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














Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar










                















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







2
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


NOTA IMPORTANTE: si bien la paginación de esta edición digital
difiere de la versión impresa, se ha indicado, en color rojo, la
numeración original, tanto de páginas, como de pies de página. Para
evitar confusiones: el número de página original siempre irá en primer
lugar, es decir, antecediendo al texto de la página que numera. Las
discontinuidades, o saltos, que se observen en la numeración original,
son fruto de la eliminación de páginas en blanco intermedias que
pueden resultar molestas en una versión electrónica.




  

 
  

  

 
 

 

  


  
 

 

  


 
  

 

3
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



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
                 





               
               

            



      

              




4
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar













            
             





             


               


              

              
                  








1

2


3

4

5


5
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



   
             


                 



                 

                 










               



                



 
                



                 












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3 Citado en A. L. Zevaes, Damiens le régicide, 1937, pp. 201-214.
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

6
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar









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
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
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

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
             






                  

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                   

 
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


 
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



              
              

                  

            
             

               

7
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


           

           

               
 



      









          

                  
               



                 
              

             
                



 

                



              

                  
                
8
5 Robert Vaux, Notices, p. 45, citado en N. K. Teeters, They were in prison, 1937, p. 24.
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6 Archives parlementaires. 2» serie, t. LXXII, I de dic. de 1831.
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


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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

             
                
           


                





              
            


             
                
                 






   


            

              


       

            

                 

  

              

              
               

             

11
8 B. Rush, ante la Society for promoting political enquiries, en N. K.Teeers, The eradle of
penitentiary, 1935, p. 30.
12


9
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


               





            



            



             

       



              
            
               
              
              




               

              
     


              
        
               
              
              

13
10 Texto anónimo publicado en 1701.
14

                
             
     

15
12 Cf. Ch. Hibbert, The roots of evil, ed. de 1966, pp. 85-86.

10
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


              








            
                 











               
                  

             

                
             
                
               



             

               
            

16
13 Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, Archives parlementaires, t. XXVI, 3 de junio de 1791, p. 720.
17
14           

18




19


11
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



              
            

               
                

                
              


             




        
               





           
            





            
               

               



           
         
             
             


            





                

12
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

              
           

            


                





               

              





                
               
               


                
              




                


               

                


            
           


                
              
            



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

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



            

            
             

                   




                 
             
             

            
            



               
            

                   
              
              

               
           
                

 
               


           



                
              





                 

             
                 

14
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


              
              

              


              



               
  
            
           
          
              






   


              

            
               

                
 
            

  

                 

               
                

               
               





 


15
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

             
    
             


                  




                
              








               

               




             


              

              
              

                

               



           

              

        



21
18

16
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

            





  
                
      




  

               


           

             
              

                 


             
            
              







              

             
              
            



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19



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

17
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar









                 



                
              
              


        


              

   

                

         


            

                

               




              
                

                  
              

               

   


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21

18
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar




              

          
                
             

               
            


 


                  


                


  
           
              
               
                

                

                 
                 



              

                 


                
               
              

 
               



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

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar







                 


                
               
              






                
               

               

                





                 


                 

               
               



              

           
           

                 


             
            

             

20
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



               

                









             


               




               
            


 

              



             




26
23             
           


27
1 J. A. Soulatges, Traité des crimes, 1762, I, pp. 169-171.
28
* Châtelet: Tribunal civil de París. [T.]
29
2 Cf. el artículo de P. Petrovitch, in Crime et criminalité en France XVIIe-XVllle siècles, 1971,
pp. 226 ss.
30
3 P. Dautricourt, La criminalité et la répression au Parlement de Flandre, 1721-1790 (1912).
31
4

21
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

                




               
               




 

             
              


                 


                
             
             
               

                  


               

             










                  





32
5 Encyclopédie, artículo "Supplice".
33


22
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


            









 


    


              

             

 





   
                






              
             
          

              
             
               
            
              


34
7 Hasta el siglo XVIII, hubo largas discusiones en cuanto a saber si, en el curso de los
interrogatorios capciosos, le era lícito al juez usar de falsas promesas, de embustes o de palabras de
doble significado. Toda una casuística de la mala fe procesal.
35
8 P. Ayrault, L'Ordre, formalité et instruction judiciaire, 1576, 1. m, cap. LXXII y cap. LXXIX.
36
9 D. Jousse, Traité de la justice criminelle, 1771, I, p. 660.

