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Edition II

© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501-A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 866-880-1380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 1

T&D PowerSkills

General Guidelines for Students

This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.

**Recommended Sequence of Instruction
**

1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.

This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot

OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.

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**Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
**

NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):

VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew

Alternating Current Fundamentals

REQUIREMENTS

**SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
**

VG ACC NI NA

SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between in-phase and out-of-phase current flow …

SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….

SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems ………………………………………………..

______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 3

Performance Notes:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.

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2 2. Peak-to-Peak Values.3 3. 2.2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.3 4.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.2 1.1 1.1 4. 3. 1. 5.4 5.2 5.1 3.3 2.1 2.1 5.2.1 5.2 4. 4.2 4. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems Single-Phase Systems Three-Phase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 5 .

and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. Current. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified Single-Phase System Simplified Three-Phase System Simplified Three-Wire System Delta-Connected Three-Phase System Wye-Connected Three-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 6 Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current.

1. concepts. stops.ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current. • Define peak value. how it works. In an AC circuit. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. current flows first in one direction. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 7 . • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits.1 Current Flow and Polarity There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). and principles associated with alternating current. current flow is always in one direction. 1. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. Alternating Current OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current. lights. In a DC circuit. and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors. and communications equipment. Alternating Current Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is. peak-to-peak value. then flows in the opposite direction.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 8 . the current it produces always flows in the same direction. one negative and one positive. do not have fixed polarity. The current flow is always in this direction. Their polarity changes periodically. through the circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. and all other DC power sources. Their positions do not change. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal. to the positive terminal. When a power source has fixed polarity. As the polarity of the power source changes. Simple DC Circuit Simple DC Circuit AC power sources. Current flows from the negative terminal. The battery has two terminals. Figure 1-1. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. on the other hand. the direction of the current it produces also changes. The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. The negative terminal in this. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-1 shows a simple DC circuit. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity.

(For simplicity. In this generator.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field. a loop of wire is the conductor.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux. Actually. and relative motion. which shows an end view of the conductor. Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator. they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates.) When the conductor turns. For ease of explanation. Simplified AC Generator The magnetic field. Figure 1-2. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. they are curved. This movement is illustrated in Figure 1-3. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 2-1 shows a simplified AC generator. the lines are shown as straight lines. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes. (The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 9 . Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. This generator produces voltage by means of induction. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. is made up of a number of lines of flux. without the slip rings or brushes. a magnetic field. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 1-2. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor.

Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. no voltage is induced. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-3 Rotation of Conductor At zero degrees. so the induced voltage increases. so no voltage is induced.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. As the conductor starts to rotate. the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 10 . Now. voltage is being induced. more and more flux lines are cut. while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction. As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. so the induced voltage decreases. Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90-degree point.

2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 11 . or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor. because no flux lines are being cut. because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees. no voltage is induced. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. at 360 degrees. determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. 1. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines. From 180 to 270 degrees. so maximum voltage is induced.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. the polarity changes. At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. When the conductor completes its rotation. Alternating Current (continued) At 180 degrees. voltage begins decreasing.

voltage increases in the negative direction. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. voltage is again zero. so voltage increases. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. At 360 degrees. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. it reaches its maximum negative direction. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. Induced Voltage Graph At zero degrees. so no voltage is induced. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-4 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 1-3 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. voltage decreases. At this point. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines. At 90 degrees.) Figure 1-4. no flux lines are being cut. At 270 degrees. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. more and more lines of flux are cut. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative. the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. (On this graph. At 180 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 12 . the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes. so no voltage is induced. it reaches its maximum negative value. voltage decreases again. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees. At 270 degrees.

reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. or a sine wave. Finally. As rotation continues. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 1-2 were part of a complete circuit. At 180 degrees. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. it is just a smooth rise and fall. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. no voltage is induced. the induced voltage would cause current to flow.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. a sine curve. At 360 degrees. both voltage and current are again zero. both voltage and current decrease. Alternating Current (continued) The type of graph shown n Figure 1-4 is called a sinusoidal curve. Figure 1-5. Voltage and Current Sine Waves When the conductor is at zero degrees. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 1-4. no voltage is induced. voltage and current increase. so no current flows. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. so no current can flow. voltage and current decrease. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 13 . as the conductor begins to rotate. In Figure 1-5.

