825(1975).9.Sellgren,K.,Hall,O.N.B.,Kleinmann,S.G.&Scoville,N.Z.Astrophys.J.317,881-891
(1987).

escap
veloc
from
their
surfa
or
1,40
km
S-1
(ref
175, ]p-4p (1976).

10.Hills,J.G.Mon.Nat.R.asIr.Soco
11).
Most
of
the
debri
from
the
colli
shou
rem
11.Benz,W.&Hills,J.G.Astrophys.J.323,6]4-628(1987).
The
orbit
boun
SIal
arou
theTo
tes
thi
blacwe
co
bale
is
veran
ex
fill
wit
flu
pu
in
tho
ra
dia
r
T a
ro
proof of its having a massive black bale.

eccen
but
tidal
energ
dissi
at
peri
may
be
able
Laboratory simulation of Jupiter's Great
Red Spot

majar
axis
of
the
circu
orbit
will
be
abou
af
=2 Rm
velocity, Veo, of its Corroer companion, or about 4,000 and

the
high
veloc
in
them
make
them
very
'stiff
so
it
diffic
for
starsis
ver
other
boun
to Fig
pert1
s
the
them
gravan
tan
is
rotta
k
u
ho
rap
(a
byto
ac
two in
th
an
es
fIo
in
w
preth
gra
In
su
a
fCe
g
foT
f
is
bI
i
ss
J2

captu
in
an
excha
colli
with
a
1
M0
blac
bale
06
on average, about Isolated large stable vortices have long been observed in the jovian

-0.1-1
%o
their com
rest-m
ener
or
1051
ferg
for
a1
M wi
Co
fo
is
R0n
speed of about J3Vorbital

sm
In
Ou
sy
th
Ro
nu-0
a
e
=6,900and2,400kmS-1forthetwo
fro
the
rat
of
the
ch
tith
in
stable vortices in strongly turbulentplanetary atmospheres is a
challenging problem in fluid mechanics. In a numerical simulation

with
an
unbou (th
tum
star.)
The
radio
of
the
capttim
tida
SIafo
a
vto
ch t
of
Marcus1 found that a single stable vortex developed for a wide
variety of conditions in a turbulent shear flow in a rotating annulus.

On
Jup
Gr
Re
Sp
an
ot
p c
bound to the black bale and eventually be accreted by it.

SIal
emits
1051
erg
befor
its
destr
in
a
cand
one
oll
num
sim
in
th
in
a
q
rigidly (there is no differential rotation), but the action of the
to circularize it before the SIal is destroyed in a stellar collision. Coriolis force on the radially pumped fIuid produces a counter-

sin
per
co
vo
In
Oe th
ia
x
Because of angular momentum conservation, the final semi- rotating jet. Coherent vortices spontaneously forro in this turbulent
jet, and for a wide range of rotation and pumping rates the flow
Many.tidal stars can accumulate in these clase orbits because

I.of
lathat
The
integ
umin
spec
ofth
stars
shou
mim
evolves unti) only one large vortex remains.

of
ag
with
its
abso
liDe
iant
was
out
by
the
jov
atm
an
m
for
an
invs
flu
OU
exbM
is
u wd
in
t
tionally.

The tidal energy dissipated in circularizing the orbits of stars

GC
black
bale
may
have
accu
few a
lnum
of
times
Rmin
It
is thes
arg
rder
temp
to tud
sho
iden
at Iba
the
with
radvis
spi
tim
is
on
2
s
(Mtim
tim
tE
is
ty
w
oF
e
20
t
tEv
ag
,
w th
E
ch
fx
h
SIal. (Comparable energy is released in one final supemova-class

the
GC
radio
sourc
-10
AV.
Stell
win
and
Roc
late
val
=
h/1
)1
w
/1
th
k o
v
cataclysm when a tidal SIal in a nearly circularized orbit collides

fl
the
ang
ve
of
th
ta
an
hiIds
the Coriolis force (the rotation period of the tank).
increases, eventually following its Hayashi track, until its lumi-
nosity matches its Tale of tidal energy dissipation. If each tidal vortices lie in latitudinal zones of strong shear3. Marcus's

is captured every 104 yr, the total integrated luminosity of the the existence of a strong shear can lead to the formation of a
: luminosity tidal stars orbiting

of an individual SIal is its Eddington value, so at


the GC black bale is -106 L0' The maximum

strong shear on the outer edge of the counter-rotating jet (see


least 30 solar-mass stars are needed to produce the integrated Fig.2).
Dissipation appears to play little Tole in the dynamics of the

extreme differential Doppler moliDo resulting from the high

orbital velocities (0.03-0.1 e), ofthe individual tidal giants. The dynamical timescales of interest are typically an arder of magni-

low-mass tidal giants in orbits with semi-majar axes, at, on the

I overflow from the tidal giants may terminate any accretion disk
beyond at.
l
*Permanentaddress:Madylam,ENSHMG,BP95,38402StMartinO'HéresCedex,France.
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