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Can European cities


grow smarter, sustainable
and inclusive?
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CONTENTS

04 CAN EUROPEAN CITIES ADAPT


TO THE EUROPE 2020 CHALLENGES ?
by Eurico Neves/UNIC

STEPS TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH


08 by Gill Scott/WEED

© Sam Spiro ©
URBAN HOTSPOT 2.0
12 by Willem van Winden/REDIS

A FLEXIBLE WORKFORCE
17 FOR LOCAL ECONOMIC RESILIENCE
by Alison Partridge/Esimec

ROMA INCLUSION - CAN CITIES


21 BE THE DRIVER OF CHANGE?
by Ann Morton Hyde/ROMANET
Can European cities
grow smarter, sustainable
and inclusive?

LONG-TERM CARE
27 by Annamaria Simmonazzi
and Fiorenza Deriu/ACTIVE AGE
Publication Manager:
Jean-Loup Drubigny
Editorial Advisory Group:
30 PLUGGING IN TO GO GREEN
by Sally Kneeshaw/EVUE
Melody Houk
Jenny Koutsomarkou
Peter Ramsden
Paul Soto
Philip Stein

35 READY-TO-LIVE
MULTIFUNCTIONAL HISTORIC CENTRES
Graphic Advisor:
Anne-Laure Guignard
Editing:
by Nils Scheffler/HERO, and Anna Collins
Frédérique Calvanus/LINKS Graphic Design and Artwork:
La belle équipe
Cover illustration:

40 A “NEW SOCIAL DEAL”


FOR STABLE LIVING?
Nicolas de Crecy, young French art cartoonist
and comic strips writer who has received
many awards. The front page illustration was
by Heidrun Feigelfeld/SUITE used for the poster of the "Architecture and
Comics" exhibition held until late 2010 at the
Cité de l'Architecture in Paris. This exhibition
is a dialogue between architecture and

44 MORE PEOPLE IN PRISONS


by Paulius Kulikauskas/REPAIR
comics. The different visions of the city reveal
a tendency to imagine the future and a desire
to explore new ways of life. It is an invitation
to travel through the most amazing urban
scenario.

48 LINKING CRUISE TOURISM


TO URBAN REGENERATION
This document has been printed by Bialec,
Nancy, France on Cyclus, 100% recycled
by Vittorio Alberto Torbianelli/CTUR paper.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 3

© Henrik Sorensen/GettyImages © Nicolas de Crecy

EDITORIAL

FULL SPEED TOWARDS NEW GROWTH

T
he territorial cooperation programme URBACT is running at full speed. Over the past year, thirty-five
URBACT Thematic networks and Working Groups, involving over 280 partners, have been up and
running, some starting their transnational exchange activities, others completing their projects and
delivering conclusions and Local Action Plans.

The life of the URBACT community is rich and diverse just like life in the cities. Dozens of meetings of the Local
Support Groups have enabled the cities to go further in their search for innovative solutions.

At programme level, URBACT is pooling and consolidating ideas and results coming from the different networks
and working groups. This capitalisation process is carried out mainly with the Lead partners and Lead experts
who support URBACT partners in implementing the projects’ work programmes and achieving expected
outputs.

This year again, we have asked the Lead Experts to write articles describing the work achieved by the Networks
and the partners' approches to a wide range of challenges that the cities face today. They have the experience
and the necessary perspective to offer the decision-makers and practitioners concrete markers.

The eleven articles selected for this Tribune reflect the divesity of the subjects tackled by the cities with the
URBACT context: knowledge hotspots, inclusive growth, demand-led workforce, long-term care, plugging in to
go green, new social deal, securing housing, cities of tomorrow, multifunctional regeneration…

These articles are part of the search for a new inclusive growth that is smart and sustainable, the same terms
as those used in the 2020 Strategy. It is obviously not by chance but the strength of the evidence, the pressure
of local needs and the result of constant action by the URBACT programme in promoting integrated and
sustainable urban development.

Mrs Mercedes Fernandez Caballero


Director General for European Funds
Ministry of Economy and Finances
Chair of the URBACT Monitoring Committee
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CAN EUROPEAN
CITIES ADAPT
TO THE EUROPE 2020
CHALLENGES ?
IT WILL BE HARD WORK, BUT YES, THEY CAN !

BY EURICO NEVES
LEAD EXPERT OF THE UNIC THEMATIC NETWORK

In the same year as Europe (or even 30%) compared to 1990 levels, and
reduction of poverty, by aiming to lift at least
slowly starts to awake from 20 million people out of the risk of poverty and
the nightmare of the worst exclusion?
economic recession since WWII, If they can – and for all who believe in the
the sovereign debt crisis and European project the only possible answer
a troubled process of reformu- must be, “yes, we can!”, albeit with differen-
tiated sectors of conviction - for sure a lot of
lation of institutions, Europe innovations and changes, in many different
kisses goodbye to the missed aspects, will be required. As Gary Hamel, a
Lisbon Strategy that intended to well known European, once said: “Don’t tell
make it “the most competitive me that change will come from the top – a permanent fight against social inclusion.
economy in the world” and sets I have never seen the monarchs setting up a When the URBACT programme was born in
republic”. And at the basis of Europe’s gover- 2002 (programme of the European Union for
new hopeful goals for the present nance structure, directly influencing all as- sustainable urban development), it immedia-
decade that should guide it pects of the lives of over 60% of its population tely focused on the sustainable and social
towards a smart, sustainable that lives on them, we find the traditional en- dimensions, as well and on the economic
and inclusive growth until 2020. gines of innovation, change and growth in dimension of urban development. When the
our continent – but also the spreaders of pol- renewed URBACT II programme was launched
lution and magnets for all the poor and exclu- in 2007, three thematic poles were created,
hile the designation chosen for ded – now, once again, called into battle: the mapping exactly the the growth priorities of

W the new strategy, Europe 2020,


still rings kind of science fiction
to most (in the line of titles such
as 2001 Space Odyssey or Space 1999) the
goals it sets are expected to be feasible in real
European cities. Can cities – and therefore
Europe – grow smarter, sustainable and inclu-
sive all at once? Yes, they can – and some
cities are proving that already – but, oh my, it’s
a tough challenge, indeed.
the 2020 strategy: Cities, Engines of Econo-
mic Development and Job Creation (the
smart dimension); Cities, Social Inclusion and
Governance; and Cities and Integrated urban
Development.
life. However something has not something
that however has not been achieved with its URBACT-supported projects are grouped
predecessor, the Lisbon Strategy, with its The URBACT cities under the Thematic Poles in accordance with
most popular target – a 3% of GDP invest- are already fighting their focus, but most projects have a transver-
ment in Science and Research – still far in the the Europe 2020 war sal nature since – as now it has been “mains-
horizon for most Member States. Can such treamed” into EU policies – it is nearly impos-
goals, such as a 75% employment rate, the The Europe 2020 strategy may have seen its sible to tackle urban development, or any form
reduction of school drop-out rates to less than birth this year, but European cities have been of development, from only one dimension.
10% and the same 3% of GDP investment in for long trying to conciliate the need for local
science and research, be reached this time? innovation, that creates jobs and economic A good example of this approach is the UNIC
Are they compatible with additional goals of growth, with sustainable development that is project (http://urbact.eu/en/projects/innovation
reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% felt on the quality of life of its inhabitants and -creativity/unic/homepage/) which, due to the
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CAN EUROPEAN CITIES ADAPT


TO THE EUROPE 2020 CHALLENGES ? 5

using European, national and regional funding


sources. The LAPs have now been formally
signed by the City Mayors and counter-
signed by the Commissioner for Regional
Policy on the 20th of May 2010 in Brussels,
and the cities should now move into imple-
mentation of their policy priorities, outside of
the UNIC scope and making use of other
Community sources of funding, benefiting
from its “FAST TRACK” label. The signature of
the Regional Policy Commissioner into these
cities LAPs is also a sign of commitment of
the European Commission into the implemen-
tation of these priorities in these cities.

UNIC is not the only one in this race for finding


smarter, sustainable and inclusive growth
models. Other URBACT projects such as
ESIMEC (Economic Strategies and Innovation
in Medium-sized Cities or CityRegion.Net),
addressing the role of cities in integrated
regional developments, are also cutting
across these 3 dimensions of growth in their
quest for new local measures and policies:
the sectoral focus of UNIC, grouping towns
in which decay of the main industrial sector -
ceramics - has at once caused economic
recession, left strong unsolved environmental
issues and caused social exclusion, forcing
© William Park

cities to address all these issues in parallel,


makes it a clear case study for the role that
cities may play in the success of Europe 2020
strategy.

relevance of its approach has been conside-


The Europe 2020 strategy red as a FAST TRACK project by the European Is it possible for cities
may have seen its birth this Commission. This means that the initiatives to grow smarter, sustainable
stemming out of the project are given particu- and inclusive? The UNIC
year, but European cities lar priority by the Commission.
example
have been for long trying to
The UNIC project aims to enable all European “A squalid ugliness on a scale so vast and
conciliate the need for local cities and regions impacted by the economic overpowering that it became sublime”.
innovation, that creates jobs transition – from a traditional economy with The landscape described in this sentence
and economic growth, with strong “heritage” value conveying cultural from Arnold Bennett’s 1907 novel “The Death
identity, to a sustainable innovation economy of Simon Fuge” is none other than Stoke-on-
a sustainable development – to anticipate, prevent and address the eco- Trent, also known as “The Potteries”, the
that impacts on the quality nomic, cultural and social consequences of heart of the UK’s ceramics industry and one
of life of its inhabitants, and these changes. It should also enable them to of the 9 cities members of the UNIC Thematic
begin moving effectively towards a sustaina- Network, a project looking for innovative ways
a permanent fight against ble innovation economy linking research and forward for cities that have grown, economi-
social inclusion. education, economy, culture, social, environ- cally, culturally and demographically around
ment and urban promotion. The project brings the ceramics sector.
together local authorities, local stakeholders
and managing authorities responsible for sup- The vision from Arnold Bennett reflects well
port programmes in 9 European cities. Initially, what ceramic cities used to be: dirty, ugly
within its development phase, from April to towns with a skyline made of chimneys that
October 2008, it assessed local policies and continuously spewed black smoke to the air.
practices, in particular towards SMEs. In its The UNIC project is about what ceramic
implementation phase, it will contribute to the cities want to be: innovative, dynamic and
development of Local Action Plans (LAPs) inclusive cities, that have overcome their
for company support in the regions involved, economic dependence on a single, and
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 6

The UNIC project is about what Ceramic Cities want to be: innovative, dynamic and inclusive
cities, that have overcome their economic dependence on a single, and inevitably declining
traditional sector, while reinforcing the unique cultural heritage that such a sector has left them
with, such as the “Delft blue” color or the luxury image inevitably associated with “Porcelaine
de Limoges”.

inevitably declining, traditional sector, while support new initiatives in innovation, to work so, UNIC cities must build on their competitive
reinforcing the unique cultural heritage that on a better match between heritage and inno- factors, often related with their tradition and
such a sector has left them with, such as the vation in order to offer a new image of the ci- heritage to set the context and stimulate the
“Delft blue” color or the luxury image inevitably ties and thus to reinforce their “attractiveness” creation of local knowledge (thus becoming
associated with “Porcelaine de Limoges”. The while offering living conditions, professional “smarter” cities), namely through intervention
principal challenge will be to put forward the and personal development perspectives likely – direct or indirect – in 4 areas, as pictured
policies to be carried out to staunch the to “gain loyalty” from inhabitants and compa- below: provision of public space, educating
decline: to increase “traditional know-how”, to nies, and also attract new ones. In order to do people, creating and disseminating know-
ledge and contributing to problem solving for
industry. Public research centres and univer-
Picture 1 – New knowledge creation dimension (“Becoming smarter cities”)
sities are key players, as they can contribute
to all four.

D • Forming/accessing A city that is not able to provide competitive


networks of industry
• Undergraduates
• Graduates
D development pathways.
• Influencing the direction
offers in the 4 components above will not be
able to foster the creation of knowledge, or to
• Mid-career of search processes :
- Meetings and conferences become smarter, and will lose the possibility
• Executive
- Hosting stand-setting to follow an innovation-led growth path –
EDUCATING PROVIDING forums
PEOPLE PUBLIC SPACE - Entrepreneurship centers which is possibly the only sustainable path for
& mentoring programs growth in Europe.
- Alumni networks
- Personnel exchanges
(internships, faculty
• Contract researck exchanges, etc.)
But for a competitive affirmation of cities
• Cooperative - Industrial liason programs and regions in a dynamic context, another
research with industry - Visiting committees
PROBLEM- CREATING - Curriculum development dimension must also be considered, which
• Technology
licensing
• Faculty consulting
D SOLVING FOR
INDUSTRY
CODIFIABLE
KNOWLEDGE
committees
• Creating the built
environment to support this
is important for the attraction, retention and
inclusion of talents (the “City as an inclusive
• Providing access centre of attraction”), and which are in turn
D

to specialized
instrumentation and also vital for knowledge creation: the “inclusion
equipment • Publications (and retention)” dimension, through interven-
• Incubation services • Patents
• Prototypes tion in another 4 areas: capacity to offer social
and cultural life, affordable housing, appro-
priate and universal level of services, and a
dynamic and attractive “brand” and image.

Picture 2 – New identity creation dimension (“City as an inclusive centre of attraction”) The two dimensions – “Smarter cities” and
D “Inclusive cities” – are not absolutely inde-
pendent. On the contrary, quite often an inter-
• Museums
• Cultural life
D • Social housing vention in one area causes an effect in the
PROVIDING
• Renting market other, while some efforts lay in-between these
• Animations • Student accommodation
• Exhibitions
SOCIAL AND AFFORDABLE two dimensions. This “grey area” between
CULTURAL • Utilities costs
• Factory shops
STANDARDS the two dimensions above-mentioned is in itself
OFFER OF LIVING • Transport system and
costs a third dimension for intervention, referred
• Employment and salary within the scope of the UNIC project as “Inte-
levels
grated Urban Approach” that is linked with
• Education (all levels) sustainability actions.
• City services LEVEL DYNAMIC
All the UNIC cities have already started their
• Transport and OF CITIZEN path towards becoming “smarter”, sustaina-
mobility BRANDING
SERVICES • Heritage ble, inclusive cities, and the goal of the UNIC
D

• E-services
• Subsidies and other • Tradition project is to help them in going further into
• Differentiation
support schemes
D • Marketing
that path, in particular by sharing experiences
and practices and by mutual learning that
can then be reflected in their local action.
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CAN EUROPEAN CITIES ADAPT


TO THE EUROPE 2020 CHALLENGES ? 7

How the local action urban development. Or Stoke-on-Trent and


Creating codifiable Aveiro massive programmes for vocational
plans of UNIC cities may training of staff made redundant by the shut-
knowledge for smarter contribute to the Europe down of ceramic factories, with excellent
cities: Limoges “Pôle 2020 strategy success rates in terms of employment in
Européen de la Ceramique” other sectors. Another example is the Delft
Limoges has set up as a priority to The 9 partner cities within UNIC have presen- dynamic marketing campaign, built around
strengthen its position as the European ted their Local Action Plans, for evolving into the Delft Blue famous image, that has been
centre of research on ceramics. a next dimension in terms of knowledge and contributing to the attractive image of the
Such goal will be pursued with the innovation, inclusion and sustainability, in May town for tourists as well as students and
launch, at the end of 2010, of the this year. These Local Action Plans are now in migrant talents.
European Centre of Ceramics (ECC) the process of implementation and provide a
which will bring together on the same good illustration of how European cities can
site (on ESTER Science Park) the ENSCI contribute to the Europe 2020 strategy, along Conclusion – yes we can,
(National Industrial Ceramics Engineer the 3 dimensions defined for growth, as it can but the way ahead is
School), the SPCTS laboratory (Ceramic be seen from the following examples. definitely challenging
Processes and Surface Treatments
Sciences) and the GEMH Laboratory The Europe 2020 strategy offers us a vision
(Heterogeneous Materials Study Group) Some of the actions are where knowledge intensive companies de-
and that is expected to become a velop green and sustainable technologies that
already on the ground, contribute for improving the quality of life of
reference for European research in the
sector. while others will start to be not only some, but all or most of Europe’s
implemented in the near citizens. For cities such as Limoges, Stoke-
on-Trent or Castellón, which until only recently
future, often with resources have based their growth on the once polluting,
from structural funds. low tech, blue collar “low qualifications and
low wages”, ceramics industry, this means
coming from a long way back and requires an
The 9 Local Action Plans from the UNIC cities in-depth transformation process.
include more than 100 actions intended to
promote innovation at local level, strengthen Is it challenging? Yes, it is, and for sure some
industry competitiveness, address urban inte- cities will be able to deal with it quicker and with
gration of ceramic materia in the city, develop more success than others. The reassuring part
the cities’ cultural and tourism potential and is that such a process has already started,
promote cities’ image. even before the first lines of Europe 2020
© DR

strategy have been drafted in Brussels. Projects


Some of the actions are already on the such as UNIC, started in 2008, and other
Integrating local industry ground, while others will start to be implemen- URBACT projects are the clear signs that cities
with artists and residents, ted in the near future, often with resources are committed to innovation and to an
for greater inclusion through from structural funds. urban development and growth as smart,
cultural events: Stoke- sustainable and inclusive as it possibly comes.
on-Trent British Ceramic The actions planned by the UNIC partners aim The fact that they decide to do it in networks of
specifically at the Ceramic sector but often cities means that they realise that cooperation
Biennal have a broader reach, and include initiatives and knowledge exchange are the way for all
The “grey” city of Stoke-on-Trent has in sustainability, training and education, cultural of them to move ahead faster and steadier,
come up with what has become one and tourism fields with an impact at all levels which is something that nobody will disagree
of the most thrilling events in British of the city life. with.
vivid cultural life: The British Ceramics
Biennal, a cultural but also economic The results already achieved confirm that Can they do it? In UNIC we believe that, yes
event organised every two years at while the challenges are high, and traditional they can, and all the achievements so far
“the Potteries”. This event, described by sectors such as ceramics will need to conti- point in that direction. See you in 2020, as for
The Guardian newspaper as “although nue to pursue their innovation path in quest now we have work to do. ●
the current climate discourages daring, for increased competitiveness, changes in
a sign that the will and potential are still the cities environment are already visible.
present in the Potteries” is not only a
showroom for local ceramic companies, Such visible aspects include the renewal of

i
but also an opportunity for craftsmen, several streets and public buildings in the MORE INFORMATION
artisans and individual designers to Spanish city of Castellón, making use of UNIC project: http://urbact.eu/en/
mainstream their work close to the great energy efficient ceramic material or material projects/innovation-creativity/unic/
homepage/
public and larger companies and thus built from recycled waste, and contributing at Lead Expert: Eurico Neves
contribute to their economic inclusion. the same time to the technological develop- eurico.neves@inovamais.pt
ment, industry strengthening and sustainable
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 8

STEPS TOWARDS
INCLUSIVE GROWTH:
LESSONS FOR THE RECOVERY
BY GILL SCOTT
LEAD EXPERT OF THE WEED THEMATIC NETWORK

Growth and sustainability


The economic crisis of the last two years has
coincided with growing demands to explore
innovative ways of developing jobs and enter-
prises across Europe. At a time when no
sector is exempt from job losses identifying
where new jobs might occur or could be en-
couraged for a post crisis future is an impor-
tant strategy. Essential features of the post
Lisbon Europe 2020 strategy highlight the
need for an increasing focus on greener jobs
and enterprises as well as a service sector
where innovation is encouraged: a very reaso-
nable idea when the OECD estimates that
the value of the environmental goods and
service sector could increase to just under
USD 800 billion by 2015 (OECD 2009). For
the first time, however, Europe’s new strategy
for 2020 also has the objective of ensuring
growth is ‘inclusive’. Part of the reason for this
is that not all countries or localities can create
sufficient jobs in green and service sectors.
And even if they could, the problem of already
marginalized groups of workers as well as
large numbers of unskilled workers who have
been thrown out of work from construction
© Iloveotto

and other labour intensive sectors would not


be addressed in a strategy focused on smart
knowledge intensive sectors or green indus-
Inequalities and poverty mar the experience of urban living for many: tries. A strategy of inclusive growth is needed.
it is a matter of concern for economic as well as social growth.
Finding the tools and measures that can be used to create inclusive Inclusion as key
and sustainable jobs and enterprises with social as well as economic
objectives is crucially important if inequalities are to be overcome and Social inclusion strategy is obviously not just
the well-being of city residents promoted. Innovative ways of thinking about generating employment and getting
the labour market right. It is also about redres-
about enterprise creation as a route out of the current economic crisis
sing inequalities through, for example, pen-
as well as new measures to safeguard workers and prevent labour sions, health care, housing, benefits and, just
market rigidities that can hold back progress mark an important focus now, about making sure the crisis does
for several URBACT projects working in the field of human capital not becomea catalyst for increasing social
and entrepreneurship. This paper explores the lessons URBACT exclusion1. Nevertheless the economic stra-
tegy can play a strong part in redressing the
partner cities can provide about how municipalities, local economic
pattern of inequalities and in opening up
development agencies and other local stakeholders can develop a routes into a different quality of enterprise
more sustainable, inclusive and innovative way of thinking and living. and work. Poverty and inequality as a whole
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 9

STEPS TOWARDS INCLUSIVE GROWTH


9

remain features of Europe, often linked to low


pay, the gender pay gap, racism, low skills, Economic strategy can play a strong part in redressing the
limited professional training opportunities, and pattern of inequalities and in opening up routes into a different
precarious employment 2. They are features
that are costly for individuals but also for local quality of enterprise and work.
economies. For example, whilst immigration
offers clear benefits to cities, immigrants often
remain more exposed to long-term unem- to facilitate connections and partnerships. If
ployment and social exclusion, as well as Supporting enterprising they don’t then the loss of momentum could
poorer working conditions and temporary WomAn: Woman Emprende prolong an already slow and difficult recovery.
employment 3. To take another example, Programme But where should such action take place?
women are now, more than ever, directly The recent report on Cities and the Crisis
exposed as employees and business owners Despite the fact that the majority of produced by the URBACT Programme high-
to the impact of the current recession. Yet it university female students have received lights the complex and varied impact of and
is not just women who lose out: their earnings their education in the area of Technolo- responses to the challenges presented by
have become significant for the economy and gical and Experimental Science in the the economic crisis but also argues strongly
the well being of families and the cities in University of Santiago de Compostela, that “cities and local governments are on the
which they live 4. the skills of female graduates is seldom front line of the economic crisis, in terms of its
The need for effective policy is underlined transferred into entrepreneurial initiatives. impact on people, businesses and places”.9
when there is increasing evidence that even Barriers facing them include poor access It highlights in similar ways to the Young Foun-
the policies that have been developed are to technology and support as well as dation10 and the OECD-LEED reports 11 that
under threat, because they are seen as too difficulties in balancing work and family. local employment and enterprise develop-
expensive at a time of economic crisis 5 and ment have a vital role to play in developing
too risky for new business finance. The 2020 routes out of the economic crisis. It is a role
strategy is to be welcomed if it represents a EU which some authorities have already instituted
view that inequalities are a matter of concern alongside measures such as a living wage
for economic as well as social growth and if it strategy to reduce the impact of the crisis on
results in what the OECD would also like to see the most vulnerable in the labour market but
- “a new approach to employment and skills… which needs further development12.
tied much closer to the longer-term economic
development of our local communities and
Key questions for any city
© Endostock

the competitiveness of national economies. 6”

