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11.

Gear Design

11. Gears Objectives


• Understand basic principles of gearing.
• Understand gear trains and how to calculate ratios.
• Recognize different gearing systems and relative advantages and
disadvantages between them.
• Understand geometry of different gears and their dimensional properties.
properties.
„ Recognize different principles of gearing.
„ Recognize the unorthodox ways gears can be used in different motion
motion
systems.

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Introduction Introduction
„ Gears are the most common means used for power „ Gears are made to high precision
transmission „ Purchased from gear manufacturers rather than
„ They can be applied between two shafts which are made in house
„ Parallel „ However it is necessary to design for a specific
„ Collinear application so that proper selection can be
„ Perpendicular and intersecting made
„ Perpendicular and nonintersecting
„ Used to be called toothed wheels dating back
„ Inclined at any arbitrary angle
to 2600 b.c.

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An 18th Century Application of Gears for


Powering Textile Machinery

http://www.efunda.com/DesignStandards/gears/gears_history.cfm
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1
11.2 Types of Gears

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Gear Types Gear Parameters


„ Spur gears „ Number of teeth
„ Internal gears „ Form of teeth
„ Most common form „ Size of teeth
„ Face Width of teeth
„ Used for parallel shafts
„ Style and dimensions of gear blank
„ Suitable for low to medium speed application „ Design of the hub of the gear
„ Relatively high ratios can be achieved (< 7) „ Degree of precision required
„ Steel, brass, bronze, cast iron, and plastics „ Means of attaching the gear to the shaft
„ Can also be made from sheet metal „ Means of locating the gear axially on the shaft

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Spur gear Gear Types


nomenclature

„ Helical gears
„ Teeth are at an angle
„ Used for parallel shafts
„ Teeth engage gradually reducing shocks

Kalpakjian • Schmid
August 15, 2007 Manufacturing Engineering 11
and August 15, 2007 12
Technology, Prentice Hall

2
Helical Gears Helical Gear

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Helical Gear Characteristics Herringbone Gears


„ Helix angle 7 to 23 degrees „ Two helical gears with opposing helical angles
„ More power side-
side-by-
by-side
„ Larger speeds „ Axial thrust gets cancelled
„ More smooth and quiet operation
„ Used in automobiles
„ Helix angle must be the same for both the mating
gears
„ Produces axial thrust which is a disadvantage

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Herringbone Gears Herringbone Gear

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Herringbone Gear Machining Gear Types
„ Bevel gears
„ They have conical shape

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Bevel Gears (Miter gears) Bevel Gears

For one-to-one ratio


Used to change the
direction

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Bevel Gears Gear Types


„ Worm gears
„ For large speed reductions between two perpendicular
and non-
non-intersecting shafts
„ Driver called worm looks like a thread

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Rack and pinion
„ A rack is a gear whose pitch diameter is
infinite, resulting in a straight line pitch circle.
„ Involute of a very large base circle approaches
a straight line
„ Used to convert rotary motion to straight line
motion
„ Used in machine tools

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Fig. 11.7 Rack and pinion Rack and pinion

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Internal spur gear Internal spur gear


„ Provides more compact drives compared to
external gears
„ They provide large contact ratio
„ Relatively less sliding and hence less wear
compare to external gears

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Internal spur gear Internally Meshing Spur Gears

Figure 14.14 Internally


meshing spur gears.

©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,


Jacobson and Schmid
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Gear Assemblies Fig. 11-


11-9 Velocity Ratio

„ Identified based on the input and output shaft


positions

Parallel shaft Perpendicular Other types


shaft
Spur gears Bevel and Miter Rack-
Rack-and-
and-pinion
Helical gears gears Ng Dg
Cross-
Cross-helix Vr = =
Np Dp
Worm gears
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Velocity Ratio Velocity Ratio


Ng Dg
„ Velocity ratio is defined as the ratio of „ Vr = Velocity ratio Vr = N p = D p
rotational speed of the input gear to that of the „ Np = Number of teeth on pinion
output gear „ Ng = Number of teeth on gear
„ Dp = Pitch diameter of pinion
Ng Dg Dg = Pitch diameter of gear
Vr = = „
Np Dp