23
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


 
           





 
             

              
              


             
           


               
               
                
            


               



        
           
                

             



                
                 


               

37
*
38
10 P. F. Muyart de Vouglans, Institutes au droit criminel. 1757, pp. 345-347.
39
11 Poullain du Parc, Principes du droit français selon les coutumes de Bretagne, 1767-1771, t. XI,
pp. 112-113. Cf. A. Esmein, Histoire de la procédure criminelle en France, 1882, pp. 260-283; K. J.
Mittermaier, Traité de la preuve, trad. de 1848, pp. 15-19.
40
12 G. Seigneux de Correvon, Essai sur l'usage, l'abus et les inconvénients de la torture, 1768, p.
63.

24
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar







              




  


              




 
            
           



                


            

             
            





               
              

                

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
42




                 


25
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

 

              
                   

                

              
              
              









            
             




                



                 




               




                

43
15 La más famosa de estas críticas es la de Nicolás: Si la torture est un moyen à vérifier les
crimes, 1682.
44
16 Cl. Ferrière, Dictionnaire de pratique, 1740, t. H, p. 612.
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17              
               

46
18 El primer grado del suplicio era la exhibición de los instrumentos de tortura. No se pasaba de
esta etapa cuando se trataba de niños y de ancianos de más de setenta años.

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

             

               

                

                 





               

                
             
              

              

           
            
            
              


             


                
               
               

              



                   
                 





 

            


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19 

27
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar




 



             
           


   

                



            

              
              


             



 



                  


                 



 




               
                


48

49

50
* Presidial: antiguo tribunal civil y criminal de primera instancia. [T.]

28
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



               




              



                  


              



             

         
                   
 




              
               







                

         




                 

51
               

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

29
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

                  
              


  






                  

                 
               

                







                

               

               
               
  




                







                

53

54
25 P. Risi, Observations sur les matières de jurisprudence criminelle, 1768, p. 9, con referencia a
Cocceius, Dissertationes ad Grotium, XII, § 545.
55
26 P. F. Muyart de Vouglans, Les Lois criminelles de France, 1780, p. xxxiv.
56


30
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

               






             





  
              

                 


                
              




              
                



                 
           




               
            

            

  
                




57
28 P. F. Muyart de Vouglans, ibid.
58

59


31
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


                
              


  
            

                
                

                   



             
             







                 
                 


        
                  

                



             



                  

            
             
          
 


60
31 A. Bruncau, Observations et maximes sur les matières criminelles, 1715, p. 259.
61
32 J. de Damhoudère, Pratique judiciaire ès causes civiles, 1572, p. 219.
62
33 I.a Gazette des tribunaux, 6 de julio de 1837, refiere, según el Journal de Gloucester, la

32
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



                

                
       
             

              
               




            




               
             


                

             
             

             
              


conducta "atroz y repugnante" de un verdugo que tras de haber ahorcado a un condenado "tomó el
cadáver por los hombros, le hizo dar una vuelta sobre sí mismo con violencia y lo golpeó
repetidamente, diciendo: 'Viejo bribón, ¿estas ya bastante muerto?' Después, volviéndose a la
multitud, soltó en tono chocarrero las expresiones más indecentes".
63
34 Escena referida por T. S. Gueulette, de la ejecución del exento Mon-tigny en 1737. Cf. R.
Anchel, Crimes et châtiments au XVIIIe siècle, 1933, pp. 62-69.
64
35 Cf. L. Duhamel, Les exécutions capitales à Avignon, 1890, p. 25.
65
36 En Borgoña, por ejemplo, cf. Chassanée, Consuetudo Burgundi, fol. 55.
66
                


      


67
38 Ch. Loyseau, Cinq livres du droit des offices, ed. de 1613, pp. 80-81.
68



33
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


           





              

         






               

               

                
              




           
              
              



                











               


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

34
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


              

            



              
              
               


              


              





               
              
               







                 

                
                 
              
               

             
                 
  



               
                 




70


35
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


                 
            



                
              




                
             
            


               
        
              



              



                
                
              
    




               
                





                 


