Alternating Current Fundamentals
Edition II
© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 8668801380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America
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General Guidelines for Students
This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.
Recommended Sequence of Instruction
1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.
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OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.
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Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):
VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew
Alternating Current Fundamentals
REQUIREMENTS
SUPERVISOR SIGNOFF
VG ACC NI NA
SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..
SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between inphase and outofphase current flow …
SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….
SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..
SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREEPHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between singlephase and threephase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between deltaconnected and wyeconnected threephase AC systems ………………………………………………..
______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date
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Performance Notes:
_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
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3 4.1 1.1 4. 4. 3. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems SinglePhase Systems ThreePhase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page
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. 2.4 5.2 4.2 2. 1.1 3.1 2. PeaktoPeak Values.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.1 5.3 3.2.1 5.3 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.2 4.2.2 5.2 1. 5.
and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified SinglePhase System Simplified ThreePhase System Simplified ThreeWire System DeltaConnected ThreePhase System WyeConnected ThreePhase System
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Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29
32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42
.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 11 12 13 14 15 21 22 23 24 25 31 32 33 41 42 43 44 51 52 53 54 55 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current.
lights. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. stops. and principles associated with alternating current. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. peaktopeak value. current flow is always in one direction. and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current.ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. concepts. • Define peak value. and communications equipment.1
Current Flow and Polarity
There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). current flows first in one direction.
1. how it works.
1.
Alternating Current
OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is. In an AC circuit.
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. Alternating Current
Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). In a DC circuit. and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors. then flows in the opposite direction. • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits.
The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. to the positive terminal. and all other DC power sources.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Figure 11. Their polarity changes periodically.
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. the current it produces always flows in the same direction. one negative and one positive. The current flow is always in this direction. through the circuit. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal. As the polarity of the power source changes. Simple DC Circuit
Simple DC Circuit
AC power sources. Alternating Current (continued)
Figure 11 shows a simple DC circuit. The negative terminal in this. Current flows from the negative terminal. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. When a power source has fixed polarity. do not have fixed polarity. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity. the direction of the current it produces also changes. Their positions do not change. The battery has two terminals. on the other hand.
Figure 12. This movement is illustrated in Figure 13. they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates.) When the conductor turns. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor. the lines are shown as straight lines. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 12. a magnetic field.
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. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y. without the slip rings or brushes. is made up of a number of lines of flux. This generator produces voltage by means of induction. (For simplicity. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. and relative motion. Alternating Current (continued)
Figure 21 shows a simplified AC generator. which shows an end view of the conductor. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. Actually. Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Simplified AC Generator
The magnetic field. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor. In this generator. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes. (The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure. a loop of wire is the conductor. they are curved. For ease of explanation. Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux.
voltage is being induced.
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. more and more flux lines are cut. Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90degree point. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 13 Rotation of Conductor
At zero degrees. Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. Now.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1.
As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. so no voltage is induced. the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines. the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. so the induced voltage increases. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. no voltage is induced. while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction.
As the conductor starts to rotate. As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. so the induced voltage decreases.
AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. so maximum voltage is induced. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees. determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines.2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor. at 360 degrees. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction. Alternating Current (continued)
At 180 degrees. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux. When the conductor completes its rotation.
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. From 180 to 270 degrees. the polarity changes.
1. because no flux lines are being cut. no voltage is induced. voltage begins decreasing.
(On this graph. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines. At 270 degrees. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. more and more lines of flux are cut. so voltage increases. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. At this point.) Figure 14. At 180 degrees. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive.
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. voltage decreases again. voltage increases in the negative direction. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. voltage decreases. At 270 degrees. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. At 90 degrees. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. so no voltage is induced. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. Induced Voltage Graph
At zero degrees. voltage is again zero. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees. At 360 degrees. so no voltage is induced. it reaches its maximum negative direction. no flux lines are being cut. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative. the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Alternating Current (continued)
Figure 14 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 13 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field. it reaches its maximum negative value.
