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Although the concept was new in name. 1956. and its support for Sukarno's Guided . he sought to rescue the fragile unity of the archipelago.t]  Sukarno had long been impatient with party politics and suggested in a speech on October 28. The year witnessed the move of the PKI to the center of the political stage. that they be discarded. Soon after. In the first years of independence. But on March 14. and Masyumi--although Masyumi defeated the PKI narrowly in Jawa Timur Province. its various themes had been part of the president's thinking since before the war. In provincial elections held in July 1957 in Jawa Barat and Jawa Tengah provinces. In an unstable and ultimately catastrophic coalition with the army and the PKI. the PKI won 34 percent of the vote. 1957. his freedom of action had been limited by parliamentary institutions. he introduced the concept of Guided Democracy. Nahdatul Ulama. the liberal phase of Indonesian history was brought to an end with Sukarno's proclamation of martial law. the popular appeal of its demand for land reform. The PKI's success was attributable to superior grass-roots organization. ahead of the other major parties--the PNI.

two days later. Five days later. and Colonel Ibnu Sutowo. On February 10. This action marked the beginning of the armed forces' role in the economy. was shot down over Ambon on May 18. was seized and. the firm implantation of central authority in the Outer Islands. was placed in charge of a new national oil company. and the eastern archipelago. PKI-controlled unions led a movement to nationalize Dutch- owned firms: on December 3. especially. which had been involved in economic affairs since the late 1940s. a group of Sumatran military officers. The PRRI revolt also soured Sukarno's relations with the United States. 1958. Permesta rebels in Sulawesi made common cause with them. There were several important consequences: the forced retirement of many officers from Sumatra and the eastern archipelago. On February 17. which controlled most of the archipelago's shipping. Control of the oil industry was seized by ABRI. Some 46. Nasution's deputy. decisive action by the military had neutralized it by mid1958 . He accused Washington of supplying the rebels with arms and angrily rejected a United States proposal that marines be landed in the Sumatra oil-producing region to protect American lives and property. Sukarno's ties with the PKI grew closer. Although the rebellion was not completely suppressed until 1961. when Sukarno was out of the country. Masyumi politicians." . On December 1. the Royal Packetship Company (KPM). making the officer corps proportionately more Javanese (and presumably more loyal to Sukarno). and Nasution ordered officers of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (ABRI). Royal Dutch Shell. the People's Republic of China. to take a role in managing nationalized firms. and the emergence of Nasution. As tensions between the republic and the Netherlands over West New Guinea grew. Sumatra.000 Dutch nationals were expelled from Indonesia. a role which grew substantially in later years. where Hatta was very popular. But the army's victory in suppressing regional rebellion caused Sukarno dismay.Democracy idea. Permina. To offset the military's power. 1958. as the most powerful military leader. 1957. and others sent an ultimatum to Jakarta demanding Sukarno's return to a figurehead role as president and the formation of a new government under Hatta and Yogyakarta sultan Hamengkubuwona IX. Hatta's exit from the political scene did not improve the relations among the central government. The United States was providing clandestine aid to the rebels and Allen Pope. Mohammad Hatta had resigned as vice president in protest against Sukarno's growing authoritarianism. the group proclaimed the Revolutionary Government of the Indonesian Republic (PRRI). creating an international incident. promoted to lieutenant general. In July 1958. Deteriorating relations prompted Sukarno to develop closer relations with the Soviet Union and. an American B-25 pilot. 1956. Nasution suggested that the best way to achieve Guided Democracy was through reinstatement of the 1945 constitution with its strong "middle way.

As many as 25 percent of the seats were allocated for the PKI. 1959. Y . the House of People's Representatives-Mutual Self-help (DPR-GR.presidential system. which became known as Golkar. Masyumi and the PSI were declared illegal. the MPRS's enmity toward Sukarno. a reflection of their role in the PRRI insurrection. later. All were appointed rather than elected. and its refusal to recognize Guided Democracy. On July 5. simply DPR) was established. was established with communist leader Dipa Nusantara Aidit as deputy chairman. later. Sukarno issued a decree to this effect. the 616-member Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS. In March 1960. dissolving the old House of Representatives. This marked the formal establishment of the period of Guided Democracy which lasted six years. Another body. simply MPR). One hundred fifty-four of its 238 seats were given to representatives of "functional groups. a new legislature. In August 1960." including the military.