Best Practices for Securing Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12

Oracle Corporation
Version 1.0.0

Latest version of this document available under Metalink Note 403537.1.

Revision History
Version 1.0.0 Release Date Feb 2007 Descriptions Initial version for Release 12, based on 11i version ML 189367.1

Copyright © 2007 Oracle. All rights reserved. Primary Authors: Erik Graversen, James Nurthen Contributors: David Kerr, George Buzsaki, Deepak Louis, Andy Philips, Ashok Subramanian, Rajiv Muthyala, Remi Aimsuphanimit, Emily Nordhagen. Excerpts of documents [IntA, IntB] reproduced with permission from Integrigy Corporation. This document is provided for informational purposes only and the information herein is subject to change without notice. Please report any errors herein to Oracle Corporation by filing a documentation bug against product code 510, component SEC_COMP. Oracle Corporation does not provide any warranties covering and specifically disclaims any liability in connection with this document. Oracle is a registered trademark. Oracle Corporation World Headquarters 500 Oracle Parkway Redwood Shores, CA 94065 U.S.A. Worldwide Inquiries: 650.506.7000 Fax 650.506.7200 Worldwide Support:


Best Practices for Securing Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12

Table of Contents

System Wide Advice Changes from 11i Hardening Network Authentication Authorization Audit Hardening Authentication Authorization Audit Hardening Authorization Audit Hardening Network Authentication Authorization Audit Advanced Audit Hardening Hardening Network Authentication Authorization Maintenance Detect and Prevent Duplicate User Sessions Customize Password Validation Advanced Security/Networking Option (ASO/ANO) Configure Listener on a Non-Default TCP Port Hardening External Procedure (EXTPROC) Services 2 3 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 10 12 15 16 16 17 18 19 22 24 26 29 31 32 33 34 34 37 37 37 38 38

Oracle TNS Listener Security...............................................................................................................................5

Oracle Database Security......................................................................................................................................9

Oracle Application Tier Security........................................................................................................................15

E-Business Suite Security...................................................................................................................................17

Desktop Security.................................................................................................................................................29 Operating Environment Security ........................................................................................................................31

Extras for Experts ...............................................................................................................................................37

Appendix A: Security Setup Forms....................................................................................................................43 Appendix B: Security Setup Forms That Accept SQL Statement......................................................................45 Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite ......................................................................47 Appendix D: Processes Used by E-Business Suite.............................................................................................51 Appendix E: Ports Used by E-Business Suite ....................................................................................................53 Appendix F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier .........................................................................55 Appendix G: References & More Resources......................................................................................................59


Table of Contents iv .

Use this summary as a security reference guide or checklist. Overview Keep software up to date Restrict network access to critical services Follow the principle of least privilege Monitor system activity Keep up to date on latest security information UPdated Technology Stack Modified Directory Structure 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 Oracle TNS Listener Security Harden operating environment Add IP restrictions or enable Valid Node Checking Specify connection timeout Enable encryption of network traffic Enable TNS Listener password Enable admin restrictions Enable TNS Listener logging 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 Oracle Database Security Harden operating environment Disable XDB Review database links Remove operating system trusted remote logon Implement two profiles for password management Change default installation passwords Restrict access to SQL trace files Remove operating system trusted remote roles Limit file system access within PL/SQL Limit dictionary access Revoke unneccessary grants GIVEN to APPLSYSPUB Configure the database for auditing Audit database connections Audit database schema changes Audit other activities Audit administrators and their actions Review audit records Maintain audit records 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 v .Security Checklist Security Checklist This section contains a summary of this document’s best practice suggestions and their page locations.

Security Checklist Secure audit records 14 Oracle Application Tier Security Harden operating environment Remove application server banner Remove unnecessary directives Turn off directory indexing Unload Apache autoindex module Prevent search engine indexing Protect administrative web pages Disable test pages Configure logging 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 E-Business Suite Security Harden operating environment Strike passwords from adpatch logs Set Workflow notification mailer SEND_ACCESS_KEY to N Set Tools environment variables Use SSL (HTTPS) between browser and web server Use External webtier if exposing any part of EBS to the internet Use Terminal Services for client-server programs Change passwords for seeded application user accounts Consider Using Single-Sign-On Tighten logon and session profile options Create new user accounts safely Create shared responsibilities instead of shared accounts Configure Concurrent Manager for safe authentication Activate Server Security Review Guest user responsibilities Review users with administrative responsibilities Limit access to security related forms Limit access to forms allowing SQL entry Set other security related profile options Restrict responsibilities by web server trust level Set Sign-On audit level Monitor system activity with OAM Retrieve audit records using Reports Retrieve audit records using SQL Purge audit records Review data tracked (no Reports available) Configuring audit trail Generate and identify audit trail objects Choose tables to audit 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 vi .

Security Checklist Retrieve audit records using SQL Purge audit records References on E-Business Suite auditing 27 27 27 Desktop Security Configure browser Update browser Turn off AutoComplete in Internet Explorer Set policy for unattended PC sessions 29 29 29 29 Operating Environment Security Cleanup file ownership and access Cleanup file permissions Lockdown operating system libraries and programs Filter IP packets Prevent spoofing Eliminate telnet connections Eliminate ftp connections Verify network configuration Monitor for attacks Configure accounts securely Limit root access Manage user accounts Do Not Allow guest accounts Secure NFS Secure operating system Devices Secure executables Secure file access 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 Extras for Experts Detect and Prevent Duplicate User Sessions Customize Password Validation Advanced Security/Networking Option (ASO/ANO) Configure Listener on a Non-Default TCP Port Hardening External Procedure (EXTPROC) Services EXTPROC Listener Configuration EXTPROC Testing Procedure 37 37 37 38 38 39 40 vii .

Security Checklist Appendix A: Security Setup Forms Appendix B: Security Setup Forms That Accept SQL Statement Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite Appendix D: Processes Used by E-Business Suite Appendix E: Ports Used by E-Business Suite Appendix F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier Appendix G: References & More Resources viii .

The recommendations that follow cross three tiers of machines (browser. HTML_TOP. firewalls. authorization and auditing). IP restrictions at web server and database listener. etc. a properly secured computing infrastructure is critical. We cover security for the Database and Listener. PORTAL_TOP. Each section contains advice spanning five categories: Hardening Network Authentication Authorization Audit Covers hardening the file system. Covers configuration. 1 . network security. web pages. Covers physical topology. JAVA_TOP.Overview Overview DESKTOP TIER Web Browser Forms applet Sun JRE APPLICATION TIER DATABASE TIER Apache Listener RDBMS ORACLE HOME iAS ORACLE HOME RDBMS Forms Discoverer TNS Listener Concurrent Manager Terminal Server APPL_TOP COMMON_TOP. application middle-tier and database) and fall into five categories (hardening. administrative tools. programs. the E-Business Suite and individual desktops. JRE_TOP. the Application Server. data files. cost of security and value of the information protected. Covers restrictions to executables. password management and other account related activities. products and configuration. We follow this with advice for hardening operating systems including a sample Linux hardening (in the Appendix). Covers account management. Each organization determines its own correct balance. authentication. PRODUCT_TOPS ORACLE HOME Tools In today’s environment. we provide best practices (practical advice) for securing Oracle’s E-Business Suite. The last section “Extras for Experts” collects together advice that goes beyond the typical best practice. When securing the infrastructure. a balance must be struck between risk of exposure. To that end. on-going review and purging.

The firewalls provide assurance that access to these systems is restricted to a known network route. Restricting database access by IP address often causes application client/server programs to fail for DHCP clients.0. Throughout this document. etc. independent firewalls. MONITOR SYSTEM ACTIVITY System security stands on three legs: good security protocols. place a firewall between the middle-tier and the database. if necessary. roles. proper system configuration and system monitoring. Follow audit advice in this document and regularly monitor audit records. The latest version of Autoconfig (TXK) configures a system following advice from this document. Each component within a system has some degree of monitoring capability. for many reasons including good security practice. grants. Auditing and reviewing audit records address this third requirement. which can be monitored and restricted. KEEP SOFTWARE UP TO DATE One of the principles of good security practice is to keep all software versions and patches up to date. consider using static IP addresses. often leaves a system wide open for abuse. be certain to configure the TNS Listener Valid Node Checking feature which restricts access based upon IP address. KEEP UP TO DATE ON LATEST SECURITY INFORMATION Oracle continually improves its software and documentation. To resolve this. Check this note yearly for revisions. As an alternative. In addition.0 or later. especially early on in an organization’s life cycle when people are few and work needs to be done quickly. a firewall router substitutes for multiple. User privileges should be reviewed periodically to determine relevance to current job responsibilities. It also contains a patch set checker to assist with patch application. FOLLOW THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST PRIVILEGE The principle of least privilege states that users should be given the least amount of privilege to perform their jobs. This cannot be emphasized enough. If firewalls cannot be used. RESTRICT NETWORK ACCESS TO CRITICAL SERVICES Keep both the E-Business application middle-tier and the database behind a firewall. a software/hardware VPN or Windows Terminal Services or its equivalent. 2 .. move to the latest version of Autoconfig and Patch Tools (AD). Over ambitious granting of responsibilities.Overview SYSTEM WIDE ADVICE Some advice applies to the entire E-Business deployment and the infrastructure in which it operates. we assume an E-Business Suite maintenance level of 12. Fusion Middle Ware OHS 10.2.34 fork) oc4j -eliminated-a Forms 10.0. 3 .19 fork) jserv modplsql Forms 6i Reports 6i Tools Oracle_home: UPDATED TECHNOLOGY STACK Release 12 has updated the entire technology stack.x) Application Tier IAS 1.2 Reports 10.0 JRE for Form applet: Sun JRE 1. This provides a cleaner separation of code directories and directories with instance specific and variable data.4 JDBC 9 or 10 Desktop Tier JRE for Forms applet: Oracle Jinitiator Release 12 10gR2 (10.0. ReportWriter10 is only called from Concurrent Managers in Release 12 (no longer invocable via the web interface) MODIFIED DIRECTORY STRUCTURE Release 12 has changed the way the file systems are organized.2 (1.2. the table below summarizes the changes in versions and highlights retired technology pieces. From a security perspective the most interesting point is the introduction of the INSTANCE_TOP which is a new directory that contains instance specific configuration files and log files.6 IAS Oracle_home: 8.3 JDBC a.2 Java Oracle_home: 11i Database 9iR2 (9.1.7.Overview DIFFERENCES FROM 11I If you are familiar with Oracle E-Business Suite 11i and the 11i version of this document these are the most important differnces that you will notice between 11i and Release 12.3 (1. See the “Oracle Application Concepts” guide from the installation DVD for more detail.2. modplsql is no longer required in Release 12 and is not configured b.2b Tools Oracle_home: 10.3.2 + Developer 6i OHS 1.0.