Figure 15.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. both voltage and current are again zero. reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. voltage and current increase. no voltage is induced. At 180 degrees. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. a sine curve. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 12 were part of a complete circuit. so no current flows. so no current can flow. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. it is just a smooth rise and fall. Voltage and Current Sine Waves
When the conductor is at zero degrees. Finally. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. as the conductor begins to rotate. both voltage and current decrease. As rotation continues. In Figure 15.
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. or a sine wave. Alternating Current (continued)
The type of graph shown n Figure 14 is called a sinusoidal curve. voltage and current decrease. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. the induced voltage would cause current to flow. no voltage is induced. At 360 degrees. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 14.
Most often. Peak values and peaktopeak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . In summary. 60 cycles are completed every second. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values.707
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. all AC values are RMS (effective) values. effective values are use. In a typical AC power system. or 60 Hz. be referred to as 60 hertz. Most meters read RMS values. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees.707. Peak AC values and peaktopeak AC values are related as follows: Peakto peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x . RMS stands for rootmeansquare. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency. Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. too. peak value. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC. Sixty cycles per second can. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peaktopeak value.707 amperes of direct current. the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage). and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. This relationship. like direct current does. which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. PeaktoPeak Values. What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment. therefore. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there. 1. Frequency is measured in units called hertz. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1.3 Peak Values. they discovered that one ampere. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . it completes a cycle. The formula itself is not important here. Alternating Current (continued)
In this example.
When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. 15. a. a. ___________________________________ b. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above
True or False. List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. d. Alternating Current (continued)
Questions 11. ___________________________________ 13. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. 14. b. ___________________________________ c. 16. Circle the correct answer. 12. c. The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1.
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. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically.
Differentiate between inphase and ourofphase currents and voltages.AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance. in hertz L is the inductance. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow. in henrys
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. The symbol for inductance is a capital L. Inductance is covered i this section. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. capacitance is covered in Section 3.1
Inductance and Inductive Reactance
Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. Like DC current. The value of inductive reactance. it is measured in ohms. in ohms. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance. In DC circuits. Since inductive reactance.14 f is the frequency. which must be taken into account. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage.
Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. however.
2. AC current. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3. Inductance
OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. limits current flow. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL. It is measured in units called henrys. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. is affected by additional factors. like resistance.
current starts to flow through the conductor. Inductance
To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. is counter electromotive force. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor. This induced voltage is called counter voltage or. counter electromotive force (CEMF). more commonly. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. Figure 21 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor
Conductor
While the magnetic field is building up. the process is called selfinduction.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage. a magnetic field. Since the currentcarrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. In this case. as shown in Figure 21.
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. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value. and relative motion. it is first necessary t understand a process call selfinduction. voltage is induced. which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. whenever there is a conductor. as the magnetic field builds up. Counter electromotive force is caused by selfinduction. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. the induced voltage. it limits current. because the field itself is moving. And. When voltage is applied to a conductor.
2. inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor.
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. Inductance
After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value. there is no motion and therefore. the selfinduction is also opposite. Then. When the magnetic field has collapsed completely. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. if current is trying to increase. Whenever there is a change in the current. as the current again increases towards its peak value. So. The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. Likewise.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit. this time with the opposite polarity. the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. the magnetic field again builds up. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance. no selfinduction. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. it decreases until it reaches zero. the magnetic field also changes. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil. Since the motion is opposite. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. For example. if current is trying to decrease. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change.
the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. In a coiled conductor. Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor
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. A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes.
Figure 22. as shown in Figure 22. The more turns there are in the coil. Inductance
A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor. the higher the inductive reactance will be.
Figure 23. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant. as shown in Figure 23.
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. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current. Inductance
The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil
Since inductive reactance limits current. also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit. The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow. 2.3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage
The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a currentlimiting factor.