Alternating Current (continued) In this example. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there.707 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 14 . like direct current does. What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . it completes a cycle. Peak AC values and peak-to-peak AC values are related as follows: Peak-to peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x .707. A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . Peak values and peak-to-peak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example. RMS stands for root-mean-square. the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage). Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. Peak-to-Peak Values. they discovered that one ampere. too.707 amperes of direct current. 1. all AC values are RMS (effective) values. be referred to as 60 hertz. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees. therefore. Most often. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values. Frequency is measured in units called hertz.3 Peak Values. In summary. 60 cycles are completed every second. In a typical AC power system. or 60 Hz. Sixty cycles per second can. peak value. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values. This relationship. The formula itself is not important here. which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. Most meters read RMS values. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. effective values are use. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peak-to-peak value. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency.

a. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above True or False. List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. 1-6. 1-4. The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________. c. ___________________________________ 1-3. When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. b. ___________________________________ b. Alternating Current (continued) Questions 1-1.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 15 . 1-2. d. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically. ___________________________________ c. a. 1-5. Circle the correct answer.

Inductance is covered i this section. in ohms. is affected by additional factors. 2. Like DC current. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow. Since inductive reactance. The symbol for inductance is a capital L. limits current flow. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3.1 Inductance and Inductive Reactance Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. it is measured in ohms. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage. It is measured in units called henrys. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. In DC circuits.14 f is the frequency.AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. in hertz L is the inductance. however. The value of inductive reactance. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. Inductance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. like resistance. AC current. which must be taken into account. Differentiate between in-phase and our-of-phase currents and voltages. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance. in henrys T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 16 . Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL. capacitance is covered in Section 3. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance.

it limits current. whenever there is a conductor. And. Counter electromotive force is caused by self-induction. voltage is induced. The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. This induced voltage is called counter voltage or.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. current starts to flow through the conductor. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage. as shown in Figure 2-1. the process is called self-induction. the induced voltage. Inductance To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value. When voltage is applied to a conductor. a magnetic field. Since the current-carrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. counter electromotive force (CEMF). Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. Figure 2-1 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Conductor While the magnetic field is building up. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor. more commonly. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 17 . In this case. it is first necessary t understand a process call self-induction. is counter electromotive force. because the field itself is moving. and relative motion. as the magnetic field builds up.

the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. it decreases until it reaches zero. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 18 . 2. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. if current is trying to decrease. as the current again increases towards its peak value. the magnetic field again builds up. the self-induction is also opposite. The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. Inductance After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value. the magnetic field also changes. inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. no self-induction. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance. this time with the opposite polarity. For example. When the magnetic field has collapsed completely. Likewise. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance. So. Since the motion is opposite. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil. there is no motion and therefore. Whenever there is a change in the current. The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. if current is trying to increase. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change. Then.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit.

Inductance A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor. as shown in Figure 2-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. The more turns there are in the coil. In a coiled conductor. A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes. Figure 2-2. the higher the inductive reactance will be. Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 19 . the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns.

and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current.3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a current-limiting factor. the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit. as shown in Figure 2-3. 2. Inductance The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 20 . The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Since inductive reactance limits current. Figure 2-3. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2.

current also increases. Since voltage and current stay together. Figure 2-4. they are said to be in phase. always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time. Inductance In purely resistive circuits. Figure 2-4 shows in-phase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit. when voltage increases. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 21 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2.

However. the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current. In a purely inductive circuit. A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a current-limiting factor. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit In a purely inductive circuit. because there is always some resistance in a circuit. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. they are said to be out of phase. when voltage starts to increase. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 22 . Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. current does not change right away. Inductance Figure 2-5 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. Therefore. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. Therefore. The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. Figure 2-5. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. Actually.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2.

a. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b. they are said to be _______________. Circle the correct answer. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. No voltage is induced d.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. b. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit. 2-7 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 23 . Inductance Questions 2-1 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. 2-6 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2-2. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. 2-3 2-4 2-5 In a purely inductive circuit. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing. The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c. a. it has the effect of increasing current. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False.

For example. In fact. The value of capacitive reactance. in ohms.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage. Capacitance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. is measured in ohms. as will be explained in this section. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. like the effects of inductance. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C where: π is the constant 3. However. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. The device used to do this is called a capacitor.14 f is the frequency. Capacitive reactance. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. like inductive reactance. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 24 . in hertz C in the capacitance. in farads The effects of capacitance. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. Name the basic components of a capacitor. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. cause current and voltage to be out of phase. the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance.

the two conductors act like capacitor plates. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. Figure 3-1 Simplified Capacitor Dialectric (insulating material) Conducting Plates OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. 3. including air.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.1 Capacitance Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store energy. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material. which is called a dielectric. A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 3-1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 25 . Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts. In fact. (a) General. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are side-by-side for any significant distance. 2007) Selection and use of work practices.333 (as of January.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Figure 3-2. Therefore. Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. it has to have energy supplied to it. Charging a Capacitor A/C Power Source Switch T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 26 . Since like charges repel each other. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. This plate thus has an excess of electrons. The electrons stay on the negative plate. so it becomes negatively charged. because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. as show in Figure 3-2. Capacitance Before a capacitor can store energy. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source. electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. the second plate becomes positively charged.

current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. As a result. the capacitor is fully charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. As the capacitor continues to be charged. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks. Since a difference in potential is voltage. the dielectric could break down. 2007) Special conditions. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. (1) Capacitors. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. and the flow of the capacitor. the racks shall be bonded to ground. If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative. At this point. they have the effect of canceling each other out. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 27 . and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate. In most cases. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. If the dielectric breaks down. and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. but opposite in polarity.269 (w) (as of February. a difference in potential develops across it. each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important. For any given voltage. When the peak voltage is reached.2 Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage When a capacitor is being charged. 3. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and. short-circuited. the capacitance. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. (ii) Before the units are handled. and the current stops flowing. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor. or simply. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal.