Overview 4 .

by default). ) The first parameter turns on Valid Node Checking.X.invited_nodes = ( X. HARDENING HARDEN OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Follow the hardening instructions for “Operating Environment Security” on page 31. NETWORK ADD IP RESTRICTIONS OR ENABLE VALID NODE CHECKING Valid Node Checking allows or denies access from specified IP addresses to Oracle services.X. Replace X. forms servers.X.1: Using AutoConfig to Manage System Configurations with Oracle Applications Release 12 .ora: tcp.Oracle TNS Listener Security Oracle TNS Listener Security DATABASE TIER Listener RDBMS ORACLE HOME RDBMS Oracle clients communicate with the database using the Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) protocol. central administrator machines and any remote monitoring tool that uses SQLNet.X. When the Listener receives a connection request (tcp port 1521. . Middle-tier applications include web servers.. concurrent managers.X.X. Note. hostname. AutoConfig supports automated configuration..X.validnode_checking = YES tcp. that desktop cannot use DHCP.excluded_nodes = ( hostname. If implemented.. set the following parameters in $TNS_ADMIN/sqlnet. This section contains security recommendations for the TNS Listener. discoverer. ADI from a windows desktop is not recommended. toad. it starts up a new database process and establishes a connection between the client and the database. X.. . Use a static IP address.or the Oracle Applications 5 . refer to Metalink Note 387859.X. ) tcp. For more information.X with the middle-tiers’ IP addresses. use of SQLNet clients such as sqlplus. The latter two parameters respectively specify the IP addresses or hostnames that are permitted to make or are denied from making network connections to Oracle services. To enable Valid Node Checking for 9i and above. terminal servers.

set the following parameter: CONNECT_TIMEOUT_$ORACLE_SID = 10 For example.2. secure password Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=dbs01)(PORT=1541))) Password changed for VIS12 The command completed successfully LSNRCTL> set password Password: The command completed successfully LSNRCTL> save_config Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=dbs01)(PORT=1541))) Saved DBLSNR configuration parameters. Listener Parameter File /x/db/tech_st/10.ora. MetaLink note 391248. CONNECT_TIMEOUT_VIS12 = 10 Where VIS12 is the value of the ORACLE_SID in this example.Oracle TNS Listener Security Concepts Use the parameter CONNECT_TIMEOUT to specify the amounts of time. ENABLE ENCRYPTION OF NETWORK TRAFFIC Ensure that the TNS network traffic in you EBS environment is not sent “in-the-clear” by enabling encryption of the TNS (aka SQL*Net) traffic.ora 6 .1 contains the instructions on how to do this for 11i .ora parameters is relevant also for Release 12. AUTHENTICATION ENABLE TNS LISTENER PASSWORD Setting a password for the Listener is one of the most important hardening procedure.the setting of sqlnet. LSNRCTL> set current_listener VIS12 Current Listener is VIS12 LSNRCTL> change_password Old password: -. AutoConfig enabled systems may use the latest OAM minipack to implement the manual steps highlighted above. These instructions assume that the listener name is VIS12. Start the Listener control program: $ lsnrctl Set the current Listener in case you have more than one listener defined.just hit return New password: -. secure password Reenter new password: -. then change the password. in seconds.0/network/admin/VIS12_dbs01/listener. for the Oracle Listener to wait for the connection from a client to complete. The default for oracle databases in general is “LISTENER” while for EBS databases it is set to the SID of the database. SPECIFY CONNECTION TIMEOUT In $TNS_ADMIN/

Restart the listener (using lsnrctl start) Note. Edit listener. set the following parameter: ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_<listener>=ON For example. To undo these steps: 1. Stop the tnslsnr process (using lsnrctl or use ps to find the pid and kill to kill it) 3.ora and reload the configuration file into the Listener: $ echo "ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_VIS12 = ON" >> listener. Enable ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS by adding the following line to listener. stop.ora: #----ADDED BY TNSLSNR 13-JAN-2007 11:47:56--PASSWORDS_VIS12 = D911537D50B15546 #-------------------------------------------- With the Listener password protected.ora LSNRCTL> set current_listener VIS12 Current Listener is VIS12 LSNRCTL> set password Password: The command completed successfully LSNRCTL> reload Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=dbs01)(PORT=1541))) The command completed successfully With these settings. The Listener process requires a password to list SERVICES or STATUS.ora and remove the lines PASSWORDS_<listener> and ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_<listener> 2. check status or run services on remote machines via lsnctrl. ensure that file and directory settings can only be changed by editing the listener. if they do not expect to provide a password.ora file (not via set commands in lsnrctl).Oracle TNS Listener Security The command completed successfully This added the following lines to listener. password protecting the TNS Listener has the following effects: Οnly the oracle user can stop the TNS Listener using lsnrctl without providing the password. ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS_VIS12=ON Where VIS12 is the name of the listener (equal to ORACLE_SID in EBS) 7 . the Listener configuration file cannot be changed via the tnslsnr process. AUTHORIZATION ENABLE ADMIN RESTRICTIONS In $TNS_ADMIN/listener.ora. This breaks some monitoring and remote administration tools. Cannot start. Use Enterprise Manager for remote administration.

ora set the following parameters: LOG_STATUS = ON LOG_DIRECTORY_$ORACLE_SID = $TNS_ADMIN LOG_FILE_$ORACLE_SID = $ORACLE_SID For example. some remote administration tools may subsequently fail. all the set commands in lsnrctl are disabled and the only way to change the configuration is to edit the listener. Because password restrictions are enabled. in $TNS_ADMIN/listener. LOG_STATUS = ON LOG_DIRECTORY_VIS12 = /u/db/tech_st/10. when ADMIN_RESTRICTIONS is ON.2.ora file. AUDIT ENABLE TNS LISTENER LOGGING To enable logging.Oracle TNS Listener Security Note.0/network/admin/VIS12_dbs01 LOG_FILE_VIS12 = VIS12 Where VIS12 is the LISTENER_NAME. 8 .

DISABLE XDB To support XDB.Oracle Database Security Oracle Database Security DATABASE TIER Listener RDBMS ORACLE HOME RDBMS This section contains security recommendations for the Database. they should be disabled.ora contains: REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT=FALSE 9 . HARDENING HARDEN OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Follow the hardening instructions for “Operating Environment Security” on page 31. REMOVE OPERATING SYSTEM TRUSTED REMOTE LOGON This setting prevents the database from using an insecure logon protocol. To disable XDB.dispatchers='(PROTOCOL=TCP) (SERVICE=sidXDB)' REVIEW DATABASE LINKS Review database links in both production and development environments.ora that reads *. remove or comment out the line in init. the TNS Listener process listens on two additional TCP ports: 2100 for ftp access and 8080 for http access. Make sure init. AUTHENTICATION Middle-tier applications logon to the database through application schemas rather than end-user accounts. Some individuals (IT Administrators) may require direct access to the application database via their own schema. Oracle E-Business Suite does not require these services.

10 . Default schemas come from different sources: 1. run the AD adutconf. For the schemas in categories 4. open schemas with default passwords. some of the database password policy parameters could lock-out the E-Business Suite. Patch 4926128 contain a SQL script that will list all open accounts with default password in your database. Password Parameters FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION Application Profile UNLIMITED UNLIMITED Administrator Profile 5 90 180 UNLIMITED 180 UNLIMITED UNLIMITED UNLIMITED 7 14 Recommended Recommended Database profiles contain limits on database resources and password policies. we make specific recommendations for or against using certain management features depending upon schema type. especially for a database to be used in a production environment. Create two database profiles: one for middle-tier application schemas and one for human beings. 2. 5. Assign middle-tier application schemas to the first profile and all accounts used by administrators to the second profile. “Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite” on page 47 contains a list of the schemas by category. use standard database commands to change a password: SQL> alter user <SCHEMA> identified by <NEW_PASSWORD>. However. For more information on profiles. 2 and 3. 5 and 6.Oracle Database Security IMPLEMENT TWO PROFILES FOR PASSWORD MANAGEMENT The database provides parameters to enforce password management policies. and they should be changed. These accounts and corresponding passwords are well-known. see CREATE PROFILE in the Oracle SQL Reference documentation. 3. 4. 5 and 6). use the application password change tool: $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ORACLE <SCHEMA> <NEW_PWD> To save time. Default database administration schemas Schemas belonging to optional database features neither used nor patched by E-Business Suite Schemas belonging to optional database features used but not patched by E-Business Suite Schemas belonging to optional database features used and patched by E-Business Suite Schemas common to all E-Business Suite products Schemas associated with specific E-Business Suite products For the schemas in categories 1. Because of this.sql script. FNDCPASS accepts a keyword ALLORACLE forcing a change of all managed (category 6) schemas to the new password. CHANGE DEFAULT INSTALLATION PASSWORDS Following an installation. the application database instance contains default. $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ALLORACLE <NEW_PWD> To determine which schemas are managed by E-Business Suite (categories 4. 6. instructions and notes for managing schema passwords. category six (6) schema passwords may be changed en masse using FNDCPASS.

. Set this to its default value of False.Oracle Database Security AUTHORIZATION RESTRICT ACCESS TO SQL TRACE FILES The init. Oracle E-Business Suite maintains some disk files and needs this parameter set..<dir3>. _TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC=FALSE REMOVE OPERATING SYSTEM TRUSTED REMOTE ROLES Set the init.ora parameter _TRACE_FILES_PUBLIC grants file system read access to anyone who has activated SQL tracing. These are set in <FND_TOP>/admin/sql/afpub. O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY = FALSE REVOKE UNNECCESSARY GRANTS GIVEN TO APPLSYSPUB The following table lists the privileges that should be granted to the APPLSYSPUB schema. Avoid: UTL_FILE_DIR = * LIMIT DICTIONARY ACCESS Set O7_DICTIONARY_ACCESSIBILITY to False to prevent users with Select ANY privilege from reading data dictionary tables.sql. REMOTE_OS_ROLES=FALSE LIMIT FILE SYSTEM ACCESS WITHIN PL/SQL The parameter UTL_FILE_DIR limits file system access for all database accounts using the PL/SQL API UTL_FILE.<dir2>.ora parameter REMOTE_OS_ROLES to False to prevent insecure remote roles. False is the default for the 10g database. APPLSYSPUB EXECUTE ON FND_DISCONNECTED EXECUTE ON FND_MESSAGE EXECUTE ON FND_PUB_MESSAGE EXECUTE ON FND_SECURITY_PKG EXECUTE ON FND_SIGNON EXECUTE ON FND_WEBFILEPUB INSERT ON FND_SESSIONS INSERT ON FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS SELECT ON FND_APPLICATION SELECT ON FND_APPLICATION_TL SELECT ON FND_APPLICATION_VL SELECT ON FND_LANGUAGES_TL 11 . UTL_FILE_DIR = <dir1>.

