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"Frying Pans" of the Early Bronze Age Aegean

Author(s): John E. Coleman


Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 89, No. 2 (Apr., 1985), pp. 191-219
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/504325
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"FryingPans"of the Early BronzeAge Aegean*
JOHN E. COLEMAN

(Pls. 33-37)

Abstract came to light in the Cycladic islands in the late nine-


Recent discoveries have shed new light on the curious teenth century.1 The discoveries by Tsountas in the
objects known as "frying pans," whose real purpose is Cyclades in the 1890s2 and subsequently those by
disputed. Most are of terracotta, but a few examples are Tsountas and Papavasileiou at Manika in Euboea3
now known of stone and there are also two of bronze
from Alaca Hiuyuk. They may be divided into several caused these objects to become a focus of scholarly in-
groups according to the type of handle (i.e., forked, terest. They have continued to attract much attention
barred, rectangular and "bracket"). "Frying pans" from over the years because of their unusual shape and
the Cycladic islands can often be distinguished from elaborate incised decoration. Recent finds have shed
those found on the mainland of Greece by both their han-
new light on these curious objects, and we can now
dles and their decoration. The chronological evidence in-
dicates that all "frying pans" now known from the Cycla- attempt to outline their distribution and chronology
des may be dated to Early Cycladic II. Those found on with considerably greater confidence than before. It is
the mainland date to Early Helladic I and II. It is argued important to remember, however, that inasmuch as
that "frying pans" were probably used as plates, as My- those available for study still represent an essentially
lonas has suggested, although they may often have served
accidental selection, any conclusions drawn must be
a decorative function as well. It is not yet clear whether
the form originated in the Cyclades or the mainland of regarded as tentative.
Greece. The examples in bronze from Alaca Hiuyuk are "Frying pans," as the term is used here, are low-
hard to explain, but they may have copied Cycladic ex- walled objects, roughly circular as seen from above,
emplars in stone. with projecting handles of various types. Their func-
tion is uncertain, although it is argued below that they
The objects familiarly known as "frying pans" first were probably plates. For convenience, the outer flat

* An
early draft of this article was presentedto a workshop on Mellink 1956 M.J. Mellink, "The Royal Tombs at
prehistoric Cycladic chronology at the University of London in Alaca Huyuk and the Aegean World,"
June 1983. The workshop was organized by R.L.N. Barber and The Aegean and the Near East
J.A. MacGillivray;I would like to thank them and the other partic- (Locust Valley 1956) 39-58.
ipants for their commentsand encouragement.I should like further Mylonas 1959 G.E. Mylonas, Aghios Kosmas (Prince-
to express my thanks to MachteldJ. Mellink, Marcia K. Mogelon- ton 1959).
sky, Jiirgen Thimme, and membersof the Bronze Age Seminar at Papavasileiou 1910 G.A. Papavasileiou,Flep'rCv EvEv,/oia
Cornell University in Fall 1984 for reading and commenting on apXaLwvrdcawv(Athens 1910).
various drafts; to Jeremy B. Rutter, whose perceptive criticisms Renfrew 1972 C. Renfrew, The Emergenceof Civilisa-
have saved me from a numberof errors;and to Martha H. Wiencke tion. The Cycladesand the Aegean in
for providing informationon the pieces with impresseddecoration the Third Millennium B.C. (London
from Lerna, including the text of an unpublished paper. Thanks
are also due Marcia Mogelonskyfor ill. 1, RichardM. Economakis 1972).
Thimme 1977 J. Thimme, Art and Cultureof the Cycla-
for ills. 4 and 5 and the following for photographs,permission to
des (Karlsruhe 1977).
publish photographs, or for other information or help on specific Tsountas 1898 Ch. Tsountas, "KvKAas8Ka,"
pieces: Jane C. Biers, Nancy Bookides, Barbara J. Byrne, Costis ArchEph
Davaras, Ch. Doumas, Angelos Delivorrias, Marie-Louise Erlen- 1898, 137-212.
Tsountas 1899 Ch. Tsountas, "KvKAaiKca II," ArchEph
meyer, D. Goulandris, John C. Lavezzi, Patricia Getz-Preziosi,
Henry S. Robinson, Jeremy B. Rutter, Olga Tzakou-Alexandri, 1899, 73-134.
Michael Vickers,James Wright and Carol W. Zerner. The follow- Zervos 1957 Ch. Zervos, L'art des Cyclades (Paris
ing museums kindly providedphotographswhich are reproducedin 1957).
the plates: National Museum, Athens (2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12-19, 21, Zschietzschmann1935 W. Zschietzschmann, "Kykladenpfan-
23-27, 37, 40); Benaki Museum, Athens (76); Museum of Art and nen,"AA 1935, 652-68.
I The term
Archaeology,Columbia, Missouri (30); Ashmolean Museum, Ox- "fryingpan" is clearly a misnomer,as emerges from
ford (54). the discussionof the purpose of these vessels infra, and I share the
The following abbreviationsappear in this article: misgivingsabout its use expressedby Thimme 1977: 522. There is
Bossert 1960 E.-M. Bossert, "Die gestempelten Ver- no other term in English that seems to me better suited, however,
zierungen auf fruhbronzezeitlichen and similar appellationsare used in Greek and French. "Pan"has
Gefassen der Agais," JdI 75 (1960) too general a meaning to be useful in the presentcontext.
1-16. 2 Tsountas 1898, 1899.
Goldman 1931 H. Goldman, Excavations at Eutresis in 3 Papavasileiou1910.
Boeotia (Cambridge,Mass. 1931).

191
American Journal of Archaeology 89 (1985)
192 JOHN E. COLEMAN (AJA 89

111.1. Findspots of Early Bronze Age "fryingpans"in the Aegean. Key: 1. Pefkakia;2. Manesi; 4. Manika; 5. Lithares;6.
Eutresis;7. Marathon;8. Perachora;9. Corinth;10. Palaia Kokkinia;11. Raphina; 12. Ayios Kosmas;13. Markopoulo;14.
Aegina; 15. Nemea; 16. Berbati;17. Tiryns; 18. Lerna; 19. Asine;20. Epidauros;21. Asea;22. Keos, Ayia Irini;23. Andros;
24. Syros, Chalandriani;25. Mykonos;26. Siphnos,Akrotiraki;27. Despotikon;28. Paros, Kampos;29. Naxos, Grotta and
Aplomata;30. Naxos, Ayioi Anargyroi;31. Naxos, Louros;32. Ano Kouphonisi;33. Amorgos,Kato Akroterion;34. Siki-
nos; 35. Crete, Ayia Photia. Not shown: Alaca Hiiyiik.
1985] "FRYINGPANS"OF THE EARLYBRONZEAGEAEGEAN 193

surface is referred to here as the bottom. "Frying forkedhandles and can be groupedwith them. A sec-
pans" and other objects mentioned by number are ond variety has barredhandles consistingof two pro-
those listed in the cataloguebelow. The catalogue in- jecting struts, placed some distancefrom one another,
cludes most of the "fryingpans"which are illustrated to which a perpendicularstrip of clay or bar is at-
in publications or which have otherwise come to my tached;the bar often continuesbeyond the struts and
attention. A listing of OTHER VESSELSOR LIDS of rele- has ends which swell into knobs. Many other handles
vance to the discussionof "fryingpans"is appendedto are grouped here under the heading "rectangular."
the catalogue. Illustration 1 shows the distributionof Most are simple flat projections,roughly rectangular
"fryingpans"with known findspots. as seen from above or below; the ends may be slightly
All known Aegean "fryingpans"were of terracotta concave, rounded or pointed and they are sometimes
until three of stone (cat. nos. 35, 36 and 58) recently vertically pierced. "Bracket"handles, as the term is
appeared. It is possible that Aegean examples will here used, comprise a subgroup of the rectangular
eventually turn up in other materials, since there are category. They are roughly rectangularand usually
two bronze examples from Alaca Hiiyuk in Central flat, with relatively large centralopenings contiguous
Anatolia (123, 124). The total number of "frying with the outer edge of the vessel; the sides and end
pans" now known is probably not much more than may be concaveas seen from above or below. "Brack-
about 200 (there are 124 listed in the catalogue).Most et" handles are probably fairly closely related to
have been found in graves, but even in these contexts barred handles; so far they are known almost exclu-
they are rare, with only 32 occurringin the more than sively from the mainland of Greece. Both barred and
600 tombs excavatedby Tsountas in Syros.4Mylonas "bracket"handles might also probably be termed
reportedat least 13 in and aroundthe 51 tombs he ex- "raking,"but I have avoidedthat term in orderto pre-
cavatedat Ayios Kosmas(of which only four are near- serve the distinction between the two. A few other
ly complete)5and 11 are reportedfrom the 60 tombs handles cannot be easily included in any of these
at Manika.6 groups (e.g., 59-61, 89, 99, 112, 120); the most dis-
Almost all terracotta"fryingpans"have incisedand tinctive are three from the mainland which evidently
impressed decoration on the flat bottom and some- were of a socket-likeform (89, 99 and 120).
times also on the outer surface of the side walls. The Suggestionshave been made aboutthe originsof the
incisions and impressions were usually filled with a handle forms. Mellink noted that the "handlesare of
white chalky substance which sets them off from the such variousshapes that one sometimeshas to presup-
generally dark-coloredsurroundingsurface. Decora- pose a wooden origin, as if a twig-like rod had been
tion is often continued onto the lower surface of the bent around the disc and then fastened at its ends to
handles and sometimesoccurson the upper surfaceof serve as a frame and handle."7She also suggested
the handles. There is only a single undecoratedexam- "metalpouring channels such as invariablyappear as
ple known from the Cyclades (33); elsewhere, undec- double tangs at the base of Alaca 'sun discs'."8Mylo-
orated examples are known only from Manika in Eu- nas, on the other hand, outlined a possible develop-
boea, where they were in the majority(64-69, 71, 72, ment for "fryingpan"handlesfromthe horizontallugs
74), and possibly from Tiryns (120). Two of the three ("ledge lugs") which are common on terracottaves-
stone vessels known have carveddecoration;the other sels.9 Until more chronologicalevidence is available,
(35) was apparentlyundecorated. however,such ideas must be regardedas speculative.
"Fryingpans"may be assignedto one of severalva- The discussionwhich follows first considersvessels
rieties according to the configuration of the handle from reasonably secure contexts in the Cycladic is-
(ills. 2, 3). One variety has forked handles, i.e., two lands, since many complete examples of the shape
prong-like projections,usually round in section. Tri- have been found there.
angular handles, which consist of a single prong-like
THE CYCLADES
projectionand which are known so far only at Mani-
ka in Euboea (71, 72), were probably derived from Forked, barred and rectangularhandles are com-
4Tsountas 1899. perhaps also mention here the various wish-bone and "bracket"
5Mylonas 1959: 24, 122. handlesthat occuron bowls of the later Early BronzeAge and early
6 Papavasileiou 1910; A. Middle Bronze Age in Macedonia:e.g., L. Rey, "Observationssur
Sampson, "'O rp)ToroeAa8iKOb OLKL-
arbosKaLrb VEKporaibo tjis MadVKas XaAKiLba," Archaiologia6 les premiers habitats de la Macedoine,"BCH 41-43 (1917-1919)
(Feb. 1983) 69-76. 195 figs. 12, 13; E. Hanschmannand V. Milojcic, Argissa-Magula
7 Mellink 1956: 53. 3. Die frihe und beginnende mittlere Bronzezeit (Bonn 1976) pl.
8 Mellink 1956: 53 n. 41.
83.5, 18. It is not clear, however, whether they have any relation-
9
Mylonas 1959: 124, 125, fig. 123 and Drawing 63. One should ship to the handles of "fryingpans."
194 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89

18 (Syros) 30 (Syros?) 32 (Naxos) 64 (Manika)


FORKED

51(Paros) 45(Ano Kouphonisi) 70 (Manika) 79 (AyiosKosmas)


BARRED

% /~I

20 (Syros) 34 (Naxos) 44 (Andros?) 87 (Asea)


RECTANGULAR

QrQ '0 ^ I \,/


N'

113 (Manesi) 59 (Cyclades?) 112 (Lithares) 72 (Manika)


Rectangular/"Bracket"
Rectangular/Forked Triangular
"BRACKET" OTHER

TERRACOTTA

Ill. 2. Types of handles on "fryingpans"


1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 195

Ill. 3. "Fryingpans"in stone and copperor bronze

mon in the Cyclades, although the last form is proba- "Frying pans" with forked handles are usually not
bly a little less frequent than the other two. Vessels perfectly circular in outline as seen from above or be-
with forked handles usually have a horizontal projec- low because the flange is drawn out toward the han-
tion or "flange" around the circumference. This vari- dles, although the vessel walls themselves circum-
ety is often called the "Syros type" and, in fact, most of scribe a circle. They have a considerable range of deco-
the known examples were produced in Syros. In the ration. There is usually a band of Kerbschnitt (i.e., tri-
catalogue I have been able to list only two Cycladic angular impressions, generally arranged in matched
"frying pans" with forked handles not from Syros: one rows with alternating apices) around the outer edge.
from Naxos (32), and the other from Mykonos (50). Star-like patterns of rays filled with or set off by areas
Although Renfrew writes that "[the Syros 'frying of Kerbschnitt often occupy the rest of the circular
pan'] is represented by ... a sherd from Grotta, and a field (1-4), and the design is sometimes embellished by
large fragment in Apeiranthos,"10 it is unclear wheth- stamped concentric circles (5, 6). Otherwise, especial-
er or not the handles are actually preserved on these ly in Syros, large areas are often filled with stamped
two pieces from Naxos. spirals or concentric circles, usually linked by tangen-
10Renfrew 1972: 528. See Addendum.
196 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89

A17
iAA S

6 2 7 17

\I,, , /,,.1

18 19 21

A r

al;

4
Ill.
4.
on
Genitalia
"frying pans"
4

111.4. Genitalia on "frying pans"

tial lines in a rapportdesign or "network"(7-8), and incision (e.g., 1, 2, 6, 7, 12, 15-19, 21, 22, 24, 31, 50)
sometimeswith a small central star (9, 10). Two ves- or, at least once, as a ring of Kerbschnitt(4; probably
sels have an area of unlinked spirals surroundedby also 3). They also appear in at least two instances (5,
rays (11, 12). The individualstampedmotifs,both un- 8) on the upper surfaceof the handle. Since genitalia
linked and in "network"designs, are usually arranged occur,at least to my knowledge,exclusivelyon "frying
in roughly concentricrings (e.g., 7-12), but this ar- pans"with forkedhandles, it seems likely that the re-
rangement may have been due mainly to the circular semblance to the human body was suggested by the
field available for decorationrather than to conscious form of the handles. They were clearly not considered
choice. The vessel from Naxos (32) differs somewhat strictly necessary,since they are lacking on some ves-
fromthose from Syros;its handlesare less leg-like (but sels with forked handles (e.g., 9, 11, 13, 14, 25, 32).
cf. 2) and it has concentricbands of Kerbschnittand Female genitalia therefore seem to me a secondary
herringboneincisions instead of the star pattern one feature and I doubt that they have any great signifi-
would expect in Syros. The decorationon that from cance for the use of "fryingpans"(see below).
Mykonos (50) is also unusual in its simplicity;a broad The variety with barred handle, often called the
zone lacks any incised design. "Kampostype," usually lacks the projectingflange.
Female genitalia are often representedon Cycladic Examples are known from Ano Kouphonisi, Paros
"fryingpans"with forkedhandles. Drawings of a rep- and perhaps from Sikinos. Vessels with barred han-
resentativeselection are given in ill. 4. Genitalia usu- dles have a fairly restrictedrange of decorativemotifs,
ally occur on the bottom near the junction with the which are almost always arrangedin concentricrings.
handle, either as a triangular pattern, which may be The motifs include Kerbschnittand hand-drawnspi-
more or less elaborate but includes a central vertical rals linked with tangential lines. The central motif is
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 197