71
42 A. Bruneau, Observations et maximes SUT les affaires criminelles, 1715. Prefacio no foliado de
la primera parte.
72
43 S. P. Hardy, Mes loisirs, I. vol. impreso, p. 328.
73
44 T. S. Gueulette, citado por R. Anchel, Crimes et châtiments au KVIIIe tiède, pp. 70-71.
74
45 La primera vez que se utilizó la guillotina, la Chronique de Paris refiere que el pueblo se

36
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

              





               
              






               

            
             


                


                

          




             



quejaba de que no veía nada y cantaba: "¡Devolvednos nuestros patíbulos!" (Cf. J. Laurence, A
history of capital punishment, 1932, páginas 71 ss.).
75
* Hora de muerte, es decir la de nona (a la puesta del sol), aquella en que según los Sinópticos,
murió Jesús. [T.]
76

77


               



              


               

37
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

             
                
     
  

             

              
             

                


              

            

              

              
               



                   
                





               


              




           
                

               

78
48 H. Fielding, An inquiry, en The causes of the late increase of robbers, 1751, p. 61.
79


80
50 H. Fielding, loc. cit., p. 41.
81


38
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



              




             

              



                 








              
              
              
               

           
            



                

                
            
               

             



82
52 S. P. Hardy, Mes loisirs, 14 de enero de 1781, t. IV, p. 394.
83
53 Sobre el descontento provocado por estos tipos de condena, cf. Hardy, Mes loisirs, t. I, pp.
319, 367; t. m, pp. 227-228; t. IV, p. 180.
84

85
55 Marquis d'Argenson, Journal et mémoires, t. VI, p. 241.
86
56 Hardy refiere numerosos casos, como el del robo importante que se cometió en la casa misma
donde se habia instalado el lugarteniente de lo criminal para asistir al suplicio. Mes loisirs, t. IV, p.
56.

39
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


        

                




               

             

              
                
              

                 

                







               



             


                
               



                



               

                

87

88
58 L. Duhamel, Les exécutions capitales à Avignon au XVIIle siècle, 1890, pp. 5-6. Escenas de
este género ocurrieron todavía en el siglo XIX. J. Laurence las cita en A history of capital
punishment, pp. 195-198 y 56.

40
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar









           


    


             
              
                 
                
               

                


                



 


             

             

               


              
             


             
           


                 

89

90
60 Corre, Documents de criminologie rétrospective, 1896, p. 257.
91
61 Citado en L. Duhamel, p. 32.

41
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar





             
             
           

    
             







                 


            



              


              

              

             


92
      

93
63 Jácara de J. D. Langlade, ejecutado en Aviñón el 12 de abril de 1768.
94





95
65 Aquellos a quienes R. Mandrou llama los dos grandes: Cartouche y Mandrin, a los cuales hay
que añadir a Guilleri (De la culture populaire aux XVIIe et XVlII siècles, 1964, p. 112). En
Inglaterra, Jonathan Wild, Jack Sheppard, Claude Duval desempeñaban un papel bastante parecido.
96
             

97
67 Este título se encuentra tanto en la Bibliothèque bleue de Normandía como en la de Troyes

42
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

               


              
           


   
              


                
             






              

                

               





            
              

              




(cf. R. Helot, La Bibliothèque bleue en Normandie, 1928).


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





43
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar






 


               




                
                  



               

                
             
                 


                
            







 

99
               


100
2 J. Petión de Villeneuve, "Discours à la Constituante", Archives parlementaires, t. XXVI, p.
641.
101
3 A. Boucher d'Argis, Observations sur les lois criminelles, 1781, p. 125.
102
             


44
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



               




              


              





             

             



               

                
            

                

                
             
            
           
          

         
          




              




103
             

104
6 P. Chaunu. Annales de Normandie, 1962. p. 236, y 1966, pp. 107-108.
105
7 E. Le Roy-Ladurie, en Contrepoint, 1973.