AUDIT_FILE_DEST = /u01/logs/db/audit Restart the database for these parameters to take effect. To audit sessions.Oracle Database Security APPLSYSPUB SELECT ON FND_LANGUAGES_VL SELECT ON FND_LOOKUPS SELECT ON FND_PRODUCT_GROUPS SELECT ON FND_PRODUCT_INSTALLATIONS To check permissions. Release 12 Rapid Install has a clean APPLSYSPUB by default. the database stores its audit records on the file system: AUDIT_TRAIL = OS Set parameter AUDIT_FILE_DEST to the directory where the audit records should be stored. Note. whether or not AUDIT_TRAIL is enabled. These recommendations should not have a measurable performance impact. see patch 3763612. login as SYSTEM and issue the following query: SELECT * FROM dba_tab_privs WHERE grantee ='APPLSYSPUB'. CONFIGURE THE DATABASE FOR AUDITING In init. To revoke unnecessary privileges granted to APPLSYSPUB schema. set AUDIT_TRAIL to DB. When not set. As rare events. suspicious connections to highly privileged schemas may be identified. the database generates some audit records by default. Consult with the Applications Database Administrator before setting this value to TRUE. Oracle automatically creates an operating system file as an audit record when a user logs in as SYSDBA or as INTERNAL. AUDIT DATABASE CONNECTIONS Monitoring and auditing database sessions provides valuable information on database activity and is the only way to identify certain types of attacks (for example. AUDIT_FILE_DEST defaults to $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit. login through sqlplus as SYSTEM and issue the following command: SQL> audit session. By auditing database sessions.ora. In addition. these changes may indicate inappropriate or malicious activity. For example. the database places audit records in directory /u01/logs/db/audit. When set to OS. AUDIT This section describes the auditing capabilities available in Oracle database for Oracle E-Business Suite. password guessing attacks on an application schema). 12 . OS or TRUE. AUDIT DATABASE SCHEMA CHANGES Audit any changes to the standard Oracle E-Business Suite database schemas or creation of new schemas. In this example. you should understand the implications of privileges on custom objects granted to PUBLIC or a role.

To audit the last three events. The name of the object that the user touched. packages. login through sqlplus as SYSTEM and issue the following commands: SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT AUDIT DATABASE LINK.) on a regular basis.Oracle Database Security To audit schema changes. alter system and system audit. Oracle E-Business Suite dynamically creates. enable three other audit events: create database link. 13 . ALTER ANY ROLE by ACCESS. SYSTEM GRANT by ACCESS. CREATE ROLE by ACCESS. Machine from which the user originated. review audit records stored in the file name in AUDIT_FILE_DEST. ALTER SYSTEM by ACCESS.AUD$ table. If AUDIT_TRAIL is set to DB. begin by focusing on the following: Username Terminal Timestamp Object Owner Object Name Oracle Username. -------------Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit Audit create or drop database links create or drop public database links statements themselves alter any role statements alter database statements alter system statements create role statements drop any role statements changes to profiles public synonyms statements SYSDBA privileges SYSOPER privileges System grant privileges AUDIT ADMINISTRATORS AND THEIR ACTIONS Connections to the database as well as SYSDBA and SYSOPER actions (instance startup/shutdown) are always logged to the directory $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit. This file contains the operating system user and terminal ID. ALTER DATABASE by ACCESS. etc. PUBLIC SYNONYM by ACCESS. SYSTEM AUDIT. Auditing these other actions provides little meaningful information. SYSDBA by ACCESS. The owner of the object that the user touched. AUDIT OTHER ACTIVITIES To complete the recommended auditing. DROP ANY ROLE by ACCESS. Time the action occurred. index. SYSOPER by ACCESS. REVIEW AUDIT RECORDS If AUDIT_TRAIL is set to OS. The contents can be viewed directly or via the following views: DBA_AUDIT_EXISTS DBA_AUDIT_OBJECT DBA_AUDIT_SESSION DBA_AUDIT_STATEMENT DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS DBA_PRIV_AUDIT_OPTS DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS The audit trail contains a lot of data. The remaining audit options generate significant entries of little value. PUBLIC DATABASE LINK. retrieve audit records from the SYS. alters and drops objects (tables. PROFILE by ACCESS. login through sqlplus as SYSTEM and issue the following command: SQL> audit user.

EXECUTE). Backup the audit file before purging. SECURE AUDIT RECORDS Audit data may contain confidential or privacy related data. DELETE. at least every 90 days. MAINTAIN AUDIT RECORDS Archive and purge the audit trail on a regular basis. Restrict audit trail access appropriately. SELECT. UPDATE. 14 .Oracle Database Security Action Name The action that occurred against the object (INSERT. The database connection entries take up significant space.

conf TURN OFF DIRECTORY INDEXING There are two goals when protecting a web server: Reduce the amount of information available.conf configuration files and comment out the following line: # IndexOptions FancyIndexing 15 .conf and ${IAS_ORACLE_HOME}/Apache/ Apache/conf/httpd_pls. remove or comment out references to documentation directories and other directives not needed to operate the application. turn off the banner in httpd. REMOVE APPLICATION SERVER BANNER To avoid exposing Apache version and enabled modules. HARDENING HARDEN OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Follow the hardening instructions for “Operating Environment Security” on page 31. In addition to any example or sample directories.htm or similar file available. use the following guidelines to remove unnecessary Apache directives. Disabling this entry prevents an intruder from viewing the files in a directory. Reduce access to non-application related areas.conf: Set ServerSignature off Set ServerTokens Prod REMOVE UNNECESSARY DIRECTIVES If not using Autoconfig. The quickest way to disable this feature is to modify ${IAS_ORACLE_HOME}/Apache/Apache/conf/httpd. Comment following in httpd.Oracle Application Tier Security Oracle Application Tier Security APPLICATION TIER Apache OC4J ORACLE HOME iAS This section contains security recommendations for the Application Server. Directory indexes display the contents of a directory if there is not an index. potentially finding a file that may be of use in their quest to access the system.

These pages offer information about various services.conf file. PROTECT ADMINISTRATIVE WEB PAGES Use the configuration file httpd.conf to limit web page access to a list of trusted hosts. create a file trusted. the server’s state and its configuration. it is not required by Release 12. Replace “uri-to-protect” with the path of the page you wish to protect Replace <list of TRUSTED IPs> with host machines from which administrators may connect. AUTHORIZATION Within Oracle Application Server.allow Deny from all </Location> Or better yet .conf. <Location "uri-to-protect"> Order deny. enable robot exclusion. comment these lines as follows.conf to prevent access fast-cgi test pages: <Location ~ "^/fcgi-bin/echo. #LoadModule autoindex_module libexec/mod_autoindex.c PREVENT SEARCH ENGINE INDEXING For internet facing web servers.txt file or using a META tag.html for more information. 16 .*$"> Order deny. To disable the module in httpd. as is done by default. See http://www. To do this.unconfigure fast-cgi. a number of web pages provide administrative and testing functionality.Oracle Application Tier Security UNLOAD APACHE AUTOINDEX MODULE This module automatically generates directory indexes.allow Deny from all Allow from localhost <list of TRUSTED IPs> </Location> DISABLE TEST PAGES Add the following directives in httpd. AUDIT CONFIGURE LOGGING Oracle Application Server respects Apache’s logging parameters. While useful for debugging. these pages must be restricted or disabled in a production system.conf and include it in the httpd. This may be done either with a robots. When activated. the server logs data about all web access to the #AddModule This new file contains the following content.

HARDENING HARDEN OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Follow the hardening instructions for “Operating Environment Security” on page 31. use the following flag: adpatch flags=hidepw 17 . HTML_TOP. JAVA_TOP. PORTAL_TOP. STRIKE PASSWORDS FROM ADPATCH LOGS To stop adpatch from logging passwords. PRODUCT_TOPS ORACLE HOME Tools This section contains security recommendations for the Oracle E-Business Suite.E-Business Suite Security E-Business Suite Security APPLICATION TIER DATABASE TIER Apache OC4J Listener RDBMS ORACLE HOME iAS ORACLE HOME RDBMS Forms Discoverer TNS Listener Concurrent Manager Terminal Server APPL_TOP COMMON_TOP. JRE_TOP.

18 . This document describes the role of DMZs. A majority of the E-Business Suite architecture supports this through a three-tier architecture. SET TOOLS ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES Prevent forms users from using the enter-query feature on a production system. These keys are packaged in Certificates issued by a Certificate Authority (CA). USE TERMINAL SERVICES FOR CLIENT-SERVER PROGRAMS Deploy components requiring direct connection to the E-Business Suite database on servers rather than on enduser desktop machines. Citrix or Tarantella. external responsibilities. the workflow notification email bypasses the E-Business Suite sign-on process.2/forms/server/default. browser sessions connect to middle-tier servers running Oracle 10g Application Server. external web-tiers. refer to 376700. Set SEND_ACCESS_KEY to N to prevent inclusion of the key with the Notification Detail link.env Form Environment Variable FORMS_RESTRICT_ENTER_QUERY Value TRUE NETWORK USE SSL (HTTPS) BETWEEN BROWSER AND WEB SERVER Information sent over the network and across the Internet in clear text may be intercepted. USE EXTERNAL WEBTIER IF EXPOSING ANY PART OF EBS TO THE INTERNET If you expose any part of your EBS production system to the internet. email notifications contain an access key. If you have a well considered need to connect to the database directly from a desktop.1. you should consult MetaLink Note 380490. refer to Oracle Workflow Administrator's Guide. deploy a remote server environment based on Windows Server Terminal Services.1 for our best practice advice for deploying external EBS products to the internet. In Release 12 the forms parameters are set in the configuration file: /x/inst/apps/VIS12_dbs01/ora/10. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an encryption scheme that negotiates an exchange of encryption keys. For more information. The key allows the user to access the Notification Details web page directly without authenticating.E-Business Suite Security SET WORKFLOW NOTIFICATION MAILER SEND_ACCESS_KEY TO N When SEND_ACCESS_KEY is set to Y. URL firewall and reverse proxies in a secure external EBS deployment. an unauthenticated user who clicks on the notification link must sign on before accessing the Notification Details web page. When set to N.1 “Enabling SSL for Oracle Applications Release 12”. For information on setting up SSL with the Oracle E-Business Suite.

Required for Mobile Sales. Do not disable SYSADMIN or GUEST user accounts. AUTHENTICATION CHANGE PASSWORDS FOR SEEDED APPLICATION USER ACCOUNTS Oracle ships seeded user accounts with default passwords. The former isolates SQLNet access to the Terminal Server and the latter identifies the terminal server to applications. 19 .5.10 FND/AOL – Anonymous for non-logged users Routine maintenance via concurrent requests Mobile gateway related products Sales Application guest user AD FND/AOL: Concurrent Manager AD – Supports data from feeder system Guest application user iSupport Admin user iSupport Guest user iSupport Guest user Internet Expenses Admin AD iRecruitment Employee Guest Login iRecruitment External Guest Login Mobile Applications Admin Customer Care Admin for Oracle Provisioning OP (Process Manufacturing) Admin User FND/AOL Application Systems Admin AD – Application Implementation Wizard Gateway Change Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Disable Y Y Y Ya Yb Y Y Y N Yc Yc Yc Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y a. Required for Sales Application. some seeded accounts may be disabled. Change the default passwords immediately.E-Business Suite Security While deploying the required applications development and/or production runtime tools on Terminal Services. You disable an application user account by setting the END_DATE for the account. configure SQLNet Valid Node Checking and Application Server Security. c.9 to 11. These both prevent end-user desktops from connecting to the production database instance. Register the terminal server used to deploy the client/server components as a Managed SQLNet Access node.5. Further details are provided in section “Add IP restrictions or enable Valid Node Checking” on page 5 and “Activate Server Security” on page 20. b. Service. Account AME_INVALID_APPROVER ANONYMOUS APPSMGR ASGADM ASGUEST AUTOINSTALL CONCURRENT MANAGER FEEDER SYSTEM GUEST IBE_ADMIN IBE_GUEST IBEGUEST IEXADMIN INITIAL SETUP IRC_EMP_GUEST IRC_EXT_GUEST MOBILEADM OP_CUST_CARE_ADMIN OP_SYSADMIN STANDALONE BATCH PROCESS SYSADMIN WIZARD XML_USER Product / Purpose AME WF migration 11. Depending on product usage. and Mobile Core Gateway components. Required for iStore.