usually a spiral, a group of concentric circles or a star- about the so-called "Kamposgroup"of material from
pattern, and it occupies only a small proportion of the Cycladic cemeteries,which Il and others12had sug-
area of the bottom. One scheme of decoration often gested might be dated late in EC I and which Ren-
recurs (e.g., 38, 39, 41, 43, 48, 51, 56, 76) and it is this frewl3 placed late in his "Grotta-Pelosculture."The
which scholars usually associate with the "Kampos dating of the "Kampos group" to EC I formerly
type": the central motif or group of motifs is enclosed seemed tenable on two counts: the early-looking
by an incised circle or a narrow zone of simple orna- shapes and the simple herringbonedecorationof the
ment (Kerbschnitt or radiating strokes); it is sur- characteristicflasks.The discoveriesby Zapheiropou-
rounded in turn by two bands of linked hand-drawn lou at Ano Kouphonisi,'4however,and the arguments
double-line spirals separated by an incised circle or a by Doumas15and Zapheiropoulou'6now convinceme
narrow zone of simple ornament; the second band of that the "Kamposgroup," if it can be regardedas a
spirals is surrounded by an outermost band with rows unity at all, belongs in EC II. The finds from Ano
of Kerbschnitt; on the outer surface of the walls are Kouphonisi, which have recently been discussed in
running hand-drawn double-line spirals. Numbers considerable detail by Zapheiropoulou,'7 include a
55 and 57 bear slight modifications of this scheme. "fryingpan"with a barredhandle (45) foundtogether
Stamped decoration (except for Kerbschnitt) is rare with pyxides and beakers best assigned to the EC II
on vessels with barred handles; for an example with a phase. The "Lourosgroup,"which is known chiefly
stamped spiral, see 45. from a single grave in Naxos, should probablyalso be
Six certain examples of vessels with rectangular dated to EC II, since it has strong links with the
handles are known from the Cyclades but two of these graves of Ano Kouphonisi,as attestedby the pyxides
are unusual in that they are of marble (35, 36). So far and the form of the miniature flasks from the Louros
as one can tell, these vessels seem generally to have had tomb.18The "fryingpan" from the Louros tomb (37)
a flange like those with forked handles. The flange is is unique in the compositionof its decorationand in
sometimes drawn out toward the handle (e.g., 20). the use of the fish motif.
Three terracotta ones are decorated, that from Syros If the "Kamposgroup" and the Louros tomb are
(20) almost entirely with Kerbschnitt, and those from redated to EC II, then there are no "fryingpans" of
Naxos (34) and Andros (44) with stamped spirals. any variety which can be securely dated earlier than
One marble example (36) has carved decoration EC II (all those with known contextsare listed in the
which seems more akin to that of other marble vessels catalogue).The stampeddecorationon all varietiesof
than to terracotta "frying pans," although there is one "fryingpans"lends furthersupportto this chronologi-
possible parallel in terracotta from Asea (89). cal position. Many of the vessels with barredhandle,
There are no clear examples of the "bracket" varie- for instance, have Kerbschnitt decoration and that
ty of rectangular handle from the Cyclades, although from Ano Kouphonisi (45) also has a stampedspiral
the handle of one vessel (59) has some of the charac- at the center. Stampeddecorationis generallyconsid-
teristics of this variety (cf. also 44). ered to appear otherwise in the Cycladesonly on ves-
It is often claimed that there was a chronological sels dating to EC II or later and that on "fryingpans"
development from the variety with barred handle to is closely similar to that on other pottery.19
that with forked handle. Although such a develop- The assignment of all known Cycladic "frying
ment may well have occurred, a consideration of new pans" to EC II does not necessarilyimply that there
evidence suggests that it is less certain than used to be was no chronological development in the shape or
believed. An early dating for the variety with barred decoration of the vessel. Some of those with barred
handles was formerly based mainly on assumptions handles should certainlybe datedearly in EC II (e.g.,
11
J.E. Coleman, "The Chronology and Interconnectionsof the eds., The PrehistoricCyclades(Edinburghforthcoming).
Cycladic Islands in the Neolithic Period and the Early Bronze 15 Ch. Doumas, "nIpoio-ropLKo'KvKXaAa'TreT orTTvKptjrr?," AAA
Age," AJA 78 (1974) 333-44. 9 (1976) 69-80.
12 See R.L.N. Barber and J.A. MacGillivray, "The 16 See especially Zapheiropoulou, "Graves of the
Early Cy- Kampos
cladic Period: Matters of Definition and Terminology," AJA 84 Group"(supra n. 14).
(1980) 141-57. 17
Supra n. 14.
13Renfrew 1972: 527-28. 18 G.A.
14 Ph. Papathanasopoulos, "KvKAaiLKa' N4aov," Deltion 17
Zapheiropoulou, "IpwCTOKrKAaVlKa& eup?7ara e "AvY (1961-1962) 132-34.
Kov#ovnro-'ov," AAA 3 (1970) 48-51; "'ApXatLorlTre KaL APycTa 19 It should be noted, however, that the
boundarybetween EC I
KvKXabwv," Deltion 25 (1970) chron., 423-30; "Un cimetiere du and EC II has not yet been well defined in terms of habitationde-
Cycladique Ancien a Epano Kouphonissi,"in C. and G. Rouge- posits. Moreover, given the dearth of evidencefrom domesticcon-
mont eds., Les Cyclades:Materiaux pour une etude de geographie texts, it is possible that "fryingpans"may yet be discoveredin EC I
historique(Paris 1983) 81-87; and "Gravesof the Kampos Group settlements.
from Ano Kouphonisi,"in R.N.L. Barber and J.A. MacGillivray
198 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89

51), and at least some of the highly decorated"frying tions from the low end. The maximum number of
pans" of Syros should surely be dated late in EC II. paddlesor oars on any one side is probablyca. 40 (27)
The fact that stamped spirals are rare on vessels with and the minimum, not counting fragmentaryrepre-
barredhandles, however, is not necessarilyan indica- sentations, 12 (14). Although the decorativecharacter
tion in itself that they are earlier than the vessels with of these representationscautions against pressing the
forked handles from Syros. Stamped decoration oc- details too far, we can probablyassume that the larg-
curs more frequentlyin general in Syros than in other est ships on which they were based accommodated
islands in EC II and may have been a local specialty. fairly numerouscrews, perhapsas many as 60 or 80 if
There seems as yet insufficientchronologicalevidence they were paddled and at least half that number if
to support the elaborately detailed developmentsug- they were rowed. A similar representationof a ship,
gested by Otto.20The rectangularhandle occursboth probably roughly contemporaneouswith those from
early in EC II (33) and probably also late in that Syros, is also known on the fragmentaryhandle of an
phase (e.g., 20). Since the early example from the askos at Orchomenos24;paddles or oars are repre-
Louros tomb (37) seems to have no room for a barred sented only on the upper side. A ship incised on a
handle, it probablyhad one of some other variety. sherd from Phylakopi is probably somewhat later.25
Before we leave the Cyclades, a few further com- That these drawings representreal ships is probable,
ments are in order about representationaldecoration given the existence of models of similar ships in
on "frying pans," since motifs which unequivocally lead.26Despite the doubtsof some scholars,I find the
represent real things are found only on Cycladic ex- evidenceconvincingthat the high end is the bow, pri-
amples. There are only three such motifs:female gen- marily on the groundsthat a projectionis represented
italia, fish and ships. Genitalia have already been at the stern of the ships on the miniature fresco from
mentioned, and their significance is considered fur- Thera and that the fish emblems are unlikely to be
ther below. Fish are found for certain only on 37, al- pointing sternward.27
though a sherd from Keros with an incised fish21may
EUBOEA AND THE MAINLAND
possibly be from a "fryingpan." It remains,therefore,
only to considerthe ships, which are in themselvesof We turn now to the "fryingpans"found in Euboea,
exceptional interest. Attica and elsewhere on the mainland of Greece.
At least ten "fryingpans"from tombs in Syros have Those from the tombs at Manika in Euboea form a
ships incised within an area with stamped concentric unique group and can be consideredseparately. All
circlesor spirals (13-19, 25-27), and one of these (27) are likely to have been locally made. Most were not
bears two ships. Ships are also representedon 29 and decoratedand the two which were (70, 73) have sin-
54. Drawings of all the ships except the fragmentary gularly crude and idiosyncraticdesigns. Forked han-
one on 29 are reproducedin ill. 5.22The representa- dles are common at Manika (e.g., 64-69), which is
tions are remarkablyuniform, and in fact the vessels the only site outside the Cycladeswhere such handles
on which they occur can be assigned to a very few have yet been found.28The Manika handles have a
hands. One artisan probably made four (13, 14, 25 peculiar form of their own, however, with a broad
29) and two other artisans two each (15 and 16; 26 flange terminatingin two widespread stubby projec-
and 27). Although the details vary slightly, all the tions. They hardly seem leg-like, and it is therefore
ships have higher and lower ends, paddles or oars,23 not surprisingthat representationsof genitalia do not
fish emblemsand bannersat the high end, and projec- occuron them. Otherwisethe site producedone vessel

20 B. Otto, "The Ornamental Motifs of the Cycladic Neolithic 24 E.


Kunze, Orchomenos3 (Munich 1934) pl. 29.3; another,
and Early Bronze Ages," in Thimme 1977: 133-36. very fragmentaryrepresentationof a ship is shown in fig. 43.k.
21 Ph. Zapheiropoulou, ""Ocrrpaca EK Kepov," AAA 8 (1975) 25Renfrew 1972: pl. 28.1.
79-84, fig. 6. 26 C. Renfrew, "Cycladic Metallurgy and the
Aegean Early
22Tsountas published drawings of the ships on the 7 vessels in- Bronze Age," AJA 71 (1967) 1-20, pl. 3; and Renfrew 1972: pl.
cluded in his reportof 1899, and these have often been reproduced. 28.3,4.
Although the drawings in ill. 5 are new, they were made from pho- 27For recentdiscussionsee P.F. Johnston, "BronzeAge Cycladic
tographs rather than on the basis of direct observation. In some Ships: an Overview," Temple University Aegean Symposium 7
places details were omitted because they could not be accurately (Philadelphia 1982) 1-8 and bibliography there cited. Cf. also
rendered,e.g., the herringbonedecorationof the fish emblem and Renfrew 1967 (supra n. 26) 5; and 1972: 355-58. The recent sug-
banner of the ship on 14. gestion by A. Raban, in AJA 88 (1984) 11-19, that the Theran
23Considerationof the ships on the miniaturefrescoesfrom The- ships may have been bidirectionalwould not apply to the Early Cy-
ra suggests that the many short lines incised above and below the cladic ones, since they have more differentiatedends.
Early Bronze Age ships were intendedto representpaddles rather 28 For a fragmentpossibly from a "fryingpan"with forkedhan-
than oars. See S. Wachsmann,"The Thera WaterborneProcession dle from Corinth, see the catalogueunder that site.
Reconsidered,"IJNA 9 (1980) 287-95.
"FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 199
1985]

/ ."'

//// // I

'13

13 15

///////////
/A
16

Ii
14
///////^/////^
~/I.......
26

25

g,

27
18
f

// im:i

19 17

54

Ill. 5. Ships on "fryingpans."The herringbonedecorationon the fish emblem and bannerof 14 is omitted
200 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89

with a barred handle (70) and two with triangular are barredand clearly relatedto their counterpartsin
handles (71, 72), a type which has been found no- the Cyclades.Some of those fromAyios Kosmas,how-
where else and which, as alreadymentioned,presum- ever, have a curiousfoldedconvolutionat the junction
ably representsa variationof the forkedhandle. of struts and bar (79 and others there cited), a feature
The chronologyof the "fryingpans" from Manika so far limited to Attica. One scheme of decoration
is somewhat problematic.The beak-spoutedjugs and often recurs and may be described as a mainland
one-handled tankards from the same cemetery (see type33:a stampedspiral at the centersurroundedby a
catalogue) have Anatolian connectionsand can be as- star motif with impressed rays, a band of short
sociatedwith the "Kastrigroup"in the Cyclades.Bar- strokes, a band of running stamped spirals and, as a
ber and MacGillivray29assign the "Kastrigroup"and borderpattern,anotherbandof short strokes(e.g., 79,
other such potteryto "EC IIIA"and, on the mainland, 80). There are also bandsof short strokeson the outer
to the early stages of EH III, whereas Rutter30pro- surface of the walls and sometimesthere is an addi-
poses to date this material to a late stage of EC II and tional band of Kerbschnitton the bottom (e.g., 81).
EH II. The arguments are too lengthy to considerin Numbers 78, 82 and 83 also have similar decoration,
full detail. As far as the "fryingpans" are concerned, 78 and 82 lacking the running spirals and 83 the star
however, it may be noted that such vessels have not motif. Although running spirals in a similar position
been found anywhere in secure EC III or EH III con- are common in the Cyclades on "fryingpans" of the
texts and that the other Cycladicimportsor imitations "Kampos type," the existing examples are always
at Manika31are to be associatedwith the Syros group hand-drawn (e.g., 38, 39, 43, 51). Short strokes as a
in the Cyclades,which is of undoubtedEC II date. On border pattern and on the outer surface of the walls
these grounds at least, Rutter's view is to be pre- are also uncommon in the Cyclades, where Kerb-
ferred.32The local characterof the "fryingpans"from schnitt is preferred. But the short strokes on pieces
Manika cautions against an uncritical acceptanceas like 3, from Syros, 42, from Naxos, and 46, from Ano
imports of all objects found on the mainland which Kouphonisi, and to a lesser extent 32 and 45, from
have a "foreign"look. Naxos and Ano Kouphonisirespectively,providepro-
The examples from Attica and elsewhere on the totypes for the Attic practiceand 45 also has a central
mainland are somewhat more difficult to deal with. stamped spiral surroundedby a star with impressed
In contrast to the Cyclades and Euboea, only 7 rays. In general, it seems likely that most, if not all, of
(77-83)-all fromAttica-have been found in or may the Attic pieces were made locally, in view of their
be connected with tombs. Almost all the remaining uniformityand somewhatindividualcharacter.
pieces are small fragments and, since they often lack Elsewhereon the mainlandthe examplesof "frying
evidencefor handles, doubtsare possible that they are pans" are fragmentaryand, although they occur in
true "fryingpans"as definedhere. Moreover,excava- good numbers, it is convenient to consider them to-
tors at mainlandsites have often notedthat the "frying gether. They are always rare in comparisonwith un-
pans" they found differ in some ways from the usual doubtedlylocal pottery and the excavatorsat Asea,34
local wares and considered them probable Cycladic Asine,35 Corinth,36 and Eutresis37 regarded them,
imports (see below). No scientific analyses have yet and similarly decoratedpieces, as probable imports
been carriedout which might help in this regard and from the Cyclades. Many of them differ somewhat,
it is difficult to be sure, particularlywhen only small however, from those so far known in the islands.
fragmentsare preserved.Furthermore,as the follow- Handles are known only from Asea (87-89), Cor-
ing summary shows, there are some differencesin de- inth (99), Eutresis (105, 108, 109, if really from "fry-
tails between the mainland examples and those from ing pans"), Lithares (112), Manesi (113), Nemea
the Cyclades. (114) and Tiryns (120). That from Nemea is of the
The finds from Attica are fairly uniformand can be barredtype. All the rest are of either the rectangular
consideredas a group. All the handles known so far or the "bracket"form, the latter of which, as men-

29 Barberand
MacGillivray (supra n. 12); cf. J.A. MacGillivray, 12.
"On the Relative Chronologies of Early Cycladic IIIA and Early 32 Cf.
Sampson (supra n. 6) 84.
Helladic III," AJA 87 (1983) 81-83. 33First identifiedby Renfrew 1972: 536-37.
30 J.B. Rutter, "SomeObservationson the Cyclades in the Later 34 E.
Holmberg, The Swedish Excavations at Asea in Arcadia
Third and Early Second Millennia," AJA 87 (1983) 69-76; and (Lund 1944) 84-87.
"The 'Early Cycladic III Gap': What It Is and How To Go About 350. Frodin and A.W. Persson,Asine (Stockholm1938) 233.
Filling It Without Making It Go Away," in The PrehistoricCy- 36 S.S. Weinberg, "Remainsfrom PrehistoricCorinth,"Hesperia
clades (supra n. 14) forthcoming. 6 (1937) 516.
31
E.g., Papavasileiou 1910: fig. 2; Sampson (supra n. 6) figs. 10, 37 Goldman 1931: 80, 228.
1985] "FRYINGPANS"OF THE EARLYBRONZEAGEAEGEAN 201

