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Edition II

© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501-A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 866-880-1380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 1

T&D PowerSkills

General Guidelines for Students

This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.

**Recommended Sequence of Instruction
**

1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.

This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot

OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 2

**Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
**

NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):

VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew

Alternating Current Fundamentals

REQUIREMENTS

**SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
**

VG ACC NI NA

SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between in-phase and out-of-phase current flow …

SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….

SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems ………………………………………………..

______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 3

Performance Notes:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 4

1 5.2 1.4 5.1 3.2. Peak-to-Peak Values. 1. 4.2 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems Single-Phase Systems Three-Phase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 5 .1 2.1 4.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.1 5. 5. 2.3 4.1 1.3 3.2.2 4.2 5.3 2.2 2. 3.

Current. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified Single-Phase System Simplified Three-Phase System Simplified Three-Wire System Delta-Connected Three-Phase System Wye-Connected Three-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 6 Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 . and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage.

how it works. 1. In an AC circuit. lights. Alternating Current Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). In a DC circuit. peak-to-peak value. • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits. and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors.1 Current Flow and Polarity There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC).ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. current flows first in one direction. current flow is always in one direction. and principles associated with alternating current. and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is. • Define peak value. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. then flows in the opposite direction. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. concepts. and communications equipment. stops. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 7 . 1. Alternating Current OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current.

Simple DC Circuit Simple DC Circuit AC power sources. the current it produces always flows in the same direction. through the circuit. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 8 . one negative and one positive. to the positive terminal. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-1 shows a simple DC circuit. and all other DC power sources. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. When a power source has fixed polarity. The negative terminal in this. the direction of the current it produces also changes. do not have fixed polarity. Their polarity changes periodically. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity. on the other hand. Figure 1-1. Current flows from the negative terminal. As the polarity of the power source changes. The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. The current flow is always in this direction.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Their positions do not change. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal. The battery has two terminals.

(The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor. the lines are shown as straight lines. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes. Simplified AC Generator The magnetic field. is made up of a number of lines of flux.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Actually.) When the conductor turns. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y. they are curved. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 1-2. This generator produces voltage by means of induction. without the slip rings or brushes. Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator. and relative motion. This movement is illustrated in Figure 1-3. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 9 . Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor. a loop of wire is the conductor. Figure 1-2. In this generator. which shows an end view of the conductor. (For simplicity. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 2-1 shows a simplified AC generator. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. For ease of explanation.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. a magnetic field. they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates.

Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-3 Rotation of Conductor At zero degrees. so no voltage is induced. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90-degree point. while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction. As the conductor starts to rotate. so the induced voltage decreases. Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. so the induced voltage increases.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Now. voltage is being induced. As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 10 . As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. no voltage is induced. more and more flux lines are cut. the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees.

because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. the polarity changes. so maximum voltage is induced. At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. because no flux lines are being cut. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux.2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines. no voltage is induced. voltage begins decreasing. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 11 . determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced. at 360 degrees. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction. When the conductor completes its rotation. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. Alternating Current (continued) At 180 degrees. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. From 180 to 270 degrees. 1. or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor.

voltage decreases. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. At 270 degrees. so no voltage is induced. (On this graph. so no voltage is induced. voltage is again zero. more and more lines of flux are cut. Induced Voltage Graph At zero degrees. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive. voltage increases in the negative direction.) Figure 1-4. the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. At 180 degrees. it reaches its maximum negative direction. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees. At 270 degrees. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. no flux lines are being cut. voltage decreases again. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-4 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 1-3 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 12 . it reaches its maximum negative value. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines. so voltage increases. At 360 degrees. At this point. At 90 degrees. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative.

so no current flows. it is just a smooth rise and fall. both voltage and current are again zero. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. so no current can flow. Alternating Current (continued) The type of graph shown n Figure 1-4 is called a sinusoidal curve.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 1-4. voltage and current increase. In Figure 1-5. no voltage is induced. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. no voltage is induced. Voltage and Current Sine Waves When the conductor is at zero degrees. or a sine wave. as the conductor begins to rotate. the induced voltage would cause current to flow. reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 1-2 were part of a complete circuit. At 360 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 13 . voltage and current decrease. At 180 degrees. Figure 1-5. both voltage and current decrease. As rotation continues. Finally. a sine curve.

the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage). This relationship. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . Peak values and peak-to-peak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peak-to-peak value. What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment. and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. Peak AC values and peak-to-peak AC values are related as follows: Peak-to peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x . A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC. Sixty cycles per second can. 1. or 60 Hz.707 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 14 .707. Frequency is measured in units called hertz. Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. too. Peak-to-Peak Values. therefore. Alternating Current (continued) In this example. they discovered that one ampere. which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. In a typical AC power system. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there.707 amperes of direct current.3 Peak Values. RMS stands for root-mean-square. Most meters read RMS values. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. peak value. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values. In summary. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . effective values are use. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative. Most often. like direct current does. 60 cycles are completed every second. The formula itself is not important here.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. it completes a cycle. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency. be referred to as 60 hertz. all AC values are RMS (effective) values.

b. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically. ___________________________________ b. c. 1-4. ___________________________________ c. Circle the correct answer. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. a. The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________. 1-5. 1-6. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above True or False. Alternating Current (continued) Questions 1-1. List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 15 . a. When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. 1-2. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. ___________________________________ 1-3. d.

AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. in ohms. AC current. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow.14 f is the frequency. In DC circuits. It is measured in units called henrys. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance. like resistance. in henrys T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 16 . Inductance is covered i this section. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. is affected by additional factors. 2. The symbol for inductance is a capital L. The value of inductive reactance. however. Like DC current. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance. Differentiate between in-phase and our-of-phase currents and voltages. in hertz L is the inductance. Inductance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. limits current flow. which must be taken into account. capacitance is covered in Section 3.1 Inductance and Inductive Reactance Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. it is measured in ohms. Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. Since inductive reactance.

a magnetic field. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. When voltage is applied to a conductor. the process is called self-induction. because the field itself is moving. whenever there is a conductor. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage. This induced voltage is called counter voltage or. Counter electromotive force is caused by self-induction. as the magnetic field builds up. Inductance To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. counter electromotive force (CEMF). The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. it is first necessary t understand a process call self-induction. voltage is induced. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 17 . and relative motion. is counter electromotive force. which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. Figure 2-1 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Conductor While the magnetic field is building up. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. And. the induced voltage. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor. current starts to flow through the conductor. Since the current-carrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. as shown in Figure 2-1. more commonly. In this case. it limits current.

inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor. the self-induction is also opposite. the magnetic field also changes. it decreases until it reaches zero. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 18 . So. as the current again increases towards its peak value. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. Likewise. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit. Inductance After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. no self-induction. For example. When the magnetic field has collapsed completely. Then. 2. if current is trying to increase. the magnetic field again builds up. this time with the opposite polarity. if current is trying to decrease. The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance. Since the motion is opposite. there is no motion and therefore. Whenever there is a change in the current. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance.

Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 19 . In a coiled conductor. Figure 2-2. the higher the inductive reactance will be. The more turns there are in the coil. as shown in Figure 2-2. Inductance A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor. A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 20 .3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a current-limiting factor. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Since inductive reactance limits current. as shown in Figure 2-3. also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. 2. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit. Figure 2-3. Inductance The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant. The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current.

they are said to be in phase. always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time. current also increases. when voltage increases. Figure 2-4. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 21 . Inductance In purely resistive circuits. Since voltage and current stay together. Figure 2-4 shows in-phase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2.

The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. Actually. the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current. Therefore. However. Therefore. when voltage starts to increase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. because there is always some resistance in a circuit. Figure 2-5. When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. In a purely inductive circuit. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. Inductance Figure 2-5 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase. they are said to be out of phase. the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 22 . current does not change right away. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a current-limiting factor. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit In a purely inductive circuit.

a. they are said to be _______________. a. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit. 2-6 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2-2. it has the effect of increasing current. b. The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing. Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. No voltage is induced d. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. Circle the correct answer. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. 2-3 2-4 2-5 In a purely inductive circuit. Inductance Questions 2-1 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. 2-7 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 23 .

Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage. as will be explained in this section. in hertz C in the capacitance.14 f is the frequency. is measured in ohms. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. For example. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. in farads The effects of capacitance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. In fact. like the effects of inductance. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . The value of capacitive reactance. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. cause current and voltage to be out of phase. Capacitive reactance. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C where: π is the constant 3. The device used to do this is called a capacitor. However. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 24 . in ohms. like inductive reactance. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. Capacitance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. Name the basic components of a capacitor.

which is called a dielectric.333 (as of January. 2007) Selection and use of work practices. including air. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material. 3. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 25 . Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts. Figure 3-1 Simplified Capacitor Dialectric (insulating material) Conducting Plates OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. the two conductors act like capacitor plates. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 3-1. (a) General.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.1 Capacitance Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store energy. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. In fact. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are side-by-side for any significant distance.

the second plate becomes positively charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. This plate thus has an excess of electrons. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. as show in Figure 3-2. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source. Capacitance Before a capacitor can store energy. Since like charges repel each other. Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. it has to have energy supplied to it. The electrons stay on the negative plate. so it becomes negatively charged. Charging a Capacitor A/C Power Source Switch T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 26 . Therefore. Figure 3-2. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed.

the racks shall be bonded to ground. and the current stops flowing.269 (w) (as of February. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor. At this point. but opposite in polarity. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative. 2007) Special conditions. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. (ii) Before the units are handled. or simply. current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 27 . and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached. Since a difference in potential is voltage. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal. As the capacitor continues to be charged. and the flow of the capacitor. If the dielectric breaks down. In most cases. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. the capacitance. a difference in potential develops across it. and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. For any given voltage. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. When the peak voltage is reached. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks. (1) Capacitors. If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. short-circuited. 3. As a result.2 Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage When a capacitor is being charged. the capacitor is fully charged. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. they have the effect of canceling each other out. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor. the dielectric could break down. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate. (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized.