The influence of economic development


Facilitating access to jobs, agencies is no doubt limited when it comes to
The Women Emprende project addresses
and supporting the creation these issues. It is based in the University
restructuring industry, strengthening consu-
of jobs mer demand, reducing labour market rigidities
and receives municipal support. It focuses
and opening up credit. Nevertheless much
on the establishment of entrepreneurial
It is not just a question of access to jobs and more can be done at local level. Some key
ventures that take into consideration
skills. A positive and supportive environment questions that URBACT networks and others
the specific characteristics of women.
for creating jobs and growing firms is also es- pursuing economic growth and social inclu-
The programme offers a variety of
sential. It is increasingly new and small firms, sion at local level include:
supports – knowledge updating, access
rather than large ones, that are the major pro- - What can cities do to support new and
to University technology, development
viders of new jobs: there are some 23 million existing enterprises and at the same time as
of support structures for working
SMEs in the EU, providing around 75 million promote the interests of employees in the
mothers, entrepreneurial training. These
jobs and accounting for 99% of all enterprises. face of the recession?
have resulted in greater visibility and
But how can enterprises become stronger - What can cities do to ensure that new
relevance of female entrepreneurship
and more robust in the face of recession? growth opportunities have a social as well as
within the institution itself and a greater
How can the factors that restrict the growth economic impact?
number of female entrepreneurs.
of SMEs in Europe 7 be overcome at a time - How can labour market rigidities that lead
Some examples of companies created
when new types of enterprises, including to an underuse of the skills of women and mi-
by women at the University of Santiago
social enterprises, desperately need to be grants be reduced?
are Estudio Adumbro, whose functions
encouraged 8; how can ignored sectors of
are to manage and take care of the
enterprise efficiently contribute to the econo-
projected image of a product, service, What can cities do
mic recovery? In this article we examine how
project or company and GalChimia, a
URBACT partners can contribute to the deve-
leading Spanish company in the area of
to support new and existing
lopment of policy. enterprises?
Synthetic Organic Chemistry. Galchima
was constituted by four Doctors of
According to the URBACT Cities and the
A local challenge? Chemistry and they expect to have
Crisis study the impact of the recession on
a turnover of 5 million Euros by 2011.
business and employment varies considera-
In the recession, economic development Contact: raquel.freire@usc.es bly between cities; appearing to be least
agencies, both public and private are being http://www.womanemprende.org/ where the local economy is based on SMEs
forced to think more creatively about how operating locally. A major question now faced
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 10

10

by cities is how to maintain and develop the mic Development project (WEED) highlighted
support that will encourage and sustain SME The lessons emerging at a range of examples of how this can be achie-
activities. ved. One of these was the PAN project in Italy.
Cities involved in the WEED project have
local level provide a valuable The PAN Project was born in 2004 with the
shown that making micro finance more gender- reminder that social and objective to generate within three years at
sensitive can be done effectively and with economic strategies can least 5,000 new places for children in day
long-term positive effect on business sustai- nurseries as a response to significant regional
nability. In Celje, Slovenia, it has been found be developed together and differences and lack of childcare. PAN is a
that investing in a strong integrated system of with positive impact for all. consortium of social enterprises. It offers plan-
support for women entrepreneurs, including ning and start-up assistance to organisations
micro finance and longer term mentoring, has and people interested in establishing new
a positive impact for start up and business types of services for children in the form of so-
growth. Similar programmes for women in examined by the new URBACT network of cial enterprises and also offers financial tools
Canada demonstrate that loan funding com- ESIMEC (Economic Strategies and Innovation designed. Between 2004-2008 PAN suc-
bined with integrated support regularly in Medium Sized Cities). The network is exa- cessfully built 140 new infant schools with
increases revenues by a factor of 20 13. The mining ‘how integrated and flexible workforce 4,311 available places and 943 new jobs,
URBACT MILE project showed that integra- development strategies that simultaneously largely for women - a major development by
ted support could be developed into some- tackle the demand and supply side of the anybody’s standards.
thing that is trusted by small ethnic minority labour market are a prerequisite of sustainable
businesses and also explored how business economic prosperity’. Strategies that partner Other examples can be found in the areas of
creation can be used as both a tool and stra- cities are developing include better apprenti- recycling as well as health and social care.
tegy for integrating an immigrant population ceship opportunities and upskilling of the un- The ‘More than Profit’ network in Brighton
into a society and labour market 14. Such employed in line with the needs of employers. was developed when it was realised that
examples highlight that attention to inclusive It is an approach that the OECD LEED Pro- social enterprises already contributes signifi-
entrepreneurship is possible and offers poten- gramme also supports. cantly to the local economy and local employ-
tial for growth and new, more strategic routes It is important that communities use the ment. It provides advice, events, facilitates
out of the economic crisis. current situation to build a better partnership partnerships and business support towards
Other ways of improving local economic resi- with employers to better use skills and build more robust, sustainable enterprises that
lience besides enterprise creation are being meaningful career ladders that support pro- meet social needs, regenerate communities
gression for the lower-skilled.15 and minimise environmental impact.

Developing Social Examples such as these offer evidence of


Enterprises: Brighton and Can cities help new growth social as well as economic impact of intelli-
Hove Recycling Project opportunities to have gent and socially aware investment. They also
a social as well as economic offer valuable lessons that can be applied
Brighton & Hove’s experience of
elsewhere, although it has to be admitted
developing the “Wood Recycling impact? that there is still much to be learned when it
Project” provides valuable lessons in
In relatively rich societies like Europe, there are comes to effectively measuring such impact.
how social enterprises develop and
strong arguments to suggest that long-term There is a growing awareness, for example,
change. Set up in 1998, in response to
competitiveness is more likely to come from that counting new jobs does not create suffi-
the lack of recycling and re-use facilities
sectors which focus on the quality of life and cient accountability for how money is spent.
for wood waste in the Brighton area,
the environment than simply a return to the We still need more work on how to develop
it was the first organisation of its kind
consumption-led speculative patterns of the a clearer understanding of the overall impacts
to exist in the UK. The project saves
past. The URBACT Network of Social Enter- of enterprises, whether they are social or
waste and resources; it also generates
prise (Urban N.O.S.E) led by Gela is exploring private16 if social as well as economic inequa-
employment and has created a successful
how to create social economy incubators that lities are to be addressed.
self-financing business model with
do this. The experiences of its partner cities are
environmental and social aims. The
varied. Some have concentrated on building
core organization in Hove now has 6 full
and developing social incubators through How can labour market
time members of staff and 20 long-term
worker trainee volunteers. It has,
cheaper access to premises (La Poussada in rigidities that lead to
Grenoble), others to public private support for an underuse of the skills
moreover, used its experience and
social enterprises that can grow to provide
model to help establish the National
better health and social care services. of women and migrants
Community Wood Recycling Project be reduced?
The contribution that social enterprise can
which comprises over 25 social
make to social and economic aims is evident
enterprises across the UK, providing in
once we realise that the type of new employ- This final question is one that a number of
2009-2010 some 8000 days of training
ment created by social enterprises often URBACT projects have addressed, including
and volunteering for some of the most
favours individuals who may have difficulty Open Cities, MILE and WEED. They focus on
disadvantaged.
moving between localities to find jobs and ways of ensuring that women and migrants
Contact: Alasdair Walmsley, a higher quality of life. It also often favours are not faced with unnecessary barriers to
ali@communitywoodrecycling.org.uk women. An exploration of social enterprise by employment and are not more exposed to the
the URBACT Women, Enterprise and Econo- cold wind of the recession.
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11

Open Cities is exploring which strategies work talent attraction, creation of new markets and powerful in the labour market do not suffer a
best for attracting, retaining and developing the ability to attract international firms. disproportionate impact of the recession. The
workers in a way that suits the economic and type of solutions being explored as part of the
social demands of particular environments. Cities involved in the MILE project also deve- URBACT networks and highlighted here
Its work is based on the idea that an effective loped a range of strategies that highlight the provide a reminder that much can be done at
agenda around diversity, integration and inclu- importance of coordinated responses to local local level as well as that much has still to
sion offers a real and tangible asset to a city. situations. As part of its work in the MILE be learnt. Innovation and partnership do not
It is more than a social inclusion issue since project, Venice explored, within an ESF project, have to disappear and the lessons emerging
diversity can offer labour pool advantages, new tools for the inclusion of migrant women at local level provide a valuable reminder
in the labour market. In Turin, a pilot scheme that social and economic strategies can be
was developed to reach young people from developed together and with positive impact
migrant communities including the develop- for all. ●
ment of an INFOBUS: a mobile information
service carrying information on vocational (1) European Anti Poverty Network (2009) Social
Cohesion at Stake: the Social Impact of the Crisis
training, employment, job and educational and Recovery Package.
opportunities to excluded youth in the areas (2) EUROPE 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable
where they live 17. and inclusive growth.
(3) OECD (2006), From Immigration to Integration:
The lessons from WEED partners focus far Local Solutions to a Global Challenge
more on ways that women can access jobs (4) G Scott (2009) Developing an Urban Agenda
for female Entrepreneurship During The Economic
that pay and on measures that can be taken Downturn. URBACT Tribune
to make work less gendered. Umeå, one of (5) Seguino, S. (2009) The gender perspectives
WEED’s partner cities, identified how munici- of the financial crisis. Submission to the United Nations
palities can make a positive contribution to Commission on the Status of Women
labour market rigidities. Amongst their efforts (6) Froy, F. & Giguere, S. (2009) Putting in Place jobs
© DR

that last: a guide to re-building sustainable employment


was the municipally-based Attraktiv arbets- at local level. OECD
plats på lika villkor project 18. The project focu- (7) Commission of the European Communities (2003)
Integration measures sed on recruiting more men to a traditionally Entrepreneurship in Europe: Green Paper
for immigrant workers: Start woman dominated profession as well as im- (8) Nyssens, M. (2006) Social Enterprise, London
Coaching START WIEN proving the conditions for the (largely female) Routledge
employees in the mealtime service. The main (9) URBACT (2010) Cities and the Economic Crisis :
One of Open Cities partners, Vienna, Summary of the Impact and responses of URBACT II
was to develop and thereby improve the sta- cities
has developed as part of its diversity
tus of the profession. It used gender equality (10) The Young Foundation (2009) Fixing the Future
agenda a programme for integrating new
as a method for developing the work organi- Innovating more effective responses to recession
migrants from third country citizenship
sation and the profession and through training (11) Froy,F. & Giguere,S. (2009) op cit.
into the city’s labour force. The ‘Start
and recruitment tried new approaches to work (12) Greater London Authority, The 2010 Living
Wien Integration Programme’ is one of Wage in London
duties. It resulted in more men employed in the
the key integration initiatives which has (13) Scarlett,T. (2010) Women’s Enterprise Initiative:
municipally funded mealtime service and
been in place since October 2008. It Generating Significant Economic Impacts in Western
better conditions for all: the model is being Canada. Alberta Women’s Entrepreneurs Association.
aims to help newcomers make a good
extended to other sectors of the municipalities’ (14) Guidow,Y; Ramsden, P; Saad, H. (2008)
start in the city, and was developed by
employment. Developing Action Plans for Operational Programmes:
the Integration and Diversity Department Enterprise Development for Migrants and Ethnic
of the municipality in collaboration Minorities.
with NGOs in the field and all relevant Conclusion (15) Froy, F. & Giguere, S. (2009) op cit
departments. It covers welcome policies, (16) See NEF’s publication Hitting the target,
housing, education and health information missing the point for a discussion of why social as
Nobody expects initiatives such as those well as economic impact assessment is important
packages; as well as mother–tongue
listed above to transform the rigidities of local (17) See OPENCities Workshop Report: Thematic
orientation meetings focused on the Workshop Three, Poznan, Poland, 2010
labour markets or the problems of entrepre-
labour market. Vienna’s integration (18) MILE Second Action Plan Synthesis report
neurs but by highlighting possibilities and dis-
policy follows a clear concept based on (19) WEED Thematic Workshop: Empowering women
seminating the positive impacts of change
transparent rules for immigration and in the workplace. Case Study Compendium:
the potential for greater change at local and Supplement to WEED Action Learning Set 2 Report
integration. It focuses on a set of tailor-
wider level can be promoted. We know that it
made integration measures for newly
will be some time before economic activity
arrived immigrants and specific target
and employment gets back to pre-recession
groups such as women and youngsters
17
levels. We also know that returns to enterprise
. Between October 2008 and June
and returns in the form of increased wages for
2010 more than 5,000 immigrants were
i
employment are likely to be affected for some MORE INFORMATION
helped by the project. Its annual budget
time. In such an environment it is even more WEED project: http://urbact.eu/en/
is 640,000 EUR. projects/human-capital-entrepreneur-
important than before the recession to explore
ship/weed/homepage/
Contact: MA 17, Karin Konig, new ways of encouraging enterprise for the Lead Expert: Gill Scott
Karin.Koening@wien.gv.at long-term and for the social good as well as gill.wilmot1@btinternet.com
developing measures to ensure that the least
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12

URBAN HOTSPOT 2.0


THE CHALLENGE OF INTEGRATING KNOWLEDGE
HUBS IN THE CITY
BY WILLEM VAN WINDEN
LEAD EXPERT OF THE REDIS THEMATIC NETWORK

© Radovan Mlatec
Dublin

Cities all over Europe are developing ‘knowledge hotspots’: Knowledge hubs
physical concentrations of knowledge-intensive or creative activity. come back to the city
They come in many disguises: science parks, technology parks,
Science parks have long been the most visible
creative districts, design quarters, etc. Well-known examples are
‘addresses’ of the knowledge economy. Cities
the Cambridge Science Park, Barcelona’s @22 district, or Helsinki’s and universities have invested in them for a
Arabianranta area. Increasingly, such hotspots are being developed number of reasons: to commercialize acade-
inside the city rather than at sub-urban Greenfield sites. This makes mic research, to create knowledge-intensive
their development highly complex. A key challenge for cities is to jobs, or as a means to express a cities’ rea-
diness for the knowledge economy. Cam-
deal with the many conflicting interests, and to integrate knowledge
bridge Science Park (established by Trinity
hubs in the city. How do European cities deal with these challenges? College in 1970), can be considered as the
Which problems do they face, and how do they tackle them? mother of all science parks. It is the UK's
This article draws on experience gained in the REDIS project, that oldest and most prestigious science park. In
unites 8 cities that are developing knowledge hubs and seek ways the 1980s, the science park concept became
widespread, and currently, there are 123 uni-
to integrate them optimally in the city.
versity-based science parks in the US, 46 in
The project has fuelled and inspired local debates, through an the UK and more than 200 in Asia. Science
in-depth ‘peer review’ method, in which the local stakeholders parks typically focus on ‘beta’ sciences and
exposed themselves to constructive criticism of the partner cities. technology, ranging from basic science to
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URBAN HOTSPOT 2.0


13

applied science to product development and culture is far away from the 9-17 mentality, The shift from the isolated campus model to
sometimes even manufacturing. and work and life are mixed up in time and integrated approaches has brought know-
space. People in these industries think in ledge-based development to the heart of
In the last decade, new types of ‘knowledge terms of projects rather than employers; there Europe’s cities. This ‘urban turn’ is a manifes-
hubs’ were developed, around emerging are many freelancers working temporary tation of a more general re-appreciation of
thematic fields beyond science and techno- together, and they use public facilities (bars cities. Knowledge workers increasingly prefer
logy. Notably the ‘creative industries’ have etc) as meeting places. They are often deeply to work in a nice and lively working environ-
been discovered as promising growth sector, involved in cultural production and consump- ment that offers amenities and facilities
and consequently, many cities have develo- tion, and thrive in a lively and diverse urban beyond just office and lab space, and where
ped a wide variety of hotspots to facilitate environment. consumption opportunities are more widely
them. In the 1990s, Manchester was early to available (Florida, 2002; Glaeser, “Consumer
develop a ‘creative quarter’, adjacent to the Given this distinctly ‘urban’ orientation, policy- city, 2010”). There is pressure on firms and
city centre. Other prominent frontrunners are makers have come to embrace the creative research institutes to meet these demands:
the Art&Design city in Helsinki, and Barcelona’s industries not only as promising growth indus- skilled knowledge workers have become a
@22 district, in which two hundred hectares try but also as a catalyst for the urban rege- scarce commodity, and there is severe com-
of industrial land were transformed into an neration. All over Europe and the US, worn-out petition to lure them. One of the ways to do
innovative district. Other cities are carrying industrial sites have been transformed into it is to offer a very attractive working environ-
out comparable concepts for creative indus- lively creative factories – often with substantial ment that includes facilities for leisure and
tries or more specific branches like media, public sector support –, and have certainly shopping.
design, fashion etc. contributed to the regeneration of many cities
and districts. It is not only about physical
Although the thematic focus is different, there regeneration: urban knowledge hubs are often
The challenge of integration
are similarities between these new knowledge developed with explicit social regeneration The development of an ‘urban’ knowledge
hubs and the more ‘traditional’ science parks objectives in mind. hub is a complex challenge. Many stakehol-
described above. The economic development ders play a role, with different interests: know-
motives for investing in creative quarters are ledge institutes, housing corporations, neigh-
similar: Local governments invest in this type Unlike science parks, bourhood councils, real estate developers,
of concepts in the hope to create new jobs, the creative hubs don’t local government departments, etc. New urban
to gain a reputation as ‘knowledge city’ and to look like mono-functional knowledge hubs are places where these
attract the creative class. Typically, universities different (and often conflicting) interests fight
and other knowledge institutes are involved in business parks. their battles. They are also places where the
the development, and hope to commercialise new economy merges with the old, where
their research. Many have also incubation Thus, ‘new generation’ knowledge hubs are new ‘elitist’ knowledge workers mix with the
facilities, start-up support, and seek to deve- increasingly being developed as part of the indigenous inhabitants, and where new archi-
lop local networking as a means to promote urban fabric rather than outside town, and tecture and structures blend with the existing
innovation. they tend be more mixed in term of functions. urban fabric.
Interestingly, this is not only true for hotspots
But there are major differences as well, espe- for creative industries. There are several A major challenge for cities is to handle
cially from an urban development perspective. recent examples of technology-oriented conflicts of interest, and, in the end, to inte-
Unlike science parks, the creative hubs don’t urban knowledge quarters. The city of New- grate knowledge hubs in the city in a sustai-
look like mono-functional business parks. castle (UK), member of the REDIS-network, nable way. Based on experience gained in the
They are typically located in city centres and/or is developing a large science quarter in the REDIS-project, we distinguish three dimensions
regenerated industrial areas, and have a more heart of the city (see box). In Dortmund of integration: physical, social, and economic.
urban and lively ambience that fits the needs (Germany), a second generation technology Economic integration refers to the links bet-
of the type of people who work there. The hub ‘Phoenix’ is being developed as full part ween the knowledge hotspot and the local
tenants - design firms, architect agencies, of a new urban neighbourhood, including economy. Does the new development gene-
media companies, etc. – prefer environments housing and leisure functions (see http:// rate jobs for locals or people in adjacent
with a distinct and urban identity. Their work www.phoenix-dortmund.de/) neighbourhood, or only for the ‘creative class’

Newcastle Science Central


The city of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (UK) is an example. Over the last years, the city
has successfully transformed its industrial image, through heavy investments in culture
and flagship architecture. The city’s next ambition is to become a significant ‘city of
knowledge’ in the UK. Among other things, Newcastle is developing a large ‘science
quarter’ at a former brewery site in the city centre. To realise this ambition, the City
Council works together with the University of Newcastle and ONE Northeast, the regional
development company for the Northeast of England. The partners have the intention to
© Philip Hunton

transform the brewery site into a new mixed-used central district, focused on attracting
and developing world-class knowledge and business in science and technology.
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14

coming from elsewhere? To what extent does Figure 1 shows the three dimensions. A key
the new knowledge hub offer interesting new aspect in the figure is governance and parti-
business perspectives for firms in the area, i.e. cipation of stakeholders in the development
services firms, cafés, restaurants? Can local process. The figure can be seen as a checklist
firms use new facilities to be developed there? for policy-makers as to how closely new
Are local firms involved in the project develop- knowledge hubs are integrated in the city.
ment process?

