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- Gears ( Theory of machine )
- gears
- 8. Gear Ratio
- Gear Design
- Lecture on Gear-Measurement
- gear
- Gear box
- Gear Failure
- Kinematics of Gears
- gear cutting formulae
- Gear Manuf
- Gears
- Formula Worm Gears
- NORD-Gear-Box-Manual.pdf
- Design of Machine Members
- _2972-Ratios in Gearing
- Landing Gear Selections Listing
- Formula Sheets Ch 14
- Gears Basics
- Motion Control Drives

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Gear Design

• Understand basic principles of gearing.

• Understand gear trains and how to calculate ratios.

• Recognize different gearing systems and relative advantages and

disadvantages between them.

• Understand geometry of different gears and their dimensional properties.

properties.

Recognize different principles of gearing.

Recognize the unorthodox ways gears can be used in different motion

motion

systems.

Introduction Introduction

Gears are the most common means used for power Gears are made to high precision

transmission Purchased from gear manufacturers rather than

They can be applied between two shafts which are made in house

Parallel However it is necessary to design for a specific

Collinear application so that proper selection can be

Perpendicular and intersecting made

Perpendicular and nonintersecting

Used to be called toothed wheels dating back

Inclined at any arbitrary angle

to 2600 b.c.

Powering Textile Machinery

http://www.efunda.com/DesignStandards/gears/gears_history.cfm

August 15, 2007 5 August 15, 2007 6

1

11.2 Types of Gears

Spur gears Number of teeth

Internal gears Form of teeth

Most common form Size of teeth

Face Width of teeth

Used for parallel shafts

Style and dimensions of gear blank

Suitable for low to medium speed application Design of the hub of the gear

Relatively high ratios can be achieved (< 7) Degree of precision required

Steel, brass, bronze, cast iron, and plastics Means of attaching the gear to the shaft

Can also be made from sheet metal Means of locating the gear axially on the shaft

nomenclature

Helical gears

Teeth are at an angle

Used for parallel shafts

Teeth engage gradually reducing shocks

Kalpakjian • Schmid

August 15, 2007 Manufacturing Engineering 11

and August 15, 2007 12

Technology, Prentice Hall

2

Helical Gears Helical Gear

Helix angle 7 to 23 degrees Two helical gears with opposing helical angles

More power side-

side-by-

by-side

Larger speeds Axial thrust gets cancelled

More smooth and quiet operation

Used in automobiles

Helix angle must be the same for both the mating

gears

Produces axial thrust which is a disadvantage

3

Herringbone Gear Machining Gear Types

Bevel gears

They have conical shape

Used to change the

direction

Worm gears

For large speed reductions between two perpendicular

and non-

non-intersecting shafts

Driver called worm looks like a thread

4

Rack and pinion

A rack is a gear whose pitch diameter is

infinite, resulting in a straight line pitch circle.

Involute of a very large base circle approaches

a straight line

Used to convert rotary motion to straight line

motion

Used in machine tools

Provides more compact drives compared to

external gears

They provide large contact ratio

Relatively less sliding and hence less wear

compare to external gears

5

Internal spur gear Internally Meshing Spur Gears

meshing spur gears.

Jacobson and Schmid

August 15, 2007 31 August 15, 2007 32

11-9 Velocity Ratio

positions

shaft

Spur gears Bevel and Miter Rack-

Rack-and-

and-pinion

Helical gears gears Ng Dg

Cross-

Cross-helix Vr = =

Np Dp

Worm gears

August 15, 2007 33 August 15, 2007 34

Ng Dg

Velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of Vr = Velocity ratio Vr = N p = D p

rotational speed of the input gear to that of the Np = Number of teeth on pinion

output gear Ng = Number of teeth on gear

Dp = Pitch diameter of pinion

Ng Dg Dg = Pitch diameter of gear

Vr = =

Np Dp

6

Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains

(cont’d.)

(11-1)

• For the set of four gears shown below, calculate output speed, output

torque, and horsepower for both input and output conditions and overall N2 N4

Vr = •

velocity ratio: N1 N3

60 60 9

Vr = • =

20 20 1

− Output speed:

n1

n4 =

Vr

1

3600 rpm • = 400 rpm

9

− Output torque:

T4 = T1 Vr

9

T4 = 200 in-lb • = 1800 in-lb

1

Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains

(cont’d.)

• For the gear train shown below, determine the train value, output speed,

− Input horsepower: output direction, output torque, and output power.

(2-6)

Tn

hp =

63,000

hp =

63,000

hp = 11.4

− Output horsepower:

hp =

63,000

hp = 11.4

Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains

(cont’d.)

(cont’d.)

− Direction:

– Train value: NB N N

Vr = • D • E (11-1) • If: Gear A – clockwise

NA NC ND

Gear B – counterclockwise

65 60

Vr = • = 9.75 / 1 Gear C – counterclockwise

20 20

Idler cancels out and has no effect on overall train value. Gear D – clockwise

Gear E – counterclockwise

– Output speed:

NA 3000 rpm

nE = = = 307.7 rpm

Vr 9.75 / 1 − Output power:

rev min

P = TnE = 97.5 Nm 307.5

min 60 sec

π

– Output torque:

TE = T A Vr P = 1571 Nm/sec or

J

or W

s

TE = 10 Nm (9.75 / 1) = 97.5 Nm

P = 1.57 kW

August 15, 2007 41 August 15, 2007 42

7

Spur Gears Pinion Gears

Pitch circle: is the imaginary circle on which most

gear calculations are made. When two gears meet

their pitch circles are tangent to each other

Pitch diameter (D (Dp) and pitch radius (r): These are

the diameter and radius of the pitch circle.