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Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains
(cont’d.)
(11-1)
• For the set of four gears shown below, calculate output speed, output
torque, and horsepower for both input and output conditions and overall N2 N4
Vr = •
velocity ratio: N1 N3

60 60 9
Vr = • =
20 20 1

− Output speed:

n1
n4 =
Vr

1
3600 rpm • = 400 rpm
9

− Output torque:

T4 = T1 Vr

9
T4 = 200 in-lb • = 1800 in-lb
1

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Example Problem 11-1: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains
(cont’d.)

• For the gear train shown below, determine the train value, output speed,
− Input horsepower: output direction, output torque, and output power.

(2-6)

Tn
hp =
63,000

200 in-lb 3600 rpm


hp =
63,000

hp = 11.4

− Output horsepower:

1800 in-lb 400 rpm


hp =
63,000

hp = 11.4

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Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains Example Problem 11-2: Velocity Ratios and Gear Trains
(cont’d.)
(cont’d.)
− Direction:
– Train value: NB N N
Vr = • D • E (11-1) • If: Gear A – clockwise
NA NC ND
Gear B – counterclockwise
65 60
Vr = • = 9.75 / 1 Gear C – counterclockwise
20 20
Idler cancels out and has no effect on overall train value. Gear D – clockwise

Gear E – counterclockwise
– Output speed:
NA 3000 rpm
nE = = = 307.7 rpm
Vr 9.75 / 1 − Output power:

rev min
P = TnE = 97.5 Nm 307.5
min 60 sec
π
– Output torque:
TE = T A Vr P = 1571 Nm/sec or
J
or W
s
TE = 10 Nm (9.75 / 1) = 97.5 Nm
P = 1.57 kW
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Spur Gears Pinion Gears

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Internal Gears Spur gear geometries


„ Pitch circle: is the imaginary circle on which most
gear calculations are made. When two gears meet
their pitch circles are tangent to each other
„ Pitch diameter (D (Dp) and pitch radius (r): These are
the diameter and radius of the pitch circle.
„ Pitch point: The point on the imaginary line joining
the centers of the two meshing gears where the pitch
circle touch
D-d
2

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Pitch circle

Figure 14.1 Spur gear drive.


©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,
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Text Reference: Figure 14.1, page 616 Jacobson and Schmid

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Spur gear geometries Spur gear geometries
„ Circular pitch (Pc): is the distance between
„ Addendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the corresponding points on adjacent teeth measured
outer ends of the teeth and whose center is at the along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).
7.2).
center of the gear (Fig. 7.2).
7.2). „ Diametral pitch (Pd): specifies the number of teeth
„ Dedendum circle: It is the circle that bounds the per inch of pitch diameter.
bottoms of the teeth and whose center is at the „ Tooth space: is the space between the adjacent teeth
center of the gear (Fig. 7.2).
7.2). measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).
7.2).
„ Addendum (a): is the radial distance from the „ Tooth thickness: is the thickness of the tooth
7.2).
pitch circle to the outer end of the teeth. (Fig. 7.2). measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.2).
7.2).
„ Dedendum (b): is the radial distance from the
pitch circle to the bottom of the teeth. (Fig. 7.2).
7.2).
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Spur gear geometries


„ Face width (W): is the length of the tooth measured
parallel to the gear (Fig. 7.2).
7.2). Figure 14.8 Pitch
„ Face: is the surface between the pitch circle and the and base circles
top of the tooth (Fig. 7.2). for pinion and gear
7.2).
as well as line of
„ Flank: is the surface between the pitch circle and the action and
bottom of the tooth (Fig. 7.2). 7.2). pressure angle.
„ Pressure angle (φ (φ): is the angle between the line of
action and a line tangent to the two pitch circles at the rb = r cosϕ
pitch point. (Fig.
(Fig. 14.8 Hamrock).
Hamrock).
D b = D p cosϕ
©1998 McGraw-Hill, Hamrock,
Jacobson and Schmid
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Spur gear geometries Gear terminology