Social integration refers to the social benefits


Examples from
of a new hub for inhabitants of the area and European cities
the city at large. Will it generate relevant job Cities all over Europe are struggling to inte-
openings for locals, or educational opportuni- grate knowledge hubs in the urban fabric,
ties for adults and children? Are there links each with its own particular approaches and
with local schools? How is the development issues. To illustrate this, below, we briefly pre-
affecting the social fabric of the neighbour- sent two different cases. The first is Magde-
hood? To what extent will the development burg, where efforts are undertaken to ‘embed’
lead a process of gentrification, which may the university campus in its surroundings. The
drive up prices of real estate and replace poor second is Dublin, where a new knowledge
inhabitants with more wealthy ones? To what hub is being developed as part of a disadvan-
extent can the new facilities be used for local taged neighbourhood. Each case highlights Dublin
community activities? In what ways are citi- different aspects of integration.
zens involved in the development stages of
the project? Do ordinary citizens benefit from k Magdeburg
the development of the knowledge hub? In the German city of Magdeburg, lead partner university is mainly concerned with its own
in the REDIS-network, a key challenge is to campus area, and does not see many bene-
Physical integration, finally, is about how the align the interests of the university with that of fits in strategic co-operation with the develo-
architecture and urban design of the know- the city. The city is redeveloping an old inland pers of the Science Port next door (similar
ledge hub fit with the urban surrounding. To port area that is no longer in use as a port into problems occur in many other European cities).
what extent does the architecture connect a ‘Science port’. Some old warehouses are Recently, an urban plan was commissioned,
with the design of adjacent areas? Are efforts turned into ‘knowledge factories’ housing envisioning a physically integration of the two
made to preserve signallers of local identity knowledge intensive firms, and new premises areas. Rather than a ‘ghetto for boffins’, the
like industrial heritage, or landmark buildings? were built as well. The new Science Port lies area is to become an open area also for citi-
How ‘open’ is the design in terms of access next to university campus, so in principle, the zens and tourists. Citizens should know
for citizens and pass-byers, or are there bar- two can merge into one single knowledge what’s happening in the area, they should
riers that prevent such access? Is the hub de- quarter. In practice, however, it proves not easy recognize it as a new economic pillar of their
veloped as a fully accessible part of the city, to integrate both areas physically and functio- city. Public spaces in the area are designed to
or rather as a closed design that intends to nally. For one thing, a busy road separates the welcome to residents and tourists, and the
keep people out who don’t live or work there? two areas from each other. For another, the amenities – bars, restaurants – are open to
everyone. The nearby Elbe River is an impor-
tant asset, and it is hoped that with the new
urban plan, the Science Port area may be-
Figure 1 : Integration of knowledge hotspots in the urban fabric: three dimensions
come an attractive spot to enjoy river views
and leisure activity. That would draw more
Economic integration
people into the area, making it livelier and
more mixed, which in turn may enhance the
Now jobs for locals
attractiveness for knowledge workers and
high-tech firms as well.
Business participation User-based innovation

It is not only about urban planning. The city


Business expansion for local SMEs also uses events as a tool to involve citizens
more in the knowledge economy. Each year
Preserving identity/heritage Educational opportunities the city organises the ‘long night of science’,
Governance during which labs and knowledge institutes
open to the public; there are all kinds of
Transport connections Services for locals workshops, exhibitions and shows related to
innovation and science. The event is very po-
Open architecture pular, drawing thousands of visitors. It clearly
Citizen participation
signals that knowledge and science need not
Physical integration Open infrastructures Social integration be something abstract and obscure, but can
lead to interesting new products that make
Meeting places sense in daily life; also it reflects hopes for a
new economic future of the city.
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URBAN HOTSPOT 2.0


15

A major challenge for cities


is to handle conflicts of
interest and, in the end, to
integrate knowledge hubs in
the city in a sustainable way.

k Dublin
Dublin is another example where integration is
a central issue. Since 2000, the ‘Digital Hub’
is being developed. It is a dedicated cluster of
ICT and new media firms, located in a distres-

© Tyler Olson
sed neighbourhood, at the premises of the
well-known Guinness-brewery. The old offices
and buildings have been upgraded and refur-
bished, and made ready to house ICT and
media companies, thanks to contributions of
the city and the national government. The
ambition is to develop the area as a world-
class knowledge cluster for ICT and new me-
dia firms. The Hub should become a symbol
for Dublin’s economic transition. Meanwhile,
84 companies have located in the Hub,
among which big names like Google and
France Telecom. The Digital Hub is located on
the edge of Dublin’s city centre, in a distres-
sed neighbourhood named The Liberties. This
is a typical blue-collar working class area for
the workers of the Guinness brewery. Over
the last decades, the Liberties area has been
in decay. It suffers from a high unemployment
rate, educational levels are low, and crime
rates are relatively high.
© DR

To manage the different conflicting interests


in the area, the state created a special deve-
Aerial view of the Science Port, Magdeburg.
lopment organisation - the Digital Hub Deve-
lopment Agency (DHDA). This organisation
acquired the land, and was assigned to deve-
lop a concept for the area and to make deals
with private developers for the development
of commercial functions (retail, housing). From
the outset, the government did not want the
Digital Hub to become an ‘elitist island’ in the
middle of a deprived area, and therefore took
several measures to link the Hub with its sur-
roundings. One of the key ambitions has been
to make the residents benefit from the hub as
well. The idea to explicitly link the Hub with the
Liberties area emerged in a consultation
process with the main stakeholders. A ‘Com-
munity-Public-Private-Partnership’ (CPPP)
was set up before the start of the develop-
ment. Residents could express their wishes
© DR

and ideas, which resulted in a set of conditions


Dublin’s Digital Hub. and guidelines for the development process.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 16

16

Private developers commit themselves to Conclusion remarks


comply with these guidelines. In particular, all The competitiveness of
stakeholders signalled the importance of trai- In the evolving knowledge economy, the com-
ning and education as a link between the Europe’s cities will depend petitiveness of Europe’s cities will depend on
Digital Hub and the Liberties area. The Digital on their ability to provide their ability to provide lively and attractive
Hub Development Agency (DHDA) has signed environments for knowledge creation and
lively and attractive
agreements with 16 schools in the area. It exchange. Many European realise this, and
provides training sessions on ICT and new environments for knowledge invest substantially in the development of
media, typically in co-operation with tenants creation and exchange. urban ‘knowledge hubs’ of all sorts. Old in-
of the Digital Hub. Moreover, it organises dustrial estates are transformed into fancy
excursions for schoolchildren to the Hub, and creative factories or knowledge quarters; the
during holiday breaks, it offers all kinds of old ‘suburban’ model of greenfield campus
workshops, for example on making rap songs whole. Also, a smart participation approach development is getting out of fashion.
using digital technologies. increases the acceptance of knowledge hubs
that would otherwise be considered by many Will these new urban areas develop as ‘elitist’
residents as elitist urban enclaves to which and stand-alone enclaves for the happy crea-
Smart participation is key they have no relation. tive class, or can they be made part of the city
Clearly, there are no blueprints for an ‘optimal’ It is advisable to set up structures in which at large and benefit other citizens as well?
integration of knowledge hubs, as their deve- stakeholders are represented from the outset. Many cities go for the latter option, for good
lopment is highly context-specific. But in any They serve as arenas where conflicting inte- reasons. But the challenges and questions
case, stakeholder management is essential, rests are addressed at an early stage, and they face are numerous. How to deal with
and needs to go beyond the ‘traditional’ ap- where creative solutions can be developed. tensions between the original inhabitants and
proach of informing and consulting citizens in As in the case of Dublin, the process may the incoming ‘creative class’ in a particular
the masterplanning process. The transforma- lead to a set of ‘development guidelines’ that area? How to open opportunities for people
tional aspects of large knowledge-driven urban reflects (or reconciles) the different interests and firms to benefit from the new develop-
development plans ask for a deeper involve- and ambitions. ments? How to deal with the tension between
ment approach, that does not only address openness and security? How to find and ma-
the spatial and physical aspects of the deve- In practice, some topics or conceptual areas nage real fruitful interactions between the
lopment, but also the functional and concep- could be identified in which participation is li- knowledge hub and its surrounding?
tual linkages between the new knowledge kely to add value: examples are the temporary
hub and the city. Participation should not be use of the development site, or the potential This paper has conceptualised the issue, and
organised as an occasional confrontation of links between science/technology and citi- provided some case studies, but much more
professional planners with ordinary citizens zen’s daily lives. To generate and elaborate can be said and learned about this emerging
or business owners in the design stage only, ideas, working groups could be created, in- issue. More research and exchange is needed
but as a continuing dialogue. volving community representatives, relevant to assess the effectiveness of policy inter-
university researchers, civil officers and mem- ventions, and to discover the conditions un-
This may benefit the knowledge quarter in bers of the delivery organization, and funding der which ‘integration’ can succeed in varying
several ways, and contributes to its physical should be made available to put the ideas into circumstances and contexts. A promising
and functional integration in the city as a practice. approach - adopted in REDIS - is to combine
state-of-the-art research with ‘deep’ interna-
tional policy exchange, in which not only
policy-makers are involved but also other local
stakeholders. ●
(1) Detailed information can be found at http://urbact.eu/
en/projects/innovation-creativity/redis/homepage/

i
MORE INFORMATION
REDIS project: http://urbact.eu/en/
projects/innovation-creativity/redis/
© Lianem

homepage/
Lead Expert: Willem van Winden
w.van.winden@urbaniq.nl
Magdeburg Water Bridge.
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© DR
A FLEXIBLE WORKFORCE FOR
LOCAL ECONOMIC RESILIENCE
BY ALISON PARTRIDGE
LEAD EXPERT OF THE ESIMeC THEMATIC NETWORK

Cities across the EU have field and draw key lessons for city policy ma- interventions “countries need to be laying
experienced a period of huge kers. Work carried out by the OECD LEED the foundations for a more sustainable econo-
Group (Organisation for Economic Coopera- mic future”. It goes on to advocate “…a new
economic volatility with massive
tion and Development, Local Employment approach to employment and skills… tied
job losses and rising unemploy- and Economic Development Forum) and much closer to the longer term economic
ment. Many have introduced URBACT’s own study into the local impact of development of local communities and the
dedicated economic recovery the crisis (April 2010) 1, demonstrates that in- competitiveness of national economies”.
packages and there is growing tegrated and flexible workforce develop-
ment strategies that simultaneously tackle At the same time, the economy is changing.
acceptance that demand-led
the demand and supply side of the labour In the new knowledge economy, people are
workforce development is a key market are a prerequisite of sustainable our main economic asset. If they do not
ingredient for sustainable economic prosperity. have the right mix of skills, or are not suffi-
economic growth. ciently flexible to adapt to economic change,
then the economy will not be able to respond
SIMeC (Economic Strategies and
An adaptable workforce to the needs of new and growing sectors

E Innovation in MEdium-sized Cities) –


led by Basingstoke and Deane
Borough Council – will help medium-
sized cities cope better with the challenges of
sustainable economic development, particu-
for local economic stability
According to the OECD “workforce develop-
ment” is a term used to describe activities
which increase the capacity of individuals to
participate in, and contribute effectively to,
such as green technologies and social and
health care.

In simple terms demand-led workforce deve-


lopment is where the training provided to the
larly in an economic downturn. More specifi- employment, either through training or other workforce (the supply of labour) is designed to
cally it will explore how demand-led workforce forms of public assistance. The OECD LEED meet the ongoing skills needs of employers
development strategies can be used as an Forum report “Putting in place jobs which (on the demand side). This is the win-win
instrument of sustainable economic recovery last: A guide to rebuilding sustainable em- sustainable employment scenario that cities
in medium sized cities. ployment at local level” 1, argues that localities across Europe strive to achieve. To do so
with a labour force able to adapt to external workforce development strategies must either
Activities already being developed and delive- trends and shocks are more likely to recover be driven by, or at the very least must engage,
red by cities throughout the EU can be used quickly and absorb the impact of future eco- employers during development and delivery.
to identify some of the key challenges in this nomic crises. It states that alongside business Strategies must also tackle the supply side.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 18

18

Learning from the past


Many cities have focused on workforce deve-
lopment as a route out of the recession. While
this is not a new concept, it is one that conti-
nues to be difficult to get right. This article looks
at a few examples of attempts to solve this
puzzle.

Back in 1998 Workforce Investment Boards 3


(WIBs) in the US started to play a central role
in creating more integrated strategies to ad-
dress employment and skills within broader
economic development strategies locally.
There are 650 WIBs across the US, at state
and local level. They are led by business,
chaired by business and have a majority bu-
siness membership. They also include repre-
sentatives from labour unions and local edu-
© Nostal6ie

cational institutions, as well as economic


development officials. Businesses take a ge-
nuine lead. There is more emphasis on corpo-
rate social responsibility and the state plays a
smaller role. WIBs experiment with new acti- ployers): “BLCF has an important role in the
vities and have a proven capacity to deliver. construction industry. It helps contractors find
“Workforce development
States in the US can apply for certain laws to good local workers and the additional training
be waived to allow for additional flexibility in is key to ensure medium- and support it provides benefits both contrac-
implementing innovative workforce strategies sized cities have a skilled tors and employees enormously.” (Director,
and initiatives which they develop. This ap- Bovis Lend Lease).
proach not only promotes innovation but also
and adaptable workforce to
awards flexibility to those most able to make respond to the current and The model developed by BLCF from 2001-
use of it. It is an example of a national level future needs of employers. 2005 has since been mainstreamed through
employer driven intervention which has bene- the “London Employer Accord” and the
fitted local economies.
This can only be achieved “Construction Employer Accord” program-
through partnership working mes and transferred to a wide range of other
Between 2001 and 2005 an EQUAL project in between the public, private employment sectors including health, hospi-
London (UK) started to explore demand-led tality, arts and culture and business and finan-
workforce development through the Building
and academic sectors. cial services. The Employer Accord’s aim is
London Creating Futures 4 (BLCF) project, A skilled workforce able to work with significant employers in the UK
which was born from a European Social Fund to meet the demands of capital, from the private, public and third sec-
project. The aim was to create a lasting, de- tors. The Accord tests models for an enhan-
monstrable and transferable model of coope-
businesses will not only help ced and more integrated service to meet their
ration and coordination between local labour cities to ride the recession business support, recruitment, employment
and regeneration initiatives that responded but also ensure long-term and skills needs, by working with the range
effectively to employer and individual needs. of publicly funded delivery agencies and
BLCF was delivered by a partnership of local
economic growth. Our contracted training providers who support
authorities and construction employers. residents are our main asset individuals into work and training.
“Workplace Coordinators”, paid for by the and we need to ensure we
project, were hosted by the private sector Current state of play
construction employers to broker their labour invest in their development.”
force needs with the employment needs of lo-
in some URBACT cities
cal unemployed people. This was backed up Councillor Andrew Finney, leader Newcastle and Gateshead (UK) Council,
with an extensive e-brokerage and employ- of Basingstoke and Deane Borough (featured in a recent URBACT case study 1
ment training offer. The evaluation 5 concluded with Gateshead leading the RUnUP project 2)
that being industry-based and industry-spe- has included in their economic recovery plan
cific gave access to the right people within a series of long term measures to deal
employers at the right time, and also helps to with both ends of the labour market (The
foster good relationships with employers by Newcastle Gateshead 1 Plan). It argues that
having a sound understanding of their needs. the “growth of the knowledge economy will
The project provides a successful brokerage create jobs for a new generation of techni-
model as it works with both the supply side cians and skilled workers...”. A LOAN (Linking
(beneficiaries) and the demand side (em- Opportunity And Need) response team is
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 19

A FLEXIBLE WORKFORCE
FOR LOCAL ECONOMIC RESILIENCE 19

In Albacete (Spain) two associations of busi- employers is a common thread as is the aim
ness representatives, FEDA and ADECA have to meet current and future skills needs in a
come together with CAMARA, the Chamber flexible way. These can be taken forward
of Commerce and Industry to deliver a €2.8m within the URBACT framework in the work
annual training programme. The programme of URBACT Local Support Groups and sub-
aims to provide employees and employers sequently in the co-production of practical
with a wide range of up to date employment Local Action Plans.
skills and knowledge in keeping with jobs that
are newly available. Currently the programme Meeting the challenge
is targeting workers made unemployed in the
post-construction boom period. They are
of balancing supply and
being re-trained in areas such as renewable demand
energy and energy efficiency technologies. Achieving the dream scenario of balancing
supply and demand in the labour force is by
In Basingstoke and Deane (UK lead partner no means easy. Although many cities are ma-
of ESIMeC), the Council is a key player in the king progress in this area, there continue to
cross sector Skills and Employability Priority be many diverse challenges for practitioners
Action Group which includes a wide range of and policy makers alike.
public, private and community stakeholders
sharing a common interest in workforce deve- These include:
© Fotolia

lopment. Its priorities are to promote appren- 3 How to join up the skills agenda with overall
ticeships to employers; to gear local colleges economic recovery;
up to provide Science, Technology, Enginee- 3 How to understand which of the multiple
being set up which will develop and imple- ring and Maths training and to be in a position actors need to be involved in developing
ment recruitment and training schemes linked to react to the needs of the unemployed and and delivering effective demand led skills
to major regeneration projects. On the supply employers alike. strategies;
side, the Council will develop a package of 3 How to better understand the features
projects with schools in order to reduce the These examples give a sense of some of the and players of the skills ecosystem and
numbers of people leaving with no qualifica- different measures being delivered and the particularly the skills requirements of evolving
tions and provide comprehensive employabi- different approaches being taken in URBACT growth sectors such as Green Technologies
lity support during the transition from school cities. The direct and proactive involvement of and Health and Social Care;
to work alongside actions aimed at attracting
and retaining good students to the universities
and colleges. There is also a package of sup-
Adaptable skilled Existing skills
port measures for people who have been labour force used effectively
made redundant. On the demand side the
Balanced, integrated approach Supply and demand sides linked
Council has developed a Local Employment
to education and training
Partnership to improve access to its own Technology transfer supported
17,000 jobs and increase the size of its ap- Employment, economy and education working
Managers trained
together
prenticeship programme. Newcastle believes
Unions and intermediaries involved
that this multifaceted approach towards the Generic, flexible skills
demand and supply side of the labour market Quality supply chains
Joined up delivery
will create sustainable jobs at both the high
end of the labour market and at entry level. A flexible workforce
for inclusive
This has paved the way for a range of different and sustainable
measures, such as those being introduced in economic growth
ESIMeC partner towns that are helping to
balance the needs of employers and em- Good governance
ployees and create a sustainable job market Skills upgraded, careers Clear priorities with defined roles
for the future. progressed and responsibilities
Clear definition of jobs, Concise, realistic strategies taking local
In Cherbourg (France) for example, the Em- sectors and job profiles conditions into account
ployment and Training Centre maps local skills
Growth and shrinkages forecast Informal relationships, mutual trust
and jobs and forecasts the skills needs of
businesses on the demand side alongside Flexible specialisation Respect for diversity
training requirements on the supply side – for Training and education ready to respond Social capital
both unemployed and employed people. It Support for sectors and clusters
also carries out a wide range of activities to
help the supply of labour meet the needs of
local employers, in order to achieve sustaina- The diagram above is adapted from information from the OECD report and highlights
ble employment. some of the key messages for policy-makers.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 20

20

3 How to recognise diversity amongst the sta- People are a city’s asset. The skills of the
keholders but still be able to find a common future need to be identified now and training
language and agree a set of priorities which providers need to gear up to provide them.
everyone understands, can sign up to and Generic and transferable skills are essential to
deliver; this new and flexible market. Supply and
3 How to engage the right people (including demand sides of the labour market have to
industry, government and universities) effec- be carefully balanced to achieve sustainable
tively in this debate; employment.

© DR
3 How to motivate and incentivise employers
to innovate, introduce change and share
responsibility for a skilled workforce – e.g. by
How ESIMeC can The ESIMeC group.
improving job design and finding more contribute to the debate
productive ways of using their workers in the ESIMeC will explore how best to identify and Conclusion
future; meet the needs of employers in this field – In considering how policies and practices
3 How to help their businesses and citizens ensuring that both the demand and supply across the EU are adapting to the needs of
understand and value the potential of higher needs of the labour market are met. It will the rapidly changing economy, this article has
education and skills; address the challenges set out above and demonstrated the potential for demand-led
3 How to fund workforce development in a look at each and every angle of the virtuous workforce development to contribute to sus-
context of contracting public sector budgets; cycle of sustainable growth set out below. tainable economic resilience in the 21st century.
3 How to provide workers with generic and The ESIMeC partners hope that working It is clear that employers have a large part to
adaptable skills within a flexible lifelong together will help them creatively address and play and that cities will need to adapt their
learning system which meets employers’ answer a wide range of questions relating to policies, behaviour, governance and funding
needs now and in the future? the role of medium sized cities in post crisis mechanisms to be in a position to open and
Responding to these challenges is no easy economic growth. They believe that while sustain constructive dialogue with them which
task. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the medium-sized cities may face barriers in leads to positive and mutually beneficial
cultural and institutional differences across terms of their lack of entrepreneurial culture, results. European Union funding also has a
the public and private sector are sometimes perceived lack of vision, leadership and image role to play and integrating competitiveness
so vast that even establishing effective dia- compared with larger agglomerations they (ERDF) and employment and training (ESF)
logue is difficult. have the potential to create a favourable programmes will be more and more important.
structural framework for sustainable econo- The challenges and barriers to success are
mic development by providing local people considerable and diverse. The work of ESIMeC
The way forward with the necessary skills and qualifications in aims to make a substantive contribution to
for policy- makers the industries of the future to make them a the debate and develop and test some new
The OECD LEED Forum’s sustainable em- fundamental resource. Through the URBACT local approaches which can feed into policy
ployment report highlights a wide range of Local Support Groups and Local Action Plans and practice across the EU. There is no single
messages for policy makers. The key point is the cities will start to identify and implement solution and different approaches and combi-
that work needs to be driven by employers, concrete actions, working with employers nations of approaches will suit different local
involve all stakeholders and be taken forward to create a flexible workforce for sustainable contexts. A flexible, adaptable and open
in a coordinated, flexible and responsive way economic growth. For more information on approach is the key as is the opportunity to
which is integrated into existing economic ESIMeC and its partners please visit www. learn from other cities and to keep the debate
development and employment strategies. urbact.eu/esimec. alive. ●
(1) http://urbact.eu/fileadmin/general_library/
Survey_CitiesandCrisis_01.pdf
(2) http://www.oecd.org/document/23/0,3343,en_
ESIMEC Virtuous circle of sustainable growth 2649_33956792_44464727_1_1_1_1,00.html
(3) http://www.nawb.org/ - National Association
Partnership of Workforce Investment Boards website
(Triple Helix, PPP) Retention (4) http://www.equal-works.com/resources/content-
of skilled files/968.pdf
workers
(5) External Evaluation by Aurora for Cross River
Partnership, 2004, unpublished
Up-skilling Entrepreneurial (6) http://urbact.eu/fileadmin/general_library/
Long-term Sustainable
existing culture and Newcastle.pdf
demand-led workforce innovation
Economic
(7) http://urbact.eu/en/projects/innovation-creativity/
Workforce enhanced Recovery
runup/the-role-of-universities-for-economic-development-
Development Workforce and in-urban-poles/
with skills Attract inward resilience
Strategies in demand investment

i
MORE INFORMATION
ESIMeC project:
Improved http://urbact.eu/en/projects/
Forecast Skills positioning innovation-creativity/esimec/homepage/
needs (image) Lead Expert: Alison Partridge
alison@aurora-ltd.com
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 21

21

ROMA INCLUSION - CAN CITIES


BE THE DRIVER OF CHANGE?
WHAT WE NEED IS NOT SO MUCH A CLEVER SOLUTION BUT A
NEW CULTURE OF WORKING TOGETHER WITH ROMA COMMUNITIES

BY ANN MORTON HYDE


LEAD EXPERT OF THE ROMANET THEMATIC NETWORK

© Chantal S.

ut what if you are a young Roma any less important, than those of any other

B
In a society where we are
adult? In real terms it means you young adult? In May 2010 in Budapest,
constantly led to believe that
most likely did not complete your Viktoria Farkas, a young Roma woman who
anything is possible and that education, you probably live at the has personal aspirations told the ROMA-NeT
being a celebrity is a valid wrong address, in the wrong part of town, partners that ‘Employers don’t really offer jobs
‘career’ choice, it should be overcrowded and undervalued. It’s likely that for Roma people. Only a few people may un-
easy for our young people to your parents can’t support the family them- derstand how life is on the Gypsy row - what
selves so you had to finish school early to it means to have and to educate a child there.
aspire to greatness whatever
supplement their income. But without quali- What it feels to have on your skin the non-
their race or background. fications, the only opportunities open to you acceptance, the exclusion whether in school,
Shouldn’t it? are at best in the informal job market: unskil- on the street, from wider society, and to be ex-
led, poorly paid just like your parents and cluded from the job market. How is it possible
grandparents before you. Does that make to prove our competencies when we know
your hopes and your dreams any different, that we don’t have much chance in life?
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 22