Pitch point: The point on the imaginary line joining

the centers of the two meshing gears where the pitch

circle touch

D-d

2

Pitch circle

©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,

August 15, 2007 47 August 15, 2007 48

Text Reference: Figure 14.1, page 616 Jacobson and Schmid

8

Spur gear geometries Spur gear geometries

Circular pitch (Pc): is the distance between

Addendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the corresponding points on adjacent teeth measured

outer ends of the teeth and whose center is at the along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).

7.2).

center of the gear (Fig. 7.2).

7.2). Diametral pitch (Pd): specifies the number of teeth

Dedendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the per inch of pitch diameter.

bottoms of the teeth and whose center is at the Tooth space: is the space between the adjacent teeth

center of the gear (Fig. 7.2).

7.2). measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).

7.2).

Addendum (a): is the radial distance from the Tooth thickness: is the thickness of the tooth

7.2).

pitch circle to the outer end of the teeth. (Fig. 7.2). measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).

7.2).

Dedendum (b): is the radial distance from the

pitch circle to the bottom of the teeth. (Fig. 7.2).

7.2).

August 15, 2007 49 August 15, 2007 50

Face width (W): is the length of the tooth measured

parallel to the gear (Fig. 7.2).

7.2). Figure 14.8 Pitch

Face: is the surface between the pitch circle and the and base circles

top of the tooth (Fig. 7.2). for pinion and gear

7.2).

as well as line of

Flank: is the surface between the pitch circle and the action and

bottom of the tooth (Fig. 7.2). 7.2). pressure angle.

Pressure angle (φ (φ): is the angle between the line of

action and a line tangent to the two pitch circles at the rb = r cosϕ

pitch point. (Fig.

(Fig. 14.8 Hamrock).

Hamrock).

D b = D p cosϕ

©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,

Jacobson and Schmid

August 15, 2007 51 August 15, 2007 52

Line of action: is the locus of all the points of Clearance (c): is the addendum minus dedendum.

dedendum.

contact between two meshing teeth from the time the Working depth: is the distance that one tooth of a

teeth go into contact until they lose contact. meshing gear penetrates into the tooth space.

Pinion: is the smaller of the two meshing gears. Base circle: is an imaginary circle about which

Backlash: is the difference (clearance) between the the tooth involute profile is developed.

tooth thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the Fillet: is the radius that occurs where the flank of

meshing gear measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.5)

7.5).

the tooth meets the dedendum circle.

Module: replaces diametral pitch in metric

system.

9

Basic formulas for spur gears Specifications for standard gear teeth

NP

Diametral pitch, Pd = Item Full depth & pitches Full depth & 14½

14½° full

DP coarser than 20 pitches finer than depth

20

π DP

Circular pitch, Pc = Pressure 20°

20° 25°

25° 20°

20° 14½

14½°

NP angle

1

Addendum, a = Addendum 1.0/ Pd 1.0/ Pd 1.0/ Pd 1/ Pd

Pd (in.)

Dedendum, b = 1.250

Dedendum, Dedendum

(in.)

1.250/ Pd 1.250/ Pd 1.2/ Pd + 0.002 1.157/ Pd

Pd

Basic formulas for spur gears Basic formulas for spur gears

0.250

Clearance, c = b – a = Center to center distance

Pd D + D pp Ng + Np

Where CtoC = pg =

2 2 Pd

Dp = pitch diameter of pinion Where

Np = number of teeth on the pinion Dpp = pitch diameter of pinion

Np = number of teeth on the pinion

It can be shown that

Dpg = pitch diameter of gear

Pd × Pc = π

Ng = number of teeth on the gear

Pd = Diametral pitch

1 1

Module (m) = Pd Diametral pitch, Pd =

m

See Table 11.1 for equivalents

Circular pitch, Pc = π m

Normally they are not converted

Addendum, a = m

Dedendum,

Dedendum, b = 1.25 m

10

Inch units Metric units

A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system

has 32 teeth of diametral pitch 8. Find has a module of 8 mm and 35 teeth. Find

The pitch diameter The pitch diameter

The circular pitch The circular pitch

The outside diameter (addendum diameter) The outside diameter (addendum diameter)

• For the set of gears shown in Figure 11-17, if diametral pitch is 8, find the pitch

Example Problem 11-3: Pressure Angle (cont’d.)

diameter, circular pitch, and shaft center-to-center distance.

• The pinion has 16 teeth and the gear has 32 teeth.

− Centerline distance:

− Pitch diameter:

(11-4)

Dp =

Np

or

Ng (11-2)

Pd Pd

− Pinion: Dp Dg Np + Ng

C-C = + or C - C =

Dp =

16

= 2 inches

2 2 2Pd

8

− Gear: 16 + 32

32 C-C =

Dp = = 4 inches 2 (8)

8

(11-3)

π Dp

Pc =

Np

• Circular pitch would be the same

π 2 in

Pc =

16

= .393 inch for both pinion and gear.

August 15, 2007 63 August 15, 2007 64

11

Summary

To understand the gears one should be familiar with the

gear terminology.

Spur gears are most commonly used for transmission of

power.

Speed of mating gears is inversely proportional to the

number of teeth.

Mating gears should have the same diametral pitch.

A number of gear manufacturing methods are available.

Good gear design should take care of the power, speed, life

and material properties.

12

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