The capacitor is again being charged. At this point. During the whole cycle. as the source voltage rises from zero. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 28 . Capacitance When the source voltage passes its peak. and current flow is again zero. When the source voltage reaches zero. By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. After the source voltage passes its peak.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. When the source voltage reaches zero again. At the beginning of the cycle. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. Current and voltage are out of phase. the opposing voltage is at its peak value. current is at its peak positive value. the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. After the source voltage reaches zero. the capacitor again starts to discharge. the capacitor starts to discharge. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. but in the opposite direction. but with the opposite polarity. so current is zero. Current now flows in the opposite direction. The sine waves show in Figure 3-3 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. When the source voltage reaches its peak value.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. Capacitance Figure 3-3. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 29 . Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit The sine waves shown in Figure 3-3 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects. In a purely capacitive circuit. Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. current leads voltage by 90 degrees. Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage.

3-3. 3-4. Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________. 3-7. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 30 . Capacitance Questions 3-1. A dielectric in a capacitor: a. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. Circle the correct answer. b. the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity. True or False. it must first be ______________________. d. 3-6. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate 3-5. What is capacitive reactance? 3-2. Before a capacitor can store energy. When a capacitor is fully charged. True or False. c.

there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. so the only factors that affect DC power are current. and apparent power. and resistance. and apparent power. reactive power.1 True Power True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. inductance and capacitance must also be considered. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). In DC circuits. current. 4.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase. In AC circuits. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. AC Power OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power. voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 31 .) Figure 4-1 shows simplified voltage. reactive power. however. Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit.

their product. will always be positive. This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. Reactive Power Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. Sine Waves for Voltage. Since voltage and current are in phase. true power. is power that is returning to a power source from a load. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 32 . reactive power does no useful work. AC Power Figure 4-1. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source. the. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 4-1 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant. Unlike true power. Negative power. 4-2. Therefore. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive result-positive power. Current.

Current. Voltage and current are out of phase. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 33 . at this point. with current lagging behind voltage. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle. current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. Sine Waves for Voltage. voltage times current equals negative power. Thus. AC Power Figure 4-2 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. but current is now also positive. voltage is still positive. the result is positive power. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. When voltage and current are both negative. so the product of voltage and current is negative power. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle. in the final quarter of the cycle. When voltage becomes negative. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-2. their product is positive power. voltage is positive and current is negative. current is still positive. During the second quarter of the cycle. Figure 4-2. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit.

power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. In a purely inductive circuit. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. as defined earlier. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 4-2. In an inductive circuit. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power. As was explained earlier. Sine Waves for Voltage. current leads voltage. Figure 4-3 shows voltage. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 34 . is power returning to the power source from a load. Figure 4-3. current. Since no power is used to do work.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. AC Power As defined earlier. in a purely capacitive circuit. Negative power. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. Current. there is no power that can be identified as true power. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. In a purely inductive circuit. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. then. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up.

an inductor. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 35 . because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits. current is negative and voltage is positive. During the third quarter of the cycle. In a purely capacitive circuit. in the last quarter of the cycle. 4. and a capacitor. When power is negative. both voltage and current are positive. Finally. the capacitor is charging. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit.3. so their product. Apparent Power Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work. the capacitor is discharging. so it is storing up power. so it is reactive power rather than true power. so power is negative. so power is again negative. when power is positive. it is returning power to the power source. power. because thee is a resistor in the circuit. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. either. AC Power During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-3. which makes power positive again. a resistor. In the second quarter of the cycle. is positive. (In a purely resistive circuit.) Figure 4-4 shows a circuit that includes a power source. both current and voltage are negative. The product cannot be reactive power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. apparent power and true power are the same. current is positive and voltage is negative.

the effects of resistance. Circuit for Apparent Power 4. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF.4 Power Factor In a circuit like the one shown in figure 4-4. In most cases. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 36 . on power. Taken together. In mathematical terms. In other words. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Impedance can be calculated. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and. is called impedance. inductance. therefore. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. AC Power Figure 4-4. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor.

does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is . Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work. In most cased. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________. 4-9. True or False. out of) True or False. Circle the correct answer. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit. what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values. 4-6. calculate true power. The combined effect of resistance. Positive power is power that is a. Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. 4-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. inductance. If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. 4-4. (does. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . Questions: 4-1. b. 4-7.8. 4-5. True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. 4-8. Going to a load from a power source. Returning to a power source from a load c.5 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 37 AC Power (continued) 4-3. (in. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d. .