22

Confined to the margins than investing in Roma. But they should be


of society - because they The 10 Common Basic aware that such short-term, non-controversial
decisions will have long-term irreparable
are Roma Principles for Roma Inclusion are consequences as the cycle of decline and
In Europe today there are hundreds of thou- (EU Roma summit, 2008): segregation becomes more and more deeply
sands of ordinary young people confined to 1. Constructive, pragmatic and entrenched.
the margins of society, often surviving in po- non discriminatory policies
verty, in sub-standard, even deplorable living Roma exclusion - more than
conditions - because they are Roma. Young 2. Explicit but not exclusive
people who grow up knowing that much of targeting an Eastern European issue
society is closed to their ambitions, many are 3. Inter-cultural approach For a long time Roma exclusion was regarded
resigned to the situation, aware that their full as mainly a Central and Eastern European
4. Aiming for the mainstream
potential is diminished, because they are issue: during the pre-accession years the
Roma. Even today these youngsters are com- 5. Awareness of the gender European Commission pushed integration of
pelled to embark upon the same cycle of dimension Roma as a priority for the countries of Bulga-
exclusion that has plagued their people for ria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and
6. Transfer of evidence-based
generations, because they are Roma. In a Slovakia. By 2001, reference to the Roma
society where equal rights and respect for
policies Minorities in the Accession Partnership docu-
diversity have been championed for decades; 7. Use of Community instruments ments referred to: ‘fighting against discrimina-
not only is this morally indefensible it is down 8. Involvement of regional tion (including within the public administra-
right wasteful and the economic justifications tion), fostering employment opportunities,
and local authorities
to change the situation are compelling. increasing access to education, improving
9. Involvement of civil society housing conditions; and providing adequate
In an increasingly aging Europe, no country, 10. Active participation financial support’.
nor city can afford to ignore the untapped of the Roma
potential and the contributions that could be Simultaneously in 2000, the bell began to toll,
made by this already enormous and growing for the end of blatant ethnic exclusion, or so
section of the population. Even in these days we thought, when the EU adopted its Racial
of economic downturn our nations continue nor lazy. For many, achieving basic subsis- Equality Directive (Directive 2000/43/EC –
to face shortages of skilled workers, emplo- tence demands constant innovation, arbitra- RED) aimed at combating discrimination on
ying a variety of tactics to attract much needed tion, determination, and ongoing resilience to the grounds of race or ethnic origin and
skills including encouraging economic migra- survive. Imagine the growth potential if Euro- prohibiting direct or indirect discrimination in
tion. Yet European cities consistently fail to pean cities could harness and maximise that employment, education, social protection,
recognise the most shocking neglect of one kind of capacity from an additional 10 million property matters and services.
of our core economic resources, the disregar- people living in the European Union. What
ded human capital that already exists in their that could mean for economic growth and the With some consensus that tackling exclusion
segregated and marginalised communities. future of our nations, let alone the moral and and facilitating integration of Roma would
Roma are the largest minority group in Europe, social justification associated with ensuring contribute significantly to the achievement of
but most have been written off, living and successful integration of Roma into society. the aims of the Lisbon Strategy, came a suc-
working outside the mainstream parameters Economic crisis, competing priorities and cession of targeted Roma policy directives:
of registered employment, health insurance dwindling public finances create an environ- The Decade of Roma Inclusion in 2003, the
and income tax. Contrary to the stereotypical ment where cities can easily turn away and OSCE Action Plan on Improving the Situation
image of Roma, their lives are neither inactive find other, more publicly supported, actions of Roma and Sinti in the OSCE Area and
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 23

ROMA INCLUSION
CAN CITIES BE THE DRIVER OF CHANGE? 23

© DR/Fotolia
There has however been a recent shift in emphasis and growing expectations of greater
involvement from the cities and municipalities of Europe in the issue of Roma inclusion.

the first EU Roma Summit in 2008 which, Shift towards Cities – what to do, but much more the wanting, the
reassuringly, resulted in the definition of 10 genuine commitment to improvement, to
Common Basic Principles to effectively
drivers of change or not ? change and to eradicate discrimination and
address the issue of Roma inclusion in policy Until now, the Cities of Europe and their mu- exclusion in the Roma communities. What
implementation. Yet despite this compelling nicipal authorities have not played a big part is still missing in many cities is a clear-cut
evidence of gathering momentum, support for in the development of Roma inclusion policy. acknowledgement of the need to respond to
the case for Roma integration and a genuine Municipalities have generally been passive in the levels of exclusion that exist in the Roma
willingness to fund the policy changes and their approach to Roma inclusion, sometimes communities, the political commitment and
initiatives designed to promote Roma inclu- supporting the action of NGOs and often the volume of resources over the long-term
sion have so far failed to deliver significant taking the view that the Roma population that will be necessary to make a discernable
change. In fact recent Open Society Institute have access to the same services as the ma- difference.
evidence suggests that the living conditions jority population. Historically, many of the core
and economic situations for most Roma in Roma inclusion policies such as education, There has however been a recent shift in em-
Europe have not improved and may actually employment, health, housing, infrastructure, phasis and growing expectations of greater
have continued to decline. the fight against poverty and increased equa- involvement from the cities and municipalities
lity have been the responsibility of National of Europe in the issue of Roma inclusion. The
In the last few years the complex situation of Governments with non-governmental organi- European Parliament’s resolution of 31 Janu-
Roma exclusion is a phenomenon that is sations working to provide the service delivery ary 2008 stressed the importance of involving
spreading and growing across Europe. EU role at local level, through collections of local authorities and promoted full participa-
membership in 2004 1 and 2007 2 for coun- essential projects often constrained by insuf- tion of the Roma community at grassroots
tries with significant Roma populations has ficient resources and short-term unsustaina- level in order to ensure their ability to fully
brought about a new dynamic to the complex ble funding streams. benefit from the inclusion policies being
situation of Roma exclusion. Namely that in defined. In persistently disadvantaged neigh-
significant numbers Roma have begun to It has long been recognised that deep-rooted bourhoods often there are barriers to services
exercise their freedom of movement and have cultural divides, even between Roma and which are beyond the ability of individuals to
chosen to live and if possible work in another their own country-nationals, and systemic overcome. Reductions in vital education, child
EU country. Even in those old member states institutional discrimination have fuelled exclu- care, health services, home care support,
that have well developed anti-discrimination, sionary practices prominent across Nations, transport, employment, training and access
equality and social inclusion policies, the but they are also factors that have significantly to financial services can have a compound
behaviour, living conditions and exclusion of limited previous attempts at inclusion. And effect on poverty and exclusion that can only
Roma migrants is challenging the political, there has been very little genuine progress be reversed through local authority driven
economic and social responses from recei- made in attempts to reach out or to engage interventions and community collaboration.
ving nations and cities. A recent Fundamental with the Roma community. But why should
Rights Agency study 3 concluded that ‘Roma this be when many cities have adequate Yes, cities should have the necessary know-
from other EU Member States are now part of levels of know-how to make advances on how and they are better placed to provoke in-
the townscape of almost every Member State Roma inclusion? The key component that volvement, maintain commitment and to bring
of the European Union’. has been missing is not the know-how, the about sustainability than the NGOs that tried
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 24

24

to champion Roma inclusion in the past. Cities the widespread Roma exclusion from basic finding the right way forward for an integrated
have the breadth of experience and the and essential services. approach that puts dialogue with the Roma
strength of human resources to bring together community at the heart of their actions.
stakeholders to build common objectives that ROMA-NeT to pioneer
will generate synergy between services and We support an integrated, co-operative and
ensure that more relevant, more accessible
the way other cities can co-ordinated approach where commitment
and more supportive services are available for follow from local authorities can create:
young Roma people. Cities are best placed to There is a strong case for sustainable inclusion 3 opportunities for Roma to participate in trai-
make use of the people they have with strong via a bottom-up approach which promotes ning measures and to create labour market
community based know-how, honed over joint responsibility and places significant opportunities;
time and spanning all facets of the district, importance on the development of human, 3 locally generated social projects, varying in
and to re-deploy their skills to address Roma social and professional capital to tackle the scope and eligibility conditions;
issues and to capitalise on available expertise. complexity of the problems. 3 real access to social welfare provisions –
whether in education, health or social care,
Thus far however the skills for developing ROMA-Net: a network of nine European housing, etc;
projects and implementing interventions for cities, supported by URBACT, plans to pioneer 3 all of which must be underpinned by Roma
Roma communities belong more to the NGO a way forward. At this early stage the 9 partner communities providing support, mediation,
sector than with local authorities. But with Cities of ROMA-NeT clearly recognise that advocacy, self-representation and active par-
the shifting emphasis on cities, local authorities Roma exclusion is multi-layered, deep-rooted ticipation in the supply of local service
need to grow the confidence and harness the and complex. No one has said that this will be provision.
skills to drive forward and deliver joint and easy, and they are not deterred by the com- A key start for the ROMA-NeT City partners,
integrated interventions that can overcome plexity of the issue, but rather committed to that could be followed by other Cities was to

Good Practice No1


Sectoral mediators working at community level
1. Using mediators, in the fields of health, 5. Success of mediators can largely
education and social services, to create be attributed to the fact that the majority
connections between the public service are chosen from the Roma community,
and the Roma community has proven to be thus creating a faster build up of trust and
good practice. the ability to break down barriers with
formal organisations as well as providing
2. Roma mediators as classroom assistants role models for the community.
have been used in many cities in Hungary,

© DR
Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and 6. Another critical and positive aspect is
are now seen as a critical link to engage the fact that the positions provide good Social work mediator in Karvina.
parents in school activities to ensure children quality jobs for members of the community.
attend and remain in education. They show Roma undertaking responsible trained work ready Roma individuals and
employment, performing in professional roles employers in need of new workers but
3. Mediation has been applied effectively which projects a positive image and can who have an inherent mistrust of Roma
in many countries and in different formats, contribute to raising the aspirations of other. • to support new entrants, men and women,
for example in Hungary to provide health into the world of work either for the first time
promotion information to elderly members 7. For the foreseeable future while Roma or as adult returners.
of Roma communities. In Dupnitsa, Bulgaria, inclusion remains an underdeveloped
mediators are used to help solve the practice, the role of community mediators 9. The important role that mediators have in
problem of electricity being disconnected will remain crucial to support less capable the process of community empowerment has
and non-payment of electricity expenses. members of the community to utilise the also not been fully recognised. However it is
services of the main social and public a role that can be promoted and developed
4. In Karviná, Czech Republic, dedicated sectors such as health, education, social through ROMA-Net activities as they aim
fieldworkers provide intermediary assistance care, social welfare, housing and general to generate greater community participation
to implement all major initiatives being advocacy services. and to empower and strengthen the
undertaken in the city and are involved in community voice. An extension of the
all aspects of the community. Their respon- 8. Although the role of mediators has been mediator is the community or local champion
sibilities range from assisting with housing widely used there are a number of areas and for widespread engagement and
applications, co-ordinating health forums where the potential has not been adequately effective communication each local support
to accompanying children to ensure their applied, for example: group would benefit from the input of a
school attendance. • as relationship builders between fully collection of community champions.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 25

ROMA INCLUSION
CAN CITIES BE THE DRIVER OF CHANGE? 25

examine - critically analyse - what and how


core services, and other special initiatives,
are currently being, or have been in the past, Good Practice No2 - Integrated Community Housing
supplied to other disadvantaged groups in
the key areas of education, health, housing The project focuses on how to involve Results
and employment. Initially, to establish the Roma people in reconstructing their homes • A large number of people worked in and
Critical Success Factors for each initiative and help them pay their debts and obtain around the buildings and not only cleared
and then to question if and why they failed to valid rent-contracts? their debts, but have also started to make
reach, failed to attract, or simply by-passed regular rent payments.
the Roma community. Working through the Description • Two tenant committees have been set up:
process, and involving the community should Brno, the second largest city in the Czech a total of forty-one people willing to be
provide an opportunity to adjust and realign Republic, has a Roma population of involved
services in a way that is more relevant and approximately 12,000 - 3 % of the • The project is unique because many local
appropriate for community need. Although it population. These Roma people live in authorities in Eastern Europe are reluctant
is unreasonable and potentially unsustainable tenement buildings which have suffered to allow Roma people to live in inner city
to expect cities to develop a whole raft of new from neglect for many years. A private areas. In this case the local authorities took
services, what they can do is create inter- non-profit organisation and the local a relaxed approach towards the families'
mediary links, pathway projects and mediators authorities are working together to renovate illegal rent situation.
the buildings and help solve the debt • This is the first time an integrated
problems of many Roma people. approach has been used to solve problems
Cities are best placed to with Roma people.
make use of the people they Crucial factors
• Local authority to refurbish a Roma
have with strong community Learning experiences
community centre. The centre is on the • It proved difficult to achieve concrete
based know-how, honed ground floor of a building where many results during tenant meetings, to which the
over time and spanning Roma families live. The centre provides
Roma people are not accustomed. Roma
all facets of the district, education, advice and leisure time support
tenants should be seen as active citizens
for Roma children, youngsters and adults,
and to re-deploy their skills involving the local authorities, police and
instead of a problem. Both sides, local
authorities and Roma families, needed time
to address Roma issues social work institutions to improve the
to adapt. And an attitude of apathy does
and to capitalise on available situation of Roma people in Brno.
not change overnight even where both
• Many of the Roma families are in debt
expertise. sides are cooperating.
and live in run-down apartments without
• Within the local authorities there are still
paying rent.
people who do not agree with any non-
to make existing services more accessible • An international non-profit organisation
and more appropriate for young Roma adults. standard approach towards solving debt
is involved and wants to do more for the
Cities will have to confront the long-standing problems. Also the general public is
Roma families than just reconstructing
dilemma of ‘Roma-specific’ or ‘Roma- targe- sceptical.
the centre.
ted’, keeping in mind that segregation may be • Idea emerges to have tenants help the • After so many years of neglect, there are
a short-term remedy but is never the long- authorities to reconstruct their own homes, a whole range of problems to be addressed.
term answer. so that they could pay back their debts It is not possible to solve one problem
and negotiate valid leases. without addressing the others.
Evidence from mapping studies carried out in Well attended tenants’ meeting- reactions • It is important to keep the decision-
the ROMA-Net cities show that, as suspected, making process as transparent and
generally positive but families were afraid
there is a vast array of untapped expertise to straightforward as possible and to make
that once the building was refurbished the
be drawn out from successful implementation important decisions during meetings in
local authorities would evict because they
of a wide range of community initiatives which all participating organisations take
do not hold valid lease agreements.
across the partner cities. For example, a part. Corruption is something that can ruin
• The NGO and the local authorities set up
highly innovative educational initiative used
a 'work-for-debt' programme. The tenants a project like this.
to illicit the opinions of young disadvantaged
children in Almeria could easily be transferred are given the opportunity to work for the
local authorities. This work consisted mainly Key to success - ‘the active involvement
to engage adults in the Roma community
and provoke in them a sense of belief that the of cleaning of the unused spaces. The of residents in the management and
system is interested in what they have to say money earned was deducted from their administration as well as financial support
and what their needs are. Bologna City is debts. People who worked their debts and commitment from the local authorities’.
well known for its success in developing and away could sign a new and valid lease for The project has a voluntary Self Adminis-
delivering innovative approaches to health one year. tration and Management Committee. This
services, and although these services have example should be looked upon as a model
somehow by-passed their resident Roma of good practice relevant in all cities.
community, with some additional compo-
nents, they can be made more relevant and
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 26

26

accessible going forward. Glasgow has a been applied successfully in many sectors, Through the URBACT local support groups
strong track record in area regeneration and the concept is explained above in Good prac- ROMA-NeT partners will each bring together,
though a new migrant Roma population is tice No1. vital service providers, the local stakeholders
challenging these seasoned professionals, it and crucially members of the Roma commu-
is clear that with some concentrated efforts, Housing, tenure of housing and land are ma- nity to start the dialogue and create the basis
they will create a community relationship and jor issues in many Roma communities. The si- for joint action planning. Instead of applying
foundation for improvement and change. tuation is complex and is often difficult to deal sweeping homogenous interventions meant
Udine has demonstrated significant expertise with in a way that is constructive for all sides. for the benefit of the Roma, what is needed is
in developing realistic employment and training Although an integrated approach to housing a new culture to work with Roma: from incep-
projects but they fail to attract unemployed combined with community development is tion throughout delivery.
Roma to their activities. Using a slightly diffe- frequently cited as good practice for Roma
rent recruitment procedure and supportive communities, there are not that many such The ROMA-Net partnership promotes an
in-work services they can however, be much initiatives in existence. There are a few exam- integrated and supportive approach from the
more relevant for the Roma community. ples where NGOs have been able to access outset, providing the perfect platform from
national level EU programmes and other do- which to share the wealth of knowledge and
Good practice experiences can be drawn nor funding to support community led deve- experience that exists. By focusing on the
from the collections of initiatives supplied by lopment and regeneration type interventions, broader context of what has been successful,
NGOs in different countries, one of the most sometimes in partnership with a municipality, we plan to capitalise on good practice,
successful has been mediation or interme- but mostly driven by NGOs. Examples of in- previous experience to re-model our thinking
diary services to link the Roma communities tegrated Urban Regeneration activities led by around the issues of Roma inclusion. With
to vital public services. Such initiatives have municipalities and focusing on Roma commu- the support of our experienced local stake-
holders, including Roma community benefi-
ciaries themselves, we can translate good
practice into meaningful interventions that are
relevant, sustainable and will have longevity
because they are founded on approaches
that we and Roma communities know can
work.

Although there is no quick-fix, no solution nor


blueprint that can guarantee success there
is a very real opportunity for the cities to pull
resources, to capitalise on successes and to
engage with the community in a way that will
permeate all aspects of their lives. We aim
to provide a positive and achievable vision for
the future that can capture the imaginations of
the young men and women in the Roma
community; engendering in them the sense
of ownership required to bring about the
necessary change. What we need is not so
© Fotolia

much a clever solution but a society that re-


cognises, and is prepared to be fully commit-
ted to the concept of greater equality for all.
nities are hard to find. Good practice No2 In so doing, Europe will not only benefit from
Cities have to dispel the notion considers a situation where the local authority a more diverse and inclusive society; but also
and an NGO worked together with positive from a pool of viable workers who are contri-
that there can be some ‘quick fix’ results. buting to wider society, to economic growth
solution, and realise that it is not and in the future of their own communities. ●
so much about haste or innovation A culture of “with Roma” (1) Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland

but much more about sustained must replace the “for Roma” (2) Bulgaria and Romania
(3) The Situation of Roma EU Citizens Moving
actions capitalising on expertise attitude to and settling in other EU Member States’ 2009
What we need then, is to overcome and http://fra.europa.eu/fraWebsite/attachments/Roma_
with long-term commitment. break down the barriers that all too often Movement_Comparative-final_en.pdf

have presented insurmountable challenges


to engaging the Roma community. Cities have
i
MORE INFORMATION
to dispel the notion that there can be some ROMANET project:
http://urbact.eu/en/projects/active-
‘quick fix’ solution, and realise that it is not so
inclusion/roma-net/homepage/
much about haste or innovation but much
Lead Expert: Ann Morton Hyde
more about sustained actions capitalising on annmortonhyde@gmail.com
expertise with long-term commitment.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 27

27

© Getty
LONG-TERM CARE
THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT

BY ANNAMARIA SIMONAZZI AND FIORENZA DERIU


LEAD EXPERT AND THEMATIC EXPERT OF THE ACTIVE AGE THEMATIC NETWORK

Rapid population ageing has dramatically increased the social and economic cost of elderly care. In their
search for financial sustainability, all the EU countries have introduced reforms that have shifted an
increasingly heavy burden onto the family, thus calling for greater public support for families in their daily
care duties and in the reconciliation of work and care. Municipalities are the main providers of care for
older people, either in kind or, increasingly, in cash. Experience in the cities involved in the Active Age
project described in this paper helps us to identify some crucial points upon which health and social care
policies for elderly people should focus.

he elder care sector is at the core of in this paper, helps us to identify some crucial These developments have shifted an increa-

T a radical restructuring process. In their


search for a financially sustainable
response to the challenges posed
by demographic and social change, all the EU
countries have introduced various reforms
points upon which health and social care
policies for elderly people should focus.

The organisation
singly heavy burden onto the family, thus
calling for greater public support for families in
their daily care duties and in the reconciliation
of work and care. Various levels of government
are called upon to cooperate. Time-related
aimed at making care affordable. The quest of the care market provisions – such as targeted and general
for financial sustainability has been pursued in Although the majority of care is provided infor- leave schemes and flexible working time
two ways: reduction of entitlements, by targe- mally, mostly by female carers, there are signi- arrangements – and most monetary transfers
ting services more closely on the population ficant differences between countries in the role - as in the case of the disability allowance in
in greatest need, and reduction of care costs. played by the state, the market, and the family Italy or long-term care insurance in the Conti-
The likely outcome of this process will be a in the provision and financing of elderly care. nental countries - are set at the national level.
change in the state-family-market care mix Conversely, services are mostly set at the
which, by shifting a greater burden onto the Two common trends have been observed in local level. Municipalities are the main provi-
family, will call for greater support from the Europe since the 1990s: ders of care for older people, either in-kind
public authorities. Experience in the cities of 3 a shift from residential to home care and through traditional service delivery, or, increa-
the URBACT project “Active Age”, described 3 a shift from in-kind 1 services to cash transfers. singly, in cash. They support families with
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 28

28

information, coordination, counselling; with


financial help - care allowances, subsidised
access to home and residential care – and
with services - home care, respite care and
semi-residential care (day-centres, outpatient
clinics), community social services, sheltered
homes, residential care and nursing homes.

The local authorities also have to ensure an


adequate provision of qualified private and
public care workers to supplement the care
provided by families. This involves the training
of care workers (and family carers); accredi-
tation of care workers and private firms (profit

© DR
and no-profit); implementation of measures to
favour the regularisation of irregular/immigrant
care workers; and coordination (and gover-
nance) of the various sources of care labour The scope of the problems
supply (formal and informal, voluntary and for
profit).
to be tackled accounts for
the great differences within,
The scope of the problems to be tackled as well as between, count-
accounts for the great differences within, as
well as between, countries in the implemen-
ries in the implementation
tation of measures in support of families and of measures in support of
communities. This wide range of experiences families and communities. public funding. The city of Rome is running a
can provide an useful basis for exchange and project3 aimed at providing concrete respon-
learning.
This wide range of expe- se to family needs in their daily care. Through
riences can provide an its network of volunteers it provides domestic
useful basis for exchange and personal services (shopping, day care,
From general policies helping with bureaucratic matters, and so
to local experiences: and learning. forth). Moreover, in the course of this activity,
some case studies from it has succeeded in creating a link between the
various networks of volunteers and social
the municipalities of
actors in the area to provide support for elderly
the Active Age Project people and their families.
Within the Active Age project, involving nine and currently accommodating 200 residents
cities of the URBACT network, the focus on with different levels of dependency – organi- Technology is expected to provide an econo-
“age and care” has produced a number of sed with the principle of maintaining close mically efficient answer to the problem of
interesting case studies that were presented links with the surroundings by opening the assisting elderly people at home, especially
at the Transnational Exchange Workshop structure up to various social actors as well as when they are living alone and/or have weak
(TEW) in Maribor 2 held on 24th-26th February encouraging the residents to participate in family ties. Seville is participating in the “Am-
2010. The participants singled out some core the life of the city. A number of different areas bient Assisted Living” service, a joint research
problems and reported on the different res- of the building are devoted to socializing and development funding programme imple-
ponses activated by the Municipalities: from activities: a reading room and a library, a com- mented by 20 Member States 4 (which runs
residential care to respite care, training of puter room and workshops for various types the H&H (Health at Home) project). The H&H
formal carers, resort to technology and other of manual activities. Residents are encoura- targets people affected by chronic cardiac
innovative solutions to improve quality and ged to spend their time together, participating pathologies with the aim of improving the
increase efficiency. Here we report some of the in community events (birthday parties), groups quality of their life by enabling remote constant
case studies in order to provide an overview with specific interests and self-help groups, monitoring. It will also experiment with an
of the many aspects of long term care that the as well as excursions, picnics, workshops, innovative integrated European model for
various local authorities are dealing with. cinema and theatre shows. management of information through adoption
of international healthcare standards.
Poor quality, isolation, and estrangement are With large families rapidly disappearing, the
the most common risks incurred in residential share of frail elderly people living alone, or with Finally, one crucial factor for the financial and
care: even the best structures run the risk of weakened family links, is rapidly increasing. social sustainability of an ageing population
creating a “happy island” that isolates the Greater public support for these dependent rests in delaying dependency. Can care and
residents from the rest of the society. The city persons becomes essential, especially if active ageing move together? This can be
of Maribor (Slovenia) presented the case of a institutionalisation needs to be postponed. In achieved if the “dependent” elderly person
residential care institution - the “Senior Citizen most countries home social care is still under- can feel that he/she is still contributing to
Home Tezno”, active since February 2004 developed and not sufficiently supported by society. Experience in Prague is emblematic
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 29

LONG-TERM CARE
29

Conclusion
Experience in the cities described in this
paper helps us to identify some crucial points
upon which health and social care policies for
elderly people should focus.