TIGHTEN LOGON AND SESSION PROFILE OPTIONS For local application users. CREATE SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES INSTEAD OF SHARED ACCOUNTS When users share one account. account lockout after too many failed logons and session inactivity timeout. 20 . Any program which makes a SQLNet connection to the Oracle Applications database needs to be trusted at some level. refer to Metalink Note 376811. the profile option settings below support strong passwords. To prevent this. ACTIVATE SERVER SECURITY Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 is deployed in a multi-tier configuration with one database server and many possible middle-tier application servers. Discoverer. This setting is affected by the autoconfig variable “s_appserverid_authentication”. With this change. CONFIGURE CONCURRENT MANAGER FOR SAFE AUTHENTICATION Concurrent Manager passes the APPS schema password to concurrent programs on the command line. Concurrent Manager leaves argument $1 blank. the system cannot identify which user performs a function. Setup Server Security The application server security feature is activated by default. Enter ENCRYPT in the Execution Options field of the Concurrent Programs window when defining a concurrent program using this executable. The application servers include Apache JSP/Servlet. The Server Security feature ensures that SQLNet connections originate from trusted machines. define the concurrent program executable as a HOST program in the Concurrent Program Executable form. Profile Option Name SIGNON_PASSWORD_LENGTH SIGNON_PASSWORD_HARD_TO_GUESS SIGNON_PASSWORD_NO_REUSE ICX_SESSION_TIMEOUT Recommendation 8 YES 180 30 CREATE NEW USER ACCOUNTS SAFELY Oracle User Management (UMX) provides a common user registration flow in which a user can enter a new password or select to have one generated randomly. while the system tracks individual user actions.E-Business Suite Security CONSIDER USING SINGLE-SIGN-ON Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 support integration with a Single Sign-On (SSO). For more information on Single Sign-On deployments. Forms. See UMX Documentation for more details. enter SECURE in the Execution Options field. the password may be intercepted. To prevent username/password from being passed. ENCRYPT signals Concurrent Manager to pass the username/password in the environment variable FCP_LOGIN. UMX uses workflow to drive the registration process once a request has been submitted.1 “Integrating Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 with Oracle Internet Directory and Oracle Single Sign-On”. Concurrent Manager does not pass the username/password to the program. preventing accountability. Users share the same functions or permission sets. Because some Operating Systems allow all machine users to read a program’s command line arguments.

Not recommended for production systems. Server and code IDs are not checked. OK for development systems without production data. Updating Server IDs jre oracle.E-Business Suite Security Application Server Security has three states: OFF Inactivates Server Security. Deleting Server IDs jre oracle.AdminAppServer apps/<apps-passwd> \ AUTHENTICATION ON DBC=<dbc file path> 21 .fnd.dbc file contains the Application Server’s apps/<apps-passwd> \ UPDATE DBC=<dbc file path> APPL_SERVER_ID Providing the APPL_SERVER_ID argument forces a new ID to be generated and added to the .fnd.fnd. Use the AdminAppServer utility to generate server IDs and register them with a database. Adding Server IDs Register application servers as trusted machines with a database Appropriate for machines completely under an administrator’s control.AdminAppServer apps/<apps-passwd> \ DELETE DBC=<dbc file path> Server Security Activation To activate basic server security from the command line (ON mode): jre oracle.dbc file: jre oracle. For details. The program adds them to the database automatically when the AdminAppServer is used to create a .dbc If the APPL_SERVER_ID argument is not provided.fnd. ON SECURE Recommended.AdminAppServer apps/<apps-passwd> \ ADD [SECURE_PATH=$FND_TOP/secure] \ DB_HOST=<database host> \ DB_PORT=<database port> \ DB_NAME=<database sid> See the section on Creating DBC files in Administering Oracle Applications Security in Release 11i for more details. Equivalent to OFF from a security file with the database automatically. see System Administrators Guide. AdminAppServer synchronizes the server IDs found in the . only registered application servers and trusted code modules may connect. Administering Server Security. Check Server Security Status Check the Server Security status using the STATUS command in the AdminAppServer utility before activating server security to ensure that all desired Application Servers have been registered. The .

Assign users only those responsibilities necessary for them to perform their Consider auditing the database tables listed there.apps.g. Through these forms users could alter security configuration (e.AdminAppServer apps/<apps-passwd> \ AUTHENTICATION OFF DBC=<dbc file path> AUTHORIZATION REVIEW GUEST USER RESPONSIBILITIES To represent an unauthenticated user session the E-Business Suite uses a guest account for certain applications (such as iStore).fnd. grant inappropriate privileges to themselves or to others). “Appendix A: Security Setup Forms” on page 43 contains a list of forms that allow security setup. regularly review this list of users. the SYSADMIN responsibility has broad administrative Consider auditing the database tables listed in the appendix.fnd. add code or otherwise affect executable code. Limit guest user responsibilities to those necessary for sign-on and guest access. For this reason. LIMIT ACCESS TO FORMS ALLOWING SQL ENTRY To improve flexibility. Review these responsibilities from time to time.E-Business Suite Security To activate full server security from the command line (SECURE mode): jre oracle. These forms are typically used during the initial setup of the system. “Appendix B: Security Setup Forms That Accept SQL Statement” on page 45 contains a list of Forms that allow the user to edit code. In addition to the generic SYSADMIN responsibility.apps. most products have their own administrative responsibility. REVIEW USERS WITH ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES In E-Business Suite. Define and assign appropriate responsibilities for end users that clearly reflect their line of duty.AdminAppServer apps/<apps-passwd> \ AUTHENTICATION SECURE DBC=<dbc file path> To deactivate server security from the command line (OFF mode): jre oracle. Profile Option AuditTrail:Activate Concurrent:Report Access Level FND:Diagnostics Sign-on:Notification Utilities:Diagnostics Yes User No Yes No Suggest 22 . In a production system access to these forms must be restricted. SET OTHER SECURITY RELATED PROFILE OPTIONS Refer to the table below and set the suggested values for the profile options. The Define User Form allows the System Administrator to review and modify guest user responsibilities. some forms allow users to enter SQL statements. LIMIT ACCESS TO SECURITY RELATED FORMS Some forms allow users to modify the E-Business Suite security setup. Restrict access to these forms by assigning the responsibility to a small group of users.

2 or 3. For example. administrators may wish to set the NODE_TRUST_LEVEL profile to some default level of trust at the site level.E-Business Suite Security RESTRICT RESPONSIBILITIES BY WEB SERVER TRUST LEVEL When web servers have been assigned a server trust level the system may restrict access to a responsibility based upon that trust level. This indicates that only Web servers with the same or greater ordinal trust level may access that responsibility. set the Application Server Trust Level profile option value for that responsibility to be the number 1. but they cannot update it. Lastly. the administrator sets the NODE_TRUST_LEVEL profile option. This option. the Web server is assumed to have a trust level of 1 (i. Normal web servers are those used by employees within a company’s intranet and requiring non-administrative responsibilities.Application Server Trust Level Responsibilities or applications with the specified level of trust can only be accessed by an application server with at least the same level of trust. A responsibility with Application Server Trust Level set to 2 (normal) would only be available if the Web server has its Server Trust Level set to either 1 (administrative) or 2 (normal). These have access to a small set of responsibilities. To restrict access to a responsibility. 2 or 3. Three trust levels are supported: 1. and of those responsibilities. are considered secure and have full application access with few limitations. external Typically. 23 . which can be accessed from that particular Web server. If no value is set for NODE_TRUST_LEVEL. Users can see this profile option. can be set to either 1.e. administrative 2. administrative web servers are used exclusively by system administrators. 2 means normal and 3 means external.. The number 1 means administrative. Restricting Access to a Responsibility When a user logs on to Oracle Applications via a Web server. normal 3. a responsibility with an Application Server Trust Level set to 1 (administrative) would only be available if the Web server has its Application Server Trust Level set to 1 (administrative). The system administrator access is described in the following table: Level Site Application Responsibility User Yes Yes Yes No Visible Allow Update Yes Yes Yes No The internal name for this profile option is APPL_SERVER_TRUST_LEVEL. customers or employees outside of a company’s firewall connect to external servers. as well. administrative). Profile Option . The system returns only responsibilities appropriate for the Web server Trust Level. a server-based profile option. To avoid having to set the NODE_TRUST_LEVEL for every single Web server. the system determines which responsibilities are valid for that user. Setting the Server Trust Level for a Server To assign a trust level to a Web server.

Properly configuring auditing and limiting auditing to appropriate tables should not have a measurable performance impact. Often. RETRIEVE AUDIT RECORDS USING REPORTS Oracle E-Business Suite ships standard reports to access signon. configuration steps and best practices for auditing. User. Profile Option Name SIGNONAUDIT:LEVEL Description Set at site-level to track actions starting when the user logs on. SET SIGN-ON AUDIT LEVEL The valid settings for the profile option SIGNONAUDIT:LEVEL are None. At this setting. Regarding Page Access Tracking.FND_LOGIN_RESP_FORMS. OAM provides a framework extensible for running custom OAM reports. refer to Oracle Applications System Administrator's Guide. It provides an explanation of the features available.1 for more detailed information about Page Access Tracking. form usage and concurrent request usage. Recommend Form MONITOR SYSTEM ACTIVITY WITH OAM Oracle Application Manager (OAM) provides screens for monitoring current and past system activity.FND_LOGINS. It tracks Web-based and Form-based accesses across technology stacks and correlates them for each user session. Signon Audit Concurrent Requests Signon Audit Forms Signon Audit Responsibilities Signon Audit Unsuccessful Logins Signon Audit Users 24 . users and responsibilities to audit. Responsibility and Form. In addition. it tracks Oracle Applications usage statistics non-intrusively and with negligible performance impact. responsibility selections and form accesses to APPLSYS. the system logs all user sign-ons. Monitoring features include current and historic user activity down to the page access level and current and historical Concurrent Manager activity. See Metalink Note 402116. APPLSYS.FND_LOGIN_RESPONSIBILITIES and APPLSYS. It also suggests which common application objects like foundation objects. Refer to the Oracle Applications System Administrator's Guide for more information. AUDIT This chapter describes how to configure and use Oracle E-Business Suite audit features.E-Business Suite Security References For more information on how to enable and use the above security features. E-Business Suite deployments do not take advantage of the auditing features due to the perceived complexity and performance issues. unsuccessful signon. At site level. respectively. See OAM documentation for complete product information. responsibility usage. set this profile option to Form to enable as much auditing as possible. Access these reports through the system administrator responsibility.