Simplified Single-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 38 . and a load.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. which is represented by a resistor. a voltage source. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems Explain how a three-wire single-phase AC system supplies two different voltages. Differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems. It consists of two wires. Figure 5-1. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems. A simplified single-phase system is illustrated in Figure 5-1. There are two common types of AC power systems: single-phase systems and threephase systems.

There are two basic types of single-phase systems: the two-wire system and the three-wire system.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. the three-wire system was developed. the voltage supplied has only one value. In the two-wire system. a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 39 . Figure 5-2. Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) A simplified three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-2. and a load (indicated by the three resistors). Simplified Three-Phase System 5.1 Single-Phase Systems Single-phase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs. This system consists of three wires. The three-wire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source.

it has many applications for general electrical use. in a three-wire system. As Figure 5-3 illustrates. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in three-phase systems are delta connections and wye connections. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side. if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded. it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this three-wire system. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts. Simplified Three-Wire System One of the lines in a two-wire system and the neutral line in a three-wire system are usually grounded as a protective measure. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) The component that changes a two-wire system into a three-wire system is a transformer. The. Thus. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 40 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Because the three-wire system provides more than one voltage. 5. two lines come into the transformer on the primary side. The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. Figure 5-3.2 Three-Phase Systems Three-phase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used.

and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage. the ends of two coils.2. In this example. or two resistors. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. Delta-Connected Three-Phase System The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires. In a delta-connected system.1 Delta Connections Figure 5-4 shows the wiring for a delta connection. but the phase current does not equal the line current. are connected to one wire. However. the phase voltage equals the line voltage. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 5-4 is connected across two wires.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) 5. Figure 5-4. Therefore. The current that flows through the wires is called line current. so the phase currents add together to T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 41 . the three coils represent a three-phase transformer. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). which are also delta-connected. The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage.

73) times the phase current.) In a wye connected system. EP is the phase voltage.2. 5. Wye Connected Three-Phase System. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines. The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3 In these formulas. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) form the line current. IL is the line current. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection. Figure 5-5. multiplying the phase current time 1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 42 . and IP is the phase current. one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors.2 Wye Connections The wiring for a typical wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-5. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1.73 equals the line current. EL is the line voltage. Then.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5.

73 equals the line voltage. The relationships between voltage and current in a wye-connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP In these formulas. and IP is the phase current. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage). As shown in Figure 5-4. In wye-connected systems. EL is the line voltage. the phase voltage times 1. EP is the phase voltage. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 43 . In a wye-connected system. the phase current is equal to the line current. Therefore. the current in a wye-connected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line. IL is the line current. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage. However.

The component that changes a two-wire single-phase system into a three-wire single phase system is a __________________. phase current and line current are ______________. 5-5. 5-6. b. d.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Circle the correct answer. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts. In a three-phase system. To calculate the line voltage of a wye-connected three-phase system. the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. (phase. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Questions: 5-1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 44 . c. but phase current does not equal line current. line) True or False. multiply the phase voltage by __________________. In a delta-connected system. In a wye-connected three-phase system. phase voltage equals line voltage. 5-2. 5-3. The middle line on the secondary side of a three-wire single-phase system is a. 5-4.

Voltage times current in any circuit. measured in ohms. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage.707 amperes of DC current. also called RMS values.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) Glossary Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. measured in ohms. of AC current produces the same heating effect as . The combined effect of resistance. and capacitance on current flow. measured in henrys. and then flows in the opposite direction. Current that always flows in the same direction. stops. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 45 Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection - Direct current (DC) Effective values - Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage - . The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. A connection used in three-phase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected end-to end so that they effectively form a triangle. The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source. The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system. peak value. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. inductance. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system. measured in farads.

AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peak-to peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load. Phase current Phase voltage - T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 46 . The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave. The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a three-phase system. The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a three-phase system.

1-4. 1-5. 1-6. Polarity (These answers may be in any order. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 47 . b.) a.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers 1-1. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. 2-7. 1-2. Relative motion c True a. 2-1. Conductor b. 2-2.) a. 2-4. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz 1-3. 2-5. 2-3. Coil the conductor b. Magnetic field c. 2-6.

3-3. 3-4. 4-6. 3-5. 4-8. 4-7.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 3-1.200 watts 550 watts 4-1. 4-4. 4-2. Voltage b. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 48 . Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 3-7. 3-6. Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order. 4-5. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance.) a. 3-2. 4-9. 4-3.

5-4. Transformer a Phase True 1. 5-3. 5-5. 5-6. 5-2.73 Equal T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 49 .AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 5-1.

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