Firstly, there is the need for closer cooperation


between the different social actors operating
at the local level in order to create the opera-
tional network and the informative system
essential to improve the effectiveness of inter-
ventions and to ensure the widest possible
access to services for the elderly and their
families.

Secondly, focus should also be brought to


bear on possibilities to favour the implemen-
tation of projects making the most of the
human resources at all ages. For example the
tight cooperation of the “Active age” and
“My Generation” projects within the URBACT

© Fotolia
network has shown that there are common
issues between project working with young
and old people. There are also new possibi-
lities opening up for intergenerational working
in this sense. The “Societa Social Service 5” is support and social care. Building upon its pre- as well as for the old to work with the very old.
based on the principle of mutual aid. Its aim vious experience – professional training com- The experience of the “Societa service” of
was to provide services for disabled and bining the skills of both the “Social assistant” Prague offers an excellent example of innova-
elderly people by employing people with and the “Home assistant” - the city of Dobrich tive care solutions implemented to combine
disabilities. The service provides transport, is working on the development of its home care and active ageing.
delivery, personal assistance, emergency care care services with the creation of a new pro-
(using new technologies), support for an inde- fessional figure, the “Personal assistant” (PA), Finally, it is important to develop proposals for
pendent living, guide and reading services for with the qualification needed to provide health public and private actors to find a common
people with sensorial disabilities. The service and social care. The PA may be a family mem- field of action in order to relieve the care
is also connected to day care centres, care ber, a relative, a friend or a neighbour whom burden of families, arriving at solutions that in-
homes and social services through an efficient the user trusts, will be employed and paid by tegrate individual and collective interests
communication network. The strength of this the Dobrich municipality, and will be trained by (Rome LAP). ●
experience lies in the capacity to combine the service provider. While responding to the
(1) In-kind services refer to those services delivered
enhanced labour market access for disadvan- immediate needs of the elderly person and
by public services and others in the form of a staff
taged groups with the provision of high quality his/her family, by contributing to the training of input e.g. meals on wheels, home helps etc.
health and care services. qualified carers to respond to the increasing (2) http://urbact.eu/en/projects/active-inclusion/
care needs of an ageing population, this active-age/homepage/
policy may help in preventing or postponing (3) http://urbact.eu/en/header-main/documents-
Experience at work- institutionalisation, while favouring reconcilia- and-resources/documents/?project=62
Innovative solutions tion of work and care. (4) http://www.aal-europe.eu
(5) http://urbact.eu/en/header-main/documents-
for long-term care: and-resources/documents/?project=62
The Rome project focuses on respite care,
6
the Local Action Plans (6) http://urbact.eu/en/header-main/documents-
to be realised through co-participation between and-resources/documents/?project=62
of the Active Age network Municipalities and firms. A number of private
Building upon the experience of case studies, firms have already developed a “welfare po-
some of the cities participating in the Active licy” designed especially to support mothers
Age project are drafting their Local Action employed in the company. The city of Rome
Plans with the aim of studying innovative is trying to extend this experience to welfare
i
solutions and/or improving upon or develo- for elderly people, offering respite services to MORE INFORMATION

ping their experience. the employees of the firms participating in ACTIVE AGE project:
http://urbact.eu/en/projects/active-
the project. The LAP aims at building partner- inclusion/active-age/homepage/
As the dependent person’s disability pro- ships between the firms and the Municipality Lead Expert: Annamaria Simmonazzi
gresses from mild to severe, integration of in order to create day-care centres close to annamaria.simonazzi@uniroma1.it
health and social care becomes of the utmost the firm, capable of providing assistance both Thematic Expert: Fiorenza Deriu
importance. Severe disabilities necessitate, to elderly relatives of firm employees and of fiorenza.deriu@uniroma1.it

in fact, both specialized and professional residents in the neighbourhood.


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30

PLUGGING IN TO GO GREEN
A REVOLUTION IN ELECTRIC MOBILITY
BY SALLY KNEESHAW
LEAD EXPERT OF THE EVUE THEMATIC NETWORK

Across the globe a revolution


is underway. Vehicles powered
by electricity are hitting the
roads as the environmental and
economic benefits they bring are
increasingly recognised. National
and local policy-makers are
seeking ways to make it easier
for citizens and businesses to
drive cleaner vehicles. The
technology is improving rapidly
and car, energy and infrastructure
industry players are gearing up
their efforts to win market share.

here is no doubt that electric cars

T can help to make our city streets


cleaner, quieter and more attractive.
Transport accounts for around 25%
of CO2 emissions across the European Union,
and it is the only sector where they are still
rising. All electric powered vehicles are zero
emission at point of use, so there are no
harmful gases or pollutants when they are
driven. Electric cars can be up to five times
more energy efficient than traditional internal
combustion engines, which means the total
carbon consumption is lower per mile. And
the potential for electric vehicles to harness
clean energy creates real opportunities for
more sustainable city living.

“We have a ‘practice before rules’


approach. We want to avoid making
expensive mistakes. In the EVUE
network we will be able to test
and correct our ideas and plans,
get a multi-level vision about
© Dariusz Kopestynski

electric vehicles strategies.”


Sergio Fernàndez, Balaguer Manager
of the MOVELE project, Madrid
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PLUGGING IN TO GO GREEN
31

© DR
Launch of the Frankfurter Modell, part of the German Elektromobilität programme

Importantly for city planners, electric cars are CO2 targets in Europe a new set of pioneering
ideally suited to driving patterns in urban partnerships are required.
areas. Around 50% of car trips in cities are
less than 6 km in length.1 Electric vehicles’ The automotive industry’s investment in elec-
current limited battery range of anywhere tric vehicles is in part a response to tough
between 40 and 160 km, depending on the EU targets, which set emission performance
model, does not represent a problem for the standards. New passenger car fleets produ-
short distances involved and will only continue ced will need to have an average of 95gms/km
to improve. In fact, the stop start rhythm of CO2 emissions by 2020.3 Economic stimulus
urban driving actually contributes to the elec- packages have been introduced to re-orient
tric car’s operation, as they can convert braking car makers to cleaner technologies and en-
energy to new electricity. courage investment in green car production.
Globally millions of dollars are being invested
Many mobility experts now agree that electric in R&D on battery technology and new mate-
cars could and should be part of future urban rials with a number of joint initiatives to share
mobility solutions. The question is how can ci- development costs and risks, such as the
ties realise the potential benefits, without ma- Nissan Renault joint venture to develop and
king costly errors, in a new and fast moving manufacture cars and the Toyota EDF energy
area of policy? What are the most efficient tie in for trials of the Prius Hybrid Plug in. The
ways to implement strategies that maximise range of models coming to the market include
public investment in infrastructure and gene- hybrid electric, plug in hybrids and battery electric. Industry experts forecast that electric
rate driver confidence? vehicles could represent 10% of the global
market by 2010.4 Car retailers are now looking
URBACT contributes for ways to accelerate the commercialisation
of sustainable technologies. This crucially in-
EVUE – Electric Vehicles in Urban Europe – is cludes partnerships with public sector bodies
a newly approved URBACT thematic network as a way to test the markets, build consumer
of 10 cities, led by Westminster City Council confidence and guarantee orders.
in London.2 Its aim is to explore, exchange
and implement ideas on how cities can deve- Energy and infrastructure suppliers see new
lop integrated and sustainable strategies to market opportunities and supply chains around
increase the use of electric vehicles. Over the electric vehicles. Many European cities are
next two years the lessons learnt about the already running pilots and trials in cooperation
© DR

very real challenges outlined here will be iden- with energy companies, for instance incorpo-
tified and transferred to EU networks, such as Electricity company Fortum charging
rating carsharing schemes powered by solar
Eurocities Mobility Forum and POLIS. point in central Stockholm charging points in new housing develop-
For cities that are yet to begin the journey, ments. New companies are popping up to sell
EVUE will provide the opportunity to assess Electric cars convert electricity and install charging points on the streets.
realistically the steps needed to prepare for to motion around three times more Smart grids, which balance energy supply and
electric vehicles in the longer term, as lower efficiently than cars with internal demand, are under development. In conver-
costs and the increased availability of cars will combustion engines. They also emit gence regions with less developed infrastruc-
make them more viable. no CO exhaust, NOx (nitrogen oxides) ture, the electrification of mobility could bring
NMHC (non-methane-hydrocarbons) opportunities to focus more on domestic and
Who is in the driving seat? or PM (particulate matter) in operation. cleaner energy sources.
Source: European Commission Directorate Another vital piece of this jigsaw puzzle is
In order for electric vehicle strategies to suc- General for Energy and Transport drivers themselves. Who will buy and drive elec-
ceed and contribute to meeting ambitious tric cars? Although public opinion is changing,
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 32

32

as evidenced in numerous surveys, there can be to set an example by converting their


are still real and perceived barriers of cost, own fleets. Many mobile municipal functions,
Norway has introduced a range
performance and range, and a lack of char- such as community nurses, delivery and refuse
of incentives to create a favourable
ging infrastructure. Public information and trucks, are suited to electric vehicules. Lisbon
market for electric vehicles.
financial incentives will be needed to encou- has set itself a target that 20% of its fleet
They include exemptions from road,
rage citizens and businesses to swap their renewal each year will be electric vehicles.
tunnel, and bridge tolls, one off duties
gas guzzlers for more environmentally friendly Public procurement can be used as leverage
and VAT. Public parking and inland
options. The 2010 Annual Report of the Royal to encourage companies in the municipal
ferries are free. Electric cars can
Automobile Club on Motoring in the UK states supply chain to do the same.
use the bus lanes on urban roads.
that seven out of ten drivers consider electric Establishing a network of city wide charging
They are subject to 50% less tax than
vehicles as a viable alternative. www.rac.co.uk points will help drivers feel confident in using
internal combustion equivalents.
electric cars. Charging points can be included
There are currently 1,735 electric
as a planning requirement for new building
On the move? vehicles in Oslo. Most of these
and developments. Cities can make informa-
are privately owned (1,388) with
So what does this mean for European cities? tion publically available for drivers on the costs
312 private sector fleet vehicles and
Electric vehicles can be considered part of the and benefits of electric vehicles. Marketing
35 municipal fleet vehicles.
solution to a number of common issues. The and incentivising them will help build citizen
obvious advantages are that they are well confidence.

suited to urban mobility patterns, decrease


CO2 emissions and harness renewable energy. “I will set ambitious targets - learnt from London. It is a process
They can also play a part in reducing noise
and improving air quality. Strategies need to
that won’t go backwards. Beja must be in the first phase [...]
be careful not to incentivise a negative modal In Beja it must also be about business and job creation and the
shift away from public transport, walking and strategy to develop tourism in the region.” Jorge Pulido Valente, Mayor of Beja
cycling to electric vehicles. This is not so easy
to monitor or achieve, and represents a signi-
ficant challenge. develop new business models. Incentives, The Electric Vehicle Clinton Climate Initiative
such as subsidies and tax relief, free parking is a programme of the C40 6 and the Clinton
Cities could also see benefits from the busi- and charging, have been introduced, in many Foundation. It has launched a number of pilot
ness and job growth linked to the electric car regions to kick start the market. But they are projects worldwide and provided guidelines
market. Transport and energy are considered not sustainable in the long term, and plans to for cities to get it right from the start to send
to be key sectors for the emergence of green taper them off in future have to be carefully a clear message to the market.
jobs 5. As the market takes off new skills will thought through. Clearly there is a need to
be required and new jobs created in R&D, make wise choices at a time when the public Charging Ahead?
manufacturing, construction and maintenance purse is under pressure.
of vehicles, systems and infrastructure. There are still some doubts whether electric
A cornerstone of these electric vehicle pro- cars can deliver their promise. Battery techno-
In many European countries, regions and cities, grammes is multi-stakeholder partnerships, logy has to improve significantly to be able
public authorities have started to design, bringing together the key players described to minimise charging times, and allow vehicles
adopt and finance strategies designed to above. So the gauntlet is laid down for policy to take greater loads. The whole life cycle of
increase the uptake of electric vehicles, to makers and urban planners to prepare for electric cars must be cleaner and greener than
pilot local electromobility programmes and electric vehicles. Part of a city’s leadership role the one it replaces. This includes manufacturing
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 33

PLUGGING IN TO GO GREEN
33

vehicles may have a role to play. Concerns 3 A reduction in EU greenhouse gas emissions
Summary of city responsibilities that cars would overload the electricity network of at least 20% below 1990 levels;
are without foundation. Energy company En- 3 20% of EU energy consumption to come
INFRASTRUCTURE exis has predicted that if all 7 million passen- from renewable resources;
Facilitate the planning and deployment
ger cars in the Netherlands were to become 3 A 20% reduction in primary energy use
of charging infrastructure and related
electric it would only lead to 20 % higher compared with projected levels, to be achie-
electricity supply systems
electricity consumption. 7 ved by improving energy efficiency.
PERMITTING AND PROCESS
Help streamline permitting for charging In order to deliver promised benefits in CO2 EU programmes such as the CIVITAS Initiative
DEMAND PROJECTIONS reduction the solutions will need to make and Intelligent Energy Europe (IEE) have sup-
Mobilise demand for EVs in city fleets use of mobile smart grids that balance out ported the testing of innovative and integrated
and rally private fleets peaks and troughs in the power supply. Smart sustainable urban transport strategies and
charging could allow remote control of car energy efficiency in transport. There have
COORDINATION OF INCENTIVES charging to support an optimal balance of been a number of projects to facilitate the
Help coordinate incentives and
the electricity supply grid, managing and market introduction of lower and zero emis-
contribute to the package
controlling charging patterns, and incentivising sion vehicles and alternative fuels, aiming to
overnight charging. reduce dependency on fossil fuels.
www.clintonfoundation.org
In the framework of the European Economic

© DR

methods, battery disposal and, crucially, the The European view Recovery Plan, the Commission has launched
electricity coming from sustainable sources in the European Green Cars Initiative. It funds
the context of the EU 2008 Directive, which The reduction in CO2 and other emissions new projects related to electric vehicles,
requires 10% of energy for transport to come that electric vehicles can deliver, and the which will cover batteries, electric power
from renewable sources by 2020. potential to harness renewable energy trains and auxiliaries, information and commu-
sources and smart grids are important for nication technologies and an electro mobility
Is it the right technology? Other green tech- cities in the context of the EU Climate and demonstration project.
nologies such as bio fuels and hydrogen cell Energy Package 8 and the 20:20:20 targets:
URBACT co-finances projects that allow cities
to work together to find sustainable solutions.
Within this framework the EVUE project will
Tokyo has more taxis than London, Paris, and New York combined, with contribute to understanding of how electrifica-
approximately 60,000 vehicles. They account for 2% of vehicles in the city, but tion of mobility could be a tool for low carbon
are responsible for 20% of its CO2 emissions. The Tokyo Electric Taxi Project was city strategies.
launched in April 2010 as a pilot to demonstrate the advantages of switching to
electrical power. The three vehicles provided by Nissan have removable lithium-ion Although there is no framework for the elec-
batteries, which are changed by a robot arm in quick change stations. The fully trification of cars at EU level, in the last year
automated operation takes between three and five minutes, and so far, the pilot drivers the Commission has produced a Green Car
report that Japanese customers prefer to remain seated in the car to watch, fascinated Communication and a Discussion Paper on
by the process. The pilot is run by Better Place, an American supplier of electric car Electric Vehicles and the Future of Transport.
networks and services. By using taxis as demonstration vehicles every day around EU policy is technology neutral. It does not
30 different people in each car get to experience how the cars operate and to talk favor one technology over another, but the
to the driver about it. www.betterplace.com importance of electric cars is acknowledged.
In the coming years there will be a need for
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 34

34

© Dariusz Kopestynski

© DR
European standardisation for infrastructure, joined up approach it should be possible to
“We need to make electric cars, one solution for socket-connector-charging catalyse the move towards electrification of
point, for grid- vehicles connections, as well mobility and capture regional benefit in the
vans and motorbikes an easy as metering protocols. These steps are consi- de-carbonisation of transport and sustainable
choice. If we're to really achieve dered key for a functional market and consu- economic growth. ●
a revolution in green travel and mer confidence.
(1) Clean Urban Transport Report of DG Energy and
meet the Mayor of London's own Transport EXTRA consortium
target of 25,000 charging points Conclusion (2) www.urbact.eu/evue
(3) Regulation (EC) 443/2009 of 23 April 2009
by 2015, we need to find ways Electric vehicles do not represent the total
(4) Source: JD Power
solution to greening transport. Multi-modal
to make installing them faster, strategies are needed that encourage all (5) Putting in place jobs which last: A Guide to
Re building sustainable employment at local level
cheaper and simpler.” forms of cleaner mobility and that reduce ©2009 OECD
Cllr Connell, Westminster Council. congestion and the need to travel. But electric (6) C40 is a group of large cities committed to tackling
cars have the potential to form a vital compo- climate change
nent. They can help cities hit clean air and CO2 (7) www.enexis.nl The Parliament magazine June 2010
reduction targets and ultimately become more (8) The EU climate and energy package
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/
attractive places to live. climate_action.htm

By creating effective new partnerships, in the

i
case of EVUE through URBACT Local Sup- MORE INFORMATION
port Groups, cities, together with carmakers, EVUE project: http://urbact.eu/en/
projects/low-carbon-urban-
car lease and hire companies, energy sup- environments/evue/homepage/
pliers, infrastructure companies, businesses Lead Expert: Sally Kneeshaw
and civil society can develop a better unders- sally@aurora-ltd.com
tanding of the practical challenges. With a
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35

READY-TO-LIVE
MULTIFUNCTIONAL HISTORIC
CENTRES
BY NILS SCHEFFLER LEAD EXPERT OF THE HERO THEMATIC NETWORK AND
FRÉDÉRIQUE CALVANUS LEAD PARTNER OF THE LINKS THEMATIC NETWORK

Multifunctional historic centres istoric centres with their cultural and inhabitants have a tendency to leave
bring an added value to the
attractiveness and quality
of urban life. But such multi-
functional historic centres are
H heritage run the risk of becoming
mono-structured centres. One exam-
ple is their orientation to satisfy
mass tourism and leisure needs as they repre-
sent important tourism destinations, and are
such historic centres. In turn they lose one of
their key functions – inherited over time – to
be a place for citizens to live, work and socia-
lise. In the end this affects not only the city’s
quality of life but also its identity.
challenged and to safeguard the major assets for the tourism industry (historic
pattern of mixed uses demands centres as consumer product). This develop- Our European historic centres have been offe-
ment evolution often leads to historic “Disney- ring a multifunctional economic, social and cul-
an active exercise of influence. land” centres, which many tourist and visitors tural facility for centuries, being for their citizens
Practical examples will exemplify appreciate, but many inhabitants find inhos- the focal point of daily life and the place of:
the challenges as well as pitable as the historic areas become crowded 3 Work and trade (market places and merchant
highlighting some responses and tourism functions push out ‘traditional’ quarters);
developed by URBACT city inhabitant functions (fewer shops of daily 3 Social life and flow of people and informa-
goods, housing space decreases, rents in- tion through open public spaces, pubs, local
partners. crease, etc). Thus, quality of life is decreasing press, etc.;

© Fabiomax
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36

3 Living and consumption: housing space for Another strong challenge to the traditional potentials which together contribute to the
“all” citizens (the rich and the poor), public and retail and small scale economy in historic unique identity of historic cities.
private services and provision of (daily) goods; centres is the emergence of chain stores and
3 Power (town hall, law courts, representative the competition with shopping areas at the Here conventional, uncoordinated mono-sec-
business premises and churches). urban fringe (fostered by an increasing mobi- toral policies and instruments are not suffi-
lity) more suitable for large-scale retail location cient. An integrated approach is needed, that
and offering specialised consumer services. brings the different demands onto the table,
Challenges to multi- coordinates and links them to the further
functional historic centres The pressure on space and functions, driven development of the cultural heritage on an
Today, historic centres (and city centres in by property and capital markets focused on ongoing basis. This requires an integrated
general) are challenged to maintain or recover generating increasing revenues, leads to: 1) development concept for the historic city, ba-
their multifunctional character. The main chal- favouring out-of-scale buildings, unsuitable sed on the model of the sustainable European
lenges are the wide-ranging demands placed in an urban structure which has been built up city. It has to consider and assess the functio-
on the historic centre by residents, visitors over time; 2) neglecting historic buildings; 3) nal restructuring (new uses), the functional
and tourists (‘consumers’) as well as local developing a housing market just catering for diversification (introduction of new uses while
and global businesses. As a result of these higher income classes (gentrification). This is keeping existing ones) and the functional
demands, the historic centre appears as a accompanied by the pressure to introduce regeneration (optimizing existing uses) in the
highly contested arena, host to diverse and large-scale floor space for commerce, retail context of the historical environment and its
often conflicting interests and development and services, squeezing out functions of values.
ideas. importance for the provision of daily goods for
Examples of conflicting demands are the the inhabitants. The implementation of such a development
increasing numbers of tourists provoking the concept ought to be supported by a manage-
replacement of housing space and daily The particular challenge for a historic centre is ment system that continuously deals with this
goods retail stores by hotels, pensions, gift to match the inherited urban structure, identity composite topic, assessing, improving and
shops, etc. and the conversion of non-com- and buildings (the ‘cultural heritage’) with the adapting the development concept to res-
mercial public space into commercial leisure above mentioned demands and to turn pond to new emerging needs and challenges.
areas (often crowding out essential functions the cultural heritage, both material and imma- While doing so, formal and informal planning
serving the real needs of existing inhabitants). terial, into a prime resource to fulfil these com- as well as development instruments have to
peting demands, without downgrading its be applied and coordinated in a framework of
intrinsic qualities. mutual support.
“The challenge of historic
In this paper, we draw on examples from
centres is to match their Demand for action cities involved in 2 URBACT networks, HerO
inherited urban structure, for multifunctional historic (www.urbact.eu/hero) and LINKS (www.
identity and buildings with centres urbact.eu/links), to highlight some of the chal-
lenges related to the development of historical
the manifold demands Multifunctional historic centres represent a city-centres - especially when it comes to
of residents, visitors and fabric of mixed-uses, a vibrant and diverse maintaining the residential function, housing –
co-existence of jobs and public services, hou- and how this development may be conceived
businesses.” sing, crafts, communication, education, recrea- as a way to safeguard multifunctional historic
tion and culture, retail and services, gastronomy centres.
and tourism. They are a model for the sustai-
nable European city. As a matter of fact,
historic centres offer both a compact, dense,
Managing multifunctional
human scale living framework and proximity historic quarters
(limiting daily journeys); they are walking and The HerO network:
cycling friendly and well balanced in terms of
the case of Regensburg
use and social groups, thus providing a good
quality of life to their citizens and users. Within the URBACT HerO network, one of
the main issues is the management and ba-
So the aim for our historic centres ought to lancing of urban functions to secure multi-
be, on the one hand, to secure the continuity functional and attractive historic urban quar-
of traditional mixed uses and the small scale ters for visitors, residents and businesses
functionality they have acquired over time, alike. Examples of “good-practice” for secto-
and on the other hand, to adapt to meet new ral fragments such as housing and social mix,
emerging needs and functions, without be- economic and cultural activities, tourism,
traying their history and losing their inhabi- (alternative) mobility and accessibility exist
tants. Part of the solution lies in the public ad- in nearly all partner cities. But a holistic and
ministration’s, and its partners’, ability to make integrated approach which considers and
choices that will safeguard the genius loci coordinates the different needs of local resi-
© Yvann K