tioned above, is rare or absent in examples from the pattern), commonly found in Attica and somewhat
Cyclades. A fragment from Corinth (see catalogue) less frequently elsewhere on the mainland, differs
may also be from a vessel with a forked handle. The somewhat from Cycladic examples now known and
strut-like connections to the walls of the vessels on may be considereda mainland variation.One should
handles from Asea (89), Tiryns (120), and probably also note that the differencesidentifiedby Bossert in
also Corinth (99) are without parallel elsewhere. 1960 in the use of stampedspirals and concentriccir-
There is a considerablerange of decorationand some cles on the mainland as opposedto the Cycladesseem
of the motifs and patternspoint as much to Attica as to valid (see Appendix).
the Cyclades. Short strokesat the outer borderand on That inspiration and influence generally came
the outer surface of the walls are fairly common(e.g., from the Cyclades to the mainland and not the other
98, 106, 110, 114, 119), and Kerbschnittbordersare way aroundis suggestedby the close connectionof the
less common (100, 112 and 118 are examples; the "fryingpan" shape and incised and stamped decora-
Kommaverzierungon 93 and 94 was perhaps also in- tion. Such decorationis morefrequentin the Cyclades
spired by Kerbschnitt). Bands of linked spirals are than on the mainland and occurs there on a greater
also frequent (e.g., 92, 101, 110, 119) and the spirals varietyof shapes. Like the "fryingpans,"the few oth-
are always stamped,as in the commonAttic schemeof er shapes on which stamped spirals and concentric
decoration.The vessel with a "bracket"handle from circles occur on the mainland (pyxides and jars with
Manesi (113) has a band of crosshatchingas a border suspensionlugs) are more akin to Cycladictypes than
motif. Such bands are also found on probable"frying to the usual mainlandones. Hence, although it is pos-
pans" from Eutresis (103, 107) but so far nowhere sible that the developmentwas to some extent parallel
else. They may be peculiar to Central Greece. in the Cyclades and on the mainland, the Cyclades
Other characteristicsof the decorationof these ves- probablytook the lead on many occasions.
sels point to the Cycladic islands. For example, the "Frying pans" are found on the mainland in both
large hand-drawn star patterns (e.g., 103, possibly EH I and EH II contexts. As far as I can tell, those
89) are more like those of the Cyclades (e.g., 1-6, 49) found in the earlier contexts do not differ noticeably
than the smaller stars with impressed rays found in from those found in the later contexts. Stamped spi-
Attica (e.g., 78, 79). Unlinked stamped decoration rals and shortstrokesas a borderpattern,for instance,
such as on 95, 96, 99, 104, 111 and 115 is also found are found in both contexts.The possibilitywas noted
in the islands (e.g., 11, 12, 34), althoughthere the dec- above that "fryingpans"and stampeddecorationfirst
oration is not so clearly restrictedto zones or rings. occurred in the Cyclades only in EC II. We must
The herringboneon 89 is rare on other "fryingpans" therefore raise the question whether there was some
(see catalogue), although it does of course occur fre- chronologicaloverlap between EH I and EC II, as
quently on other shapes both in the Cyclades and on has been argued by Weinberg.38Although the evi-
the mainland.The large centralspiral on 112 is some- dencefrom both areas is still too scantyto permitdefi-
what similar to the Kerbschnitt decoration on 47, nite conclusions,it now seems likely to me that there
from Ano Kouphonisi, and identical with that on 61, was some overlap.39 The alternative that "frying
which is probablyfrom the Cyclades;the continuation pans" and stamped decorationon pottery began ear-
of the borderpatternon the handle is also reminiscent lier on the mainland, on the other hand, remains a
of Cycladicexemplars (e.g., 2, 3, 32). Although a bor- possibility (see Appendix).
der pattern of running zigzags, as on 93 and 116, is If EC II had begun before the end of EH I, the
not commonin the Cyclades,it is found on the marble close relationship between the "frying pans" with
vessel 36 and such a zigzag also occurs in other posi- barredhandles found in EH II contextsin Attica and
tions both on the mainland (e.g., 78, 97) and in the those of the "Kampostype"would help to supportthe
Cyclades (e.g., 5). view that the "Kamposgroup"should be dated in EC
To sum up, it appears likely that many of the "fry- II. We may note further that a figurine with stumpy
ing pans" found on the mainland were also made arms like those from the Louros grave was found be-
there, although the form and decorationof some may side Grave 4 at Ayios Kosmas.40This figurine, like
ultimately be derivedfrom Cycladicmodels.A partic- the other finds in the cemetery, should probably be
ular scheme of decoration(a borderof short strokes,a dated to EH II and it thereforetends to support the
band of running stamped spirals and a central star dating of the Louros graveto EC II.
38 S.S.
Weinberg, "The Relative Chronologyof the Aegean in the clades and Mainland Greece,"in Thimme 1977: 143.
Stone and Early BronzeAges,"in R.W. Ehriched., Chronologiesin 39
Despite earlier doubts:Coleman (supra n. 11) 342.
Old World Archaeology(Chicago 1965) 301-302; and "The Cy- 40 Mylonas 1959: fig. 163, no. 3.
202 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
OTHER AREAS Anatolia than they are to lids from the Cyclades and
the Greek mainland. Although the relationship be-
Only two "fryingpans" have come to my attention
from Crete. One, in the Giamalakis collection (122), tween the Aegean and Anatolia in the third millen-
has a barredhandle and an arrangementof concentric nium B.C. has yet to be fully clarified, there is little
circles somewhat similar to the design on the "frying evidence at present to suggest that Anatolia played a
pan" from the Louros grave (37). The other (121) significantrole in the developmentof "fryingpans"in
comes from the cemetery at Ayia Photia, which also the Aegean.43What influence there was may well
have been exerted by the Cycladeson Anatolia rather
produced several flasks like those of the "Kampos
than the reverse.
group."The cemeteryat Ayia Photia is dated by Da-
varas41to EM I and II, and these finds are compatible
ORIGIN AND FUNCTION
with a dating of the "Kamposgroup"in EC II if they
come from later tombs in the cemetery. The decora- The origin of the "fryingpan" is closely connected
tion is at first sight unusual, and one is tempted to with the vexed questionof its function.Late Neolithic
describe 121 as a fairly free local version of a "frying and Early Bronze Age "bakingpans" differ in that
pan." A fragment with almost identical decoration, they are cruder, their outline and the height of their
however, was found on the mainland of Greece at walls tend to be irregular, and the walls are often
Perachora (116). Since mainland influence on Crete, pierced at intervals44;these differences are great
or the reverse, is unlikely in this case, we may con- enough that they can probablybe left out of consider-
clude that both vessels were Cycladic, or closely fol- ation as possible predecessors.Other flat terracotta
lowed Cycladic prototypes. objects from Early Bronze Age Greece and Anatolia
Two copper or bronze vessels from Alaca Hiiyuik have a betterclaim to have providedprototypesfor or
(123, 124) are close in shape to their Aegean counter- influenced the developmentof "frying pans";exam-
parts, despite the difference in material. They pose ples of some of these are includedin the catalogueun-
considerableproblemsof interpretation.Their closest der OTHERVESSELSOR LIDSSIMILARTO "FRYINGPANS"
parallels are with Cycladic"fryingpans"in stone (see (125-146).45 Of particular interest are undecorated
catalogue and ill. 3) and it is possible that they were flat pans from Eutresisand elsewhere (e.g., 127, 136);
modelled on Cycladic exemplars in stone which had 127 even has a horizontal handle attached near the
been imported to Anatolia. We must also recognize bottom. A unique piece from Tiryns (135) with an
the possibility,however,that the resemblanceis large- incised linear pattern has a horizontal handle at-
ly fortuitous and that the vessels from Alaca Hiiyuk tached at an angle, so that it cannot have been placed
belong rather to an Anatolian tradition. That there on a flat surface and used as a container.A recently
was such a tradition may be suggested by a copper publishedobjectfrom Thebes (133) resemblesa "fry-
pan-like vessel from Horoztepe (146), which differs ing pan" except that it is handleless, and there are
from the vessels from Alaca Hiiyik and the Aegean in fragments from Corinth with similar profiles (e.g.,
that it had two handles, made separatelyand attached 134). Two fragments from Lerna (131, 132) have
at the rim. raised rather than incised decoration; 132 may be
It is interesting to note in this connection that no closely connectedwith the Cyclades,since it has a net-
true "fryingpans"have yet turnedup at Early Bronze work of linked concentriccircles,ratherthan the rings
Age sites in the Eastern Aegean and Western Anato- or zones of stamped motifs which are the rule on the
lia such as Troy, Poliochni, Thermi, Emporio,Samos mainland. Three fragmentsfrom Eutresis and Lerna
and lasos. Flanged lids from Troy (144,145) and Ka- may be grouped together because they are similarly
rata442are similar to "fryingpans" in shape and may decoratedwith concentricarches (128-130); they may
be somewhat similarly decorated on the flat side. even be from "frying pans" rather than stands, as
There is no reasonto think, however,that true "frying Goldman suggested(see 128). Flat lids from Western
pans" are more closely related to lids from Western Anatolia, of which 144 and 145 are examples,are also
41 K.
Davaras, "'APXatLordrrE7 Kat U.tvl?j,ia
avaToAhiKjSKpjT7Sr," tale,"SMEA 18 (1977) 65-72.
Deltion 27 (1972) 649. 44
42 Information
E.g., J.E. Coleman, Keos 1. Kephala (Princeton 1977) pls.
kindly providedby M.J. Mellink. 37.C-H, 84.A-V; H. Walter and F. Felten, Alt-Agina 3.1 (Mainz
43 For the
relationshipbetween the two areas, see Mellink 1956. 1981) pl. 78.65-71.
The absence of "frying pans" from the large cemetery at Iasos is 45 This listing is highly selective,and is includedonly for the sake
especially significant,since both the types of tombs and some of the of convenience.For other simple pans from Early Helladic sites see:
grave goods, such as the marble vessels, suggest close connections Mylonas 1959:24; K. Muller, Tiryns4. Die Urfirniskeramik(Mu-
with the Cyclades: for a recent summary see P.E. Pecorella, "La nich 1938) fig. 31.
necropoli di lasos nel quadro delle culture dell'Anatolia occiden-
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 203

similar in a general way. The existenceof such a vari- and Manika and by their frequent occurrencein do-
ety of related pieces suggests that "frying pans" are mestic contexts on the Greek mainland. They were
not the result of external influence or inspiration,but certainly not really frying pans, since they show no
rather that they gradually evolved as a specialized signs of burning and would not in such a case have
shape in the Aegean. The evidence is as yet insuffi- had elaboratedecorationon the bottom.
cient, however, to enable us to trace the steps in this The existence of the walls suggests that they may
presumedevolution. have been intended to contain some substance, and
There is less evidence from the Cyclades than the Mylonas' opinion that they were actually plates49
Greek mainland for such related pieces and one is seems to me plausible. The walls would serve to pre-
temptedto suggest that the shape came into being first vent food from escaping, even when it was in a liquid
on the mainland and subsequently spread to the is- state. When placed in tombs, they may well also have
lands. The dearth of evidencefrom settlementsin the contained real or symbolic food, intended for use or
islands, however, cautions against ruling them out as offeredon behalf of the dead. That there was decora-
the place of origin. Elaborate "dovebowls"in marble tion on the bottomcan be explainedif we supposethat
from the Cyclades, like 125, show that at least some they were often placed in a visible position, perhaps
other flat vessels played a role in island life. on shelves, when not in use. The large flat surface
The evidence for the function of the "fryingpans" would invite elaborate decorationand the decorative
may be briefly considered.46Although some may have aspect may sometimes have become more important
been made especially for the tomb, as Mylonas sug- than the functional,as in the case of finely decorated
gests,47 they were clearly not exclusively funerary, as plates which are now displayedon walls or in cabinets
is attested by the examples from settlements such as rather than actually used.
Grotta in Naxos, Ayios Kosmas, Corinth, Eutresis, I find unconvincingthe theory that "fryingpans"
Nemea and Pefkakia. When found in tombs, "frying were mirrors.50The bronze examples from Alaca
pans" are generally associatedwith wealthier burials Hiiyuk are indeedclose in shape to those fromthe Ae-
containing at least several other objects. In Syros, gean, but it may be doubtedthat they were themselves
where their positions and associations in tombs are mirrors, despite Mellink's opinion.51The terracotta
best documented(see catalogue),they are often found and stone exampleswould not be sufficientlyreflective
near the heads of the dead, usually with other objects to serve as mirrors unless filled with water or oil. If
in close proximity. They were apparentlynot used in "frying pans" were not mirrors, there is little other
tombs as lids or covers for other vessels, and many reason to connectthem with cosmeticsand beautifica-
seem too large for such a purpose. Since they occur tion.52 Theories that they were drums (with hide
together with marble figurines in several instances in stretchedover them)53or instrumentsfor navigation54
Naxos and once each in Syros and at Manika (see have little evidence to support them.55On the other
catalogue),they were probablynot regardedas substi- hand, the idea that they were closely connectedwith
tutes for figurines.48Otherwise, the context of the ex- religion and served as idols or libation vessels needs
amples from tombs provides no clear evidence con- consideration.
cerningtheir purpose,or whether they were generally The view that "fryingpans"had a religioussignifi-
associatedwith one or the other sex. cance was first put forward by Zschietzschmann,56
That "frying pans" were essentially practical is and it has also been followed in a modified form by
suggested by the undecoratedexamples from Naxos Thimme.57This theory is supportedprimarilyby ap-
46 For summariesof earlier views 53Mentioned in Mylonas 1959: 125.
see especially Zschietzschmann
1935; Mylonas 1959: 125-26; 0. Hockmann, "CycladicReligion," 54 J. Faucounau, "La civilisationde
Syros et l'origine du disque
in Thimme 1977: 48-49. de Phaistos,"Kretologia7 (1978) 110-11.
47
Mylonas 1959: 126. 55 An alternative practical use, first
suggested to my knowledge
48 Zschietzschmann
(1935: 664-67) suggestedthat "fryingpans" for "fryingpans" in general by Martha H. Wiencke in an unpub-
were actually themselves"Idole." lished paper (abstractin AJA 84 [19801240), is worth mentioning:
49
Mylonas 1959: 125-26. that they may have been used with the decoratedsurfaceuppermost
50 Tsountas
1899: 92; cf. Mellink 1956: 53. as standsor trivets.Goldmanhad earlier describedone flat piece as
51 Mellink 1956: 53.
a "small flat stand"(see 128). Several characteristics,in my opin-
52
E.g., E. Varoucha, "KvKAa8LKo' rca'ot rijs Hapov," ArchEph ion, argue against such a function:the careful finish on the concave
1925-1926, 110-11. The coloring material found in the marble side; the fairly sharp rim-like terminationof the walls; and the fre-
"fryingpan"35 (q.v.) seems to me not significant,in view of the fact quent occurrenceof flaring walls.
that such materialwas found throughoutthe tomb. Marks of grind- 56 Zschietzschmann1935.
ing on 56 (q.v.) might possibly suggest the preparationof coloring 57 E.g.,
J. Thimme, "Die religiose Bedeutung der Kykladen-
material, but to the best of my knowledgesuch marksare not found idole,"AntK 8 (1965) 84-86; and "Ein monumentalesKykladen-
on any other "fryingpan." idol in Karlsruhe,"Jahrbuchder staatlichenKunstsammlungenin
204 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89

peal to particular decorativemotifs such as stars, fe- been used from the beginning and it is possible that
male genitalia, ships, and fish and to the shape as a the forkedhandle was a later variation.At the begin-
possible libation vessel. I have mentioned above my ning decorationmay have been simple, or even absent
reasonsfor thinking that "fryingpans"had a practical (cf. 33). Early in EC II, however, a standardized
function in everyday life. Consequently, the decora- scheme of decoration recurs on many vessels with
tion does not seem to me likely to have been of any barred handles in which hand-drawn running dou-
great symbolicimportance,especially since it is found ble-line spirals are a prominent motif (the so-called
on what I take to be the bottom of the vessel. If we "Kampostype"of "fryingpan"). During the courseof
take into account the dearth of excavated settlement EC II stamped concentric circles and spirals also
sites, we cannot be confidentthat the relevantdecora- came into use, at first perhapsjust as a central motif
tion was applied particularly to vessels destined for (e.g., 45), but subsequentlyin endless rapport ("net-
tombs and that it thereforehad a specificfunerarysig- work") patterns. Elaboratestamped decorationis es-
nificance. If genitalia were suggested to the artisans pecially frequent in Syros, where it parallels that on
who made "fryingpans"by the leg-like appearanceof other shapes. Representationsof genitalia and ships
the forkedhandles, as conjecturedabove,then there is were evidentlyalso a specialtyof Syros and so far are
no particular reason to think that the genitalia had rarely found elsewhere. "Frying pans" seem to have
any religious significance. Nor is there strong evi- died out in the Cycladesbeforeor at the end of EC II.
dence that the other motifs had special religious asso- On the mainland, the earliest examples occur in
ciations in the Aegean area. As for libations,the shape EH I and as yet there is little evidencefor the develop-
would certainly have been convenient,but there is no ment of the shape. "Bracket"handleswere a mainland
directevidencethat points to such a use.58Under such specialty and forked handles are almost completely
circumstances,a skepticalview of the religioussignifi- absent.A characteristicmainlandtype is similarto the
cance of the "fryingpans"seems advisable. "Kampostype" in the Cyclades:stamped single-line
spirals occur, however, in place of the hand-drawn
SUMMARY AND SPECULATION
double-line spirals of the Cycladicexamples. It is not
The following summary is an attempt to account clear whether the islands or the mainlandtook prece-
for all the informationabout "fryingpans" currently dence in the use of stamped decoration.If the use of
available. It necessarilyinvolvesconsiderablespecula- stampeddecorationbegan at roughlythe same time in
tion, since our understandingof the origin, develop- both areas, however,there must have been some chro-
ment and purpose of these objectsis still incomplete, nologicaloverlapbetween EH I and EC II. Other ele-
despite recent discoveries.The shape may originally ments characteristicof mainlandexamples includeda
have been designed in the Aegean area for a practical special socket-like variation of the "bracket"handle
purpose, and ordinary household pans and plates (e.g., 89, 99, 120), a border pattern of crosshatching
were the probable models. Since the bronze vessels (e.g., 103, 107, 113) and perhapsa patternof unlinked
from Alaca Huiyik (123, 124) are the only examples spirals arranged in rings or zones (e.g., 115). The
yet known from Anatolia, an alternative possibility, shape seems to have died out also on the mainlandbe-
that "fryingpans" originated in Anatolia, seems un- foreor at the end of EH II. Distinctivelocalversionsof
likely. Whether "fryingpans"originatedin the Cycla- "fryingpans"occurredat Manika in Euboea.The two
des or the mainland of Greece is not yet clear. In ei- examples of "frying pans" known from Crete are
ther case, however, Attica probablyplayed an impor- probablyimportsfrom the Cyclades.
tant role in their wide distribution.
In the Cyclades, it is possible that the shape goes DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICS
back to EC I, although it is not yet attestedbefore EC CORNELL UNIVERSITY
II. Both barred and rectangular handles may have ITHACA, NEW YORK I4853

Baden-Wiirttemberg12 (1975) 16. Dr. Thimme kindly sent me a a new life. Cf. also Renfrew 1972: 420-21 and Hockmann (supra
short statement in a letter of July 13, 1984, in which he explains n. 46).
that his religious interpretationis restrictedto "fryingpans"found 58 That 56 is said to have been found with a
jug hardly seems
in tombs. He believes that such objects served in funerary ritual, significant, in view of the fact that many "frying pans" have been
whether as libation vessels or as mirrorsto keep the soul of the dead found in tombs with a variety of other pottery; see the general re-
person in the grave, and that the stars, the motifs associatedwith marks about Syros in the catalogue and detail of the find circum-
the sea, and the genitalia are connectedwith a goddess(represented stances of some of the "frying pans" found in Naxos and Manika.
also by the marble figurines)who guardsthe dead and leads them to
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 205