The current program purges all audit records older than a user supplied date. REVIEW DATA TRACKED (NO REPORTS AVAILABLE) Some data tracked by the system do not have associated reports.FND_LOGIN_RESP_FORMS APPLSYS. This concurrent program purges the following tables: FND_LOGIN_RESP_FORMS FND_LOGIN_RESPONSIBILITIES FND_LOGINS FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS Purge concurrent request data using the Purge Concurrent Request and/or Manager Data concurrent program.E-Business Suite Security RETRIEVE AUDIT RECORDS USING SQL The system stores end-user access data in the following tables. Develop SQL scripts to query these tables to generate reports. Periodically archive and truncate the FND_SIGNON_xxxx tables. Nevertheless.FND_LOGINS APPLSYS. retaining 30 to 90 days of records. database rows are updated with the creation and last update information. these audit records contain valuable information.ICX_FAILURES PURGE AUDIT RECORDS Purge end-user access data using the Purge Signon Audit Data concurrent program. Run this concurrent program at least once a week and retain 14 to 90 days of records. only the last update to record is saved.FND_LOGIN_RESPONSIBILITIES APPLSYS. Run this concurrent program between once a week and once a month. enable Oracle E-Business Suite Audit Trail. 25 . To save the entire history of a row. Who Columns For most E-Business Suite tables. APPLSYS. Note.FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS FND_CONCURRENT_REQUESTS ICX. The system stores this information in the following columns (known as “Who Columns”): Who Column Name CREATION_DATE CREATED_BY LAST_UPDATE_LOGIN LAST_UPDATE_DATE LAST_UPDATED_BY Description Date and Time row was created Oracle Applications user ID from FND_USER Login ID from FND_LOGINS Date and Time row as last updated Oracle Applications user ID from FND_USERS Join with FND_USERS and FND_LOGINS tables to identify the application user tracked in the audit record.

Both the FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS and ICX_FAILURES tables contain unsuccessful logins via the Personal Home Page (Self Service/Web Interface). The triggers store column changes in the shadow table -. Auditing database row changes is performance intensive. Audit Trails.FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS and ICX. ADVANCED AUDIT Oracle E-Business Suite implements its own auditing mechanisms. a concurrent program creates a shadow table and places triggers on the columns to be audited.a table whose name is the instance table’s name appended with _A. follow these steps: 1. run the AuditTrail Update Tables concurrent program.E-Business Suite Security Unsuccessful Logins The system automatically stores unsuccessful logon attempts in the APPLSYS.ICX_FAILURES tables. which activates auditing. In addition. it creates two views for each column with the names _AC# and _AV# where # is a sequential number. ALR_ALERTS FND_AUDIT_COLUMNS FND_AUDIT_GROUPS FND_AUDIT_SCHEMAS 26 . The ICX_FAILURES table holds more information than the FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS. This program creates triggers on each audited column in the original table. Plan and consult with a DBA before enabling Audit Trails. Set audit group to Enabled Requested 4. Failed Forms logins are logged only to the FND_UNSUCCESSFUL_LOGINS table. Auditing transactional data may cause significant performance degradation. CONFIGURING AUDIT TRAIL To enable Audit Trail. This functionality cannot be disabled. Run AuditTrail Update Tables to activate auditing GENERATE AND IDENTIFY AUDIT TRAIL OBJECTS To create the shadow tables as explained in the auditing section above. This feature keeps a complete history of changes made at a table and column level. Limit auditing to non-transactional data. Set System profile option AuditTrail: Activate to True 2. Navigate through Security -> AuditTrail -> Install to set schemas for auditing 3. Shadow Table Update Trigger Insert Trigger Delete Trigger Changes View Complete View = <table = <table = <table = <table = <table = <table name>_A name>_AU name>_AI name>_AD name>_AV# name>_AC# CHOOSE TABLES TO AUDIT Consider auditing some of the tables that control system security. Tables with more than a few changes an hour should not be considered for row level auditing. When initialized. Navigate through Security -> AuditTrail -> Groups to create audit groups and set tables to be audited. Navigate through Security -> AuditTrail -> Tables to set columns in tables to be audited 5.

Select the Security Audit group and set the group state to Enable. Run the Audit Trail Update Tables Report. 6. 7. 2. Select the Security Audit group and set the group state to Disable – Purge Table.1 – Troubleshooting (Audit Trail) Metalink Note 60828.1 – Understanding Data Auditing in Oracle Application Tables 27 .1 – Overview of Oracle Applications AuditTrails Metalink Note 69660. disable the Audit Trail. 5.E-Business Suite Security FND_AUDIT_TABLES FND_CONCURRENT_PROGRAMS FND_DATA_GROUPS FND_DATA_GROUP_UNITS FND_ENABLED_PLSQL FND_FLEX_VALIDATION FND_FORM FND_FORM_FUNCTIONS FND_GRANTS FND_MENUS FND_MENU_ENTIRES FND_ORACLE_USERID FND_PROFILE_OPTIONS FND_PROFILE_OPTION_VALUES FND_REQUEST_GROUPS FND_REQUEST_GROUP_UNITS FND_RESP_FUNCTIONS FND_USER_RESP_GROUPS RETRIEVE AUDIT RECORDS USING SQL Access Audit Trail records through SQL. Prior to purging. Use shadow tables and views for accessing the records. Purge the data from the shadow table. Oracle does not ship Audit Trail reports. Use the following procedure to purge audit data: 1. 3. As System Administrator. 4. PURGE AUDIT RECORDS Purge the audit trail information on a regular basis. Select Security -> Audit Trail -> Groups. Run the Audit Trail Update Tables Report REFERENCES ON E-BUSINESS SUITE AUDITING Oracle10gR2 Administrator’s Guide – Auditing Database Use Oracle Applications System Administrator’s Guide – User and Data Auditing Metalink Note 105624. select Security -> Audit Trail -> Groups.

E-Business Suite Security 28 .

Uncheck "forms" and "User names and passwords on forms".Desktop Security Desktop Security DESKTOP TIER Web Browser Forms applet. click the AutoComplete button. Navigate through Tools -> Internet Options -> Content 2. for privacy and security reasons this feature should be disabled.0“ for information about securing the desktop.0. Check browser for built-in safety features. Also. The user should never leave their workstation unattended while logged into the system because it makes the system accessible to others who may walk up to the computer. Although desirable for frequently accessed pages. From the Content tab. Users are recommended to use the password-locked screen savers feature on all PCs. 3. do not use the "remember password" function. Organizations should set a corporate policy for handling unattended PC sessions. Sun Java This section contains security recommendations for the Desktop. SET POLICY FOR UNATTENDED PC SESSIONS People may attempt to access unattended workstation while the user is still logged into the system. check Microsoft website for the latest browser security patches (http://www. 29 . change Internet Explorer’s autocomplete IE can automatically show previous values entered in the same form TURN OFF AUTOCOMPLETE IN INTERNET EXPLORER For kiosk machines. To turn OFF the Auto Complete feature: 1.1 “Recommended Browsers for Oracle Applications 12. HARDENING CONFIGURE BROWSER See Metalink Note 389422. this is a known security vulnerability. When using Internet Explorer: upgrade to at least Version 6. UPDATE BROWSER Update browser when new versions are released. they often include new security features.

Desktop Security 30 .

A typical mistake is to install the executables in user oracle’s directory but owned by root. The directory $ORACLE_HOME/bin contains Oracle executables. 4. Set all other directories in $ORACLE_HOME to 0750 or less. Check that the operating system user chosen as the owner of Oracle E-Business Suite owns all of the files in the $APPL_TOP directory. On windows systems. NTFS must be used. Review owners and groups when cloning a database. Ensure that the owner. the group and owner are for illustration only. The FAT/FAT32 file system provides no security.ora to 0644. use sudo to restrict access to executables. The following commands make this change. 2. HARDENING CLEANUP FILE OWNERSHIP AND ACCESS 1. Oracle recommends that the SUID and SGID bits to be removed from binaries shipped by Oracle. In general. Secure scripts containing usernames and passwords. Verify that set userid (SUID) and set group id (SGID) are not set on binaries.courtesan. 2. the correct group and owner should be substituted. Set file permissions for tnsnames. Protect the $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin directory including catalog. Warning: If Concurrent Manager runs on the Database tier and using the BEQ adapter to avoid TCP cost.Operating Environment Security Operating Environment Security The environment in which Oracle Applications run contributes to or detracts from overall system security. CLEANUP FILE PERMISSIONS Refer to the product installation documentation for the complete instructions on setting file permissions. Check that the operating system owner of these executables matches the operating system user under which the files have been installed. catproc. 7. Set file permissions for listener. Better yet. 31 .ora to 0600. the SUID and/or SGID bit must be set on the Oracle database executable in $ORACLE_HOME/bin. require that legitimate users connect to their own accounts and su to the Oracle account. Set the permissions on $ORACLE_HOME/bin to 0751 or less. Note. Prevent remote login to the Oracle (and root) accounts. This section contains security recommendations for tightening Oracle file system security along with more general advice for overall system hardening. 3. Find more information about sudo at http://www. 3.sql and backup scripts. this limits access to the Oracle user and its groups (probably DBA). and sqlnet. Instead. Note. $chgrp -R <dba> $ORACLE_HOME $chown -R <oracle> $ORACLE_HOME 5. This may also apply for any third party products running on the db tier. group and modes of the Oracle files created upon installation are set to allow minimum privilege. On Unix systems: 1.sql. 6.

NTP (Network Time Protocol) – for synchronizing the clock on the UNIX hosts to provide accurate audit records and simplify trouble-shooting. CRON – for operating system cleanup and log file rotation 3. A production Database does not require access to an X server. 1. FILTER IP PACKETS IP filtering helps to prevent unwanted access. 32 . 2. rlogin. If possible. Although not required by the E-Business Suite. This means that there is no requirement to install X on any of the EBS servers if a remote X Display can be provided during installation.sec to limit which hosts can connect to the local machine. Filtering out unused services at the firewall or router level stops infiltration attempts earlier in the process. rcp and ftp. use a firewall machine or router with firewalling capabilities. X Server a. create access control lists in /var/adm/inetd. It provides a point of resistance by protecting inside systems from external users. Do not assume that using Network Address Translation (NAT) substitutes for a firewall. On the internet or large network. This replaces telnet. 3. A firewall machine sits between the internet and the intranet or the intranet and the internal servers. typically notifications from the workflow system. Electronic Mail Applications may require access to a SMTP Mail Transfer Agent (SMTP MTA) typically sendmail or qmail on port 25/TCP. 2. Firewalls may be software or hardware based.conf. restrict access to the operating system users who absolutely need the printing facility from the shell. Monitoring agents – for monitoring operating system. turn off all RPC ports on the router. Unless running NFS between networks. Printers Applications may require access to printers – normally via the lpd interface on port 515/TCP. This is required for outbound emails. 4. b. Turn off unused services in /etc/inetd. restrict access to the operating system users who absolutely need the mail facility from the shell. A firewall machine can filter packets and/or be a proxy server. c. dedicate a machine to be the firewall. the following services may provide operational convenience: 1. rsh. For software solutions.Operating Environment Security LOCKDOWN OPERATING SYSTEM LIBRARIES AND PROGRAMS The database and applications require that the underlying operating system provide certain services. limit access to services users need and make those services as secure as possible. Remote Access Use secure shell (ssh) to access middle-tier and database hosts. opening only those ports known to be required. Oracle Installer requires access to the X server which in turn may require access to an X font server. Better yet. Application middle-tiers and web-tiers do not require an X server. database and application components for health and security NETWORK To secure the network. If possible. Disabling unused services reduces securing and monitoring work. implement a default OFF policy. On the host.