After the source voltage passes its peak. When the source voltage reaches zero again. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. After the source voltage reaches zero. the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction. so current is zero. When the source voltage reaches zero. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. When the source voltage reaches its peak value. the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. as the source voltage rises from zero. At the beginning of the cycle. The sine waves show in Figure 3-3 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. Current and voltage are out of phase. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. At this point. current is at its peak positive value. the opposing voltage is at its peak value. because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. and current flow is again zero. but with the opposite polarity. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). the capacitor again starts to discharge. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 28 . By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. but in the opposite direction.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. The capacitor is again being charged. During the whole cycle. the capacitor starts to discharge. Current now flows in the opposite direction. Capacitance When the source voltage passes its peak. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction.

current leads voltage by 90 degrees. In a purely capacitive circuit. Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit The sine waves shown in Figure 3-3 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 29 . changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Capacitance Figure 3-3.

3-3. True or False. Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________. c. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate 3-5. 3-4. 3-6. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase. Capacitance Questions 3-1.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. When a capacitor is fully charged. Circle the correct answer. b. it must first be ______________________. d. True or False. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. Before a capacitor can store energy. A dielectric in a capacitor: a. 3-7. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 30 . the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity. What is capacitive reactance? 3-2.

reactive power. 4. voltage. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. however. In AC circuits. In DC circuits. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). and resistance. and apparent power. Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance. and apparent power. current. so the only factors that affect DC power are current. The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase.1 True Power True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. inductance and capacitance must also be considered. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 31 . reactive power. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. AC Power OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power.) Figure 4-1 shows simplified voltage. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit.

is power that is returning to a power source from a load. AC Power Figure 4-1. true power. Sine Waves for Voltage. their product. Reactive Power Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit. 4-2. Since voltage and current are in phase. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive result-positive power. the. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 4-1 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. will always be positive. This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. Therefore. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source. Current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 32 . Unlike true power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Negative power. reactive power does no useful work. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time.

AC Power Figure 4-2 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. their product is positive power. current is still positive. so the product of voltage and current is negative power. During the second quarter of the cycle. When voltage and current are both negative. with current lagging behind voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 33 . voltage times current equals negative power. voltage is still positive. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. but current is now also positive. the result is positive power. Figure 4-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. in the final quarter of the cycle. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit. Sine Waves for Voltage. voltage is positive and current is negative. Current. When voltage becomes negative. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-2. at this point. Thus. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. current. Voltage and current are out of phase. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle.

as defined earlier. Current. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 4-2. power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 34 . The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. As was explained earlier. In a purely inductive circuit. Figure 4-3 shows voltage. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. In a purely inductive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Since no power is used to do work. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. is power returning to the power source from a load. Figure 4-3. In an inductive circuit. AC Power As defined earlier. there is no power that can be identified as true power. Sine Waves for Voltage. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. Negative power. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. current leads voltage. in a purely capacitive circuit. then. current.

Finally. so it is storing up power. an inductor. Apparent Power Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source. 4. it is returning power to the power source. a resistor. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. When power is negative. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit. when power is positive. which makes power positive again. because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits. apparent power and true power are the same. current is positive and voltage is negative. so it is reactive power rather than true power. is positive. both current and voltage are negative. power. During the third quarter of the cycle. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. so power is again negative. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work. the capacitor is discharging. both voltage and current are positive. so their product. current is negative and voltage is positive. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 35 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4.3. AC Power During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-3. The product cannot be reactive power. in the last quarter of the cycle. and a capacitor. In a purely capacitive circuit. In the second quarter of the cycle. so power is negative.) Figure 4-4 shows a circuit that includes a power source. the capacitor is charging. either. because thee is a resistor in the circuit. (In a purely resistive circuit.

the effects of resistance. Impedance can be calculated. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. inductance. In other words. In most cases. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. is called impedance. therefore. on power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 36 . AC Power Figure 4-4. In mathematical terms. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. Taken together. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor. the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor.4 Power Factor In a circuit like the one shown in figure 4-4. Circuit for Apparent Power 4. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel.

. Going to a load from a power source. True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. Positive power is power that is a. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . 4-6. 4-2. 4-8. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is . If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________. Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. (in. The combined effect of resistance. what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values. In most cased. Circle the correct answer. Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work. (does. out of) True or False. 4-4. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit. Questions: 4-1. calculate true power.8. does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. inductance.5 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 37 AC Power (continued) 4-3. True or False. Returning to a power source from a load c. 4-9. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d. 4-5. 4-7. b.

Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems Explain how a three-wire single-phase AC system supplies two different voltages. and a load. Simplified Single-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 38 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. A simplified single-phase system is illustrated in Figure 5-1. a voltage source. There are two common types of AC power systems: single-phase systems and threephase systems. which is represented by a resistor. Figure 5-1. Differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems. It consists of two wires. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems.

the voltage supplied has only one value. a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). Figure 5-2. and a load (indicated by the three resistors). Simplified Three-Phase System 5.1 Single-Phase Systems Single-phase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs. There are two basic types of single-phase systems: the two-wire system and the three-wire system. Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use. The three-wire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) A simplified three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-2. the three-wire system was developed. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 39 . In the two-wire system. This system consists of three wires.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5.

The. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts. two lines come into the transformer on the primary side.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this three-wire system. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) The component that changes a two-wire system into a three-wire system is a transformer. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 40 . if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded. As Figure 5-3 illustrates. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts. it has many applications for general electrical use. 5. Thus. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit. The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in three-phase systems are delta connections and wye connections.2 Three-Phase Systems Three-phase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used. Figure 5-3. in a three-wire system. Because the three-wire system provides more than one voltage. Simplified Three-Wire System One of the lines in a two-wire system and the neutral line in a three-wire system are usually grounded as a protective measure. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side.

Figure 5-4. but the phase current does not equal the line current. and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage.1 Delta Connections Figure 5-4 shows the wiring for a delta connection. so the phase currents add together to T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 41 . The current that flows through the wires is called line current. The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors.2. the three coils represent a three-phase transformer. However. Delta-Connected Three-Phase System The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires. or two resistors. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage. Therefore. are connected to one wire. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). the ends of two coils. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) 5. In a delta-connected system. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. the phase voltage equals the line voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 5-4 is connected across two wires. In this example. which are also delta-connected.

) In a wye connected system.73) times the phase current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) form the line current. EP is the phase voltage. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines. Wye Connected Three-Phase System. IL is the line current. multiplying the phase current time 1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 42 . Figure 5-5. Then.73 equals the line current.2.2 Wye Connections The wiring for a typical wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-5. one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors. EL is the line voltage. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection. and IP is the phase current. The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3 In these formulas. 5. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5.

Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 43 . Therefore. the phase voltage times 1. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage).73 equals the line voltage. In wye-connected systems. EP is the phase voltage. In a wye-connected system. the current in a wye-connected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. the phase current is equal to the line current. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line. The relationships between voltage and current in a wye-connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP In these formulas. EL is the line voltage. IL is the line current. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage. and IP is the phase current. However. As shown in Figure 5-4.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5.

In a delta-connected system. To calculate the line voltage of a wye-connected three-phase system. The middle line on the secondary side of a three-wire single-phase system is a. but phase current does not equal line current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 44 . phase current and line current are ______________. Circle the correct answer. The component that changes a two-wire single-phase system into a three-wire single phase system is a __________________. b. In a three-phase system. 5-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. multiply the phase voltage by __________________. 5-4. In a wye-connected three-phase system. (phase. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Questions: 5-1. phase voltage equals line voltage. c. 5-3. 5-5. line) True or False. d. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts. 5-6.

Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source. A connection used in three-phase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected end-to end so that they effectively form a triangle. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 45 Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection - Direct current (DC) Effective values - Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage - . The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. Current that always flows in the same direction. and then flows in the opposite direction. The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system. The combined effect of resistance. peak value.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) Glossary Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. Voltage times current in any circuit. of AC current produces the same heating effect as . and capacitance on current flow. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. measured in ohms. inductance. measured in ohms. also called RMS values. measured in henrys. stops.707 amperes of DC current. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere. measured in farads. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system.

The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a three-phase system. The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave.AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peak-to peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load. Phase current Phase voltage - T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 46 . The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a three-phase system. The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave.

2-4. 2-5. 1-4. Relative motion c True a. 1-5. Magnetic field c. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. 2-1. Polarity (These answers may be in any order. Conductor b. 2-6. 2-2. 1-6. 2-7.) a. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 47 . Coil the conductor b.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers 1-1. 1-2. 2-3.) a. b. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz 1-3.

4-4. 4-8.) a. 3-3. 4-6. 4-5. 4-7.200 watts 550 watts 4-1. 3-2.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 3-1. 3-4. 4-3. 3-6. Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 4-2. Voltage b. 3-7. Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 48 . 4-9. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. 3-5.

5-6. 5-2.73 Equal T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 49 . 5-3. Transformer a Phase True 1. 5-5.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 5-1. 5-4.

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