CATALOGUE most band of decoration on the bottom. On vessels with


forked handles this outermostband usually bends at either
The following catalogue is not intended as a complete
side and continueson the handle.
listing of all known "fryingpans" but rather as a compila-
tion of those for which published illustrationsare available
SYROS
and a few othersof special interest.It does include,however,
all vessels which are commonlymentionedin discussionsof Almost all are from the excavationsof Tsountas in the
the shape. cemetery at Chalandriani, and the following summary is
In the listing for the Cyclades, Syros and Naxos come drawn mainly from his published report.59Tsountas re-
first, then the other Cycladic islands in alphabeticalorder. ported finding 32 "fryingpans"within 30 tombs. He men-
The Cycladic examples are followed by those from Aegina, tions Tombs 172, 174, 192, 262, 268, 292, 307, 322, 338,
Euboea, Attica and elsewhere in mainlandGreece. For pur- 347, 351, 355, 356, 364, 398 and 408 as each containingone
poses of comparison,there is at the end a brief listing of other "frying pan," and Tombs 268 and 338 as each containing
vessels or lids which generally resemble "frying pans," al- two. Aberg6?also lists Tombs 190, 236 and 283 as contain-
though they apparently also differ in some significantway. ing "fryingpans," Bossert6'also mentionsTombs 239, 289,
More detailed findspotsare given where possible, as well as 297 and 396, and in addition to these attributions the
referencesto currentlocationsin museums and collections. museum labels on two vessels indicatethat they came from
References in the catalogue are confined to the initial Tomb 377 (4) and Tomb 382 (11).
publicationand/or to sourceswith good illustrations.I have Tsountas was able to preserve only 20 of the "frying
been able to handle only the fragmentsin Corinth,although pans"he excavatedand mostof these were moreor less frag-
I have also examined all "fryingpans"on display in the Na- mentary.62 Where handles were preserved, they were
tional Museum in Athens and a few elsewhere in their glass forkedin every case but one; Tsountas notes, however, that
cases. Other vessels are known to me only through pub- the handle was not preservedin many cases. He does not tell
lished photographs and, since the accompanying descrip- us the form of the handle which was not forked but it is
tions are often woefully incomplete, I have not includeddi- likely to have been that of 20, a rectangularhandle that he
mensions and detailed informationabout color and fabric. would probablyhave found unremarkable;he surely would
In general, "fryingpans"range in diameterfrom ca. 0.14 have describedin detail a handle of a more complex type.
to 0.30 m. (not including the handle) and most have a dia- The lower surface of the "frying pans" was always deco-
meter between 0.20 and 0.28 m. Unless otherwisestated,all rated. Decorationappearedelsewhere only in two instances
decorationis either stampedor incised;in most cases it was (neither identifiedin detail by Tsountas): the outer surface
also filled with a white substance.Where decorationis de- of the walls of one had thick parallel lines;the upper surface
scribed, it is on the bottom of the vessel, unless otherwise of the handle of another had stamped triangles. Bossert
noted. The lack of mention of decorationon the outer walls notes that three of the pans foundby Tsountas are decorated
and the top of the handle is not to be taken to imply that with the same stamp (15, 16, 22).63In at least six instances
these surfaces were necessarily undecorated. The word (13, 14, 19, 24, 25, 29) stamps of two different sizes were
"linked"implies that each stamped motif (spiral or groups used on the same vessel. In one case (28) both stampedspi-
of concentriccircles) is joined by tangential lines to those on rals and concentriccircles are said to have been used on the
either side; "network"implies that each stamped motif is same vessel.
joined by tangential lines to all its neighbors. Items in the Tsountas reported64that seven of the "frying pans" he
catalogue are of terracotta,except where otherwise stated. excavatedhad representationsof ships and these can be rec-
T. is used as an abbreviationfor "Tomb." ognized from his published drawings as 13, 15-17, 19, 26
The listing of "fryingpans" includes some fragmentson and 27. There are now three more vessels with such repre-
which handles are not preserved but which are close in sentations on display in the National Museum in Athens
shape and decoration to unequivocal examples. Although (14, 18, 25). It is unclear whether the additionalthree are
there is a possibility that a few of these were from other also from Tsountas' excavations,as might be the case if they
shapes, such as plates or pyxis lids, I have excluded,or rele- were recognizedand mendedonly after he had finished his
gated to the categoryof other vessels, all pieces which I per- study of the material, or whether they came to light as a
sonally considereddoubtful. result of the activityof others. Ships are also representedon
29 and 54. Four of the extant "fryingpans"with represen-
THE CYCLADES
tations of ships were probablymade by one artisan (13, 14,
Except where otherwise noted, all vessels listed have 25, 29), two others by anotherartisan (15, 16) and two oth-
rows of Kerbschnittas a border pattern forming the outer- ers by yet another (26, 27). Vessels without ships were
59Tsountas 1899. 62
Tsountas 1899: 89.
60 N. Aberg, Bronzezeitlicheundfriiheisenzeitliche Chronologie 63 Bossert 1960: 8.
4. Griechenland(Stockholm1933) 101-103. 64 Tsountas 1899: 90, 91.
61 Bossert 1960.
206 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
probablyalso made by these same artisans:9 was probably ther examples as "probablyfrom Syros"(29-31). Another
made by the same hand as 13, 14, 25 and 29, and 22 by the (55), although reportedto be from Syros, actually has no
same hand as 15 and 16. certain provenance.
Informationconcerningthe placementand associationof All the "fryingpans"known from Syros may be dated to
the "fryingpans" is available in the case of 14 tombs (172, the EC II phase.
174, 192, 262, 268, 292, 307, 322, 338, 347, 351,355, 356,
408).65 In all but one instance, whenever Tsountas men- Forkedhandle
tions the position of the body, the "frying pan" or "frying 1. Large stars with circlesor circularbandsinside:
pans" were found near the head: sometimes they are re- Most have a single star, within which a circle may be
ported to have been found in front (Tombs 172, 322, 338, inscribed;Kerbschnittis much employed to fill the rays of
355), sometimes behind (Tombs 174, 307, 356). The "fry- the stars or alternate with them. The rays of the stars vary
ing pan" found in front of the head in Tomb 322 restedon from 6 (3) to 13 (6).
the bones of the hand. The only instancewhere the position 1. Athens 5164. Tsountas 1899: pl. 9.4; Zschietzschmann
of the body is mentionedand the "fryingpan"was not found 1935: fig. 6; Zervos 1957: fig. 211. From T. 398. Lacking
near the head is in Tomb 351, where the "fryingpan" was outer Kerbschnitt band. Undecorated central circle sur-
found with other objectsin a small niche at the back of the roundedby a Kerbschnittband and star with 8 rays, inter-
tomb. In severaltombs where the position of the body could spersed with Kerbschnitt.Simple representationof female
not be determinedor is not reported (Tombs 262, 292 and genital triangle near handle.
347), the "fryingpans" were found near the front or rear of 2. Athens 5077 (pl. 33, fig. 1; ill. 4). Zervos 1957: fig. 206.
the tomb and may have been placed near the head. In every Lower surface somewhat convex. Splaying handle. The
instancewhere details are available, the tombs with "frying outer band is a single row of Kerbschnittwith apices point-
pans" also containedat least three other items and a major- ing toward the center. Central circle, filled with Kerb-
ity (8 out of 14) containedseven or more other items. "Fry- schnitt, surroundedby a star with 6 Kerbschnitt-filledrays
ing pans" are thus clearly associatedwith the wealthier in- and a band filled with four rows of Kerbschnitt.Beneaththe
terments. "Frying pans" were usually found in immediate star on the side toward the handle is a swag with oblique
association with other objects, sometimes above or below strokes. Simple representation of female genital triangle
them. There seems no regular pattern in the types of these near handle. Vertical strokes on outside of walls. Possibly
objects, however, and they include:various vessels of terra- made by the same artisan as the following vessel.
cotta and stone;vessels and objectsconnectedwith the prep- 3. Athens 5231. Zschietzschmann 1935: fig. 10; Zervos
aration of pigments (presumably for cosmetics) such as 1957: fig. 207. Lower surface somewhat convex. Splaying
stone saucers, stone palettes, pestles, bone tubes and blue handle, pierced with stringhole. The outer band has elon-
coloringmaterial;pins of bone and bronze;bronzeweapons. gated radiatingimpressionsor strokes;otherwisedecoration
The exact position in which the "fryingpans"rested is not similar to preceding,but without the swag. Female genita-
reportedbut they were clearly not generally found covering lia probablyrepresentedby more or less circularpattern of
other vessels. The tomb associations at Chalandriani are Kerbschnitt.Slender triangular strokes oriented vertically
therefore clearly counter to any suggestion that "frying on outsideof walls. Possiblymadeby the same artisanas the
pans" were used as lids. A "fryingpan" is reportedto have precedingvessel.
been found in the same tomb as a figurine in only one in- 4. Athens 5153 (pl. 33, fig. 2; ill. 4). Zschietzschmann1935:
stance, in Tomb 307, which contained two marble folded- fig. 9; Zervos 1957: fig. 209. From T. 377. Strongly flaring
arm figurines. Figurines are very rare in the cemetery at walls. Two concentriccircles of carelessly executed Kerb-
Chalandrianiin any case and were found in only four other schnitt at center,surroundedby 8-rayed star, the rays inter-
tombs66;we may not therefore conclude that "fryingpans" spersed with Kerbschnitt;lines of Kerbschnittalso form
served in any way as substitutes for figurines. None of the "spines"within each ray. Female genitalia representedby
other objects in tombs containing "frying pans" is necessar- circularpatternof Kerbschnitt.The flaringwalls and deco-
ily connected with one sex or the other, with the possible ration are reminiscentof 20, which was possibly made by
exception of the bronze weapons found in five instances the same artisan.
(Tombs 262, 338, 351, 355, 408), which might indicate 5. Athens, American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
male burials. J.L. Caskey, "Chalandrianiin Syros,"Essays in Memoryof
The attributionof particular vessels to particular tombs Karl Lehmann (Marsyas,Suppl. 1, 1964) 63-69, figs. 6, 7.
is given wherever possible. This informationwas noted in Stampedconcentriccircles (2) at center,surroundedin turn
only a few instancesby Tsountas (e.g., for 1, 13, 17, 24, 27, by: a circle consisting of a single row of Kerbschnitt;a 5-
28) and most of the other attributionscome from museum rayed star interspersedwith Kerbschnitt;a band with mul-
labels. tiple zigzag interspersedwith Kerbschnitt;a 7-rayed star
Illustrations of at least two "frying pans" reliably re- filled with Kerbschnittand interspersedwith pairs or, in
ported as from Syros other than those found by Tsountas one case, three groups of stamped concentriccircles linked
have also been published (5, 10), and I have listed three fur- by tangents. Lower surface not preservedwhere genitalia
65 Tsountas 1899: 109-15. 66
Tsountas1899:100.
19851 "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 207

might have been representedbut a simple female genital tri- 5. Ships within network of stamped concentric circles or
angle is incised on upper surface of handle. spirals:
6. Athens 4971 (pl. 33, fig. 3; ill. 4). Zervos 1957: fig. 210; All the vessels in this group have narrow leg-like handles
Zschietzschmann 1935: fig. 5; Bossert 1960: fig. 8, no. 4 except 13. If we assumethe high end to be the prow, which I
(drawing of stamp). From T. 172. Central stamped spiral think is the correctview (see above), all the ships face to the
surroundedin turn by: a wheel-like patternwith 4 spokesor right, except that on 17.
rays interspersedalternativelywith Kerbschnittand multi- 13. Athens 5114 (pl. 34, fig. 10; ill. 5). Tsountas 1899: fig.
ple chevrons;a circular band of herringbone-likeincisions; 16 (drawing of ship); Bossert 1960: fig. 8, no. 14 (drawing
groups of stamped concentric circles linked with radial of stamp). From T. 351. Part of edge and most of central
lines; a star with 13 asymmetricalrays, one with nearly par- part of handle missing as well as a few small fragments.
allel sides. The rays are interspersed with Kerbschnitt. Splaying handle like 2 and 3. Ship somewhatbelow center
Small simple female genital triangle near handle. of field. High end toward the right, surmountedby a fish
2. Network of stamped concentric circles or spirals: emblem with herringbonepattern on its side and a hooked
7. Athens 5064 (pl. 33, fig. 5; ill. 4). Zervos 1957: fig. 220. line above its back. The mouth of the fish touched or per-
From T. 307. Network of concentric circles, arranged haps projectedslightly into the Kerbschnittborder.A more
roughly in concentricrings. Central dot within each group or less triangular tasselled banner decoratedwith herring-
of concentric circles. Female genitalia of complex design bone patterndependsfrom the high end. Paddlesor oars, 20
near handle, separatedfrom the area of concentriccirclesby aboveand probablyoriginally23 below, inclinedtowardthe
a band with four rows of Kerbschnitt.The compositionof low end. The undersideof the low end is curvedand a pro-
the decorationis almost identical to that on 17, except for jection with pointed extremity is attached at its bottom.
the ship within the area of concentriccircle, and the stamp Stampedconcentriccirclesin two differentsizes, the smaller
for the concentriccircles is the same or very close on both size perhaps being employed to avoid crowding. Enough is
vessels; they were almost certainly made by the same arti- preservedof the handle to show that genitalia were almost
san. No. 31 is also perhaps by the same hand. certainly not represented.Probablymade by the same arti-
8. Syros, Ermoupolis Museum. Bossert 1960: fig. 1, fig. 7, san as 9, 14, 25 and 29, to judge by the similaritiesof shape
no. 12 (drawing of stamp); Renfrew 1972: pl. 7.1 From T. and compositionof decoration,the style and details of the
292. Network of spirals, arrangedin a masterlypatternthat ships, and the use of identical or almost identical stamps;
appears both to be rectilinearand to have concentricrings of on 14, 25 and 29 two sizes of stamps also occurand they are
individual motifs. Simple female genital triangle on upper used in a similar way.
surface of handle. 14. Athens 6177.1 (pl. 34, fig. 11; ill. 5). Missing part of
3. Network of stamped concentric circles or spirals and cen- edge and other pieces. Centrally placed ship, unusually
tral star: large in relationshipto the other decorationand projecting
at either end into the Kerbschnittborder.Details of the ship
9. Athens 6144 (pl. 33, fig. 4). Fragment lacking centerand
are like that on 13. The herringbonepatternon the fish em-
part of rim. Central star, almost completely lost, sur- blem and banner is not shown in ill. 5 because the details
rounded by network of concentriccircles. The composition
are not clear in the photograph. Twelve paddles or oars
of the decorationand the stamp used for the concentriccir-
above and below. Stampedconcentriccircles in two differ-
cles are similar to those of 13, 14, 25 and 29; all five were
ent sizes. Genitalia lacking. Probablymade by the same ar-
probablymade by the same artisan. tisan as 9, 13, 25 and 29; see furtherunder 13.
10. L. Pollak, "Von griechischen Inseln," AthMitt 21
15. Athens 5053 (pl. 35, fig. 14; ill. 5). Bossert 1960: fig. 2
(1896) 188-228, pl. 5.14. Decoration similar to 24. and fig. 8, no. 15 (drawingof stamp);Tsountas 1899: fig. 20
4. Unlinked stamped concentric circles or spirals:
(drawing of ship). From T. 289. Missing parts of edge and
11. Athens 5154. From T. 382. Unusually small (D. ca. other pieces including the surface on which the low end of
0.14 m.). Double row of Kerbschnitt as outer border. the ship was represented.Ship at lower part of field, just
Stampedconcentriccircles, irregularlyspaced. above genitalia. High end toward the right, surmountedby
12. Athens 5058 (pl. 36, fig. 19). Zervos 1957: fig. 205; fish emblem with a hookedline above its back. A banner of
Zschietzschmann 1935: fig. 7; Bossert 1960: fig. 7, no. 10
branchinglines depends from the line joining the high end
(drawing of stamp). From T. 297. Strongly flaring walls. with the fish. Paddles or oars, 9 above and 6 below as pre-
Central pattern of double-line spirals, arrangedroughly in served, the upper inclined toward the high end, the lower
concentricrings and surroundedby rays on all sides except toward the low end. Network of concentriccircles. Female
toward handle. The spirals, although closely spaced, are
genital triangle;areas with groups of short strokesadjacent
mostly not contiguous. The rays are interspersed with to lower edges. Accordingto Bossert (1960: 8 n. 22), the
Kerbschnitt.Large triangulararea near handle presumably same stamp was used for the concentric circles on this
represents female genitalia; it is separatedfrom the area of and 16 and 22; these three vessels share many other similar-
spirals by a line with rows of Kerbschnitton either side ities of detail and were almost certainly made by the same
(cf. 23) and contains a vertical stroke, now very short (per- artisan; 21 is also generally similar and was possibly also
haps its continuationhas been obliterated). made by the same hand.
208 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
16. Athens 5046 (pl. 35, fig. 13;ill. 5). Tsountas 1899:fig. 19 grouped separatelyhere;there is a strongprobability,how-
(drawing of ship). From T. 283. Missing ca. one-quarter, ever, that all were of the forked variety, to judge by their
including all of the walls. Smaller than most "fryingpans." general shape and decoration.
Decorationsimilar to 15, including details of ship. Low end
1. Network of stamped concentric circles or spirals:
of ship missing; 11 paddlesor oars are preservedaboveand 7
21. Athens 6177 (pl. 34, fig. 7; ill. 4). Missing most of walls
below. Many similaritiesof detail with 15 and 22, including
and handle. Network of concentriccircles arrangedin con-
the use of the same stamp; see further under 15. General
centric rings, at least toward the outside. Similar in shape,
similarities also with 21.
17. Athens 4974 (pl. 33, fig. 6; ills. 4, 5). Tsountas 1899: fig. arrangement of decoration and many details to 15, 16
and 22, and possibly by the same artisan. The genitalia
11; Zschietzschmann1935:fig. 4; Zervos 1957:figs. 221-23.
From T. 174. Decorationonly on lower surface.Ship some- of 21 differ only in that the top edge is borderedby a band
what below center of field. High end toward left, sur- with short strokes.
mounted by a fish emblem, probably with a curving line 22. Athens 6172. Handle missing; restoredas forked. Un-
above its back.Two bannersof branchinglines dependfrom usually small. Concentriccircles. Pubic triangle with many
the linejoining the high end with the fish. Paddlesor oars, 14 short strokesnear lower apex. Similar to 15 and 16, except
aboveand 15 below, the upper inclinedtowardthe high end, for the ships, and probablyby the same artisan. The same
the lower toward the low end. The line at the bottomof the stamp is used on all three; see further under 15. Also close
low end projects beyond the end of the ship. Network of to 21, which is possibly also by the same hand.
concentric circles. Elaborate female genital triangle near 23. Athens 5315 (pl. 34, fig. 8). Bossert 1960: fig. 7, no. 11
handle, separatedfrom the main field by a zone with Kerb- (drawing of stamp). From T. 396. About two-thirds pre-
schnitt. Probablymadeby the same artisanas 7 (q.v.) and 31. served. Single line spirals, in at least one instance of a
18. Athens 6184 (pl. 35, fig. 15; ills. 2, 4, 5). Zervos 1957: smaller size than the rest. A secant set off with Kerbschnitt
fig. 204; Bossert 1960: fig. 7, no. 3 (drawing of stamp). Ship perhaps representsgenitalia (cf. 12). It is divided into two
similarly placed and generally similar to that on 17. Banner areas by a line and in one of the areas part of a curvilinear
with two major strands depends from the line joining the stamp impressionis preserved.
high end with the fish. Sixteen paddles or oars above and 2. Network of stamped spirals and central star:
below. Network of double-line spirals. Female genital tri- 24. Athens 4984 (pl. 34, fig. 9). Tsountas 1899: fig. 13;
angle near handle; lower edges borderedby two strips with Zschietzschmann1935: fig. 8; Bossert 1960: fig. 7, nos. 2, 5
oblique strokes.Similar to 24, except for the ship, and prob- (drawings of stamps). From T. 192. Small central motif of
ably made by the same artisan. star within a ring filled with two rows of Kerbschnitt.The
19. Athens 5122 (pl. 35, fig. 16; ills. 4, 5). Tsountas 1899: rest of the field has stampeddouble-linespirals, linked with
fig. 21 (drawing of ship); Bossert 1960: fig. 8, no. 9 (draw- tangential lines and arrangedaround the center in 3 or 4
ing of stamp). From T. 356. Missing ca. one-fifth. Ship be- rings. Two impressions near the center are of a smaller
low center with high end toward right. Fish with hooked stamp than the rest. Only part of female pubic triangle pre-
line above back. Banner comprisedof short strokes,increas- served.General organizationof decorationsimilarto 10; the
ing in width toward center, dependingfrom line joining the spirals are close to those on 18, which was probablymade
high end with the fish. Nearly vertical lines on hull, regu- by the same artisan. For the Kerbschnittcf. also 23.
larly spaced (cf. 53). Paddles or oars, inclined toward the 3. Ships within network of stamped concentric circles or
low end, 19 above and 23 below as visible in the photo-
spirals:
graph; in Tsountas' drawing, 25 are shown below. The line 25. Athens 6177 (pl. 34, fig. 12; ill. 5). Bossert 1960: fig. 8,
at the bottom of the low end projectsbeyond the end of the
no. 13 (drawingof stamp). Missing handleand other pieces.
ship. Stamped concentric circles in two different sizes.
Although handle is restoredas forked,the restorationcan-
Large, relativelyelaboratefemale genital triangle decorated not be regardedas certain. Concentriccircles in two differ-
with zigzag or multiple chevrons and an area of short
ent sizes. Centrallyplacedship, unusually large in relation-
strokes.
ship to the other decoration;it projectsat either end into the
Rectangular handle, unpierced Kerbschnittborder. Hull of ship unusually tall. High end
20. Athens 5012 (ill. 2). Zervos 1957: fig. 208. From T. 236. toward the right, surmountedby a fish emblem with her-
Flaring walls; flange drawn out toward handle. Single ringbonedecorationon body. A tasselledbanner, decorated
crude circle flanked inside and out by several rows of Kerb- with multiple chevronand widening towardthe bottomde-
schnitt;elsewhere Kerbschnittloosely arrangedin radiating pends from near the high end. Paddlesor oars, pointing to-
lines, some curving. Genitalia not clearly indicated. The ward the low end;at least 9 are now preservedaboveand 14
splaying walls and the decoration are reminiscent of 4, below, but there may originally have been five or six more
which was possibly made by the same artisan. above and two or three more below. A narrow rectangular
projectionwith pointed terminationfollows the line of the
Handle uncertain low end. Stamped concentriccircles in two different sizes.
Since the handles of the following are missing, they are Enough is preservedof handle to show that it lacked a pu-
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 209