„ Line of action: is the locus of all the points of „ Clearance (c): is the addendum minus dedendum.
dedendum.
contact between two meshing teeth from the time the „ Working depth: is the distance that one tooth of a
teeth go into contact until they lose contact. meshing gear penetrates into the tooth space.
„ Pinion: is the smaller of the two meshing gears. „ Base circle: is an imaginary circle about which
„ Backlash: is the difference (clearance) between the the tooth involute profile is developed.
tooth thickness of one gear and the tooth space of the „ Fillet: is the radius that occurs where the flank of
meshing gear measured along the pitch circle (Fig. 7.5)
7.5).
the tooth meets the dedendum circle.
„ Module: replaces diametral pitch in metric
system.

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Basic formulas for spur gears Specifications for standard gear teeth
NP
„ Diametral pitch, Pd = Item Full depth & pitches Full depth & 14½
14½° full
DP coarser than 20 pitches finer than depth
20
π DP
„ Circular pitch, Pc = Pressure 20°
20° 25°
25° 20°
20° 14½
14½°
NP angle
1
„ Addendum, a = Addendum 1.0/ Pd 1.0/ Pd 1.0/ Pd 1/ Pd
Pd (in.)

„ Dedendum, b = 1.250
Dedendum, Dedendum
(in.)
1.250/ Pd 1.250/ Pd 1.2/ Pd + 0.002 1.157/ Pd

Pd

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Basic formulas for spur gears Basic formulas for spur gears
0.250
„ Clearance, c = b – a = „ Center to center distance
Pd D + D pp Ng + Np
„ Where „ CtoC = pg =
2 2 Pd
„ Dp = pitch diameter of pinion „ Where
„ Np = number of teeth on the pinion „ Dpp = pitch diameter of pinion
„ Np = number of teeth on the pinion
„ It can be shown that
„ Dpg = pitch diameter of gear
Pd × Pc = π
„ Ng = number of teeth on the gear
„ Pd = Diametral pitch

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Metric System Metric System


1 1
„ Module (m) = Pd „ Diametral pitch, Pd =
m
See Table 11.1 for equivalents
„
„ Circular pitch, Pc = π m
„ Normally they are not converted
„ Addendum, a = m
„ Dedendum,
Dedendum, b = 1.25 m

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Inch units Metric units
„ A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system „ A spur gear of the 14 ½ degree involute system
has 32 teeth of diametral pitch 8. Find has a module of 8 mm and 35 teeth. Find
„ The pitch diameter „ The pitch diameter
„ The circular pitch „ The circular pitch
„ The outside diameter (addendum diameter) „ The outside diameter (addendum diameter)

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Example Problem 11-3: Pressure Angle


• For the set of gears shown in Figure 11-17, if diametral pitch is 8, find the pitch
Example Problem 11-3: Pressure Angle (cont’d.)
diameter, circular pitch, and shaft center-to-center distance.
• The pinion has 16 teeth and the gear has 32 teeth.

− Centerline distance:
− Pitch diameter:
(11-4)
Dp =
Np
or
Ng (11-2)
Pd Pd

− Pinion: Dp Dg Np + Ng
C-C = + or C - C =
Dp =
16
= 2 inches
2 2 2Pd
8

− Gear: 16 + 32
32 C-C =
Dp = = 4 inches 2 (8)
8

− Circular pitch: C – C = 3 inches


(11-3)
π Dp
Pc =
Np
• Circular pitch would be the same
π 2 in
Pc =
16
= .393 inch for both pinion and gear.
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Summary
„ To understand the gears one should be familiar with the
gear terminology.
„ Spur gears are most commonly used for transmission of
power.
„ Speed of mating gears is inversely proportional to the
number of teeth.
„ Mating gears should have the same diametral pitch.
„ A number of gear manufacturing methods are available.
„ Good gear design should take care of the power, speed, life
and material properties.

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