(the “spirit of the place”) and cultural traditions dents, visitors and businesses while preserving
while fostering the contemporary creative the needs of the cultural heritage, barely exists.
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HISTORIC CENTRES 37

response was based on a long-term vision for on the comprehensive review of the existing
“The historic centre appears the city as a continuing multifunctional core. conditions in the area to be revitalised (inclu-
ding conducting interviews with all stakehol-
as a highly contested arena, The first step towards diversified functions ders). Planning tools and techniques were
host to diverse and often was the improvement of the living environ- also developed to implement and manage
conflicting interests and ment, closely interlinked with the aim of the the revitalisation strategy: The municipal inter-
preservation of the historic building stock. In vention was institutionalised in 1967 by esta-
development ideas”. the framework of the Donauwacht project blishing a local development company which
(1955-1989), a complex revitalisation pro- acted as a further catalyst with the renovation
gramme was initiated. The planners proposed of buildings and inner courtyards. To avoid the
Thus, one of the major tasks HerO partners a city centre as a space for living, suitable for destruction of valuable old structures and the
committed to undertake during the life time of modern business activities, and also as a townscape, a major part of the building stock
the network was to set up a Cultural Heritage ‘museum’. Providing modern housing condi- was put under protection, and local people
Integrated Management Plan, or CHIMP (see tions for the inhabitants was a key issue; ho- (owners) were encouraged to participate in
Thematic Report on Cultural Heritage Integra- wever, preservation of the historic structures the revitalisation.
ted Management Plans updated version: was given priority over redevelopment (new
http://urbact.eu/fileadmin/Projects/HERO/pro buildings). The project was also focused on k Pact for the Old Town (2005)
jects_media/Vilnius_Thematic_report04.pdf). the development of public spaces and re- In the first years of the new millennium, the
The example of Regensburg shows how it is organisation of the traffic system. Linking diversity of functions of the historic centre
possible to manage the mixed-use character preservation to functional diversity represen- was endangered by major large-scale deve-
of the historic centre and balance the different ted a shift from the ‘mainstream’ priorities set lopments, including shops and a number of
demands on that area over time. out in urban policy up to this point. service facilities locating outside the historic
centre. The historic centre lost significant
k The case of Regensburg services and retail functions to these new
Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany, is located competitors.
at the confluence of the Danube and Regen
rivers, at the northernmost bend of the Danube. As a reaction, the “Pact for the Old Town” was
Its population is about 145,000, accommoda- founded in 2005. All agents concerned with
ted in a territory covering 81 km². The large the Old Town retail sector such as municipal
medieval centre of the city with its well preser- departments, organisations of the self-em-
ved original basic outline dating from the 14th ployed (representing small businesses), or-
century is (since 2006) recognised as a ganisations of commerce, hotel and catering
UNESCO World Heritage Site. It covers an industries, chamber of industry and trade,
area of 1.83 km² with 15,000 inhabitants and Regensburg Tourism GmbH, real estate
984 monuments. Public buildings, private re- owners, banks and local media were brought
© DR

sidences and the imposing grounds of together in a close-knit network. The resulting
churches, monasteries and religious founda- Pact is a framework for information flow, a
tions contribute to an authentic picture The revitalisation process was initiated by the dialogue to set common goals, division of
of medieval urban culture and architecture. municipality (which bought and renovated work, cost, efforts and reconciliation of
Further information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 12 buildings), playing a catalyst role for the conflicting interests that arise during imple-
Regensburg. renewal. In this very first stage of develop- mentation. This forum of private and public
ment, pilot projects were implemented that actors managed to stabilise the retail and
k Pioneering urban renewal in a multi- moderated the density of the built-up areas, service function of the historic centre.
functional historic centre (20th century) and increased the green surface and parking
A series of challenges faced the city after the spaces. k Integrated World Heritage
2nd world war which incited local authorities Meanwhile, the character of the historic buil- Management Plan (2010)
to develop an integrated approach towards dings and the townscape was preserved and The “Old Town of Regensburg with Stadtam-
the revitalisation of the historic centre. The public spaces reorganised. The process rested hof”, comprising the historic centre, is listed
since 2006 as a World Heritage Site. The
HerO network built the framework to develop
CHIMPs an Integrated Management Plan (CHIMP) to
continue and improve the efforts carried out
A “Cultural Heritage Integrated Management Plan” (CHIMP) is an innovative instrument
over the last decades to realise a sustainable
to effectively manage the sustainable safeguarding and development of historic urban
development of that area founded on reten-
areas and their cultural heritage as attractive, competitive and multifunctional places.
tion of its mixed use character and intact
It balances and coordinates the cultural heritage needs with the needs of the (manifold)
physical cultural heritage.
“users” of the historic urban area and those of the governmental bodies in charge.
Thus, a Cultural Heritage Integrated Management Plan determines and establishes the
The CHIMP will be the integrated and imple-
appropriate strategy, objectives, actions and management structures to safeguard the
mentation-oriented concept for the protection
cultural heritage, to balance the different needs while using historic urban areas and their
and development of the historic centre, deter-
cultural heritage as a significant development asset.
mining the vision, guidelines, objectives, ac-
tions and a management system to safeguard
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38

are strongly criticised as being unsustainable. unprecedented levels during the last decades.
These districts had become the beacon of To improve their residential attractiveness, city
modernity and the standard of the consume- centres must offer credible alternatives to su-
rist society. Many inhabitants left the old cities burban housing schemes. After several years
to find green spaces, access to property, of sustained efforts to revitalize the historic
larger housing, and a new sense of individual centres, it is clearly evident that the improve-
freedom and social belonging. In that period, ment of buildings is not sufficient. Bringing life
historic centres were considered as pictu- back to the city centre will depend on our
resque and touristic areas, as sorts of open- ability to respect consumers’ habits and ex-
air museums and past testimonies of local pectations in terms of jobs, transport, leisure,
history. A detrimental imbalance rapidly grew culture and provision of services.
© DR between residential functions and “attraction”
Two faces of the same medal! (Kilkenny) functions. This is precisely why the partners of the
URBACT network LINKS have decided to ini-
the cultural heritage and the mixed-use cha- The miracle is becoming something of a tiate their exchanges by trying to answer a
racter of the area. To secure the integrated nightmare for many suburbanites. Saturation simple question: “Why live in a historic cen-
approach and the mixed-use character, eight of urban traffic, growing commuting cons- tre?” The objective is to define social expec-
fields of actions have been identified, which traints and distance to daily amenities have tations in relationship with citizens. This social
are of outermost importance for the develop- changed our relationship with suburbia. From approach is indispensable in order to termi-
ment of the area: a choice originally based on the conquest of nate with the practice of addressing only
1. Physical cultural heritage, mobility, the attractiveness of suburban life mono-sector policies.
2. Culture and tourism, has already faded away. As “peak oil” and
3. Economy, climate change issues impose new limits on k Managing uses, conflicts:
4. Housing and living environment, mobility, the old European city may recover its mixing fire and water?
5. Mobility and accessibility, traditional role thanks to its intrinsic advan- Most of the historic cities of the LINKS
6. Urban design, tages: diversity and proximity of urban func- network are faced with an invasion of bars
7. Environment and leisure, tions as well as economical, cultural and edu- and restaurants which create conflicts with
8. Awareness raising and research. cational assets. inhabitants. Bayonne (France) or Kilkenny (Ire-
land) for example are known as “party cities”.
For each field of action, principles, objectives But this will not happen unless municipalities Bayonne has developed a festive identity with
and specific interventions were determined show their ability to protect and reinforce the the famous Ferias in August, but in fact throu-
and coordinated taking the parallel issues into centres’ residential functions, which are the ghout the year, a whole district of the historic
account. In order to boost the identification most fragile, and to regulate the so-called centre has become a dedicated place for stu-
and broad support of the CHIMP and its “attraction” functions that have reached dents’ parties. All Ireland comes to Kilkenny
content (objectives, actions, etc.), manifold
public departments, private organisations and
citizens were involved in the development of
the objectives and actions, using meetings
and workshops to discuss and coordinate the
different demands of the stakeholders, which
they each brought to the discussion table.
This also supported the understanding among
the stakeholders about each others needs.

The upcoming years will show if the CHIMP


developed under URBACT and its participa-
tive process will be successful in safeguarding
both the physical cultural heritage and the
mixed-use character of the historic city.

The LINKS network aims


to secure housing
k An increasing territorial competition
All through the last century, the emergence of
mono-structured suburbs has rigorously
accompanied the deep mutation of our way
of life, contributing to the shaping of our ex-
pectations in terms of housing quality. Increa-
sed mobility offset the constraints of these Quality, Diversity, Accessibility: Bayonne’s historic centre (Right) is hardly any bigger but incomparably much denser
mono functional urban extensions that today and more diverse than the nearby commercial centre (Left).
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READY-TO-LIVE MULTIFUNCTIONAL
HISTORIC CENTRES 39

for “stag” or “hen” parties. This can be a sym- city depends on the way social expectations
pathetic aspect of the cities’ image, but inha- “This will lead to mixed-used are understood and on an appropriate mode
bitants can also suffer intensely from this phe- of governance.
nomenon. From its origins as a traditional historic centres, which keep
district for families, the “Petit Bayonne” district up residents and visitors’ Conclusion
has become a residential spot for students quality of life, the identity of
and low-income populations. The trade acti- Multifunctional historic centres have a strong
vities are dominated by bars and cafes at the the place and safeguard the appeal to a wide and numerous variety of:
expense of former proximity retail and service cultural heritage.” residents, tourists, entrepreneurs, etc. This
functions. Some streets are overcrowded late can, at the same time, threaten the mixed-use
into the night and noise is a real source of pattern, in particular when tourism and leisure
conflict. This use of public spaces also imposes functions are increasing, pushing out service
extra pressure on public resources to reinforce Some kind of balance between large com- functions for residents (e.g. housing, local
measures in respect of urban cleanliness. mercial centres and Main Street shops must services) which are less profitable.
also be found, to help small businesses resist
To improve the situation, a process was laun- the competition experienced as a result of To secure multifunctional historic centres as
ched involving bars’ owners and students to nearby commercial malls. This means suppor- contribution for attractive and liveable cities,
jointly find solutions. As a first step, the mu- ting shop owners initiatives to design alterna- an active coordination and management of
nicipality decided to close bars at half-past tive marketing strategies, to retro-fit historic the needs and demands of the different
midnight to avoid at least part of the conflicts. or traditional buildings, to find appropriate stakeholders is essential based on the assets
Both in Kilkenny and in Bayonne, drinking al- operational solutions for in-town deliveries of the cultural heritage. In order to achieve
cohol in the street is simply forbidden and a and decrease management costs. Cities have this, it is required:
prevention policy has also been tested to to invent and organize solutions for urban 3 to develop a participative and an integrated
avoid under-age drinking and tackle anti-so- logistics that will respect the traditional pattern management approach,
cial behaviour. of district life. The importance of pedestrian 3 to encourage the diversity of land-use,
In order to address the low compatibility bet- areas in historic centers logically encourages 3 to focus on the city’s cultural values as its
ween festive activities and the expectation of cities to implement “green traffic” policies greatest asset,
residential quietness, some cities have chosen using adapted vehicles and providing incen- 3 to recognise the needs of the different
another approach: they identify some streets tives to tradesmen and their clients to use stakeholders and
to specialise in accommodating night-life im- these alternatives. While in many towns, the 3 to activate the willingness of all stakeholders
pacts and reduce or abandon housing pro- only solution is still to persist in welcoming tra- concerned to cooperate and find common
jects in these parts of town. Although it may ditional vehicles with specific schedules, solutions (looking for ‘win-win situations’
appear to reflect a failure of multi-functional some others have designed innovative solu- instead of “the winner takes it all’).
policies, the “Rue de la soif” (“Thirst Street”) tions to optimize the delivery of goods in the
policy actually permits the city to efficiently historic centers. During the tramway building The functional diversity of historic centres can
reduce usage conflicts. Bordeaux (France) work, Bordeaux created Proximity Delivery be supported by the revitalisation of the tra-
and some other cities have developed leisure Spots to lower the traffic flows inside the his- ditional activities of the urban centre, as well
areas in former industrial sites, directing this toric centre and thereby reduce the conflicts as by strengthening new sectors – looking to-
activity away from living districts (e.g. “Quai de thus generated. wards supporting a vital mixture of retail and
Paludate”: ancient warehouses on the river services, habitation, crafts, communication,
docks). To maintain a diversity of trade, it is some- education and academic life, recreation and
times necessary for the city to even control culture, gastronomy, housing and tourism.
k Regulating commercial expansion: part of the commercial property stock. This is This will result in mixed-used historic centres,
an uneasy challenge a measure that Bayonne municipality adopted which keep up residents and visitors’ quality
Another functional conflict which needs to be to foster the settlement of local arts and craft of life, the identity of the place and safeguard
managed is the development of shops to the shops around a new public square created in the cultural heritage. ●
detriment of housing stock. In a context of the core of the historic centre.
strong economic activity, the independent
corridors and staircases giving access to the k No functional mix without social mix
upper floors are often simply transformed into The quest for a multifunctional city and a
commercial square meters. The upstairs balanced revitalisation of historic quarters
i
MORE INFORMATION
apartments thus become inaccessible and cannot be conceived without integrating the HERO project: http://urbact.eu/en/
remain empty; the loss of rental income is human factor. The main stakeholders and projects/cultural-heritage-city-
development/hero/homepage/
compensated by high commercial rent. To «user experts» in the city are still the citizens.
Lead Expert: Nils Scheffler
avoid this phenomenon, many historic cities By actively involving them in transforming their scheffler@urbanexpert.net
have instituted specific regulations forbidding living environment, it is possible to achieve a
LINKS project: http://urbact.eu/en/
the suppression or requiring the restoration of better appropriation of the city, which in turn projects/cultural-heritage-city
the original accesses. Even if this is not the contributes to the preservation of their quality -development/links/homepage/
universal panacea, it is important in preserving of life and local customs, through a restored Lead Partner: Frédérique Calvanus
some viable potential for housing in the historic dialogue within an often conflicting context. f.calvanus@bayonne.fr
centre. Acceptance and success of the sustainable
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40

A “NEW SOCIAL DEAL”


FOR STABLE LIVING?
PROMISING WAYS FOR CITIES TO ACT IN SECURING HOUSING
BY HEIDRUN FEIGELFELD
LEAD EXPERT OF THE SUITE THEMATIC NETWORK

he term “crisis” seems so worn that Our URBACT II Thematic Network‚ SUITE The

T
Lost your job and then your
we can already observe a getting Housing Project’ (social and urban inclusion
flat? Or the other way around? used to it, while the crisis itself is far through housing) – a collaboration of nine cities
There are a number of different from over. On the contrary, unem- in seven European countries – therefore deals
ways to stabilise housing, ployment keeps rising and the cities‘ financial with the question how housing and especially
or even to help locally with job crisis has not yet reached its climax. social housing (in all its facets) can be designed
in a liveable way in a synthesis of social, eco-
situations. What really pays
As was to be expected, crises are also used nomic and environmental sustainability (see
off are investments that cities to approach structural problems in the econo- http://urbact.eu/en/projects/quality-sustaina-
make. Often, it is not even a my. Those who lose out are always likely to be ble-living/suite/ homepage/).
question of money, but of the jobholders. Even greater importance the- During our work we came upon numerous
creativity, open-mindedness refore has to be applied to security in all other promising new, but also some time-tested
life areas, most of all concerning housing. examples as well as confirmation of ongoing
and collaboration across
In view of the crisis of the cities it should be difficulties1.
different professional areas of main interest to focus on experiences
and hierarchies. URBACT cities promising success during the often painful
and other European cities process of restructuring.
Short-sighted? - A lack
have demonstrated this. of inclusive actions
Cities have the duty to strengthen the position On the level of cities and agglomerations
of their citizens, above all those with lesser in- measures to combine goals in housing, edu-
come and those most disadvantaged, insofar cation and employment are those most in their
as that changes on the job market should not infancy. A short-sighted course of action - early
be aggravated by even higher housing costs and preventative multi-faceted measures of
and, in the worst case, housing loss. intervention by municipalities for securing
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A “NEW SOCIAL DEAL” FOR STABLE LIVING?


41

housing could avoid the long-term social groups. This includes regulative measures,
costs of re-integration into the labour market measures for certain types of households, “soft Support a much broader
and remodelling a decent living situation, as measures and soft services” and some, which access to 'inclusive housing':
well as the costs of the re-stabilisation of are interdisciplinary and inter-institutional.
neighbourhoods. look at the structure of the
Choose the clover leaf! housing system.
Still, the question remains – How to do it?
‘Inclusive housing’ is an issue that cannot The areas of action
be resolved exclusively within municipal anti- The prior starting points therefore lie in access It is essential to guarantee that neither tenants
poverty policy, concentrated on ‘homeless- to housing and prevention of housing loss, nor home-owners run into the insolvency trap.
ness’ or restricted to the field of ‘social welfare secondly in reintegration, rehousing and That means keeping housing affordable regar-
and homelessness’. Stakeholders and ex- thirdly - and this is the least developed area - ding access, buying and renovation costs as
perts support a much broader access to the in connecting all this to employment. well as – and here lies an often underestima-
ted danger – increasing running costs.

Various good examples include the provision


of a quality control of new construction and
regeneration, for new construction. The City
of Vienna organises developers competitions
with comprehensive selection criteria based
on four pillars of sustainability (urban planning/
architecture, society, economy, ecology).
Furthermore, for regeneration projects, the
City of Vienna defines various social condi-
tions for the allocation of old housing stock
renovation credits (protection of sitting te-
nants, flats for social needs). The City of New-
castle upon Tyne carries out a comprehensive
tenant-friendly regeneration of old social hou-
sing stock from the 1960s (Riverside Dene) 2.

Another example in the field of creating ow-


nership is provided by SUITE partner Nantes
Métropole with its funding programme en-
abling access to ownership for young house-
© DR

holds (see the box).

Later loss of housing can be avoided by a


issue – looking at the structure of the housing k (A) Affordable and stable – holistic approach towards the situation of
system. This includes the question of supply prevention and access young flat seekers, as is impressively de-
of affordable and decent housing, access, The insight that prevention of housing loss monstrated by the “Pathways for under 18s”
prevention of housing loss, and re-integration must be addressed in a comprehensive and service of Newcastle upon Tyne (see box).
into a stable, independent living situation of early fashion, ideally before an eviction pro- Current housing loss can be prevented by
people who have fallen into homelessness. cess is under way, has already become com- “prevention of eviction counselling” including
Furthermore, as mentioned before, the working mon knowledge. contact with landlords, as has become
world should be included.

Isolated? - The groups Individual support by lowering costs:


of actors and their Nantes Métropole’s Funding for young first-time owners
interrelations “The first Key” (Première Clé Nantes Métropole) is a new financial aid for younger families
with modest income to help them buy or construct housing space within the agglomeration.
When dealing with a commodity as immobile A one-time direct subsidy by the Métropole‘s administration (institutionalised unit of the
as housing, the level of action is local. Here, agglomeration), awarded according to conditions of the financial and housing situation
a variety of actors act upon a variety of initia- and family size, also facilitates access to further subsidies, such as a national “interest-free
tives: city councils, social NGOs, housing credit” (Prêt à Taux Zéro) and the ”Pass-Foncier” - a support for building lot acquisition.
companies and local groups of residents, as This produces the desired leverage effect.
the examples show. The special feature: this action is valid not only on the level of the main city, but also on the
level of the entire agglomeration. For this reason, migration into still more distant, but better
What can be observed as lacking most of the affordable regions can be hindered. Indirectly, also a reduction of tension in the demand
time is a sufficiently coordinated and integra- for social housing should be achieved.
ted action within and between these different See www.nantesmetropole.fr/pratique/habitat/
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 42

42

common procedure in Austria by adapting


techniques developed from a pilot project into
a highly successful practice by FAWOS in
Vienna (http://www.habitact.eu/files/news/
news/_issue4_final.pdf).

k (B) Homelessness is not


a fate – reintegration and return
to independent living
Once the existing housing situation is challen-
ged – e.g. during broad regeneration – or ter-
minated, the most urgent goal of all involved
persons is to reintegrate those affected into a
stable and independent living situation as fast
as possible, yet also in a sustainable way.
For example, Nantes Métropole, together with
the City of Nantes, provides a “Charte de Re-
logement” (Charter of Rehousing) for the for-
mer tenants to facilitate a comprehensive re-
generation of a large housing estate.