bic triangle. Probablymade by the same artisan as 9, 13, 14 end toward right. Fish emblem with herringboneon side,
and 29; see especially under 13. and probablya hookedline above.A tasselled,nearly trian-
26. Athens 5230 (pl. 35, fig. 17; ill. 5). Zervos 1957: fig. 218; gular bannerdecoratedwith multiple chevrondependsfrom
Tsountas 1899: fig. 22 (drawing of ship); Bossert 1960: fig. line joining high end to fish. Paddlesor oars inclinedtoward
8, no. 20 (drawing of stamp). Handle and other fragments the low end probablyappear below the hull, but the ship is
missing. Unusually large (D. ca. 0.30 m.). Strongly flaring so badly preserved that details are obscure. Network of
walls. Kerbschnittin borderhas a wing-like form. Ship un- stamped concentric circles in two different sizes. Similar
usually long and delicate. High end to right, surmountedby to 9, 13, 14 and 25 and probablymade by the same artisan.
a fish emblemwith herringbonedecorationon body.A cross- 30. University of Missouri, UM 062.31 (pl. 36, fig. 20; ill.
hatchedbanner,widening somewhattowardthe bottom,de- 2). Thimme 1977: no. 406. Handle with knob-liketermina-
pends from the line joining the high end with the fish. Pad- tions which touch one another.A centralmotif, consistingof
dles or oars, pointing toward the high end; 25 are now pre- concentricrings and star patterns set off by Kerbschnitt,is
served above and 29 below, but part of the hull is missing surrounded by a large 8-rayed star adorned with Kerb-
and there were probably originally about 30 above and 36 schnitt. The large star has swags with rows of Kerbschnitt
below. Narrow rectangularprojectionfollowing line of low from the ends of each pair of rays. Parallel rows of Kerb-
end. Network of concentriccircles. Pubic triangle probably schnitt, asymmetricallyoriented,near handle.
lacking,tojudge by the small area available.Generallysimi- 31. Florence,Museo Archeologico4333. Thimme 1977: no.
lar to 27 and possibly made by the same artisan. 404. Network of stamped concentriccircles. A triangular
27. Athens 5135 (pl. 35, fig. 18; ill. 5). Zervos 1957: fig. area is marked off next to the handle for a female genital
219; Tsountas 1899: figs. 17, 18 (drawings of ships); Bos- triangle but the vessel is somewhatfragmentaryand details
sert 1960: fig. 8, no. 18 (drawing of stamp). From T. 364. are obscure.Perhaps made by the same artisan as 7 and 17.
Handle and other fragments missing. Unusually large.
Kerbschnittin borderhas a wing-like form;cf. no. 26. Two NAXOS
ships, one abovethe other, placedobliquely to the axis of the Forked handle
handle. The high ends are toward the right. Just above the
upper ship and touching its high end is an irregular zigzag 32. (ill. 2). Kontoleon,Praktika 1972, pl. 141. From Aplo-
band embellishedwith short strokes.The two ships are sim- mata T. XIX (EC II); the grave goods in this tomb also
ilar. The fish emblems have dorsal fins and their bodies and included one marble folded-armfigurine. Broad spreading
tails are hatched; the eyes are represented by a dot. The handle with disk-like terminations. Bottom meets walls
hulls are decoratedby hatched bands of zigzag. The high without projecting. Concentric bands of Kerbschnittand
end of the upper ship is decoratedwith crosshatching;that herringbonedecorationon bottomwith radiatingstrokesat
of the lower ship with multiple chevrons. Paddles or oars outer edge. The outermost bands curve outward and con-
are presumably representedby a row of Kerbschnittabove tinue on the handle. Two rows of verticallines on outer sur-
each hull. Twenty-nine are probablyrepresentedabove the face of walls. For the outer bandsof decorationand the gen-
upper ship and at least 33 above the lower one (not all eral shape of the handle, cf. 2 and 3.
shown in ill. 5). The lower ship is not completelypreserved,
Rectangular handle, unpierced
however, and may have had as many as 40. Single lines pro-
ject from the lower edge of the lower end of each ship. Net- 33. Ch. Doumas, Early Bronze Age Burial Habits in the
work of concentric circles; pairs of tangential lines with Cyclades(SIMA 48, Goteborg1977) pl. 37g, h. From Ayioi
hatched space between. Pubic triangle probablylacking, to Anargyroi,T. 21 (probablyearly in EC II); a marble figu-
judge by the small area available. Generally similar to 26 rine was associated with a burial at a higher level in the
and possibly made by same artisan. same tomb. Somewhatroundedon bottom.Handle like that
of 35: Doumas 104. Polished, but without decoration.
Fragment:
28. Tsountas 1899: fig. 15. From T. 262. Fragment with 34. (ill. 2). Kontoleon,Praktika 1972, p1. 142. From Aplo-
band of stamped spirals and concentriccircles linked with mata, T. XV (EC II). Lackingouter Kerbschnittband. Un-
linked stampeddouble-linespirals, closely spacedbut most-
tangential lines near outer edge. It is not stated, probably
because the evidence was insufficient, whether groups of ly not contiguous,arrangedin concentricrings. Kerbschnitt
bands and hatchedtriangles on handle.
spirals alternatedonly once or several times with groups of
35. Kontoleon,Praktika1972, pl. 140. Marble. From Aplo-
circles;the illustrationshows a pair of each.
mata, T. XXIII (EC II); the grave goods in this tomb in-
PROBABLY FROM SYROS cludeda marblefolded-armfigurine.Very broadflange. No
carved decoration (perhaps originally decorated with
Forked handle
paint?). Traces of red and blue coloring material were
29. Berlin, Archaologisches Seminar no. 1445. Zschiet- found inside and Kontoleon (152) offers the tentative sug-
zschmann 1935: figs. 1, 3. About one-half missing, includ- gestion that the vessel may have been used in some way with
ing most of centerand ends of handle. Ship near center,high this material. One should note, however, that Kontoleon
210 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
also records (150) that coloring material was found with concentric rings of radiating lines and hand-drawn
throughoutthe grave, and it need not thereforebe especially spirals. Renfrew (1972: 527) mentions that he studied 9
connectedwith the "fryingpan." from this site.
36. (ill. 3). Lambrinoudakis,Praktika 1976, pl. 196y, /. 42. Renfrew 1972:pl. 4.11. From Grotta (probablyearly in
Marble. From Aplomata, T. XXVII (EC II); the grave EC II). Fragmentwith incised lines oblique to axis at outer
goods in this tomb also includedtwo marble folded-armfig- edge and on outer surfaceof walls.
urines. Carved decoration on bottom: intersecting zones
oriented parallel and obliquely to axis of handle create loz- .AMORGOS
enge-shaped areas which are filled with parallel lines; run- 43. Athens 4740. Tsountas 1898: pl. 9.16. From a pit ("lak-
ning zigzag near edge; herringbonepattern on handle. For kos")at Kato Akroterion(early in EC II). Handle not pre-
the decorationcf. other marble vessels (e.g., Thimme 1977: served.Spiral or concentriccircles at center, surroundedby
nos. 359, 363, 366); cf. also a terracotta"fryingpan" from concentriczones of decoration:short radiatingstrokes;run-
Asea (89) with herringboneincisions. Running zigzag oc- ning hand-drawn double-line spirals; radiating triangular
curs on the bottomof 93, 97, 116 and 121 and on the outside impressionsor strokes;running hand-drawntriple-line spi-
of the walls of 60 and 78. rals; radiatingtriangularimpressionsor strokesas an outer
Handle uncertain
border. On walls: triple-linked spirals borderedbelow by
horizontalline. The decorationis close to that of 51.
37. Athens 6140 (pl. 36, fig. 23). A.K. Stephanos,"Lestom-
beaux pr6myceniens de Naxos," Congres International ANDROS?
d'Archeologie (Athens 1905) 218; H. Frankfort, Studies in 44. Athens, British School of Archaeologyno. A202 (ill. 2).
Early Pottery of the Near East 2 (Royal Anthropological In- Frankfort (supra 37) pl. 6.4; Bossert 1960: fig. 7, no. 6
stitute Occasional Papers No. 8, London 1927) pl. 6.2;
Zschietzschmann1935: fig. 12; Papathanasopoulos,Deltion (drawing of stamp). Rectangular handle with a circular
hole in the center,causing it to resemblesomewhatboth the
1961-1962, pl. 66; Zervos 1957: fig. 228. From a tomb at barredand the "bracket"varieties. Small central circle sur-
Louros (probably early in EC II); the grave goods in this
rounded by two rings of Kerbschnittand a zone with 6
tomb included five marble figurines with stumpy arms of
"Lourostype."Although Renfrew (1972: 528) suggeststhat widely spaced and unlinkedstamped,double-linespirals.
this vessel may have been a lid, the beginningof the handle ANO KOUPHONISI
is certain and it is properly regarded as a "frying pan."
From photographsthe handle attachmentappears to have 45. (ill. 2). Zapheiropoulou, Deltion 25 (1970) pl. 372y;
been narrow and the handle therefore likely to have been Otto in Thimme 1977: fig. 121.1. Tomb in field of M. Simi-
lidas (probablyearly in EC II). Barred handle with horns
rectangularrather than forkedor barred.Flaring lip, offset
at angle from walls. No outer Kerbschnittband. Central projectingobliquely at either end. Concentriczones of deco-.
circle with radiating lines, four linked hand-drawndouble- ration:at centera stampedspiral, then a 9-rayed star, a cir-
line spirals and, near the outer edge, four fish. For the spi- cle, small Kerbschnitt-likerays, impressions making up a
rals, cf. 58 (in stone) and for the organizationof the decora- lozenge patternand triangularimpressionspointedinward.
On outside of walls: not entirely clear in photographs,but
tion, cf. 70 and 122.
38. Athens 6140. Frankfort (supra 37) pi. 6.1; Zschiet- probably rows of Kerbschnitt.
zschmann 1935: fig. 13. Central dot and circle, surrounded 46. Ph. Zapheiropoulou,"Un cimetieredu CycladiqueAn-
cien a Epano Kouphonissi,"(supran. 14) fig. 13. Fragment,
by small star with solid rays; two concentriczones of hand-
drawn spirals;outer borderof Kerbschnitt. lacking center. Barred handle. Zone of linked hand-drawn
39. Athens 6140. Frankfort (supra 37) pl. 6.3; Zschiet- spirals. Border:two rings of radiatingstrokes.
zschmann 1935: fig. 14. Very fragmentary.Part of handle 47. Zapheiropoulou,Deltion 25 (1970) pl. 369y. Unstrati-
fied. Lacking handle. The whole bottomcoveredby rows of
preservedwith inciseddecorationon lower surface.Decora-
tion generally similar to preceding. Kerbschnittmaking up a spiral or concentriccircles. Cf. 59
40. Athens 6140 (pl. 36, fig. 22). About one-thirdpreserved; and the continuouslydrawn spirals on 61 and 112.
lacking handle. Diameter ca. 0.18 m. Possibly a lid, but the
DESPOTIKON
walls are fairly high (H. ca. 0.04 m.) and somewhatconvex.
Irregular decoration,arrangedroughly in rings, consisting 48. Tsountas 1898: col. 164 (reportedas similar to 43). Lei-
of short strokesin variousorientationsand a zone of zigzags. vadhi, T. 130 (probablyearly in EC II).
On walls: short strokes in roughly horizontal lines, divided
at intervalsby verticallines of short strokes.The decoration KEOS
is somewhat reminiscentof the lid or "fryingpan" 126. 49. Caskey, Hesperia 41 (1972) B 21. Ayia Irini, Period II
41. Kontoleon,Praktika 1949, 120, fig. 10; Otto in Thimme (Early Helladic/Cycladic II). Handle not preserved. De-
1977: fig. 118.3-5. Settlementat Grotta (probablyearly in scribedby Caskey (365) as havinga "starpatternwith circle
EC II). Fragmentsof three or more "fryingpans"decorated at center and filling of Kerbschnitt,surroundedby a band
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 211