If not possible. ELIMINATE FTP CONNECTIONS Unless required. . never leave root shells unattended. change passwords from time to time. LIMIT ROOT ACCESS The fewer people with root access.). MONITOR FOR ATTACKS Consider installing an Intrusion Detection System (IDS). To ensure that the passwords are not guessable. Automatically disable accounts after several failed login attempts. use crack or john-the-ripper (password cracking tools) on a regular basis. In addition. Often. In addition. non-guessable password.equiv or . CONFIGURE ACCOUNTS SECURELY Make sure that all OS accounts have a non-guessable password. On the system side. Standard ftp sends passwords in clear text and. people use passwords associated with them: license plate numbers. at least restrict telnet to a limited number of machines (via tcpwrappers or host firewalls) and turn off root login (except console.rhosts. see “Limit root access” below). 33 . ELIMINATE TELNET CONNECTIONS Enforce the use of SSH (secure shell). Consider using one-time passwords such as skey. Add all networking patches. If telnet must be used. Consider using a cron job to automatically check and enforce this.rhost and .netrc file permissions are 600. only use fully qualified hostnames or IP addresses in system files (NFS. the easier it is to track changes. Always logout of root shells. use the scp or sftp programs that come with ssh. turn off source routing and filter packets originating outside the network that have source IP address from the inside network. AUTHENTICATION Good security requires secure accounts. only (specified in /etc/security). If possible. turn off this service.netrc files weaken security. For example. SSH provides encrypted traffic to prevent snooping. do not allow hosts.Operating Environment Security PREVENT SPOOFING To prevent hostname spoofing. for this reason. Limit root to console login. change the root password every three (3) months and whenever an administrator leaves company. The root password must be a strong. To implement password security on HP systems use HP's trusted system package via SAM (if NIS or NIS+ is not running). children's names or a hobby.equiv. should not be used. etc. A password tester may check for these. VERIFY NETWORK CONFIGURATION Use scanning tools to find common security violations. To copy files. hosts. Snort is a capable and free IDS system. verify that all .

lp. NEVER allow non-root write access to any directories in root's path. If possible. AUTHORIZATION SECURE NFS Only run NFS as needed.” in path. The root ‘.*’ files SHOULD have 700 or 600 permissions. Root should NEVER have “.Operating Environment Security Root.*’ files for security holes. apply latest patches. in some cases. Use setuid/setgid only where absolutely necessary. but often not practical. MANAGE USER ACCOUNTS Do not share user accounts. use limited access flags when possible (such as readonly or nosuid). system files/directories). uucp. do not create root's temporary files in publicly writable directories. Most other device files should be unreadable and unwritable by regular users. Require strong passwords and. SECURE OPERATING SYSTEM DEVICES Device files /dev/null. should have UID 0. Check root ‘. Disable login for well known accounts that do not need direct login access (bin. By using fully qualified hostnames. a restricted shell. SECURE FILE ACCESS Create minimal writable file systems (esp. only the named host may access the file system. /dev/tty and /dev/console should be world writable but NEVER executable. Continued maintenance tasks include: Install the latest software patches. daemon. To avoid trojan horse programs.delete or lock accounts no longer required. 34 . DO NOT ALLOW GUEST ACCOUNTS It is hard to imagine what kind of guests should have access to a production EBS system. For this reason do not allow guest access. A umask of 077 (rwx------) is best. When creating the /etc/exports file. Limit user file writes to their own directories and /tmp. MAINTENANCE Good security practice does not end after installation. adm). Install latest operating system patches. SECURE EXECUTABLES Always get programs from a known source. The minimal umask for root is 022 (rwxr-xr-x). Run security software and review output. Verify user accounts . Use a checksum to verify they have not been altered. always use full pathnames including aliases. Limit important file access to authorized personnel. Remove or disable user accounts upon termination. and only root. Add directories for specific groups. sys.

Install Tripwire to detect changes to files. Monitor log files including btmp. syslog. wtmp.Operating Environment Security Keep up to date on security issues by subscribing to security mailing lists. Also check the snort logs. etc. Test the system with tools like NESSUS (network security) and CRACK (password checker). Consider setting up automatic email or paging to warn system administrators of any suspicious behavior. 35 . Implement trusted file systems like NIS. NIS+ or others such as HP-UX trusted system. sulog. reading security news groups and following the latest security procedures.

Operating Environment Security 36 .

DETECT AND PREVENT DUPLICATE USER SESSIONS When properly patched and configured. public String getErrorStackApplicationName() This method returns the application short name for the aforementioned error message. The subscription calls a rule function that updates the ICX_SESSIONS table setting the DISABLED_FLAG='Y' for all other sessions for the user. this class must be loaded into the Application database using the loadjava command. Oracle Advanced Security provides the following features: Data Integrity: Prevents data modification during transmission.e. cost of defense and value of data protected. public String getErrorStackMessageName() This method returns the name of the message to display when the user's password is deemed invalid (i. and returns True or False. hosts and clients securely and provides single sign-on. indicating whether the user's password is valid or invalid. Authentication: Identifies users. CUSTOMIZE PASSWORD VALIDATION To customize password validation create a Java class that implements the oracle. 37 . program. ADVANCED SECURITY/NETWORKING OPTION (ASO/ANO) Oracle Advanced Security provides a single source of integration with network encryption and authentication solutions. Specifically. A subscription attached to this event may take some action including closing the old session under the same user name or sending an email notification to the administrator. This functionality is disabled by default. then the value of SIGNON_PASSWORD_CUSTOM must be "yourco. Note.PasswordValidation Java interface. respectively. 2. The next user action returns the browser to a login screen indicating the session is invalid.AppsPasswordValidation".AppsPasswordValidation. String password This method takes a username and open sessions. single sign-on services. the E-Business Suite raises a Workflow event when the same user has multiple. 3. and security protocols.. After writing the customized password but may not be appropriate for every deployment.fnd. If the name of the Java class is yourco. public boolean validate(String user. set profile option SIGNON_PASSWORD_CUSTOM to the full name of the class. or process receives appropriate object access privileges.Extras for Experts Extras for Experts Security policy must balance risk of attack. Data Privacy: Prevents data disclosure during transmission. User names appearing in the subscription's parameter list are excluded from this functionality. The interface requires three methods: 1. Patch 2128669 contains an example demonstrating how to write a custom event and/or additional subscriptions. The option protects against threats to the security of distributed environments. This section contains recommendations that improve security. the validate() method returns False). This renders the other sessions invalid.apps. Authorization: Ensure that a user.

Modify the EXTPROC specific entry in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames. 2.ora are set to 600. Oracle Demand Planning Express implementation. The external procedures are supposed to issue the commands to the Listener on a special IPC pipe named EXTPROC. do the following: a. b. 3. The following Oracle E-Business suite components use EXTPROC services: 1. this makes attacks more difficult. Before starting the Oracle Listener for PL/SQL EXTPROC. c. configure a TCP protocol address. 3.ora parameter file as (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PRTOCOL = IPC) (KEY = EXTPROC)) These external procedures operate by instructing the Listener to issue these operating system commands on their behalf. This functionality exploits the ability of the Listener to issue operating system commands. 6.ora to reflect the correct port for the new Oracle Listener. Copy the listener. This extends the functionality of PL/SQL to routines that can be written in C to perform complex calculations. such as mathematical modeling or files system interactions. Oracle Intermedia cartridges -. Although not foolproof. Change the password to a strong password for any privileged database account or an ordinary user given administrative privileges in the database that has the ability to add packages or libraries and access system 38 . Configure it to listen on another port number.. Enable Valid Node Checking and restrict access to those network clients requiring EXTPROC. Ensure that the file permissions on separate $TNS_ADMIN/listener. Configure the Oracle EXTPROC Listener with an IPC protocol address only. set the TNS_ADMIN environment variable (or Windows Registry parameter) to specify the directory in which the new configuration files for PL/SQL EXTPROC are stored.1 provides more information on using ASO/ANO to encrypt your Oracle E-Business Suite 11i network traffic. 5. To protect against some EXTPROC attack vectors: 1. If the Oracle Listener for PL/SQL EXTPROC has been configured with a TCP address. Give this user the operating system privilege to “Logon as a service.” 4. Remove EXTPROC specific entries from the Oracle Database Listener configuration files. If TCP connectivity is required. Because the Listener runs with the privilege of the operating system user. the TNS Listener receives service requests on TCP port 1521. Store this file in any directory other than the one in which the database listener.Extras for Experts Metalink Note 391248. but use a port other than the one the Oracle Listener for the database is using. the only limits on external procedures are the limits on what that account can do. Ensure that the Oracle Listener created for PL/SQL EXTPROC runs as an unprivileged operating system user (e. The specification exists in the listener.ora and sqlnet. Because it contains the password. one for the Oracle database and one for PL/SQL EXTPROC.ora file for this Oracle Listener. 2.g. Use a separate $TNS_ADMIN/sqlnet.ora files are located.ora with the configuration of the Oracle Listener for PL/SQL EXTPROC into this other directory as well. HARDENING EXTERNAL PROCEDURE (EXTPROC) SERVICES The Oracle database uses the external procedure service to call external C programs. “nobody” on Unix). Restrict access to the Oracle Listener for PL/SQL EXTPROC only.InterMedia needs to be installed with 11i. On Windows platforms. only the owner should read the file. CONFIGURE LISTENER ON A NON-DEFAULT TCP PORT By default. run the Oracle TNS Listener process as an unprivileged user and not as the Windows LOCAL SYSTEM user. Create two Oracle TNS Listeners. Oracle Email Center.

Replace the $ORACLE_SID with name of the Oracle database instance (SID). This may be useful for customizations that involve addition of new schemas or customized PL/SQL code to be called as an external procedure service. This step may not be applicable for default E-Business Suite implementations. the LISTENER NAME is VSEC1159_EXTPROC and ORACLE_SID is VSEC1159.Extras for Experts privileges in the database (such as CREATE ANY LIBRARY). extproc_connection_data = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC$ORACLE_SID)) ) (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=PLSExtProc) (PRESENTATION = RO) ) ) Example: EXTPROC Listener configured separately This example shows how to configure EXTPROC Listener services. VSEC1159_EXTPROC = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL= IPC)(KEY= EXTPROCVSEC1159)) 39 . $ORACLE_HOME with the value of ORACLE HOME directory for this Listener and $TNS_ADMIN with the directory location of the Listener parameter files. The parameters appear in $TNS_ADMIN/listener. EXTPROC LISTENER CONFIGURATION See below for the format of the dedicated EXTPROC Listener. In it.ora. $ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL= IPC)(KEY= EXTPROC$ORACLE_SID)) ) SID_LIST_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = (SID_LIST = (SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc) (ORACLE_HOME = $ORACLE_HOME) (PROGRAM = extproc) ) ) STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = 0 CONNECT_TIMEOUT_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = 10 TRACE_LEVEL_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = OFF LOG_DIRECTORY_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = $TNS_ADMIN LOG_FILE_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = $ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC TRACE_DIRECTORY_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = $TNS_ADMIN TRACE_FILE_$ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC = $ORACLE_SID_EXTPROC The configuration below should appear in $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames. Replace $ORACLE_SID with the name of the Oracle database instance (SID).ora.