© DR
Individual support In Europe, municipal services for the Home- Factory" (for a hint from the URBACT network
by Services: Newcastle’s less are being developed further, ranging CO-NET, see the baseline study http://
Pathways for under 18 from manifold offers in the form of “integrated u r b a c t . e u / f i l e a d m i n / P ro j e c t s / C o N e t /
Support for young first time chain approaches” and “networks” towards a documents_media/CoNet_Baseline.pdf), in
tenants paradigm shift to “Housing First” (see box). another district, migrant women are being
The service “Under 18 Pathway” FEANTSA, the European Federation of Natio- trained and employed as “neighbourhood
of the Your Homes Newcastle (YHN) nal Organisations working with the Homeless 4, mothers” (“Stadtteilmütter” Neukölln, see
organisation, the housing enterprise, promotes the dissemination of good exam- http://www.sozialestadt.de/praxisdatenbank/
which manages almost the entire social ples, social inclusion of those affected, as well suche/ausgabe.php?id=521 and also the
housing stock of the city 3, offers young as the guarantee of their rights on a European CO-NET baseline study).
people under 18 who express a demand level (www.feantsa.org).
for a first independent flat a check of their
current situation and a comprehensive k (C) Two pillars: housing and job –
advisory service. In the case of connection to employment and The Charter for Rehousing
allocation of a flat, the young first time entrepreneurship Nantes Métropole's offer
tenant will be accompanied until his Although place of employment and place of for tenants households
living situation has stabilised. residence have uncoupled over the course of The Charter contains clear points on
Also the floating support for young history, concerted actions are of paramount questions regarding housing, social issues
people leaving homeless accommoda- importance when dealing with the high and financing. It ensures that:
tion has been integrated in the overall concentration of unemployment in housing 3 moving costs are entirely borne
concept of the programme. Through this quarters (primarily among young people), with by the lessor (the housing association),
initiative, in a relatively short time-scale, the situation of single parents and with the vi-
3 possible rent increase is covered 100%
the number of young homeless has cious circle of job and housing loss.
in the first year, 50% in the second year,
been dramatically reduced.
The programme brings together Some examples: The City of Rennes, member 3 possible costs of technical installation
numerous activities in the field of of Rennes Métropole, regenerated an isolated are covered,
housing provision, housing management, housing estate on the outskirts, the project 3 It ensures up to five propositions of
social issues and provisions for the ZAC Kennedy, until 2007. They integrated the flats adapted for the needs of the tenants,
homeless. Among the main qualities, local small enterprises and shops, and created 3 taking into consideration the wishes
there are a clear assignment of roles, a mixed offer of renovated flats and a remar- expressed by the tenants,
training, transparency and short-term kable amelioration of public space. Nantes
3 comparable condition of the flat,
reaction. Métropole, provides an employment assis-
tance service in a large social housing rege- 3 and, if necessary, an external help
More: URBACT Newcastle Pathways neration quarter (see Box). In one Berlin quar- for moving out and moving in.
case study (website, forthcoming) ter, (“Kiez”), there are vocational training (see http://www.resovilles.com/media/
www.urbact.eu - www.newcastle.gov.uk centres and educational opportunities in a BoiteaOutils/Charte_relogement_nantes_
"Community-House", the "Osloer Street malakoff.pdf, in French)
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A “NEW SOCIAL DEAL” FOR STABLE LIVING?


43

Nantes Métropole’s
employment service
in a large housing
Still a long way to go estate - Malakoff
It seems that the greatest deficits at the Within the framework of an
moment lie with the real application of the
ongoing comprehensive
integrated view, the capacity to secure em-
regeneration of the area Nouveau
ployment while combining it with the protec-
Malakoff (GPV Grand Projet
tion of the housing situation. But there are
promising approaches. de Ville, 2008), a small “house
The question whether it is possible to produce of employment” (maison de
housing that is simultaniously ecologically l’emploi) was installed, easily
sustainable and affordable really needs to be accessible and in the centre of

© DR
addressed. the estate. It brings together the
Another urgent question is why some of the various actors in the field of work and provides in a “one-stop-shop” all useful
possibilities of EU housing subsidies - ERDF information about professions, employment, formation and creation of enterprises
and ESF - that are already in effect are still not (in the framework of the “Local Social Project”, PST-Projet Social de Territoire).
used to their full extent and how the future Further offers in Malakoff, apart from the allocation of numerous new enterprises,
during the next period of funding could look. are: a local office (bureau de quartier), which also cares for the support of the
Last but not least it is essential that all these
residents in daily questions related to jobs and formation; and also, a “Public digital
aspects are not dealt with while excluding
space Malakoff” (Espace Public Numérique), where residents, jobseekers and others
those actually affected, but to respect their
dignity and offer them a respectable role in are acquainted with the use of digital media. Furthermore, there is a provision with
the development of new paths. They are the affordable Internet access for the residents.
living experience specialists in this situation.

There is a huge amount of material on this URBACT can also provide a valuable forum
documented in many papers. But each one of for this and with a capacity to reach many
them yields the potential to be read by the cities. ●
right person at the right moment and to am- (1) The examples mentioned in this article are from

i
plify an existing idea or inspire a new direction the SUITE partners Nantes Métropole, Newcastle upon MORE INFORMATION
of thinking. What helps even more for one‘s Tyne and Rennes Métropole, plus from Amsterdam, SUITE project:
Berlin, Finland, Glasgow, and FEANTSA. http://urbact.eu/en/projects/quality-
own morale boosting and outward argumen- sustainable-living/suite/homepage/
(2) Find the SUITE Network on the URBACT website.
tation is that others have already initiated and Lead Expert: Heidrun Feigelfeld
(3) An arm’s length city council management body.
had good experiences with courageous solu- hf@srz-gmbh.com
(4) Member of the URBACT SUITE network board
tions in the field of securing of housing. of counsellors.

Housing First Plus


Finnish, Dutch and Scottish concepts and expertise
Early independence for former homeless persons
Housing First’ and “Housing First Plus” are new and much discussed approaches towards
the reintegration of homeless persons. One of the fundamental principles is to provide
homeless persons with access to independent and affordable housing situations as soon
as possible without supplying them with homes or supported accommodation for longer
periods. So they can live in self-sustaining housing units of various forms (“normal housing”)
with adequate floating support, flexible and pro-active, on a voluntary basis. There is no
requirement that tenants be “housing ready” prior to entry. First studies confirm positive
outputs. This holistic and systematic approach aims at being consistent with the multi-
dimensionality of services for the Homeless (securing basic needs, access to employment,
housing supply, psycho-social care).
Among the increasing number of countries following this approach, Finland for example
has declared “Housing First” to be the main target of its homelessness policy and this can
be compared with first local offers, such as those operating in the Netherlands (e.g. Discus
in Amsterdam) and in the UK (e.g. in Glasgow). On a European level, there are strong
efforts to evaluate these pilot projects and test their transferability.
See various presentations on this subject on www.aurora-austria.eu/1005,,,2.html
(EU project ‘Aurora plus – New Ways out of Poverty’ is an initiative for combating poverty
in Austria) and http://www.habitact.eu/files/news/news/_issue4_final.pdf page 2)
© DR
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44

MORE PEOPLE IN PRISONS


AS A TOOL OF URBAN REGENERATION

BY PAULIUS KULIKAUSKAS
LEAD EXPERT OF THE REPAIR THEMATIC NETWORK

© Davide Virdis
Le Murate before and after.

Recent history of the conversion of historic prisons often limits new his article is not about getting tough-
uses of the old prisons to hotel and museum functions due to the
specificity of their spatial structure - buildings created for secure
detention purposes. Whilst conversions of prisons to hotels provide
us with some outstanding architectural examples, the impact of
T on-crime in the ways of Rudy Giuliani,
the former Mayor of New York -
however virtuous it may be. Yet it
promotes putting more people in prisons…
Read on. Old prisons, many of them in city
these uses on the regeneration of the surrounding urban area is centres, have become a headache for quite a
narrow. A different approach is demonstrated in the case of the number of cities: while built on what is now
often highly prized land, and thus prime can-
ongoing conversion of Le Murate prison in Florence (Italy) into a didates for demolition and redevelopment,
multifunctional hub of the historic centre. The new uses have been they are frequently protected as significant
determined by needs and a visionary approach and serve social and cultural heritage. Success stories of prison
economic sustainability of the broader regenerated neighbourhood. conversions to hotels around the world abound.
Its peer in the REPAIR network, Corradino prison in Paola (Malta), The Old Jail, Mount Gambier in Australia,
Napier Prison, New Zealand, or Karosta prison,
demonstrates an equally integrative approach. Liepaja, Latvia - all without major redevelopment
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 45

MORE PEOPLE IN PRISONS


45

- cater to backpackers with maximum au-


thenticity and very basic comfort. In Prague “A living urban neighbourhood is hardly possible without
the Pension Unitas occupies a former police
detainment house, where Vaclav Havel was
housing. This not only contributes for the healthy mix of
once jailed. Hotel Malmaison in a former Cas- functions – we are also retaining social diversity in the area
tle in Oxford, UK, Katajanokka in Helsinki, where most of the people cannot afford to live on market
Långholmen in Stockholm, or Charles Street
Jail in Boston have all been converted to conditions. Le Murate demonstrates that homes in a former
luxury hotels, preserving the most presentable prison are not only feasible but also desirable.”
architectural features and spaces, but now
providing a high level of comfort.
each other: Le Murate project is run by the
Yet a large hotel is not always the best new City, while the Maltese example is leased to a
use for such a complex in a neighbourhood to private company. Le Murate is in a historic
be regenerated: it becomes a building that is centre, and Corradino’s immediate surroun-
almost entirely isolated from the local neigh- dings are devoted to sports and industrial
bourhood, as if the spaceship from another land uses. Le Murate is older and larger. The
planet has landed. It burdens the neighbour- implementation of its reconversion has been
hood with additional traffic, and while some going on for 10 years, and is now half-way
expect that the local shops and restaurants completed, whilst Corradino has just started.
will benefit from patronage of the hotel’s Yet they share the common effort seeking to
guests, this is only true of the smaller hotels, integrate former places of isolation into the
as the large ones tend to be self-sufficient… surrounding neighbourhood.

Can a former prison be used for something Whilst Florence is known for difference of opi-
else? Can it serve the neighbourhood by nions and heated debates among its citizens
becoming an integral amenity, by responding in respect of development proposals, regene-
to its needs, by driving the regeneration? Can ration of Le Murate did not stir up much resis-
other uses be economically sustainable? Will tance in the neighbourhood. The new com-
these uses preserve the original architecture mercial and art-leisure activities target the local
better than a hotel? community, offering new jobs to the unem-
ployed, and attracting university students
who live and visit the area in which two seats
© Luigi Borgogni

More than a hotel of the architecture faculty are located. The for-
The regenerated prisons in the REPAIR The- merly secluded block is now completely open
matic Network stand out from the crowd. for through passage, and two new squares
Corradino and Le Murate cases are unlike Le Murate: new social housing and new city squares. are open to the public for enjoyment and for
performing arts.

Besides the skilful integration into the urban


spatial pattern and life of the neighbourhood,
The REPAIR Le Murate’s regeneration is architecturally da-
Small and medium sized urban areas where historically the military presence has dominated ring. The architects of the City’s social housing
economic activity are especially vulnerable to withdrawal of the military presence. office (Roberto Melosi, Mario Pittalis, Giusep-
However, former military sites often have excellent potential as catalysts for urban pina Fantozzi, Santi Garufi) cour ageously jux-
regeneration. Many consist of historic buildings, which may be considered critical assets. tapose the historic and the new architectural
The challenge is to transform these abandoned military heritage sites into thriving elements, intertwining them into a harmonious,
sources of economic activity, employment and social cohesion, so that the regeneration functional whole. Such a result is not easy to
of these sites contributes to the sustainable development of the broader urban areas achieve while simultaneously complying with
within which they are located. the stringent requirements of heritage pro-
tection. It is perhaps the only former prison in
The partner cities in the REPAIR (Realization of the Potential of Abandoned military sites
which parts the building have been converted
as an Integral part of sustainable urban community Regeneration) Thematic Network,
to social housing.
led by Medway Council (UK), represent very diverse geographical, political and historical
circumstances but they share some key common characteristics. Their ‘sense of place’
and identity have been shaped by the presence of large military sites and installations, Back to freedom
now abandoned by the military authorities. Some of the urban areas have historic
The icing on Le Murate’s cake is the area of
fortifications or other buildings dating back many centuries, protected as valued elements
the complex devoted to “Smart dissidents
of the cultural heritage.
2.0” and “SUC” activities.
In REPAIR the partners are tackling a broader agenda. Their key task is to explore how
the successful regeneration of former military sites can also act as a catalyst for broader The memory of a prison generally brings with
sustainable urban development. http://urbact.eu/repair it a dreadful image. The name chosen for the
hotel in the former Charles Street Jail in Boston
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46

is not coincidentally the Liberty Hotel. The the heart of Florence incorporating fine and such facilities to enhance the offer for interna-
originators of Le Murate’s regeneration project audiovisual arts, music, performance, fashion, tional sports exchanges, and so complement
have taken a step further. The Smart dissi- botany and cooking. the neighbouring building that houses a huge
dents 2.0 is a shelter for journalists who have This all-pervading openness and freedom - sports arena.
been persecuted in their countries. Here at Le the innovative integration of uses in the cou-
Murate they find a place to stay with common rageously rearranged historic space, integra- The Action Plan creates green corridors
services and support to allow them to conti- ted into the life and space of the neighbour- through the Paola town square and previews
nue their journalistic activities, including com- hood- is the essence of Le Murate: a prison a kilometre of pedestrian connections linking
puter training, creation of websites and other which has been set free. the Prison to the town centre, Hal Saflieni
means of publishing their work on the Internet and Kordin III World Heritage Sites and to other
- telling the world about injustice in their coun- architectural landmarks. The centre of Paola
tries without being censored and subjected to
Can a hotel work is transformed into a hub feeding 23 bus
violence. Here they can meet, share their ex- for a neighbourhood? routes. A “park and ride” facility and a pedes-
periences, and devise new, better strategies. In Malta, Corradino’s planned uses are more trian bridge together with the new campus
SUC – the Spazi Urbani Contemporanei (also mainstream than the Firenze experience: in- development are being contemplated. What
inspired by “souk” – a Middle East market) is volving the introduction of a museum and a makes the Corradino project innovative and
a laboratory of contemporary culture. Coupled hostel. This is however not a result of simply integrative is how its new role in the larger
with the Smart Dissidents, this part of le Murate following trends or copying quick and easy area is being determined, conceiving future
is not just not a mere exhibition venue, but an solutions developed elsewhere. These func- interaction with other elements of the holistic
area open to contemporary, interdisciplinary tions are determined by the needs of the district vision, and planning appropriate deve-
interaction “at 360 degrees”, a permanent Hibernians organisation, the company that lopment of infra-structure to serve the whole
laboratory of cross-fertilising artistic ideas at leases the building. The organisation requires neighbourhood.

Le Murate, Florence’s city centre former prison, remained vacant since 1985

© Luigi Borgogni
In 1997, Renzo Piano was commissioned required by the Fine Arts Trust allowed the Commitment of the Mayors and the city
to propose an idea on how to regenerate City to accept higher costs than usual for Boards continued throughout the ten years.
the site. Planning regeneration was a great social housing, at the same time integrating The City is now actively promoting the site,
challenge: to respect the historical and social, commercial, leisure and art functions. with involvement of almost all the City Board
architectural value of the Grade 1 listed
The project is managed by the Social Housing departments (housing, town-planning,
complex, and to integrate it into the city
Office of the City of Florence, and this ensures economic development, culture, social affairs).
centre. The vision was to create the widest
that time schedules and desired quality are
possible mix of features and functions, The current phase 2010-2013 includes
stringently observed. The first ten year phase
plugging in to the complexity and the 36 new social dwellings for young couples
resulted in delivery of 73 social dwellings,
richness of the surrounding urban space, and artists, open space for performances
2 new urban squares, a commercial-leisure
opening it up for pedestrian passage, and and a subterranean parking below the
gallery and public and service spaces.
bringing residents back to the historic centre. performance space, 24 accommodation units
The highly innovative approach has been
The plan has been drawn adhering to the
recognized by the European Union, financing with common services dedicated to “smart
principles of preservation and conservation,
the “Reprise” network of cities under the dissidents” (costing 1.8 MEUR financed by
in a fruitful collaboration with the Fine Arts
1998 Raphael programme, enabling Florence the City), a culture laboratory to gather young
Trust (La Soprintendenza per i Beni
to lead an exchange of experiences on the artists from the whole town in a new and
Architettonici). Existing building elements
regeneration of abandoned historic prisons. attractive location (0.7 MEUR part-financed
(stones, iron elements like gates, roof tiles,
wooden beams….) were reused as much The project has been strongly supported by Tuscany Region).
as possible. The techniques of regeneration by the citizens in the neighbourhood. http://lemurate.comune.fi.it
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 47

MORE PEOPLE IN PRISONS


47

Projects to learn from


The Corradino Military Detention Barracks (Prison)
Using the prisons as drivers for regeneration
has been in the last 30 years encroached on by the expanding
is a characteristic objective shared by Le Murate
industrial zone of the Marsa and Corradino and Corradino, along with the endeavour of
both projects to integrate new uses into the
life of the neighbourhoods and their commu-
nities. In this way the value of the interventions
are extended and enhanced by firmly deter-
mining the future of the regenerated prisons
within the vision of a wider area rehabilitation,
while at the same time establishing connec-
tions to other key city locations.
1
To create a living urban environment in a
former prison, as the REPAIR prisons de-
monstrate, 3 notions are essential: transfor-
ming a formerly secluded, closed space to
interact with the urban pattern and life of the
neighbourhood; creating a productive mix
of functions; and achieving a balance and
interplay between those who traverse the site
or purposefully visit it and people who come
to live there. As Claudio Fantoni, member
© Heritage Enterprise of the City Board of Florence, states: “A living
urban neighbourhood is hardly possible
without housing. This not only contributes
2 3 for the healthy mix of functions – we are also
retaining social diversity in the area where
1. Entrance and Guardhouse of the Corradino Prison. 2. REPAIR Partners and Local support group meet
at Corradino. 3. The restored wing of Corradino. most of the people cannot afford to live on
market conditions. Le Murate demonstrates
The Prison, itself a scheduled Grade 1 The Conservation Management Plan that homes in a former prison are not only
asset, is close to the Corradino Lines - includes a restoration and rehabilitation feasible but also desirable.”
a part of the Harbour Fortifications on of 3 Cell Blocks with adaptive reuse of the
Malta’s Tentative List for World Heritage, East Block as a Museum and the South Karlskrona, a REPAIR partner, and Vilnius are
and Kordin III - a Temples Site designated Block as a Hostel to be opened by late two cities which still have functioning historic
on a World Heritage List. In the 2012. The project needs the support of prisons in their city centres. Both have an-
rehabilitation and regeneration of the area the Local Council and the possibility of nounced their closure, so the debates on the
which includes the Malta College for Arts, developing transport and pedestrian links future of these prisons is imminent. The
Science and Technology Campus, the to and from the town centre. These links discussions are now ongoing in Berkshire
Prison will be a point of reference for will be vital for the tourism offer of diverse about the future of the Broadmoor Prison.
sports, recreation, tourism and education. heritage assets in the area of Paola and We, in REPAIR, hope that, following the Le
Corradino. Murate example, these cities will choose to
The Prison is currently managed through
steer more people to live in prisons! ●
the granting of a lease of 49 years to A.S. The key aspirations of the regeneration
Hibernians Ltd. who promote sports project are private sector involvement This article was written using sources kindly
activities and exchanges. There has also and investment in socio-economic provided by REPAIR partners: City of Florence
been a close consultation with the Malta regeneration, creating a distinct niche (Dr. Marco Toccafondi), and Paola Local Council
(Heritage Enterprise: Dr. Malcolm Borg).
Environment and Planning Authority as market through the services offered,
part of the restoration and redevelopment in synergy with the Maltese International
application, to consider sustainable Convention Centre, thus maximizing
conservation in the light of the existing return on investment to make the project
land-use policy for the area. In the sustainable in the long term. The project
development of the project the Paola is expected to catalyse neighbourhood
Local Council has come forward to empowerment as a means of instilling
i
MORE INFORMATION
support the development of this vision a sense of belonging and civic pride REPAIR project:
and there is further support from The incorporating heritage as part of the http://urbact.eu/en/projects/cultural-
heritage-city-development/repair/
Paola Heritage Foundation, The Malta regeneration process.
homepage/
Industrial Parks and The Malta Tourism
Lead Expert: Paulius Kulikauskas
Authority.
paulius.kulikauskas@gmail.com
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48

LINKING CRUISE TOURISM


TO URBAN REGENERATION
THE CTUR PROJECT AND BEYOND

BY VITTORIO TORBIANELLI
LEAD EXPERT OF THE CTUR
THEMATIC NETWORK

What kind of policies can city-


ports implement in order to link
urban regeneration goals to the
cruise tourism growth potential,
with special reference to cities
endowed with important
historical areas? This is the key
question behind the CTUR project
(Cruise Traffic and Urban
Regeneration), which involves
eleven European cities that are
quite different from each other
(Alicante, Dublin, Helsinki,
Istanbul, Matosinhos, Naples,
Rhodes, Rostock, Valencia,
Varna and Trieste), and is coordi-
nated by Naples' City Council.
CTUR's goal is to maximize the
positive effects of a tourist
market segment that is showing
strong growth dynamics - even
during the present economic
downturn - by having the various
stakeholders (starting from
the respective “city” and “port”
© Mathes

authorities) work together. Alicante.

inking cruise tourism to urban rege- the factors at stake should concern residential is neither straightforward nor mundane. The

L neration enables cities to ensure that


cruise lines do not just simply touch
and take advantage of urban commu-
nities, thereby generating limited and transitory
economic impact. The aim is rather that new
facilities, housing and public space quality,
urban communities, human resources as well
as employment, education and professional
training.
relation between regeneration and cruise
tourism can work in two ways:
3 when the growth of cruise tourism automa-
tically determines regeneration effects in some
parts of the city-port or when it becomes the
growth opportunities can be created through main driver for regeneration measures;
developing the relationship between city, port
Cruises and urban regene- 3 when an urban regeneration process triggers,
and tourism in every aspect and in this way ration: looking for the link among other things, the growth of the local
contributing to a “real” urban regeneration, The answer to the question of how it is possi- cruise tourist flow.
with special (yet not exclusive) reference to port ble to actually develop potential relations bet- Which conditions should be analysed in order
areas. In a genuine regeneration programme ween cruise tourism and a “real” regeneration to determine which approach should be used
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 49

LINKING CRUISE TOURISM


TO URBAN REGENERATION 49

homes and buildings with services for yach-


ting. The growth effects are expected to
expand to the neighbourhood close to the
port area and to generate a value increase
that is likely to, at least to some extent, be
fuelled by gentrification processes.