with stamped concentriccircles and tangent lines forminga near edge opposite handle. High end toward right, sur-
false running spiral." Since it is apparently broken at the mounted by a fish emblem which incorporatespart of the
outside edge, it is not clear whether it was surroundedby a innermostincisedring. Vertical lines on hull (cf. 19). A sin-
band of Kerbschnitt.Caskey also reportsfragmentsof three gle line projectingfrom low end.
other "fryingpans"with "falserunning spirals."
Barred handle
MYKONOS 55. Paris, Louvre CA 2991 (pl. 36, fig. 26). Zervos 1957:
50. Mykonos Museum (pl. 36, fig. 21). W. Deonna, Delos figs. 224, 225; Bossert 1960: fig. 6; Renfrew 1972: pl. 4.1;
18. Le mobilierdelien (Paris 1938) 273, pl. 84.713; Bossert Thimme 1977: no. 400. Reportedas from Syros in Zervos
1960: fig. 8, no. 1 (drawing of stamp). Attributedby Deon- but according to Thimme without certain provenance.
na to Rheneia but accordingto Belmont and Renfrew (AJA Large triangular impressionsforming a star at center and,
68 [1964] 397) from an EC II tomb at Diakophtis in Myko- at some distance, a toothed band. This in turn surrounded
nos. Forked handle. Stamped concentric circle at center, by a circularband of short strokesand one of linked hand-
surroundedby a zone with 6 bands of Kerbschnitt.Between drawn double-linespirals. Shortstrokesand Kerbschnitton
this and the broad outer Kerbschnittborder is a reserved bottom of handle. Linked hand-drawnspirals borderedby
zone. Large pubic triangle near handle but intruding into Kerbschnitton outer surfaceof walls.
reservedzone. 56. Vienna, private collection.Thimme 1977: no. 401. Re-
ported to have been found with a jug: see Thimme for de-
PAROS tails and references.Concentriccirclesat centersurrounded
by successivebands of ornament including two of running
51. Paros Museum (ill. 2). Varoucha,ArchEph 1925-1926,
hand-drawnspirals. Shortradiatinglines ratherthan Kerb-
fig. 9; Zschietzschmann 1935: fig. 11; Zervos 1957: figs. schnitt on outer band. Thimme mentionsmarksof
grinding
226, 227; Bossert 1960: fig. 5. Kampos,T. 3 (probablyearly on the interior.
in EC II). Barred handle; bar is nearly circular in section
57. Basel, ErlenmeyerCollection (pl. 36, fig. 25). Thimme
and projectsbeyondstruts. At centerirregularlydrawn con-
1977: no. 402. Hand-drawn spiral at center, surroundedat
centriccirclessurroundedby concentricrings of Kerbschnitt
a distanceby a band of Kerbschnittand hand-drawnlinked
and linked hand-drawn double-line spirals. Kerbschnitt
continues on lower surface of handle. On outer surface of spirals.
walls: linked hand-drawndouble-line spirals between rows Rectangular handle, unpierced
of Kerbschnitt. Similar to 76.
58. Karlsruhe75/11 (pl. 37, fig. 32; ill. 3). Thimme 1977:
no. 364. Chlorite schist. Carved decoration:Kerbschnitt-
SIKINOS?
like band beside edge;networkof double-linespirals, which
52. Copenhagen 3245. CVA Denmark 1, pl. 37.4; Otto in become larger toward the center, arranged in two rings
Thimme 1977: fig. 119.1. Attributed in CVA to Amorgos around a large centralspiral;on handle a cross-likepattern
but by Renfrew (1972:523) and Otto to Sikinos. Barred (perhaps representinga butterfly or insect?). The radially
handle, with bar curving away from vessel at either end. symmetrical design, which is almost flawlessly executed,
Concentriczones of decoration:at center concentriccircles, makes this a masterpieceof Cycladicart.
apparently hand-drawn, surrounded by three zones of
linked hand-drawn double-line spirals with a Kerbschnitt Other handles
border.On outside of walls: linked hand-drawndouble-line 59. Basel, Erlenmeyer Collection (pl. 36, fig. 24; ill. 2).
spirals borderedabove and below with a row of Kerbschnitt; Thimme 1977: no. 403. The handle is a rectangularprojec-
a pair of parallel rows of short incised lines extendsoblique- tion with a large oval-shapedhole; it appears intermediate
ly from spiral to spiral forming a cross with the continuous between the barredvariety and the "bracket"handle of the
tangential lines. mainland (e.g., 87-88, 113). Outer band of short radiating
strokesratherthan Kerbschnitt.The remainingsurfacehas
SIPHNOS hundreds of short strokes arranged roughly in a spiral;
53. Tsountas 1899: col. 75 (reportedas similar to those of cf. 47 and the continuouslydrawn spirals on 61 and 112.
Syros). Akrotiraki,T. 143 (EC II). 60. Athens, Goulandris Collection. C. Doumas, The N.P.
Goulandris Collection of Early Cycladic Art (Athens 1968)
PROBABLY FROM THE CYCLADES no. 99; and CycladicArt (London 1983) no. 39. Handle rec-
Forked handle tangular but indented somewhat in middle, giving the im-
pressionthat it is forked;cf. the forkedhandlesfromManika
54. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1971.842 (pl. 37, fig. 31; (64-69) and 112 from Lithares. Lackingouter Kerbschnitt
ill. 5). Thimme 1977: no. 405. Prongs of handle closely set band. Seven hand-drawnconcentriccircles in middle, sur-
together. Two concentric incised rings instead of outer roundedby asymmetricalpattern of rays, areas of parallel
Kerbschnitt band. Unlinked concentric circles, partly lines and short strokes.Continuouszigzag on outer surface
stamped and partly hand-drawn. A crudely drawn ship of walls (cf. 78). Inciseddecorationon upper surfaceof han-
212 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
die, not clearly illustrated. Decoration reminiscent of 143 the Manika cemeteries and there is a strong presumption
and, though somewhat less, of 73. Although published that all these vessels were locally produced.
as Cycladic, this piece is possibly from Euboea or the All the tombs containing "frying pans" at Manika are
mainland. probablyto be datedto EH II. No. 75 is a surfacefind from
61. Athens, GoulandrisCollection (pl. 37, fig. 34). Doumas the settlement.
(supra 60) GoulandrisCollectionno. 98; and CycladicArt
no. 38. Horizontal spool-shaped handle, pierced vertically Forkedhandle
near center; it resembles the lugs on some of the bottle- The forkedhandles tend to projectless than those on the
shaped vessels of the "Kamposgroup,"but these are usually vessels from Syros, particularlyafter they bifurcate,and the
piercedalong their length:e.g., Deltion 1925-1926, 104 fig. tips are occasionallysomewhatthickenedand rounded.As a
7; Zervos 1957: fig. 87; Doumas, CycladicArt no. 37. Flar- consequence,they bear less resemblanceto human legs than
ing walls. Lacking outer Kerbschnittband. A single spiral their counterpartsfrom Syros and it is noteworthythat rep-
covers the whole of the bottom; the handle is ringed with resentationsof genitalia are completelylacking.
verticallines. For the spiral cf. 112 and those in Kerbschnitt 64. (ill. 2). Papavasileiou1910: pl. 2. Group 1, T. 2.
or short strokeson 47 and 59. 65. Papavasileiou 1910: pl. 2. Group 1, T. 3. Handle
restored.
AEGINA
66. Papavasileiou 1910: pl. 2. Group 1, T. 4.
62. Renfrew 1972: pl. 4, no. 13. Fragment of rim without 67. Papavasileiou1910: pl. 11. Group 4, T. 2.
projecting flange. Outer edge of bottom: short radiating 68. Papavasileiou1910: pl. 13, lower left. Group 5, T. 3.
strokes. Outer surface of wall: short strokes near top and 69. Sampson(supra n. 6) 73 and fig. 14. Apparentlythe sole
bottom. objectin T. VIII.
63. Renfrew 1972: pl. 4, no. 14. Fragment of rim. Short
strokes oriented obliquely at outer edge of bottom. Within Barredhandle
this was a band of running spirals or concentriccircles,pos- 70. (pl. 37, fig. 28; ill. 2). Papavasileiou 1910: fig. 14.
sibly stamped, but not well enough preserved to be sure Group 3, T. 4. The bar of the handle projectsbeyond the
from photograph. struts to form knob-like projections.Incised decorationon
bottom:hand-drawn spirals, a large one in the center and
EUBOEA four smaller ones asymmetrically spaced near the peri-
MANIKA phery; the outer line of each smaller spiral links it with the
Papavasileiou distinguished 5 groups (systades) of next, giving the effect of a circumscribingcircle; the outer
tombs.67"Fryingpans"were evidently distributedthrough- line of the centralspiral also continuesand links it with the
out the cemetery.Ten "fryingpans"were found in 9 tombs, outer ring. For the general organization of the four outer
at least one in each group: Group 1 T. 2 (which contained spirals, cf. 37 and 122.
two vessels, 64 and 74), T. 3 (65), T. 4 (66); Group 2 T. 1
Triangular,knobbedhandle
(73); Group 3 T. 4 (70); Group 4 T. 2 (67); Group 5 T. 2
(71), T. 3 (68) and T. 5 (72). The position of the vessels The handle is represented by a triangular projection,
within these tombs was generally not recorded.A "frying thickenedat its end to a knob and piercedwith a roundhole
pan"was the sole objectin two tombs (Group 5, T. 3 and T. near the walls of the vessels.
5). Objectsassociatedwith the "fryingpans"in other tombs 71. Papavasileiou 1910: pl. 13, upper left. Group 5, T. 2.
number from one (Group 2, T. 1) to nine (Group 4, T. 2), 72. (ill. 2). Papavasileiou 1910: pl. 13, upper right. Group
and include a marble folded-armfigurine (Group 1, T. 2), 5, T. 5.
bronze tweezers (Group 1, T. 4), bone objects(Group 4, T.
Handle uncertain
2) and vessels of stone and clay. Beak-spoutedjugs and one-
handled tankards, which are generally believed to have 73. Papavasileiou 1910: fig. 12. Group 2, T. 1. Handle re-
Anatolian connections(supra p. 200), occuronly in tombsof stored as forkedbut apparentlynot extant. Incised decora-
Group 4, although not in the same tomb as the "fryingpan" tion: near center, concentriccircles and rings of punctations
(T. 2). Only one more "fryingpan" was found by Sampson surroundedby a band of zigzags; toward edge, expanding
during his recent excavation of 21 other tombs (69); al- rays filled with straight and zigzag lines and punctations
though not yet fully published, it evidently had a forked and separatedin two instancesby groupsof curvingparallel
handle and was probably undecorated. In every case the lines. The rays are not placed in a symmetricalrelationship
edge of the vessel projectssomewhat beyond its walls. The with the handle. The decorationis somewhat reminiscent
walls are generally nearly vertical but they occasionally of 40, 60 and 126; cf. also 143.
have a noticeable flare (e.g., 67). Only two were certainly 74. Papavasileiou1910: pl. 2, upper left. Group 1, T. 2. No
decoratedwith incised patterns (70, 73) and in both cases handle preserved and perhaps originally without handle,
the patterns were crudely organized. Stamped decoration described,Papavasileiou(4), merely as "withouthandle."
occurs neither on "frying pans" nor any other vessel from 75. Sackettet al., BSA 61 (1966) pl. 13d, upper row; Ren-
67
Papavasileiou 1910: 1-19.
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 213

frew 1972: pl. 4.12. Fragment with pattern of concentric 1960: fig. 9, no. 7 (drawing of stamp). T. 7. Barredhandle
rings, probablyat center,and linked hand-drawntriple-line like that of no. 77 but with externallyattachedstruts. Deco-
spirals. ration (from centerto edge): a stampedspiral, a star with 7
solidly impressedrays, a circle, a band of radiatingstrokes,
UNKNOWN PROVENANCE set somewhat obliquely, a band of 3 rows of Kerbschnitt,
76. Athens, Benaki Museum 7688 (pl. 36, fig. 27). Jacob- radiating strokes beside edge. On outside of walls: closely
sen, AA 1969, 233-42, fig. 5. Barredhandle. The bar curves spaced vertical strokes near rim; horizontal zigzag extend-
slightly away from vessel and extends beyond the struts to ing over the rest of the surface. For the zigzag, cf. 60.
form knobs. At center irregularly drawn concentriccircles 79. (pl. 37, fig. 29; ill. 2). Mylonas 1959: 92, fig. 148 (no.
surrounded by concentric rings of Kerbschnittand linked 210); Bossert 1960: fig. 9, no. 14 (drawingof stamp). T. 12.
hand-drawn double-line spirals. The lower surface of the The bottomprojectsbeyondthe walls only to the extent that
handle has a double row of Kerbschnitton the bar and sin- the walls are somewhat concave.Barredhandle of unusual
gle hand-drawn spirals on each strut. On outer surface of type: the bar meets the struts at either end to form a loop
walls: linked hand-drawndouble-line spirals between dou- which is foldedupon itself and which projectsobliquely be-
ble rows of Kerbschnitt.Close in form and decorationto 51. yond the central part of the bar. Stamped spiral at center
surroundedby 5 large ray-like impressionsforming a star;
ATTICA this in turn is surroundedby a circle, a band of obliquely
AYIOSKOSMAS placed strokes, a zone of stamped running spirals and, at the
outer edge, a band of closelyspacedoblique strokes.On out-
Mylonas reportedfinding at least 16 "fryingpans"68in- side of walls: closely spaced oblique strokesnear rim. The
cluding three from the settlement.69All the preservedhan- decorationis close to that of 80. Fragmentsof three similar
dles can be assigned to the barredtype although some (e.g.,
handles from the cemetery are also illustrated: Mylonas
79) represent an unusual variety of this type. All have in- 1959: figs. 145.12 and 160.315, 316.
cised decoration, although there is also a similar shape of
80. Mylonas 1959: 102, fig. 148 (no. 227); Bossert 1960:
plate70 which apparently may be undecorated. Many of
these vessels may have been locally made. Mylonas men- fig. 9, no. 16 (drawing of stamp). From area of T. 23.
Handle not preserved;shape similar to no. 79. Decoration
tions "their rather coarse clay and imperfect firing,"71and
also similar except that the spirals are linked with curving
supposes that they were an elaborate and less utilitarian
version of ordinaryplates. lines, the radiating strokes are less closely spaced and less
Two of the four more or less complete"fryingpans"from oblique to the axis and there is a second row near the
bottomon the outside. Fragmentsof severalsimilarly deco-
Ayios Kosmas were found in Grave 7,72 which contained rated vessels are illustrated;at least 3 are from the settle-
the bones of many individuals.One (77) was near the femur
ment-see Mylonas 1959: fig. 145.8-11. For others from
of the skeletonwith which it is probablyto be associated;the
the cemetery, see Mylonas 1959: figs. 145.4-7; 159.300;
other (78) was near a skull, but cannot with certainty be
associatedwith it. No. 79 was found on edge leaning against fig. 160.313, 314, 317-24.
the west wall of Grave 1273;bones of two individualswere
MARKOPOULO
found on the east side of the grave but no other grave goods
can be securely associated with it. Finally, 80 was found 81. Papachristodoulou,AAA 4 (1971) 140-46, fig. 5. Prob-
outside but near the disturbedGrave 2374along with sever- able tomb beneath Petrouti Street. Lackinghandle. Similar
al other objects. to 79, but between the band of running spirals and the out-
All the "fryingpans"from Ayios Kosmascan be dated to ermostband of short strokesis a band with 4 rows of crudely
EH II. executed Kerbschnitt.