2.0. create table quick ( quick_id constraint quick_pk text number primary key. 3. insert into quick ( quick_id. The EXTPROC Listener must be configured and working for InterMedia option to run.Extras for Experts ) SID_LIST_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = (SID_LIST = (SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc) (ORACLE_HOME = /u01/oracle/vsec1159db/9.5/network/admin LOG_FILE_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = VSEC1159_EXTPROC TRACE_DIRECTORY_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = /u01/oracle/vsec1159db/9.ora parameter that corresponds to EXTPROC Listener. Create a user to work with InterMedia Text: create user textuser identified by <password> \ default tablespace users temporary tablespace temp. text ) values ( 2. Connect as textuser and create required test objects: connect textuser/<password> drop table quick.0. 'The cat sat on the mat' ). Grant 'ctxapp' role to textuser: grant connect.0.5/network/admin TRACE_FILE_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = VSEC1159_EXTPROC Example: The tnsnames. extproc_connection_data = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROCVSEC1159)) ) (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=PLSExtProc) (PRESENTATION = RO) ) ) EXTPROC TESTING PROCEDURE This section explains a procedure to test if EXTPROC is enabled.2. text ) values ( 1. Do the following to test whether InterMedia is working: 1.2. insert into quick ( quick_id. ctxapp to textuser. resource.5) (PROGRAM = extproc) ) ) STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = 0 CONNECT_TIMEOUT_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = 10 TRACE_LEVEL_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = OFF LOG_DIRECTORY_VSEC1159_EXTPROC = /u01/oracle/vsec1159db/9.2. 'The quick brown fox jumps over 40 . varchar2(80) ).

col text format a45 col s format 999 select text. score(42) s from quick where contains ( text. Cleanup the test user (textuser) created during this test. 42 ) >= 0 order by s desc. the InterMedia option is enabled and the EXTPROC Listener is properly configured. 'dog'.context. 41 . create index quick_text on quick ( text ) indextype is ctxsys. text ) values ( 3. 'The dog barked like a dog' ). If the above query works without any error. insert into quick ( quick_id. commit.Extras for Experts the lazy dog' ).

Extras for Experts 42 .

user_id = fu.start_date and nvl(fu.grantee_key = wur.function_name = 'FND_FNDATDAG' and furg. wf_roles wr.Appendix A: Security Setup Forms Appendix A: Security Setup Forms Form Function FND_FNDATDAG FND_FNDATDAI FND_FNDATDAT FND_FNDFMFBF FND_FNDFMFUN FND_FNDMNMNU FND_FNDPOMPV FND_FNDRSGRP FND_FNDSCAUS FND_FNDSCPLS FND_FNDSCRSP XDP_FNDSCRSP Form Name FNDATDAG Audit Groups FNDATDAI Audit Installations FNDATDAT Audit Tables FNDFMFBF Forms FNDFMFUN Functions FNDMNMNU Menus FNDPOMPV Profile System Values FNDRSGRP Request Groups FNDSCAUS Users FNDSCPLS Web Enabled PL/SQL FNDSCRSP Responsibilities Table Name FND_AUDIT_GROUPS FND_AUDIT_SCHEMAS FND_AUDIT_TABLES FND_AUDIT_COLUMNS FND_FORM FND_FORM_FUNCTIONS FND_MENUS FND_MENU_ENTIRES FND_PROFILE_OPTION_VALUES FND_REQUEST_GROUPS FND_REQUEST_GROUP_UNITS FND_USER FND_USER_RESP_GROUPS FND_ENABLED_PLSQL FND_RESP_FUNCTIONS To find which users have a particular function (e. use the following from fnd_grants fg.role_name = wr. 'GROUP') and fg.responsibility_id and furg. sysdate+1) union select distinct incrns.g FND_FNDATDAG).menu_id and fcmf. fnd_form_functions fff where furg. fnd_compiled_menu_functions fcmf. fnd_form_functions fff.function_id = fff. fnd_responsibility fr.responsibility_id = fr.user_id and sysdate between fu. select fu. sysdate+1) and sysdate between fr. wf_user_roles wur.end_date.menu_id and fcmf. wf_users incrns where fg.function_id = fff.role_name and wur.orig_system 43 .application_id and fr.function_name = 'FND_FNDATDAG' and fg. fnd_compiled_menu_functions fcmf.user_name from fnd_user fu.function_id and fff.start_date and nvl(fr. fnd_user_resp_groups and wur.menu_id = fcmf.grant_flag = 'Y' and fcmf.function_id and fff.grantee_type in ('USER'.menu_id = fcmf.end_date.role_orig_system = wr. wf_users wu.responsibility_application_id = fr.

orig_system_id wur.user_orig_system_id = wu. sysdate-1) and nvl(wur. sysdate+1) sysdate between nvl(wur. sysdate-1) and nvl(incrns.orig_system_id wur. sysdate+1) and sysdate between nvl(wr.start_date.parent_orig_system wu.start_date.parent_orig_system_id incrns.user_name = wu. sysdate+1) and sysdate between nvl(wu.expiration_date.expiration_date.end_date.orig_system wur.start_date.start_date and nvl(fg.role_orig_system_id = wr. sysdate+1). sysdate-1) and nvl(wr.Appendix A: Security Setup Forms and and and and and and and and and wur. sysdate-1) and nvl(wu. sysdate+1) and sysdate between nvl(incrns.parent_orig_system = incrns. 44 .expiration_date.start_date.expiration_date.user_orig_system = wu.parent_orig_system_id = incrns. 'PER') sysdate between fg.orig_system in ('FND_USR'.


Appendix B: Security Setup Forms That Accept SQL Statement







Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite

Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite




Initial schema in any Oracle database. Owns the sql data dictionary. Initial DBA User. Used for database status monitoring. Demo account delivered with RDBMS. Single Sign On SDK.

Oracle Portal and Portal Single Sign On, v3.0.9 Oracle Portal and Portal Single Sign On, v3.0.9 InterMedia schema used by Online Help and CRM service products for indexing knowledge base data. Embedded Data Warehouse Metadata Repository Oracle Data Manager Initial, pre-authentication user with minimal privileges to assist with APPS (FND) user authentication. Contains shared APPS foundation objects. Runtime user for E-Business Suite. Owns all of the applications code in the database. Optional, additional APPS schemas for the (now obsolete) Multiple Reporting Currencies feature. Defaults to APPS_MRC, but country code suffixes may be used, e.g. APPS_UK, APPS_JP. Used by Oracle Applications Manager (OAM) to monitor patching. These schemas belong to individual APPS base products. By default the password is the same as the SCHEMA name. Changing the password for these schemas does not affect any configuration files.

5 5 5




5 6





Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite

In the table on the previous page, Type refers to the categories listed in “Change default installation passwords” on page 10. Change means we recommend changing the default password for the listed schemas. Managed means that FNDCPASS should be used to change the passwords of the listed schemas. Note, SQL*Plus provides two methods to change a schema’s password: ALTER USER and PASSWORD syntax. To simplify these instructions, we have used the ALTER USER syntax. However, PASSWORD is often mentioned as the preferred method for changing a schema’s password due to the lack of an echo back to the terminal. The syntax for changing a schema password from within SQL*Plus is:
SQL> password <account> Changing password for <account> New password: <new-password> Retype new password: <new-password>


SYS & SYSTEM Change the passwords for these schemas:
SQL> alter user SYSTEM identified by <NEW_SYSTEM_PASSWORD>; SQL> alter user SYS identified by <NEW_SYS_PASSWORD>;


DBSNMP The DBSNMP schema is used by Oracle Enterprise Manager (EM) for monitoring and management purposes. If you are not using EM with your Applications database, follow database instructions for managing this account. If you are using Enterprise Manager with your Applications database, you should change the password for the DBSNMP schema using sqlplus and (re-)configure EM accordingly. Instructions to do this are dependent on the version of Oracle Enterprise Manager in use. When using Oracle Enterprise Manager Intelligent Agent, please refer to the following section of the Oracle Intelligent Agent User's Guide for instructions as well as Metalink note 317409.1:

When using Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, please refer to the following section of the Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration document for instructions:


SCOTT & SSOSDK Change the password for SSOSDK:
SQL> alter user SYSTEM identified by <NEW_SSOSDK_PASSWORD>;

Lock the SCOTT schema:
SQL> alter user SCOTT account LOCK;


JUNK_PS, MDSYS, ODM_MTR, OLAPSYS, ORDPLUGINS, ORDSYS, OUTLN & OWAPUB Change the passwords for these schemas:
SQL> alter user <SCHEMA> identified by <NEW_PASSWORD_PER_SCHEMA>;


if you are not using any PORTAL30 integration.9 from E-Business Suite 11i. PORTAL30_SSO_PS account lock.0.0. PORTAL30_SSO_PS identified by <newpassword>.9 installation.0.9 from E-Business Suite 11i." CATEGORY 4 EDWREP & ODM Use FNDCPASS to change the password for these schemas: $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ORACLE <schema> <new_pwd> If not using Embedded Data Warehouse." For more information. run AutoConfig as documented in Oracle MetaLink Note 165195.9 with E-Business Suite 11i as documented in Oracle MetaLink Note 146469. PORTAL30_PUBLIC identified by <newpassword>. PORTAL30_PUBLIC. then log into SQL*Plus with administrative privileges and lock these schema: SQL> alter user PORTAL30 account lock. If you are not using Oracle Login Server and Portal 3.1.0. 49 . PORTAL30_SSO_PS & PORTAL30_SSO_PUBLIC and lock the PORTAL30_DEMO schema: SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> alter alter alter alter user user user user PORTAL30_DEMO account lock. Alternatively.1 "Using AutoConfig to Manage System Configurations with Oracle Applications 11i.Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite CATEGORY 3 PORTAL30_DEMO. PORTAL30_SSO_PUBLIC account lock.9 with E-Business Suite 11i as documented in OracleMetaLink Note 146469. PORTAL30_PUBLIC account lock.0. which describes the Portal 3. you may remove the PORTAL30% schemas by following instructions in OracleMetaLink Note 312349.9 with E-Business Suite 11i as documented in OracleMetaLink Note 146469.1." CATEGORY 4 PORTAL30 & PORTAL30_SSO If you are using Oracle Login Server and Portal 3.1. you should change the passwords for PORTAL30_PUBLIC. refer to ATG OracleMetaLink note 146469.1 "Remove Oracle Portal 3. you must use FNDCPASS to change the PORTAL30 and PORTAL30_SSO passwords $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ORACLE PORTAL30 <new_pwd> $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ORACLE PORTAL30_SSO <new_pwd> After you change the PORTAL30 and PORTAL30_SSO passwords.1.0.1. lock and expire EDWREP schema. If you are not using Oracle Login Server and Portal 3. if you are not using any PORTAL30 integration. then log into SQL*Plus with administrative privileges and lock these schema: SQL> SQL> SQL> SQL> alter alter alter alter user user user user PORTAL30_DEMO account lock.9 with E-Business Suite 11i as documented in Oracle MetaLink Note 146469. PORTAL30_SSO_PUBLIC identified by <newpassword>. you may remove the PORTAL30% schemas by following instructions in OracleMetaLink Note 312349.1 "Remove Oracle Portal 3. SQL> alter user PORTAL30_SSO account lock. Alternatively. PORTAL30_SSO_PS & PORTAL30_SSO_PUBLIC If you are using Oracle Login Server and Portal 3.0.