Figure 24.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. current also increases. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit
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. they are said to be in phase. always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time. when voltage increases. Figure 24 shows inphase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit. Since voltage and current stay together. Inductance
In purely resistive circuits.
the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current.
Figure 25. The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. when voltage starts to increase.
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. However. Inductance
Figure 25 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit. they are said to be out of phase. Actually. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit
In a purely inductive circuit. Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a currentlimiting factor. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. Therefore. Therefore. In a purely inductive circuit. current does not change right away. because there is always some resistance in a circuit.
The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2.
27
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. a. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing.
23
24
25
In a purely inductive circuit. 26 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________
22. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. b. it has the effect of increasing current. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. Inductance
Questions 21 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. Circle the correct answer. No voltage is induced d. a. they are said to be _______________.
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.14 f is the frequency. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. Name the basic components of a capacitor. when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . as will be explained in this section. Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.
Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance. The value of capacitive reactance. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. For example. like the effects of inductance. in hertz C in the capacitance. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C
where:
π is the constant 3. Capacitance
OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. The device used to do this is called a capacitor. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. cause current and voltage to be out of phase. like inductive reactance. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. Capacitive reactance. However. is measured in ohms. in ohms. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. In fact. in farads
The effects of capacitance.
which is called a dielectric.333 (as of January. 2007) Selection and use of work practices. (a) General. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material. A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 31. The specific safetyrelated work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are sidebyside for any significant distance. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other.1 Capacitance Capacitors
Capacitors are devices that store energy. the two conductors act like capacitor plates. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. 3.
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. In fact.
Figure 31 Simplified Capacitor
Dialectric
(insulating material)
Conducting Plates
OSHA Regulations SnapShot
1910. including air. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. Safetyrelated work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts.
This plate thus has an excess of electrons. electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. Figure 32. Since like charges repel each other. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. so it becomes negatively charged. Capacitance
Before a capacitor can store energy. as show in Figure 32. because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source. it has to have energy supplied to it. Charging a Capacitor
A/C Power Source
Switch
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. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. Therefore. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. The electrons stay on the negative plate. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed. the second plate becomes positively charged.
If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. For any given voltage. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. or simply.
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. the capacitance. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor. the dielectric could break down. As a result. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. When the peak voltage is reached. Since a difference in potential is voltage. and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be shortcircuited before it is considered deenergized.269 (w) (as of February. and the flow of the capacitor. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. the capacitor is fully charged.
3. As the capacitor continues to be charged. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate. but opposite in polarity. each unit in seriesparallel capacitor banks shall be shortcircuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. At this point. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. (ii) Before the units are handled. they have the effect of canceling each other out. In most cases. a difference in potential develops across it. Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative. the racks shall be bonded to ground.2
Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage
When a capacitor is being charged. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important. and the current stops flowing. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal. If the dielectric breaks down. and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. shortcircuited. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. (1) Capacitors. 2007) Special conditions. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor.
OSHA Regulations SnapShot
1910. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks.
as the source voltage rises from zero. Current and voltage are out of phase. By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. Capacitance
When the source voltage passes its peak. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. and current flow is again zero. the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction. the capacitor again starts to discharge. current is at its peak positive value. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. Current now flows in the opposite direction. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. When the source voltage reaches zero.
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. When the source voltage reaches its peak value. but in the opposite direction. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). the opposing voltage is at its peak value. the capacitor starts to discharge. After the source voltage passes its peak. At the beginning of the cycle. but with the opposite polarity. After the source voltage reaches zero. During the whole cycle. so current is zero. When the source voltage reaches zero again. The capacitor is again being charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. The sine waves show in Figure 33 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. At this point.
current leads voltage by 90 degrees.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage.
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. changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. In a purely capacitive circuit. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit
The sine waves shown in Figure 33 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. Capacitance Figure 33.
True or False. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage.
33. 36. A dielectric in a capacitor: a.
Before a capacitor can store energy. What is capacitive reactance?
32. c. b.
Notes:
_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
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.
Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase. When a capacitor is fully charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate
35. the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity.
37. Circle the correct answer. 34. it must first be ______________________. Capacitance Questions 31. d. True or False.
inductance and capacitance must also be considered. voltage. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. AC Power
OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power.1
True Power
True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. and apparent power. and resistance. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). and apparent power. reactive power. so the only factors that affect DC power are current.
In DC circuits.) Figure 41 shows simplified voltage.
4. current. there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase. In AC circuits.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. reactive power. however. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance.
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. The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power.
AC Power
Figure 41. will always be positive. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit
Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 41 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant. Sine Waves for Voltage. Therefore. the.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. true power. reactive power does no useful work. Negative power. is power that is returning to a power source from a load. Current. Unlike true power. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive resultpositive power. their product. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time. Reactive Power
Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit. 42. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source.
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. Since voltage and current are in phase.
current. voltage is still positive. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit. Figure 42. but current is now also positive. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. so the product of voltage and current is negative power. current is still positive. During the second quarter of the cycle. at this point. voltage is positive and current is negative.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. When voltage and current are both negative. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle. the result is positive power. voltage times current equals negative power. in the final quarter of the cycle. Current. Sine Waves for Voltage. When voltage becomes negative.
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. with current lagging behind voltage. Voltage and current are out of phase. Thus. their product is positive power. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit
In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 42. AC Power
Figure 42 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle.
there is no power that can be identified as true power. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 42. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. As was explained earlier. Sine Waves for Voltage. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. Since no power is used to do work. current. current leads voltage. as defined earlier. AC Power
As defined earlier. in a purely capacitive circuit. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. In a purely inductive circuit. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up. then. Current. Figure 43 shows voltage. In a purely inductive circuit. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit
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. Figure 43. In an inductive circuit. Negative power. is power returning to the power source from a load.
power.) Figure 44 shows a circuit that includes a power source. the capacitor is charging. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. so it is reactive power rather than true power. so power is again negative. in the last quarter of the cycle. both current and voltage are negative. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. it is returning power to the power source. In the second quarter of the cycle. Apparent Power
Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source. the capacitor is discharging. so it is storing up power. when power is positive. is positive. (In a purely resistive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The product cannot be reactive power.3. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit. apparent power and true power are the same. current is positive and voltage is negative. because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work.
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. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. which makes power positive again. Finally. so their product. because thee is a resistor in the circuit. so power is negative. When power is negative. and a capacitor. AC Power
During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 43. In a purely capacitive circuit. either. a resistor. both voltage and current are positive. current is negative and voltage is positive. During the third quarter of the cycle. an inductor. 4.
Impedance can be calculated.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF. the effects of resistance.4
Power Factor
In a circuit like the one shown in figure 44. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel.
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. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. on power. is called impedance. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor. In other words. In most cases. the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. inductance. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. In mathematical terms. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and. AC Power Figure 44. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. Taken together. therefore. Circuit for Apparent Power
4.
If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. True or False.
44. Going to a load from a power source. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________.
. (in. out of) True or False. does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase. 42. In most cased. (does. inductance.8. Returning to a power source from a load c. The combined effect of resistance. Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4.
47. Questions: 41. calculate true power.
49. b. True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . Circle the correct answer. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is . Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work.
45. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d.
48.5
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AC Power (continued)
43. Positive power is power that is a. what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values.
46.
AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. and a load. Figure 51. It consists of two wires.
There are two common types of AC power systems: singlephase systems and threephase systems. A simplified singlephase system is illustrated in Figure 51. Simplified SinglePhase System
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. Differentiate between deltaconnected and wyeconnected threephase AC systems. which is represented by a resistor. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between singlephase and threephase AC systems Explain how a threewire singlephase AC system supplies two different voltages. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems. a voltage source.
AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. There are two basic types of singlephase systems: the twowire system and the threewire system. Simplified ThreePhase System
5. The threewire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source. This system consists of three wires. a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). Figure 52. the voltage supplied has only one value. the threewire system was developed. In the twowire system.