77. Mylonas 1959: 85-86, figs. 146, 148 (no. 190). T. 7.


MARATHON
The bottom, which is slightly convex, does not projectbe-
Two are from tombs at Tsepi, which are probablyall to
yond the walls and the walls incline inward slightly. Barred
be dated to EH/EC II.
handle, the struts of which were thrust through the walls.
Both struts and bar are apparentlyround in section and the 82. Marinatos, AAA 3 (1970) 349-66, fig. 4. From ceme-
struts continue beyond the bar and turn outward slightly to tery at Tsepi. Lacking handle. Decorationlike 78, but with
form knobs. Stampedspiral at centersurroundedby 5 bands 15-rayedstar.
of ray-like Kerbschnittwith apices pointing towardthe cen- 83. Marinatos, Praktika 1970, pl. 34y; and 1971, pl. 2.
ter. On outside of walls: two rows of similar Kerbschnitt Tsepi, T. 13. Barredhandlewith hornsprojectingobliquely
with apices pointing upward. The design, although simple, at either end; fromthe photographsit is unclearwhetherthe
has no close parallel;45 is reminiscent. center of the handle is actually pierced,or filled with clay.
78. Mylonas 1959: 86, figs. 146, 148 (no. 195); Bossert At center, stampedconcentriccircles surroundedin turn by
68 Mylonas 1959: 122. 72
Mylonas 1959: 84-87.
69
Mylonas 1959: 24. 73 Mylonas 1959: 92-93.
70 Mylonas 1959: 24, S-8. 74 Mylonas 1959: 101-102.
71 Mylonas 1959: 126.
214 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
bandsof radiatingstrokes,Kerbschnitt,linked stampedcon- 88. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87g = fig. 88c. Fragment
centric circles and short, closely set radiating lines. For the with handle reportedas similar to no. 87. A pair of curving
decoration,cf. Mylonas 1959: fig. 160.314, 319, 320. lines, concentricwith hole in handle.
Other handle
PALAIA KOKKINIA
These fragmentsare probablyto be dated to EH I. 89. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87e. Fragmentwith handle.
From the drawing the handle appears to be joined to the
84. Theochares, Praktika 1951, 93-127, fig. 26a. Probable walls of the vessel by vertical strut-like extensionsso that it
habitation deposit. Fragment with oblique strokes at outer has a socket-like form (cf. 99, 120). Herringbone pattern
edge surrounding a band of stamped concentric circles, arrangedin rectilinearzones of unevenwidth. For the deco-
linked by tangential lines.
ration, cf. that on the marble piece 36 and, for the herring-
85. Theochares, Praktika 1951, 93-127, fig. 26y. Bossert
bone, cf. also 32. Herringboneis often arrangedin rectilin-
1960: fig. 9, no. 5 (drawing of stamp). Probablehabitation ear zones on pyxis-lids (e.g., Doumas 1977: pl. 33a).
deposit. Fragment from center with stamped spiral sur-
rounded by star with impressed rays. Theochares fig. 26/3 Handle uncertain
and 8 are possibly also from "fryingpans";the former ap- 90. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87a. Fragmentof rim. Band
parently has rows of Kerbschnittas an outer border. of oblique strokesnear edge. A stampedgroup of concentric
circles is preserved,beside which are 4 radiatinglines com-
RAFINA
ing nearly together near edge. The design was perhaps a
86. Theochares, Praktika 1951, 93-127, fig. 14. From set- large starwith raysalternatingwith concentriccircles(cf. 5).
tlement, probably to be dated to EH II. Fragment with 91. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87b. Fragmentof rim. Near
Kerbschnittbands at outer edge surroundinga band or area edge two concentricbandsof carelesslydrawn unlinkedspi-
with impressedconcentriccircles. rals (cf. 115 and parallels there cited).
92. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87c. Fragmentof rim. Near
ELSEWHERE IN MAINLAND GREECE
edge a bandof running stampedspiralsor concentriccircles.
Listed here are pieces that in my view are certainly or 93. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 87d. Fragmentof rim. Near
likely to have been true "fryingpans." It should be noted, edge band of zigzag, within which a band of short strokes
however, that some doubt is possible in the case of some of (Kommaverzierung).On outer surface of walls multiple
the fragmentslacking evidencefor handlesand fragmentsof chevron-likepattern. For the zigzag, cf. 97, 116, 121 and
handles only (e.g., 105, 108, 109). I have excluded here al- the marblevessel 36.
most all undecoratedpans, even when handles are present 94. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 68j = fig. 87f. Fragmentof
(e.g., 127). rim. Two rows of comma-likeimpressionsseparatedby an
incised line in a band near edge.
ASEA
All pieces come from excavations in the settlement by ASINE
Holmberg.75Nos. 87, 89, 90, 92-94 are reportedto have 95. Frbdinand Persson,Asine (supra n. 35) fig. 171. Settle-
been found in Neolithic-Early Helladic mixed layers, 88 in
ment, EH II deposit.76ConsideredtypicallyCycladicby the
a purely EH layer and 91 in an almost pure EH layer.
excavators;see Frodin and Persson233. Fragmentwith im-
There is some doubtabout their chronologyand also wheth-
er all were true "fryingpans,"given their fragmentarycon- pressedspiralsandconcentriccircles,verycloselyspacedand
in some instances contiguous or slightly overlapping. Ac-
dition. Another piece, although reportedas from the Neo-
cordingto Frodin and Persson (233), the impressionscom-
lithic-Early Helladic mixed layer, is likely to be a lid of
later date and is included infra under OTHERVESSELS(141).
prise "bothreal spirals and concentriccircles";this view is
acceptedby Bossert,77but fromthe photographsthey appear
Holmberg regardsall of the following as probablyimported to me to be only concentriccircles.AlthoughBossert78draws
except 94, which is evidently of a local yellow slipped and the stamps as linked, the lines visible in the photographap-
polished ware. pear haphazardand perhapsaccidental.The stamp impres-
"Bracket" handle sions were probablyarrangedin concentricrings. Perhaps
from near centerof a vessel decoratedlike 115.
87. (ill. 2). Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 88b. Fragment of
handle only. Handle trapezoidalin outline as seen from top
BERBATI
or bottom, centrally pierced. Possible curving line of punc-
tations near hole. Cf. a handle on a bowl from prehistoric 96. G. Saflund, Excavations at Berbati 1936-1937 (Stock-
Macedonia:Rey (supra n. 9) fig. 12b. holm 1965) fig. 106h. Settlement,EH. Fragmentwith area
75Holmberg (supra n. 34) 84-87. 77 Bossert 1960: 14.
76 For the
dating, see J.L. Caskey, "The Early Helladic Periodin 78
Bossert 1960: fig. 10, no. 4.
the Argolid,"Hesperia 29 (1960) 301.
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 215

or zone of Kerbschnittsurroundedby a pair of concentric linked stampedmotifs, probablyspirals, surroundingone of


rings and a zone of stamped double-line spirals, adjacent short oblique strokesinscribedby a circle.
and in one case contiguousto one another;cf. 115 and paral- 102. Goldman 1931: fig. 97.3. Fragment of rim. Short
lels there cited. The decorationis also reminiscentof 49. oblique strokesat outer edge. Part of a curving line is pre-
97. Saflund (supra 96) fig. 106f; colorpl. 4. Settlement,EH. servedon the fragmentillustrated,and Goldmanstates (82):
Fragment of rim with double Kerbschnitt border within "thedesign includesconcentriccircles."
which is a zone of finely incised lines, apparentlyin a run- 103. Goldman 1931: fig. 97.4, 5. Fragmentsof rim. Band of
ning zigzag. For the latter cf. 93, 116, 121 and the marble crosshatchingnear edge (cf. 107 and 113), apparentlysur-
vessel 36. roundinga star with herringbonepatternon the rays.
104. Goldman 1931: fig. 97.6. Fragment of rim. Unlinked
CORINTH concentriccircles in a band near rim. The groups of circles
seem not to have been made by a single stamp, although
Roughly 30 fragmentscertainlyor probablyfrom "frying
each circle may have been impressed;Jeremy B. Rutter has
pans"have been found at Corinth and there are other pieces
from similar vessels. All are from settlementdeposits or de- suggested to me in a letter that they may have been drawn
bris. Not enough informationhas yet been publishedto per- freehand,but they seem too regular. For the unlinked mo-
mit them to be closely dated. Only two pieces of special in- tifs, cf. 115 and parallels there cited.
terest are included here. John C. Lavezzi, who will even- 105. Goldman 1931: fig. 114.3. Fragment of "bracket"
handle.
tually publish all these pieces, kindly informs me that
106. Caskey and Caskey, Hesperia 29 (1960) 144 no.
among them is a fragment of a flanged bottom with elon-
IV.14. Settlement. EH I deposits. Fragment of rim. Short
gated outline, probably from a "frying pan" with forked
handle. radiatingstrokesnear edge; bands of short strokesnear top
and bottomof outer surfaceof walls.
98. Corinth C-37-2816. Weinberg, Hesperia 6 (1937) 515 107. Caskey and Caskey, Hesperia 29 (1960) 144 no.
fig. 34h; Renfrew 1972: fig. 11.6. Fragment of rim. Short IV. 13. Fragmentof rim, perhapsof a "fryingpan."Band of
radiating strokesnear edge; bands of short strokesnear top crosshatchingnear edge;cf. 103 and 113.
and bottom of outer surface of walls. Two other fragments 108. Caskey and Caskey, Hesperia 29 (1960) 145 no.
with running stampedspirals are probablyfromthis or sim- IV.19. Fragmentof "bracket"handle;cf. 113.
ilar "fryingpans":Weinberg fig. 34f, g. 109. Caskey and Caskey, Hesperia 29 (1960) 145 no.
99. Corinth C-68-359. Unpublished and mentioned here IV.18. Fragmentof a "bracket"or "wishbone"handle.
through the courtesyof John C. Lavezzi and Henry S. Rob-
inson. Probably EH I. Fragment of edge of shallow vessel. LERNA
The walls flare at an angle of ca. 40? from the horizontal. The EH II levels at Lerna produced6 fragmentsof flat
The angle of the walls increases to ca. 50? on the inside vessels with
stamped decoration; see Wiencke, AJA 84
toward the bottom of the vessel, which was probably flat. (1980) 240 for a brief
summary. I have included two of
Badly preservedindicationsof a handle, probablylike those these fragments here and three infra under OTHER VESSELS
of 89 and 120. At least two concentricrings of unlinkeddou- (130-132).
ble-line stampedspirals.
110. Caskey,Hesperia 27 (1958) pl. 35f; Renfrew 1972: fig.
EPIDAUROS 11.16; Bossert 1960: fig. 10, no. 5 (drawing of stamp). EH
II, "fromearliest E.H. deposits."Fragmentof rim. Band of
100. Papademetriou,Praktika 1949, 95 fig. 5, lower right.
short oblique strokes at edge surrounding one of linked
Settlement. Fragment of rim. Band near edge with three
stamped concentriccircles. On outer surfaceof walls: band
rows of Kerbschnitt, surrounding a band of radiating
of diagonal lines near center,borderedby incised lines.
strokes and a circle. This fragmentis listed here as a "frying
111. Caskey, Hesperia 27 (1958) pl. 35e; Bossert 1960: fig.
pan" because of its decorativescheme, which is unlike that 9, no. 4
of any lid I know. (drawingof stamp). Found as preceding.Fragment
of bottomwith contiguousor closelyspacedstampedspirals.
EUTRESIS Perhaps from a vessel decoratedlike 115.

All are reported to be from EH I deposits in the settle- LITHARES


ment. They are very fragmentaryand doubts may be ex-
112. (ill. 2). Spyropoulos and Tzavella-Evjen, AAA 6
pressed that all are true "fryingpans." Three other pieces,
possibly related, are listed infra under OTHER VESSELS (1973) 373 fig. 3. From settlement.EH. Rectangularhan-
(127-129). dle, centrallypiercedand somewhat indentedat end so that
it resembles a forked handle (cf. 60). A single large spiral
101. Goldman 1931: fig. 97.7. Fragmentof bottom.Band of almost completely covers the bottom (cf. 61 and parallels
216 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
there cited); near edge a band with two rows of Kerbschnitt From Phase Y. Fragmentof rim. Radiatingstrokesat outer
borderedby incised lines, which turns and continueson the edge. Band of verticalstrokeson outer surfaceof walls near
handle (cf. Cycladicvessels with forkedhandles such as 2, 3 top.
and 32). Kerbschnittalso on outer surface of walls. 118. Fossey, BSA 64 (1969) 66 fig. 6, lower right, no. 2.
From Phase Z. Fragment of rim. At outer edge a single
MANESI band of Kerbschnitt.Near edge a pair of stamped spirals,
113. (ill. 2). Soteriades, ArchEph 1908, 73 fig. 6, above; adjacentto one another, with tangential lines, each with a
Frankfort (supra 37) fig. 13 (showing handle). Prehistoric row of Kerbschnittrunning parallel to it. The design is un-
settlement. Fragment of rim and "bracket"handle. Flaring usual and may be like that on a jar from Eutresis:Goldman
walls. Band of crosshatchingnear rim (cf. 103, 107), sur- 1931: pl. 3.2. Another sherd from Perachora,called a "fry-
ing pan"but apparentlynot one, to judge fromthe drawing,
rounding poorly preservedradiating lines, perhaps part of is also similar:
star (cf. 103). The doubts expressed about this piece by Fossey 1969: fig. 6, lower right, no. 1.
119. Fossey, BSA 64 (1969) 68 fig. 7, right. From a deposit
Wace and Thompson79that this is a true "fryingpan"seem
of Phases Y-Z. Fragmentof rim. Radiatingstrokesat edge,
unnecessary.
surroundinga band of linked spirals, presumablystamped.
Bands of verticalstrokeson outer surfaceof walls near bot-
NEMEA
tom and top.
114. Settlement at Tsoungiza, excavations of Bryn Mawr
College, 1984. Unpublished;mentionedthroughthe courte- TIRYNS
sy of James Wright and describedfor me by Jeremy B. Rut- 120. K. Muller
ter. From an EH I stratum. Fragment of rim with place of (supra n. 45) 35, 36 and pl. 14.1-3. EH
settlement. Socket-likehandle with two vertical extensions
attachment of barred handle; the handle struts were at-
connectingit to the vessel wall, which turns outwardto form
tached by plugs thrust through the vessel wall. The only a flat surface above the handle.
Large oval perforationin
decorationpreservedis a borderof short strokes. lower surface of handle. Similar to the handle of 89; 99 is
probablyalso similar. Bottomperhaps undecorated.
PEFKAKIA
115. Touchais, BCH 101 (1977) 593 fig. 182. Settlement. CRETE
Early Bronze Age (evidently contemporarywith EH II). 121. (pl. 37, fig. 30). C. Davaras, Guide to CretanAntiqui-
Large fragment.Decorationfrom center to outside:a circu- ties (Park Ridge 1976), fig. 77; and Deltion 27 (1972) pl.
lar area with contiguous stamped spirals, one at the center 603, lower right. From a tomb at Ayia Photia of EM I/II
surroundedby two concentricrings; a band with two rows date. The handle, which is not restored,is rectangular,pro-
of Kerbschnitt;a band with two rows of contiguousspirals; jects only slightly, and is pierced near the center. Simple
a band with two rows of Kerbschnitt;a band with two rows decorationin a concentricpattern.Radiatingstrokesin cen-
of contiguousspirals as a border.Bandsor areasof unlinked ter surroundedin turn by: a circle;a bandof zigzag;a circle;
spirals or concentriccirclesare also found on 91, 95, 96, 104 radiating strokes;a circle;radiating strokes;a band of zig-
and 111 and in the case of 95, 96 and 111 the individual zag. For the decoration, cf. 116 and, for the zigzag as a
motifs are similarly closely spaced. Although unlinked spi- borderpattern, 93 and the marble example 36. For the in-
rals occur in the Cyclades on 11, 12 and 34, they occupy a ner band of zigzag, cf. also 73, from Manika.
larger area and are not so carefully set off in zones. The 122. S. Marinatos and M. Hirmer, Crete and Mycenae
overall design is somewhat reminiscentof 111. (New York n.d.) pl. 5, below. In the GiamalakisCollection.
Small vessel with large barredhandle. Pronouncedknobsat
PERACHORA either end of the bar. A group of stampedconcentriccircles
All pieces come from the EH settlementby Lake Vouli- at center and four others symmetricallyorganized. Lines
agmeni. Phase Y dates to EH I, Phase Z to a little later in extend outwardfromthe centralconcentriccirclesto make 4
EH I or to early in EH II.80 ray-like shapes; the apices are not completelyclosed, how-
ever, and the lines continue to form bracket-like shapes.
116. Fossey, BSA 64 (1969) 63 fig. 5, lower right, no. 1. Herringbone pattern on bars of handle. For the
organiza-
From Phase Y. Handle not preservedand possibly not from tion of the decorationand its
quadrilateralsymmetry,cf. 37.
a "frying pan." Star-like band of zigzag at center;then, at
some distance, a band of radiating strokes;near the edge, a ANATOLIA
band of running zigzag. Cf. 121, from Ayia Photia in Crete ALACAHUYUK
and, for the zigzag as a border pattern, 93 and the marble
Two examples of copper or bronze dating to the Anato-
vessel 36. For the inner band of zigzag, cf. also 73, from
lian Early BronzeAge.
Manika.
117. Fossey, BSA 64 (1969) 63 fig. 5, lower right, no. 2. 123. (ill. 3). H.Z. Ko?ay, Ausgrabungen von Alaca Hiiyiik

79A.J.B. Wace and M.S. Thompson, PrehistoricThessaly(Cam- 80 J.M. Fossey, "The PrehistoricSettlement Lake
by Vouliagme-
bridge 1912) 202. ni, Perachora,"BSA 64 (1969) 53-69.
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 217

served. Projectingflange and upright walls. D. ca. 0.15 m.