Although the default password for AD_MONITOR is 'lizard'. APPS and any additional APPS_mrc schemas share the same password. However.5. CATEGORY 6 ABM . the schema is created locked and expired. the CTXSYS schema can be expired and locked by : SQL> alter user CTXSYS password expire account lock. $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ALLORACLE <NEW_PWD> 50 . ccm.k. FNDCPASS allows a one-step. For E-Business Suite 11. FNDCPASS knows the password must be synchronized across these schemas. APPS & APPS_MRC APPLSYS. APPS is the shared runtime schema for all E-Business Suite products. The SQL script $AD_TOP/patch/115/sql/admonusr.. FND user). mass change of all these passwords. CTXSYS password should be changed to a secure value using FNDCPASS.sql creates AD_MONITOR. All application tier processes (apaches. ZX Change all of these product schema passwords.5 and prior versions.a. CATEGORY 5 AD_MONITOR Oracle Applications Manager uses this schema to monitor running patches. should you choose to change this password. APPS_MRC is an obsolete account. which includes running PL/SQL packages to verify the username/password combination and the privilege to record the success or failure of a login attempt. you must use FNDCPASS and run Autoconfig (or a manual procedure) to propagate the change to application tier configuration files. forms server) must be restarted following the password change and password propagation. Use a long (12 or more characters). FNDCPASS accepts a keyword ALLORACLE forcing a change of all managed schemas to the new password. although it may be used in older versions of E-Business Suite. $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> ORACLE APPLSYSPUB <new_pwd> All application tier processes (apaches) must be restarted following the password change and password propagation. CATEGORY 5 APPLSYS.Appendix C: Database Schemas Shipped with E-Business Suite CATEGORY 4 CTXSYS E-Business Suite uses the CTXSYS schema. secure password for these schemas. There is no need to change the password for APPLSYSPUB. CATEGORY 5 APPLSYSPUB APPLSYSPUB schema has sufficient privileges to perform the authentication of an Applications User (a. $ FNDCPASS APPS/<apps_pwd> 0 Y SYSTEM/<system_pwd> SYSTEM APPLSYS <new_pwd> After changing the shared password for these schemas you must run Autoconfig to propagate the changed passwords into the application server configuration files.

Processor java java Forms zone JVMs OA Core zone JVMs Web services zone JVMs Oracle Process Manager Forms Servera adapcctl. default in Release 12 is servlet mode 51 .RemoteCommand Fulfillment Server process a.Appendix D: Processes Used by E-Business Suite Appendix D: Processes Used by E-Business Suite Process Name tnslsnr httpd httpds java FNDLIBR FNDSM INVLIBR java java java opmn Description Applications RPC Listener process Apache Web Server Listener Script Concurrent Manager adcmctl.apps. The forms server (socket mode) is adopmnctl.jtf.

Appendix D: Processes Used by E-Business Suite 52 .

i.Appendix E: Ports Used by E-Business Suite Appendix E: Ports Used by E-Business Suite Variable Name s_dbport s_rpcport Description Port on the database server used by the Net8 Listener RPC port on the concurrent processing server that receives incoming Report Review Agent requests Port on the Forms server used by the Forms Listener MSCA Server Port Number MSCA Dispatcher Port Number Port on the webserver where http server listens for non-ssl requests Port on the webserver where http server listens for ssl requests Default Value Firewall Configuration Technology RDBMS Applications Component TNS Listener Concurrent processing Forms 1521 Port should be open on the second level firewall 1626 Internal application tiers assumed to be of same subnet. It is either s_webport or s_websslport 11000 6100 6200 6500 2300023004 2350023504 2400024004 2450024504 2150021504 2200022004 2250022504 2500025004 2000020004 Fusion Middleware Oracle HTTP Server s_jtfuf_port s_ons_localport s_ons_remoteport s_ons_requestport s_oacore_jms_portrange s_forms_jms_portrange s_home_jms_portrange s_oafm_jms_portrange s_oacore_ajp_portrange s_forms_ajp_portrange s_home_ajp_portrange s_oafm_ajp_portrange s_oacore_rmi_portrange Applications Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware JTF Oracle HTTP Server Oracle HTTP Server Oracle HTTP Server oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j oc4j 53 .e. no firewall s_formsporta 9000 Port should be open on the first level firewall if forms server is used 10200 10300 80 Port should be open on the first level firewall 443 Port should be open on the first level firewall Forms 10 s_mwaPortNo s_mwaDispatcherPort s_webport s_webssl_port Applications Applications Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Mobile Mobile Oracle HTTP Server Oracle HTTP Server s_active_webport Value of this variable is set to value of s_webport when Listener is configured in non-ssl mode and to the value of s_webssl_port when ssl is configured JTF fulfilment server port Oracle Notification Service Oracle Notification Service Oracle Notification Service JMS for OACore zone JMS for Forms zone JMS for Home zone JMS for OAFM zone AJP for OACore zone AJP for OACore zone AJP for OACore zone AJP for OADFM zone RMI for OACore zone 80/443 This is not a separate port that we are opening.

54 .Appendix E: Ports Used by E-Business Suite s_forms_rmi_portrange s_home_rmi_portrange s_oafm_rmi_portrange RMI for Forms zone RMI for Home zone RMI for OAFM zone 2050020504 2100021004 2550025504 Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware Fusion Middleware oc4j oc4j oc4j a. default is servlet mode. Forms server (socket mode) is optional in Release 12.

Customer experience may vary. INSTALL THE LINUX OPERATION SYSTEM Use standard install of Operating System including developer tools and ssh.font-unix/fs7100 The only network accessible daemon running is the ssh daemon.0. only.networked daemons in particular. After the installation of the Operating System and EBS. and user secure shell (ssh) with th eX option to log in to each of the servers where you need to install EBS. 55 . Rapid Install will then use the X-Server on the admin workstation during the installation process. $ ssh -X oracle@dbs01 This will set the DISPLAY environment variable on the remote host (in this example the database host dbs01) to point back to the X-Server on the admin workstation. Copy the context file generated during the installation of the database onto each middle-tier and run the rapid installation via NFS from a shared staging area. Sendmail listens only on the localhost interface kept active for outbound mail.0:* LISTEN 902/sendmail: accep Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers) Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node PID/Program Path unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 1215 969/xfs /tmp/.0. Examples of outbound email include workflow generated messages and monitoring alerts. INSTALL E-BUSINESS SUITE Perform the EBS installation as a Rapid Install Vision multinode configuration with the functionality split onto separate hosts for database. $ $ $ $ $ $ chkconfig chkconfig chkconfig chkconfig chkconfig chkconfig --level --level --level --level --level --level 3 3 3 3 3 3 sgi_fam off xinetd off nfslock off portmap off gpm off atd off With these changes and a runlevel change to 3. netstat on the Linux box is very short: $ netstat –lptuxn Active Internet connections (only Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address tcp 0 0 0. When using the ssh trick.0.0:22 tcp 0 0 127.0:* LISTEN 846/sshd 0.0. perform the installation from an X11-capable admin workstation.Appendix F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier Appendix F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier This section contains an example of how we hardened an Application Tier running the Linux Operating System. We provide this for illustration purposes. Web Service and Concurrent Manager service.0. stop (and disable) unnecessary daemons .0. CONFIGURE THE X SERVER To fulfill the requirement for an available X-server during installation you may use the one on the server itself or better yet.0.1:25 servers) Foreign Address State PID/Program name 0.0. the servers on which EBS is being installed does not have to run a local X-Server and can remain in runlevel 3.

1:25* 0..0.0:* 0.0.198. starting the EBS processes will open additional.0:* 0.0.0. Local Address 0.0:22 127.0:* State LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN PID/Program name 23574/tnslsnr 27358/opmn 27358/opmn 27358/opmn 27358/opmn 23391/httpd 23391/httpd 23408/java 23409/java Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers) Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node PID/Program name unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 1236 unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 3360927 23574/tnslsnr Path /tmp/.0:* 0.0.0:* 0.0.26:17060 Foreign Address* 0.0.26:16060 127.0.0:4443 0.0.1:6100 152.1:6500 152. application specific ports on the various tiers.0:* 0.0:8000 152.0. WEB-TIER OPEN PORTS $ netstat –lptuxn Proto Recv-Q Send-Q tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 . F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier Running processes include: UID root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root root xfs root root root root root root PID 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 1 2 3 4 5 15 23 150 151 152 153 154 659 664 846 1034 1035 1090 902 921 969 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 PPID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 846 1034 1035 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 STIME 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:02 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:04 18:04 18:05 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 18:03 TTY ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? pts/0 pts/0 ? ? ? tty1 tty2 tty3 tty4 tty5 tty6 TIME 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:04 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 00:00:00 CMD [kupdated] [bdflush] [krefilld] [kreclaimd] [kswapd] [ksoftirqd_CPU3] [ksoftirqd_CPU2] [ksoftirqd_CPU1] [ksoftirqd_CPU0] init [keventd] [keventd] [keventd] [keventd] [mdrecoveryd] [kjournald] [kjournald] [kjournald] [kjournald] [kjournald] [kjournald] syslogd -m 0 klogd -2 /usr/sbin/sshd /usr/sbin/sshd -bash ps -eHf sendmail: accepting connections crond xfs -droppriv -daemon /sbin/mingetty tty1 /sbin/mingetty tty2 /sbin/mingetty tty3 /sbin/mingetty tty4 /sbin/mingetty tty5 /sbin/mingetty tty6 The above port and process views is of a host without the EBS processes running.0.1 56 .* 0.26:6500* 0.0.font-unix/fs7100 /var/tmp/.26:6200 127.68.0:* 0.

0:22 F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier CONCURRENT MANAGER TIER OPEN PORTS Open the following ports for the Concurrent Manager and Report tier components: $ netstat -ltuxpn Proto Recv-Q Send-Q tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 tcp 0 0 Local Address 0.1:25 0.0:1632 Foreign Address 57 .0.0:* 0.font-unix/fs7100 /var/tmp/.0:* State LISTEN LISTEN LISTEN PID/Program name 1129/tnslsnr Active UNIX domain sockets (only servers) Proto RefCnt Flags Type State I-Node unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 1215 unix 2 [ ACC ] STREAM LISTENING 313930 PID/Program name 1129/tnslsnr Path /tmp/.* 0.

Appendix F: Sample Linux Hardening of the Application Tier 58 .

1 391248. Marlene L.1 376811. Aaron Newman “Hackproofing Oracle Application Server (A Guide to Securing Oracle 9)”.1 361482. Integrigy Corporation “Oracle Applications 11i Security Quick Reference”.1 Document The Center for Information Security: Oracle Benchmark Tools “Effective Oracle Database 10g Security by Design”. Next Generation Security Software.1 189367. Integrigy Corporation “Oracle Security Handbook : Implement a Sound Security Plan in Your Oracle Environment”. Theriault. David Knox “Guide to Auditing in Oracle Applications”.Step by Step”. DocID CIS DK IntA IntB MTAN NGSS PF MetaLink 403537. Ltd. Pete Finnigan Document Best Practices for Securing Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 (this document) Best Practices for Securing Oracle E-Business Suite (11i version of this document) Oracle Default Password Scanner (scan for open schema accounts) Oracle E-Business Suite R12 Configuration in a DMZ (external deployment) Encrypting EBS 11i Network Traffic using Advanced Security Option / Advanced Networking Option Integrating Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 with Oracle Internet Directory and Oracle Single Sign-On 59 .Appendix G: References & More Resources Appendix G: References & More Resources The table below contains references consulted in the preparation of this document as well as other resource material useful for securing E-Business Suite. “Oracle Security .1 380490.

Appendix G: References & More Resources 60 .

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