© Presiyan Panayotov
Helsinki (330,000 cruise pax) also believes
that a new cruise terminal, to be located in a
peripheral city area, can play an important
role as attraction pole for the creation of a
© DR

new multifunctional neighbourhood. Helsinki's


Matosinhos. Varna. LAP does not focus on the terminal as such
since only a provisional facility will be used, at
to bring about the greatest regeneration impact least in the short term. As other cities, like
(i.e. comprising the environmental, physical, Hamburg, have done, the main goal in the
social, cultural and economic levels)?
Linking cruise tourism short term is to transform that area from a
On the basis of the experiences made by to regeneration through or peripheral to a central position by attracting
CTUR cities and other locations, the prevailing newly built, attractive cruise flows of people to an area where there is
policies can be ascribed to some basic ap- plenty of space – for example old port ware-
proaches that can be implemented separately
terminal was the choise of houses that will be converted into cultural
or in an adequate mix: many cruise destinations and shopping centres – where new events
a) policies based on terminal facilities; b) over the last years. However, inspired by the idea of a “creative city” can be
policies based on a regeneration plan for a organized (shows, spectacle etc.) and com-
neighbourhood; c) policies based on educa-
this is not always the optimal mercial activities for tourist and citizens can
tion and up-skilling to sustain the offer of solution and a case-by-case be set up. In due course, new and more far-
services to cruise lines. approach is required. reaching interventions for housing, work and
Which are the strengths and weaknesses, the leisure will be carried out.
risks and opportunities for each approach?
CTUR's experiences (cases studies and Local …or rather an urban
Action Plans – LAP) can help find the answer
to these key questions.
regeneration driven
population and new activities to the area also approach?
in low season, thus sustaining the demand for Other cities have opted for different strategies
A terminal-driven commerce and refreshments. by trying to link regeneration to cruise tourism
approach... starting from the urban regeneration of a his-
The choice of linking cruise tourism to rege- Varna, located on the Black Sea, has deci- torical neighbourhood connected to the port
neration goals starting from the creation of a ded to re-launch a completely abandoned area and by considering cruise tourism as
new and attractive cruise terminal was made area of its commercial port by creating a new one of the opportunities that enable regene-
by many European (as well as non European) modern and prestigious cruise terminal. ration effects to be increased.
cities over the last few years. Behind Varna's goals there seems to be a
In practical terms, there can be great diffe- dynamic based mainly on real estate develop- Dublin (100,000 cruise pax) has implemen-
rences in the approach (and outcome) of the ment with the creation of new residential ted a far-reaching multifunctional recovery
various cases, as some significant “Local
Action Plans” put forward by CTUR cities
show. Looking for the link: the main models

The Portuguese city of Matosinhos (15,000


cruise market in port areas
cruise pax) has chosen to create a new model 1
terminal with great architectural visibility in a activates
terminal or port
part of the waterfront that is now peripheral, regeneration of districts
area - driven relation
but which is located not far away from the in the city tissue
city's historical core. The idea behind this is urban
regeneration model 2
that the new terminal can help increase cruise
passenger flows based on image and service urban regeneration
?
driven relation
quality, which has positive effects on the eco-
cruise market strong urban regeneration
nomy of the port area (e.g. restaurants) and processes
helps at the same time to revive the surroun- model 3
ding area. The terminal is conceived as part of attract
education/skill/labour-
a multifunctional urban facility which also cruise companies driven relation
hosts university research laboratories and
conference rooms that should attract working
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 50

50

and re-development plan in abandoned


dockland areas. The project (with residential,
The aim is that new growth
tourist-cultural and commercial functions)
opportunities can be created aims at creating locations that can offer a
through developing the vibrant urban experience, thus diversifying and
innovating the city's tourist attractiveness.
relationship between city, The docklands are located along the river
port and tourism in every Liffey, halfway between the present port
aspect and in this way (where the cruise terminal, which is not consi-
dered a strategical factor per se, is located)
contributing to a “real” urban and the city's historical core. Cruise passen-
regeneration, with special gers, like other tourist segments, will travel
(yet not exclusive) reference along the route from the port to the historical
city and will contribute to achieving at least
to port areas. part of the ambitious goal of a complete rege-
neration package.

In 1992, Alicante launched a successful


regeneration project in Casco Antiguo (the
historical centre behind the waterfront) that
was based on the purchase of degraded Naples.

private homes and on providing support to


entrepreneurs, thus aligning strategy with
various international EU programmes.
The goal of attracting cruise tourism (360,000
cruise pax) had been pursued almost exclu-
sively by Port Authorities for many years; large
investments were made on the terminal loca-
ted at the end of the port's breakwater and
results were only partially successful in terms
of utilization of the available capacity. It was
through the CTUR project that cruise tourism
was recently reintegrated into the regenera-
tion of the historical centre aiming to exploit
the potential contribution of visitors to the
newly restored historical centre. The key mea-
sure in this was identifying and highlighting a
series of “theme itineraries for visitors” within
Casco Antiguo. The routes are presented to
visitors in a brand new, dedicated info-point
that has a fine architectural style and is loca-
ted right at the beginning of the historical
area. Here it is highly visible and can be ac-
cessed by visitors who reach the waterfront
from the cruise terminal.

Naples (1.2 million cruise pax) is evaluating a


complex urban regeneration project in a his-
torical neighbourhood close to the port that is
still in a highly degraded condition, in spite of
a first series of interventions (paving and street
lighting). The pursued goal is directed at re-
launching craftsmen's activities in the area
(extending goldsmiths and handmade fabric
producers activity already operating in a nearby
area). It is anticipated that, in the future, cruise
passengers will be able to contribute to sus-
taining the economic and social regeneration
© DR

effects as a result of their purchases. The


Dublin. pre-requisites for this project are the redesi-
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 51

LINKING CRUISE TOURISM


TO URBAN REGENERATION 51

minal is really attractive if it meets the actual


needs of cruise lines and of their passengers.
A terminal is fundamental in the case of tur-
naround ports: it is the actual “entrance and
exit door” of the whole cruise supply chain
and the logistics involved in the arrival phase,
in passengers reception, baggage manage-
ment and cruise ship supply must work
perfectly. However, for ports of call (disembar-
kation and embarkation during visits) it is not
as important to have a big and prestigious
terminal. It goes without saying that a presti-
gious terminal does not make a city a turna-
round port, for that requires a city to be a key
candidate for cruise tourism, which implies
having flight connections, motorways, good road
connections and being an attractive tourist
© Michele Stefanile

destination. These are no minor requirements.

© DR
Other open issues regarding terminal policies
concern primarily the regeneration aspect. Alicante.
For example, what urban regeneration effects
can actually be obtained by relying mainly on for urban functions? Is there a potential
gning and re-qualifying of the physical inter- passengers' expenditures, especially when conflict between citizens' and cruise passen-
face between port and city in order to create the tourist area involved is rather small and gers' needs? What if deciding that a new
a revitalised route between the cruise terminal covers only a few streets, or when sufficient terminal, as driver for a wider real estate rede-
and the neighbourhood, but this is extremely annual flow thresholds are not reached? What velopment or for a new urban pole, rather
difficult from a technical and town planning if opting for a multifunctional terminal open to than the means through which typical far-
point of view. At present very few cruise pas- the city proves not to work as hoped? What reaching social regeneration goals will be
sengers visit Naples' historical centre on their if the terminal's features (for example, a some achieved, brings about no useful effects or
own because they prefer organized excur- what peripheral location) are not appropriate even negative effects on pre-existing condi-
sions. These are perceived as safer, but they tions (for example, because some categories
do not include the city. of users are excluded or expelled)? Much
According to some studies, the added depends on the capability to choose the right
value generated at a local level by cruise approach for the actual situation and not be
Comparing the models tourism is generally not so relevant and deluded into thinking that a cruise terminal is
In the LAPs drawn up by the cities of Mato- it depends mainly on the cruise line the goal (or the panacea) of urban policies,
sinhos, Varna and Helsinki, terminal facilities expenditure for services and not on the rather than the means – one out of many –
represent the main driver that should trigger passenger expenditures (Braun and through which cruise-oriented urban regene-
urban regeneration processes, albeit through Tramell, 2006). However, a given traffic 2 ration can be implemented.
very different mechanisms. threshold must be reached, which
However, some questions arise. Since building makes ports attractive as a specialized However, as was outlined above, not all cities
new terminals requires a huge amount of suppliers for the whole cruise line focus on terminals. In Dublin, Alicante and
public funds, first of all it is essential to deter- supply chain (services to cruise ships, Naples, regeneration strategies have been
mine what role a new terminal can actually etc. ). Moreover, the size of the local drawn up without a specific regard for cruise
play in terms of maintaining or increasing cruise industry impact depends on the tourism – also in terms of decision-making.
cruise passengers flows in the long run. underlying structure of the local eco- This is a positive element, because it means
The assessment of the direct and indirect nomy (sectors involved, interconnectivity that they represent real regeneration efforts
impact of cruise activity on an urban region in of the local economy, etc.). Speaking and not superficial attempts to make small
terms of added value is neither easy to draw of terminals, Klein maintains that “the urban zones close to cruise terminals more
up nor often available; assessing the impact situation is a classic buyers market with appealing. However, their effect is potentially
induced by the location of a new cruise terminal the cruise lines doing the buying; they substantial also for cruise tourism, because
is even more difficult. According to a number of are able to play ports off against one the urban quality of the whole urban fabric in
studies, cruise tourism has a limited local to another…” This is reflected in the connection with the port (and not the “termi-
economic impact and in many cases the willingness of many ports to build new nal” building!) is gaining more and more rele-
balance of costs and benefits produced by terminals (often advised, among the vance as an attraction factor for cruise
terminals is questionable. scholar, by consultants with close links passengers. Furthermore in view of the fact
to the cruise industry)… However, that cruise tourism is increasingly catching
The fact is that a new and prestigious terminal terminals do not guarantee continued on in new socio-economic and cultural seg-
does not necessarily make a cruise destina- cruise business (redeployments of ments, the city benefits from new visitor
tion more attractive, as some recent Euro- cruise lines) (Klein, 2006) 3. groups that prefer organizing their urban visits
pean cases of “over-investment” show. A ter- by themselves.
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 52

52

On the other hand, it is important to evaluate Naples' project also includes “training oppor- (accessibility, catchment area, facilities, sound
the negative impact that an increased number tunities for young people in a neighbourhood service supply background) required to be-
of cruise passengers may have on regenerated with a high level of youth unemployment” and come effective “logistics bases”, it is far more
areas: for example, the commercial offer can puts forward the idea of a “Sea Training Pole” important to invest in urban regeneration, so
change (consider potential price increases or for both personnel on board and on land (on integrating their tourist goals into a wider stra-
the predominance of the leisure function) or board chefs, dock workers, cruise liner crew, tegy rather than creating expensive terminals:
there can be an excess of passenger flows in head stewards for ferries, tour escorts for if a city becomes attractive, cruise lines will still
specific areas. However, it is self-evident that cruise liners, hostesses and stewards for choose it as a port of call, and the risk of buil-
including the “cruise factor” in a far-reaching ferries and front desk operators). ding “cathedrals in the dock-desert” will be
regeneration plan is less risky than choosing avoided. ●
strategies that revolve solely around a new Rostock, in a joint enterprise with the local
terminal project - both in terms of negative university system, which is traditionally mari-
impact and in respect of inefficient use of time-oriented, has already created a “cruise Bibliography
CTUR case studies:
public funds. tourism skills training academy” in co-opera-
Alicante:
tion with an important German cruise-line that Gaspar Mayor Pascual, La intervención Pública en el
has established its headquarters in Rostock. Casco Antiguo de Alicante, Fifth seminar - Thematic
A social-focused approach This initiative was launched in order to deal Conference, Alicante-Valencia, 24-26 March 2010.
as a “third way”? with an issue that is extremely important for a Plan de ordenación municipal para el desarrollo
del turismo de cruceros, Porto de Alicante, Fifth
Cruise tourism, employment growing sector like cruise tourism: the gap seminar - Thematic Conference, Alicante-Valencia,
between the skills of available personnel (star- 24-26 March 2010.
and education
ting from language skills!) and the actual Dublin:
Focusing on a terminal, or rather on the rege- cruise lines' needs . Regenerating Dublin’s Docklands, CTUR Case
study, Fourth seminar - Thematic Conference – Dublin
neration of a city's historical centre, are two (Ireland), 10 -11 December 2009, Dublin.
possible points of departure. However, both
of them show that policies linking cruise tou-
Making the right Helsinki:
Hernesaaren väliaikaistoimintojen ja risteilymatkailun
rism to regeneration do not often concentrate choice kehittäminen 2010-2012, Second Seminar – Thematic
workshop, 15-16 June 2009, Matosinhos.
on social goals like creating employment. Yet, Selecting the right strategy is actually no
Matosinhos:
it is possible to decide to sustain the develop- random choice: it is self-evident that each Joana Moreira, South Matosinhos Urbanization Plan,
ment of a working community by supporting city has specific features (in terms of urban Third seminar - Thematic Conference –Trieste,
activities (and services in particular) connec- context and cruise tourism potential) and 28-29 September 2009.
ted to cruise tourism. In general, “Cruise tou- paths, and the option that fits them best must João Pedro Matos Fernandes, The port project
for Matosinhos, Second Seminar – Thematic
workshop, 15-16 June 2009, Matosinhos.
Trieste:
Rostock, in a joint enterprise with the local university system, Port of Trieste, Trieste, Third seminar - Thematic
Conference –Trieste, 28-29 September 2009.
which is traditionally maritime-oriented, has already created
a “cruise tourism skills training academy” in co-operation with (1) CTUR - cruise traffic and urban regeneration
of city port heritage, urbact thematic network,
an important German cruise-line that has established its baseline study, 2009.
(2) Braun, b.m., tramell, f. (2006), the sources
headquarters in Rostock. and magnitude of the economic impact on a local
economy from cruise activities: evidence from Port
Canaveral, Florida, cruise ship tourism, edited by
Ross K. Dowling, cabi
rism development facilitates the social and be chosen accordingly. In fact, there are some (3 et 5) Klein, R.A. (2006), Turning Water into Money:
economic potential of cities through new jobs, general rules of thumb that indicate when the economics of the cruise industry, Cruise Ship
old skills and new skills” (Geoghegan, 2010) 4 each strategy is most effective. Tourism, edited by Ross K. Dowling, CABI.
and it is a fact that the kind of locally available The best choice for cities that have the real (4) Geoghegan p., Social and economic questions,
fourth seminar of CTUR, Alicante-Valencia,
skills and dedicated services represent a key potential to strongly develop their roles as 24-26 March 2010. McCarthy j., (2003) ‘the cruise
factor for cruise lines when they choose their turnaround ports is probably to opt for a new industry and port city regeneration: the case of
ports of call. Furthermore, as was mentioned urban terminal, provided the terminal can at Valletta’, European planning studies, vol. 11, issue 3,
pp. 341-350.
before, most studies on the economic impact the same time effectively sustain its “logistics
(6) Policy research corporation, (2009). Tourist facilities
of cruise tourism agree that the most impor- role” (for example, by way of road connec-
in ports, draft report, commissioned by European
tant effect that cruise tourism has on the tions or parking lots). This is not always easy commission, Directorate-general for maritime affairs
urban economy is not determined by how in areas close to historical centres (Policy Re- and fisheries.
much passengers spend for services, which search Corporation, 2009) 6.
is often not a great amount. It is rather the ex-
i
penditures made by cruise lines for services Pursuing strategies based on offering services MORE INFORMATION
on land and the level of structural integration and skills specific for cruise lines is easier if the CTUR project: http://urbact.eu/en/
projects/port-cities/ctur/homepage/
of the local economy in the cruise lines' city's role as turnaround port is already well
Lead Expert: Vittorio Alberto Torbianelli
supply chain (Klein, 2006) 5 which generate established, but this requires the service net- VITTORIOALBERTO.TORBIANELLI
most impact. Education is an essential factor work to be well structured. For ports that @arch.units.it
in this employment-support perspective. cannot guarantee all the basic conditions
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:24 Page 53

C URBACT II PROJECTS
PROJECTS ISSUES ADDRESSED LEAD PARTNERS 53

CITIES, ENGINES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT & JOB CREATION


Creative clusters in low density urban areas (diversifying local economic base; using cultural activities as catalysts for development; Obidos - PT
Creative Clusters setting up physical, social, educational environment to attract and retain talented people in "the creative city"; etc.)
Economic strategies and innovation in medium-sized cities (workforce development and demand-led skills initiatives to ensure Basingstoke
ESIMEC a sustainable economic recovery, growth and resilience in medium-sized cities) and Deane - UK

FIN-URB-ACT SMEs and local economic development (support systems for SMEs and innovative/high-tech projects; pathways Aachen - DE
to partnerships between cities and Managing Authorities; communication on support schemes, etc.)
OPENCities* Opening cities to build-up, attract and retain human capital (identifying factors of "openness" and their impact on city attractiveness; Belfast - UK
increasing and promoting city openness to attract international migrants, etc.)
REDIS Science districts and urban development (integrated policies for the development of science/knowledge districts; Magdeburg - DE
multi-level governance issues; etc.)
RUnUp Strengthening endogenous potential of urban poles (improving local governance of innovation; promoting triple helix partnerships
Gateshead - UK
for local economic development; setting conditions for the stimulation of knowledge-based activities, etc.)
UNIC* Traditional industries and innovation (strengthening local industries and promoting innovation in the ceramics sector; promoting Limoges - FR
ceramics traditions as a driver for urban renewal; promoting cultural and industrial heritage, etc.)
Urban N.O.S.E. Urban incubators for social enterprises (fostering inclusive development policies; consolidating inter-institutional partnerships; Gela - IT
connecting local authorities and the Service sector, etc.)

WEED Women at work (improving working conditions, promoting/supporting entrepreneurship, fostering employment in IT and scientific/
Celje - SI
knowledge-based sectors, etc.)

CITIES, ACTIVE INCLUSION & GOVERNANCE


Strategies for cities with an ageing population (supporting employment; improving long-term and home-based care services; fighting
Active A.G.E. social exclusion and insecurity; fostering inter-generational solidarity as a driver for elderly-sensitive urban development policies; assessing Roma - IT
the impact of ageing in urban planning; etc.)
Building Healthy Urban factors influencing health (indicators and criteria for a healthy sustainable urban development; healthy sustainable lifestyles; Torino - IT
Communities* use of structural funds in addressing health issues)

CityRegion.Net
Urban sprawl and development of hinterlands (planning tools and financial schemes for a sustainable city-hinterland development;
Graz - AT
cooperation at regional level)

EGTC Sustainable development of cross-border agglomerations Mission Opérationnelle


(local and multi-level governance systems) Transfrontalière - FR
Design coding for sustainable housing (governance for the implementation of design coding; quality standards for urban and University La
HOPUS architectural design, etc.) Sapienza, Roma - IT

Strategy and governance at city-region scale (spatial planning; mobility and transports; environmental issues; development of knowledge- Lille Metropole - FR
Joining Forces
based economies; attractiveness and competitiveness; social inclusion, participation, empowerment; governance mechanisms, etc.)
Sustainable land use management (managing urban sprawl; fostering attractiveness; strategies for local decision-makers, etc.) University
LUMASEC of Karlsruhe - DE

My Generation Promoting the positive potential of young people in cities (transforming passivity and alienation into positive personal and professional Rotterdam - NL
aspirations; fostering active transitions from education to work; holistic coordination of youth related initiatives, etc.)
City model for intermediate/peripheral metropolitan cities (managing urban identity; governance issues; fighting urban fragmentation; L’Hospitalet
NeT-TOPIC de Llobregat - ES
regeneration of brownfields, military sites, etc.; transforming a mono-functional city into a multifunctional city)

Nodus Spatial planning and urban regeneration (improving coordination of area-based regeneration and regional/metropolitan planning; Generalitat
integrated policies, etc.) de Catalunya - ES

OP-ACT Strategic positioning of small and medium-sized cities (sustainable, efficient financial and economic structures to face demographic Leoben - AT
change, advanced de-industrialization and the effects of the crisis)

Roma-Net* Integration of the Roma population in European cities (access to key services, active inclusion into the labour market through education, Budapest - HU
and development of self-help initiatives)
Sustainable housing provision Santiago
Suite de Compostela - ES
(economic viability and social mix; environmental quality standards, etc.)
Developing co-responsibility for social inclusion and well-being of residents in European cities (Integrated strategies to foster cooperation
TOGETHER Mulhouse - FR
between public authorities, citizens and private stakeholders, and indicators for the management of such strategies)

CITIES & INTEGRATED SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


ACTIVE TRAVEL Tackling transport problems by promoting walking and cycling in small and medium-sized cities (Integrated strategies for cities to pro- Weiz - AT
mote environment-friendly means of urban transport and improve energy efficiency)

CASH* Cities' Action for Sustainable Housing (Solutions for sustainable renovation of social housing and the provision of affordable housing units Echirolles - FR
in urban cities)
C.T.U.R. Cruise Traffic and Urban Regeneration (physical and environmental regeneration of port-areas; cruise traffic and port-heritage as drivers Napoli - IT
for economic and social development; planning and management of cruise development, etc.)
Approaches to strengthening social cohesion in neighbourhoods (area-based and integrated approaches to neighbourhood development;
CoNet Berlin - DE
new governance structures for the integration of socio-cultural, educational and economic dimensions, etc.)
EVUE Electric Vehicles in Urban Europe (Integrated, sustainable strategies and leadership techniques for cities to promote the use of electric
Westminster - UK
vehicles and to improve their attractiveness)
Cultural heritage and urban development (revitalization policies; protection of visual integrity; integrated systems for the management
HerO* Regensburg - DE
of cultural heritage)
JESSICA and Urban Development Funds (design and implementation of funding schemes; territorial evaluation and diagnoses; city projects Regione Toscana - IT
JESSICA 4 Cities
and Operational Programmes, etc.)
Implementing integrated sustainable urban development according to the Leipzig Charter (tools for the definition, implementation,
LC-Facil monitoring of integrated policies for urban development; testing the “Sustainable cities Reference Framework” developed by the Group Leipzig - DE
of Member States and Institutions)

LINKS Old European cities as a key for sustainability (Integrated strategies to improve the attractiveness and quality of life in old historical centres, Bayonne - FR
foster sustainable housing, while preserving architectural identity and cultural heritage)
Governance in integrated urban development (long-term integrated policies and financial planning for sustainable regeneration of deprived
RegGov* Duisburg - DE
areas; monitoring progress and achievements; sustainable partnerships; city-region governance; neighbourhoods at risk, etc.)
Regeneration of abandoned military sites (socio-economic regeneration of abandoned military heritage sites as a driver for sustainable
REPAIR urban development)
Medway - UK

Socio-economic methods for urban rehabilitation in deprived urban areas (enhancing sustainable growth through diversification of local Eger - HU
SURE economies in deprived areas of medium-size cities)
*Fast Track Label
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:45 Page 54

54 CTHE URBACT II PARTNERS


TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:45 Page 55
TRIBUNE (16-11)bat:Mise en page 1 19/11/10 15:23 Page 56

URBACT is a European exchange and learning programme promoting sustainable


urban development.
It enables cities to work together to develop solutions to major urban challenges, reaffir-
ming the key role they play in facing increasingly complex societal changes. URBACT helps
cites to develop pragmatic solutions that are new and sustainable, and that integrate
economic, social and environmental dimensions. It enables cities to share good practices
and lessons learned with all professionals involved in urban policy throughout Europe. UR-
BACT II is 290 different sized cities and their Local Support Groups, 37 Projects,
29 countries, and 5,000 active stakeholders coming equally from Convergence and
Competitiveness areas. URBACT is jointly financed by ERDF and the Member States.

www.urbact.eu

URBACT Secretariat
194, avenue du Président Wilson
93217 Saint-Denis La Plaine - France
Tel.: +33 (0)1 49 17 46 02
Fax: +33 (0)1 49 17 45 55