(Ankara 1944) pi. 83.60; Mellink 1956: 52, pl. 4, fig. 6, left
and pl. 5. From T. A. Slightly oval in outline. Rectangular Probably a lid. Raised decoration,which must have been
handle; the convex end has spur-like projectionsat either producedby a mould or matrix;cf. Wiencke,AJA 84 (1980)
side. Low walls, set well back from the edge. No decoration. 240. From centerto edge:stampedconcentriccircles;a band
For the shape in general cf. the marble vessels 35 and 36; of 7 smaller unlinkedstampedconcentriccircles (two circles
the handle of 36 is particularlyclose. The lack of decorationin each group); a band of linked stampedconcentriccircles
is also suggestiveof marble exemplars like 35. like that at center;a band of oblique strokes;another band
124. (ill. 3). Kosay (supra 123) pl. 89.27; Mellink 1956: 52,of linked stamped concentriccircles like preceding one; a
pl. 4, fig. 6, right and pl. 6. From T. A'. Smaller than 123.band of oblique strokes at edge. This particularscheme of
Rectangularhandle like 123 but shorter,so that impossible decorationis unique, but cf. 115.
to grip properly. No decoration.Ancient patch at one edge. 132. Lerna, Lot HTS 10. Unpublishedand mentionedhere
For the short handle, cf. the stone vessel 58. through the courtesy of Martha H. Wiencke. Settlement,
EH II. Small flat fragmentwith no edge or rim preserved.
OTHER VESSELS OR LIDS SIMILAR TO "FRYING Decoration raised like that of no. 131 and therefore pro-
PANS" duced by a mould or matrix: network of concentriccircles,
Nos. 137-143 probablydate early in the Middle Bronze linked by double lines.
Age and are included here only for comparativepurposes. 133. Thebes. Demakopoulou-Papantoniou, Deltion 31
The other examples date to the Early Bronze Age and some (1976) pl. 95b, '. From an apsidal house of late EH II date
may have been true "fryingpans,"although there is reason excavatedon the propertyof St. and N. Manisali. Handle-
to doubt it in each case. less pan with shallow, flaring walls, set off at an angle from
125. Athens, Goulandris Collection. Doumas, Goulandris the base; cf. no. 99. Rings of Kerbschnitton bottom sur-
Collection (supra 60) no. 329; and Cycladic Art (supra 60) roundingtwo parallel rows of Kerbschnittat center.
no. 164. ProbablyEC II. Marble. Large, shallow pan, gen- 134. Corinth, C-75-262. Unpublished and mentionedhere
erally like a "fryingpan"but without handle. Maximum D. throughthe courtesyof John C. Lavezzi and Henry S. Rob-
ca. 0.415 m. A row of 16 birds is carvedon a raised strip on inson. Fragment of edge of pan with profile like that of
the inside of the vessel. Fragments of at least two similar no. 133. The walls are shallow (H. ca. 0.021 m.) and set off
vessels are known from Keros: Zapheiropoulou, AAA 1 at an angle from the base; they flare at an angle of ca. 35?
(1968) 100 fig. 6; cf. Preziosi in Thimme 1977: 100 and from the horizontal.The angle of the walls becomessteeper
Doumas, Cycladic Art 134. on the inside toward the bottom of the vessel; perhaps this
126. Markopoulo. Theochares, Neon Athenaion 1 (1955) inner surface was concave rather than flat. Oblique short
pl. I. ProbablyEH II or EC II. Objectof terracotta,missing strokesas a border,inside which one stampedmotif is pre-
parts of edge. Described by Theochares (285) as a lid, but served,probablyconcentriccircles ratherthan a spiral.
possibly a "frying pan." Found in a tomb at Kovatsi near 135. Tiryns. Weisshaar, AA 1982, 450 fig. 67.6. EH II set-
Markopoulo. Near edge a band of crude hand-drawn spi- tlement, "FundkomplexNr. 8." Lid or stand with flaring
rals, linked by many lines. Toward center 4 large hand- walls. A horizontalhandle is attachedat the junction of flat
drawn concentriccircles, each embellished toward the out- surfaceand walls; it projectsupward fromthe flat surfaceat
side with short radiatinglines. Although the decorationmay an angle of ca. 25?. Decoration on flat surface: radiating
have been inspired by that on "fryingpans,"such as the two strokesnear edge, large herringbone-likepattern in center.
decoratedexamples from Manika (70, 73), it is cruderthan As Weisshaar notes (452), the position of the handle makes
and differs in its arrangementfrom all the other Attic exam- this object impossible to use as a container, although it
ples yet known. Cf. also 40, 60 and, for the circle with the might still be a stand rather than a lid, as he proposes.
short radiatinglines, 101. 136. Tiryns, Weisshaar, AA 1982, 449 fig. 66.1. EH II
127. Eutresis. Goldman 1931: fig. 143.1. Flat pan with up- settlement. Pan or lid with flaring walls, apparently
right rim. D. 0.23 m. Horizontal handle attachedopposite undecorated.
bottom.For other similar pans, see Goldman 1931: figs. 142 137. Athens, Acropolis. O. Graef, Die antiken Vasen von
and 143.2, 3. der Akropolis zu Athen (Berlin 1909) pl. 1.2. Fragment
128. Eutresis. Goldman 1931: fig. 145.1. Fragment de- probably of a lid. Border pattern of oblique short strokes.
scribedby Goldman (110) as of "smallflat stand."Decora- Unlinked stamped concentriccircles, irregularlyarranged.
tion of stippling and concentricarches. Cf. a fragment probably also of a lid from the Athenian
129. Eutresis. Goldman 1931: fig. 145.2. Fragment like Agora: S.A. Immerwahr, Athenian Agora 13 (Princeton
no. 128. Toward the centerthe decorationincludes stippled 1971) no. 255.
lines in the form of rays. 138. Athens, Acropolis. Graef (supra 137) pl. 1.3. Like
130. Lerna, L.1386. Caskey, Hesperia 27 (1958) pl. 35d. no. 137 but with borderof multiple chevron.
Settlement,earliest levels of EH II. Similar to no. 128. 139. Athens, North Slope of Acropolis.Hansen, Hesperia 6
131. Lerna, L.23 (pl. 37, fig. 33). Caskey, Hesperia 29 (1937) 545 fig. 4d. Fragmentsimilar to no. 138 but without
(1960) pl. 69e; Bossert 1960: fig. 10, nos. 1, 7 (drawingsof borderpattern.
stamps). Settlement,Lerna III, EH II. About one-half pre- 140. Thorikos. Graef (supra 137) 1 (sketch).Similar to 137.
218 JOHN E. COLEMAN [AJA 89
141. Asea. Holmberg (supra n. 34) fig. 86. Fragmentsprob- reexaminedin the light of the greaterbody of evidencenow
ably of a flanged lid. Maximum D. 0.223 m. Irregularrows available.82
of impressedcircles on flat side. Bossert identified the following differences between
142. Eutresis. Goldman 1931: fig. 254.1. Lid like 137-141. mainland and Cycladic usage: on the mainland, spirals are
Single ring of stampedconcentriccircles. more frequent than concentriccircles, whereas in the Cy-
143. Krisa. Jannoray and Van Effenterre,BCH 62 (1938) clades the reverse is true; mainland spirals are always sin-
119 fig. 9; L. Dor et al., Kirrha (Paris 1960) pl. 28d (one gle-lined, whereas in the Cycladesmost are double-lined;in
fragment, apparently representedin the drawing in mirror the Cyclades, the outer line of the spiral tends to draw in
image). Settlement,probablyMH. Fragmentof lid or plate. somewhattowardthe center,giving the visual impressionof
Incised decorationfrom centeroutward:small circulararea a circle, whereas this was not the practiceon the mainland;
with punctations;hand-drawnconcentriccirclesor spiral;a on the mainland, stamped motifs and the tangential lines
star with 5 rays interspersedby areas of punctations;four which link them are more randomly arrangedthan in the
incised concentriccircles;a band of ray-like running zigzag Cyclades,where spiralsand tangentstend to be organizedin
interspersedwith areas of punctations.Dor et al. imply (65 a clockwise direction (from the outside toward the center);
n. 1) that similar sherds were found at Kirrha but no fur- on the mainland,stampeddecorationis always arrangedin
ther information is given about their context. The settle- zones, whereas in the Cycladescontinuousrapportpatterns
ment at Krisa is usually thought to date no earlier than ("network")are common.
MH; the concentric organization of the decoration, how- In general, the additionalevidencetends to confirmBos-
ever, as well as the individualmotifs are remarkablysimilar sert's views about the differencesbetween vessels found on
to other vessels included in the catalogue of true "frying the mainland and those from the Cyclades. For the main-
pans." Cf. 5, 60 and, to a lesser extent, 73. land we may probablyadd at least 11 examplesto the list of
144. Troy. C.W. Blegen et al., Troy 1 (Princeton 1950) fig. spirals given in her fig. 9: 81, 82, 96, 98 and the fragments
404, no. 35.553. From Troy II, room 206. Flanged lid. there mentioned, 99, 115, 118, 119; Goldman 1931: fig.
Maximum D. 0.193 m. Hand-drawn grooveson upper sur- 97.2, 7; Fossey, BSA 64 (1969) 66 fig. 6, lower right, no. 1. I
face making three concentriccircles. know of only three examples in addition to those she gives
145. Troy. C.W. Blegen et al., Troy 2 (Princeton 1951) fig. (fig. 10) of concentric circles: 83, 86 and Theochares,
169, upper left (no. 37.900). From Troy IV, room 401. ArchEph 1953-1954, 75, fig. 26. In the Cyclades we may
Flanged lid. Maximum D. 0.172 m. Incised decorationon add three to the list of spirals in Bossert'sfig. 7 (28, 34, 45)
upper surface:crossedbands decoratedwith zigzag; swasti- and 13 to the list of concentriccirclesin her fig. 8 (5, 7, 9, 11,
kas and a horned animal in quadrants. 14, 16, 17, 21, 22, 28, 29, 31, 49). Contraryto her claim,
146. Horoztepe. T. Ozgiu and M. Akok,Horoztepe (Anka- stamped double-line spirals are known on the mainland
ra 1958) fig. 19, pl. 7.1; P.S. de Jesus, The Developmentof (e.g., 96, 99 and her fig. 9, nos. 1-4), although they are ap-
Prehistoric Mining and Metallurgy in Anatolia 2 (BAR In- parently less common than in the Cyclades. The stamped
ternationalSeries 74, Oxford 1980) fig. 23.5. Copper. Pan decorationof the mainland does tend to be less consistently
with flange at lower edge and slightly flaring walls. Projec- organized and no true "network"patterns have yet turned
tions extend horizontallyopposite one anotherfrom the top up. No. 132 and that mentionedin the Addendumare the
of the walls. One is pierced severaltimes and was evidently only probable examples known to me. Although Bossert
the tang for a handle of wood or some other material. The also notes 95 as a possibleexample of a "network"pattern,83
second, although evidently broken, is describedas the same it seems more likely to me to be part of an area of unlinked
as the first; see Ozgtiu and Akok 44 (where the object is spirals like 115.
called a mirror). This vessel may have been a true pan for The view that these features accurately reflect differ-
cooking. ences between mainlandand Cycladicusage rests on the as-
APPENDIX sumption that most, if not all of the pieces found on the
mainland were made there. As discussed above, I believe
STAMPED CONCENTRICCIRCLESAND SPIRALSIN this
assumptionto be true. We should be somewhatcautious
THE CYCLADESAND ON THE MAINLAND in assertingit as fact, however,since many excavatorson the
In an importantarticle about stampeddecorationon Ae- mainland have noted that the stampedpieces from their ex-
gean Early BronzeAge pottery, Bossertmaintainedthat the cavationswere considerablydifferentfromthe other pottery
use of stampeddecorationon the mainlandwas significantly and suggested that they were imported. One should also
different from that in the Cyclades and that the mainland mentionthat since roughly 80%of the Cycladicvessels with
began to use such decorationearlier.81These views may be stampeddecorationcome from Syros,the figuresmay not be
81 Bossert 1960. Kleinasiens[FestschriftfiirKurt Bittel, Mainz 1983] 127 fig. 2, no.
82
3) andthestampson hearthsandothercoarsepotteryandterracot-
This discussion focuses on the stamped concentriccircles and
spiralsof the sortthatappearon "fryingpans."Other,morecom- ta objects(e.g.,J.C. Lavezzi,"EarlyHelladicHearthRimsat Cor-
plex stampeddecorationon fine pottery (e.g., Bossert 1960, figs. 11, inth," Hesperia 48 [1979] 342-47) are beyond the scope of this
12; CMS 5, no. 478; Bossert, "Zu einigen Figurgefassen von den article.
Kykladen und aus Westkleinasien,"Beitrage zur Altertumskunde 83Bossert 1960: 14 and 10 n. 16.
1985] "FRYING PANS" OF THE EARLY BRONZE AGE AEGEAN 219

truly representativeof the Cyclades as a whole. If we had Bronze Age Aegean and the differences so admirably
more stamped decoration from other islands, for instance, pointed out by Bossertare betterexplained in terms of local
we might find a higher proportion of stamped spirals, to variation than chronologicalseparation. Stamped decora-
judge by the popularityof hand-drawnones in islands other tion is extremelyrareon any potteryfoundon the mainland,
than Syros. and, when it occursthere, it is almost exclusively limited to
The only means now known by which the assumption shapes with prototypesor close parallels in the Cyclades,
about place of manufacturemight be proved or disproved such as "frying pans," pyxides and jars with suspension
would be microscopicand chemicalanalyses of a large sam- lugs. I therefore think it possible that the use of simple
ple of vessels from the Cycladesand the mainland.To date, stamped decorationon pottery originated in the Cyclades
no such analyses have been carriedout. Until further work and spread from there to the mainlandalong with the use of
of this sort has been completed,therefore,we should proba- such shapes. In any case, I doubt that stamped decoration
bly regard the view that the use of stamped decorationwas began much earlier in one area than the other. If this posi-
significantlydifferenton the mainland from that in the Cy- tion is correct,the present evidencewould suggest that the
clades as a working hypothesis rather than an established argument of Weinberg86in favor of some chronological
fact. overlap between EH I and EC II is sound.
Bossert'spoint that stamped decorationbegan earlier on
the mainland than in the Cyclades seems to me open to ADDENDUM
doubt. The mainlandhas not providedevidencefor formsor Since this article was written, more information has
stages in the development of stamped decoration earlier become available to me about the terracotta"frying pans"
than the Cyclades. On the contrary, it is the islands that on display in the museum at Apeiranthosin Naxos (cf. su-
have produced hand-drawn concentric circles and spirals pra p. 195 and n. 10). They number four, two of which are
which might have been prototypesfor the stamps, whereas very fragmentary.The only handle preservedis a rectangu-
these motifs are almost never hand-drawnon the mainland. lar one. It is decoratedwith Kerbschnittand stamped spi-
Bossert'sview, which is followed also by Renfrew,84seems rals; short incised lines parallel to the axis divide the end
here to be based primarilyon the fact that some of the exam- into ten sections,which might have been intendedto repre-
ples of stamped decoration from the mainland come from sent toes.
EH I contexts,85whereas such decorationis known in the Martha H. Wiencke has also sent me informationabout
islands only in EC II. That EH I came to an end beforeEC another stamped sherd from Lerna (J 835, photo MHW
II began, however, is an a priori assumption, since it lacks 79.1.9) from an EH II or III context. It is decoratedwith
independentsupport. stamped concentriccircles (2), apparently linked in a net-
In my view, new ideas such as the use of stamps to deco- work pattern by lines of impressed dots. For the network
rate pottery are likely to have spread quickly in the Early pattern cf. 132.

84
Renfrew 1972:536-37. kou (Boston and New York 1921) fig. 5, nos. 3, 5 and Zygouries
85
E.g., 101, 102, 114 and Goldman 1931: fig. 97.1,2, 6, 7 and pl. (Cambridge1928) pl. 4.9, 10.
III.2; probably 84, 85, 99, 118, 119; possibly C.W. Blegen, Kora- 86
Supra n. 38.
COLEMAN PLATE 33

FIG. I. Cat. no.


2. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)

FIG. 2. Cat. no.


4. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)
FIG. 3. Cat. no. 6.
Syros. (Courtesy
National
Museum, Athens)

FIG. 4. Cat.
no. 9. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)
FIG. 5. Cat. no. 7.
Syros. (Courtesy
National
Museum, Athens)

FIG. 6. Cat. no. 17.


Syros. (Courtesy
National Museum,
Athens)
PLATE 34 COLEMAN

FIG. 7. Cat. no. 21.


Syros. (Courtesy
National Museum,
Athens)

FIG. 8. Cat. no.::


23. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)
FIG. 9. Cat. no. 24.
Syros. (Courtesy
National Museum,
Athens)

FIG. IO. Cat.


no. I3. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)

FIG. i. Cat. no. 14.


Syros

. 4

FIG. 12. Cat.


no. 25. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)
COLEMAN PLATE 3 5
FIG. 13. Cat. no.
I6. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)

FIG. 14. Cat.


no. 15. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
7 Museum,
Athens)
FIG. 15. Cat. no.
18. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum, Athens)

FIG. 16. Cat.


no. I9. Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)
FIG. 17.
Cat. no. 26.
Syros.
(Courtesy
National
Museum,
Athens)

FIG. I8. Cat.


no. 27. Syros
PLATE 36 COLEMAN

FIG. 19. Cat. no. 12. Syros FIG. 20. Cat. no. 30. Probably from Syros. FIG. 2 . Cat. no. 50. Mykonos
(Courtesy Badisches Landesmuseum,
Karlsruhe)

FIG. 22. Cat. no. 40. Naxos FIG. 23. Cat. no. 37. Naxos FIG. 24. Cat. no. 59. Probably from the
Cyclades. (Courtesy Badisches
Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe)

FIG. 25. Cat. no. 57. Probably from the FIG. 26. Cat. no. 55. Probably from the FIG. 27. Cat. no. 76. Unknown
Cyclades. (Courtesy Badisches Cyclades. (Courtesy Badisches provenance. (Courtesy Benaki Museum,
Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe) Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe) Athens)
COLEMAN PLATE 37

FIG. 28. Cat. no. 70. Manika FIG. 29. Cat. no. 79. Kosmas FIG. 30. Cat. no. I2I. Ayia Photia, Crete

FIG. 3 . Cat. no. 54. Probably from the FIG. 32. Cat. no. 58. Probably from the FIG. 34. Cat. no. 61. Probably from the
Cyclades. (Courtesy Badisches Cyclades. (Courtesy Badisches Cyclades
Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe) Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe)

FIG. 33. Cat. no. I31. Lerna

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