45
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



              

             
            

              
               

             



               
               



               
             


          
            





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









107
9 P. Chaunu, Annales de Normandie, 1971, p. 56.
108
10 Thomas Powell Buxton, Parlamentary Debate, 1819, xxXIX.
109
11 Le Roy-Ladurie, Contrepoint, 1973. El estudio de A. Farge, sobre Le vol d'aliments à Paris
au XVIIIe siècle, 1974, confirma esta tendencia: de 1750 a 1755, el 5 % de las sentencias por este
motivo eran a galeras, pero el 15 % de 1775 a 1790. "La severidad de los tribunales se acentúa con
el tiempo... pesa una amenaza sobre los valores útiles a la sociedad que se considera ordenada y
respetuosa de la propiedad" (pp. 130-142).
110
* Talla: tributo, repartido por cabeza a los plebeyos. [T.]
111


46
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

              


              






              

             


 
             
               


              



         

               
             
              



              
                

              
           
 
            
             
              

112
13 Cf. por ejemplo C. Dupaty, Mémoire justificatif pour trois hommes condamnés à la roue,
1786, p. 247.
113
14 Uno de los presidentes de la Cámara de la Tournelle en un mémorial al rey, 2 de agosto de
1768, citado en Ariette Farge, p. 66.
114
15 P. Chaunu, Annales de Normandie, 1966, p. 108.
115

116
17 Archives parlementaires, t. XII, p. 344.

47
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar










               


               
  



                  
              



                
             

                 

            
           
                
                


             


                




              
           
       
117
18 Sobre este tema puede acudirse, entre otros, a S. Linguet, Nécessité d'une réforme dans
l'administration de la justice, 1764, o A. Boucher d'Argis, Cahier d'un magistrat, 1789.
118
*              



48
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar







           

            

             

       
             






               
         


                 

          

           

               
           
            
 

             


119
19 Sobre esta critica del "exceso de poder" y de su mala distribución en el aparato judicial, cf. en
particular C. Dupaty, Lettres sur la procédure criminelle, 1788, P. L. de Lacretelle, Dissertation sur
le ministère public, en Discours sur le préjugé des peines infamantes, 1784, G. Target, L'esprit des
cahiers présentés aux États généraux, 1789.
120
              




               


49
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

              


               
               

               

            



            


               



              


              

                
            

               

           
           

              


              

           
            


          

             


               
             
               

               

50
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar




              

                 
          
               
            
            
               

            

             
                


               
            
             

      




              
              
             
            

                


              


                
             
            



             




121
21 Le Trosne, Mémoire sur les vagabonds, 1764, p. 4.
122
22 Y.-M. Bercé, Croquants et nu-pieds, 1974, p. 161.

51
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

           



              

            
             


           






            




        


               

              
            
            
            
               


                


            
         



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

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
            

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

             
             
               



              

                 






         


              
              
 

            



              
               

             





               


                
               
               


                

                  

               

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

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

               





              


                   





      

              



             


             
             

            


                

             
         


                

 

 
               
 






127


54
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



               

               
                  

               


              
              

                
         

             





              


             
        

               
               


               



128
               
           
              
           

              



129
29 Beccaria, Des délits et des peines, ed. de 1856, p. 87.
130
30 P. L. de Lacretelle, Discours sur le préjugé des peines infamantes, 1784, p. 129.
131


55
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar



               


 


 
              


              

 


              



                



                

                 
              



                
                 
132
32 A. Duport, "Discours à la Constituante, 22 décembre 1789", Archives parlementaires, t. x, p.
744. Se podría citar, en el mismo sentido, los diferentes temas de concursos propuestos a fines del
siglo XVIII por las academias y sociedades culturales: cómo hacer "de modo que la moderación de
la instrucción y de las penas se concilie con la certeza de un castigo rápido y ejemplar y que la
sociedad civil goce de la mayor seguridad posible, en pro de la libertad y la humanidad" (Société
économique de Berne, 1777). Marat respondió con su Plan de Législation criminelle. Cuáles son
los "medios de suavizar el rigor de las leyes penales en Francia sin perjudicar a la seguridad
pública" (Académie de Châlons-sur-Marne, 1780; los premiados fueron Brissot y Bernardi);
"¿tiende la extremada severidad de las leyes a disminuir el número y la enormidad de los delitos en
una nación depravada?" (Académie de Marseille, 1786; el premiado fue Eymar).
133
33 G. Target, Observations sur le projet du Code pénal, en Loaré, La législation de la France, t.
xXIX, pp. 7-8. Se encuentra, invertidos los términos, en Kant.
134

135

136
36 Beccaria, Des délits et des peines, 1856, p. 87.

56
Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar


                   


               


                


                
               




               




             
 




 




                   

                 






                

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              



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

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Michel Foucault Vigilar y castigar

              
      
           
               




          