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. and a load (indicated by the three resistors). SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued)
A simplified threephase system is shown in Figure 52. Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use.1 SinglePhase Systems Singlephase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs.
Thus. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit.2 ThreePhase Systems
Threephase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used.
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. Because the threewire system provides more than one voltage. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side. it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this threewire system. As Figure 53 illustrates.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts. 5. Simplified ThreeWire System
One of the lines in a twowire system and the neutral line in a threewire system are usually grounded as a protective measure. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued) The component that changes a twowire system into a threewire system is a transformer. Figure 53. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in threephase systems are delta connections and wye connections. it has many applications for general electrical use. two lines come into the transformer on the primary side. The. in a threewire system. The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded.
The current that flows through the wires is called line current.1 Delta Connections
Figure 54 shows the wiring for a delta connection. In this example. the three coils represent a threephase transformer. and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage.2. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 54 is connected across two wires. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage. the phase voltage equals the line voltage. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current. which are also deltaconnected. so the phase currents add together to
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. However. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). but the phase current does not equal the line current. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued) 5. the ends of two coils.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. In a deltaconnected system. are connected to one wire. or two resistors. Therefore. Figure 54. The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors. DeltaConnected ThreePhase System
The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires.
EP is the phase voltage. IL is the line current. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines. multiplying the phase current time 1. Figure 55. The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3
In these formulas. and IP is the phase current.73 equals the line current. EL is the line voltage. one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued) form the line current. Then.
5.) In a wye connected system. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection.2. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1.2
Wye Connections
The wiring for a typical wyeconnected threephase system is shown in Figure 55. Wye Connected ThreePhase System.
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.73) times the phase current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5.
In a wyeconnected system. the current in a wyeconnected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system.73 equals the line voltage. and IP is the phase current. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5. EL is the line voltage. The relationships between voltage and current in a wyeconnected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP
In these formulas. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage). In wyeconnected systems.
Notes:
_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
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. EP is the phase voltage. As shown in Figure 54. the phase voltage times 1. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. Therefore. However. the phase current is equal to the line current. IL is the line current.
To calculate the line voltage of a wyeconnected threephase system. In a wyeconnected threephase system. The component that changes a twowire singlephase system into a threewire single phase system is a __________________. b.
54. but phase current does not equal line current. SinglePhase and ThreePhase Systems (continued) Questions: 51. c. d.
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.
55. (phase. the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. The middle line on the secondary side of a threewire singlephase system is a. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts.
In a threephase system.
52. In a deltaconnected system. line) True or False.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. multiply the phase voltage by __________________. phase voltage equals line voltage. 53.
56. phase current and line current are ______________. Circle the correct answer.
measured in henrys. measured in farads. stops. and capacitance on current flow. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. peak value. Current that always flows in the same direction. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system. The combined effect of resistance. of AC current produces the same heating effect as . and then flows in the opposite direction. also called RMS values. The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance.707 amperes of DC current. The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system. A connection used in threephase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected endto end so that they effectively form a triangle. Voltage times current in any circuit. measured in ohms.
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Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection

Direct current (DC) Effective values

Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage

. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued)
Glossary
Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. measured in ohms. inductance. The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source.
The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a threephase system. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a threephase system.
Phase current Phase voltage

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. The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave.AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peakto peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load. The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave.
24. 27.
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. Magnetic field c. Relative motion c True a. 16.) a.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers
11. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz
13. 14.) a.
26.
Polarity (These answers may be in any order. 25. 23. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. Coil the conductor b. 12. 22. b. 21. 15. Conductor b.
43. 46. 36. 47. 49. 35. 32. 44.200 watts 550 watts
41. 45.
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. 37. Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 33. 34. 42. 48.) a. Voltage b.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 31. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order.
56. 53. Transformer a Phase True 1. 55.73 Equal
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.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 51. 54. 52.