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Edition II

© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501-A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 866-880-1380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 1

T&D PowerSkills

General Guidelines for Students

This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.

**Recommended Sequence of Instruction
**

1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.

This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot

OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 2

**Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
**

NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):

VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew

Alternating Current Fundamentals

REQUIREMENTS

**SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
**

VG ACC NI NA

SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between in-phase and out-of-phase current flow …

SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….

SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems ………………………………………………..

______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 3

Performance Notes:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 4

3 2.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.1 5.2 1. 4. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems Single-Phase Systems Three-Phase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 5 .1 4.1 1.2. 5.3 4.2 4. 2.4 5.1 2.1 3. 1. 3. Peak-to-Peak Values.2 2.2.1 5.2 4.TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.2 5.3 3.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified Single-Phase System Simplified Three-Phase System Simplified Three-Wire System Delta-Connected Three-Phase System Wye-Connected Three-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 6 Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 . Current. Current.

and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current.ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. concepts. how it works. 1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 7 . and principles associated with alternating current. 1. and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is.1 Current Flow and Polarity There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits. and communications equipment. In an AC circuit. current flow is always in one direction. lights. • Define peak value. In a DC circuit. peak-to-peak value. Alternating Current OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current. stops. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. current flows first in one direction. Alternating Current Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). then flows in the opposite direction.

When a power source has fixed polarity. to the positive terminal. the direction of the current it produces also changes. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 8 . do not have fixed polarity. on the other hand. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity. Simple DC Circuit Simple DC Circuit AC power sources. one negative and one positive. The battery has two terminals. The negative terminal in this. through the circuit. As the polarity of the power source changes. Figure 1-1. The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. Their positions do not change. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. the current it produces always flows in the same direction. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-1 shows a simple DC circuit. The current flow is always in this direction. and all other DC power sources. Current flows from the negative terminal. Their polarity changes periodically.

Alternating Current (continued) Figure 2-1 shows a simplified AC generator. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. a loop of wire is the conductor. without the slip rings or brushes. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux. they are curved. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 9 . In this generator. Actually. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor. Simplified AC Generator The magnetic field. a magnetic field. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor. which shows an end view of the conductor. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field. the lines are shown as straight lines. they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates. This generator produces voltage by means of induction.) When the conductor turns. For ease of explanation. (The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure. This movement is illustrated in Figure 1-3. (For simplicity.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. is made up of a number of lines of flux. and relative motion. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 1-2. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Figure 1-2. Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator.

while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. so the induced voltage decreases. voltage is being induced. the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. As the conductor starts to rotate. As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90-degree point. Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. Now. so no voltage is induced. so the induced voltage increases. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-3 Rotation of Conductor At zero degrees. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. more and more flux lines are cut. no voltage is induced. As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 10 . the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines.

1. From 180 to 270 degrees. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines. because no flux lines are being cut. At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor. so maximum voltage is induced. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 11 .2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. When the conductor completes its rotation. at 360 degrees. voltage begins decreasing. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. no voltage is induced. the polarity changes. Alternating Current (continued) At 180 degrees. determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced.

the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes. At 90 degrees. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. At this point. so voltage increases. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-4 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 1-3 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field. At 270 degrees. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines.) Figure 1-4.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. no flux lines are being cut. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. voltage is again zero. Induced Voltage Graph At zero degrees. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. At 180 degrees. At 360 degrees. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative. it reaches its maximum negative value. so no voltage is induced. At 270 degrees. more and more lines of flux are cut. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive. (On this graph. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 12 . voltage decreases again. it reaches its maximum negative direction. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. so no voltage is induced. voltage increases in the negative direction. voltage decreases. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage. the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value.

reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. Figure 1-5. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. Alternating Current (continued) The type of graph shown n Figure 1-4 is called a sinusoidal curve. it is just a smooth rise and fall. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. or a sine wave. so no current flows. no voltage is induced. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. both voltage and current decrease. At 180 degrees. Voltage and Current Sine Waves When the conductor is at zero degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 13 . Finally. a sine curve. voltage and current decrease.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. As rotation continues. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 1-2 were part of a complete circuit. the induced voltage would cause current to flow. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. voltage and current increase. In Figure 1-5. both voltage and current are again zero. At 360 degrees. as the conductor begins to rotate. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 1-4. no voltage is induced. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. so no current can flow.

effective values are use. Most meters read RMS values. In a typical AC power system. which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. Peak values and peak-to-peak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example.707 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 14 . they discovered that one ampere. Alternating Current (continued) In this example. A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC.707. too. 1. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peak-to-peak value. be referred to as 60 hertz.3 Peak Values.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. therefore. Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values. RMS stands for root-mean-square. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative. Frequency is measured in units called hertz. In summary. Sixty cycles per second can. all AC values are RMS (effective) values. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values. it completes a cycle. and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. like direct current does. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency. This relationship. Peak-to-Peak Values. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . The formula itself is not important here. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment.707 amperes of direct current. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. or 60 Hz. Most often. Peak AC values and peak-to-peak AC values are related as follows: Peak-to peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x . peak value. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there. 60 cycles are completed every second. the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage).

Circle the correct answer.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. 1-2. d. ___________________________________ c. 1-4. a. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above True or False. 1-5. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________. c. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically. b. ___________________________________ b. 1-6. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. ___________________________________ 1-3. Alternating Current (continued) Questions 1-1. When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. a. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 15 . The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________.

capacitance is covered in Section 3. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage. The value of inductive reactance.14 f is the frequency. Differentiate between in-phase and our-of-phase currents and voltages. It is measured in units called henrys. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL.1 Inductance and Inductive Reactance Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. 2. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance. Like DC current. like resistance. AC current. In DC circuits. limits current flow. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow. in hertz L is the inductance.AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. Inductance is covered i this section. The symbol for inductance is a capital L. in ohms. is affected by additional factors. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. in henrys T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 16 . Since inductive reactance. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance. however. which must be taken into account. Inductance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. it is measured in ohms.

Inductance To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. as the magnetic field builds up. is counter electromotive force. voltage is induced. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. it limits current. Figure 2-1 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Conductor While the magnetic field is building up. In this case. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor. Counter electromotive force is caused by self-induction. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value. a magnetic field. the induced voltage. more commonly. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. counter electromotive force (CEMF). because the field itself is moving. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 17 . it is first necessary t understand a process call self-induction.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. current starts to flow through the conductor. When voltage is applied to a conductor. whenever there is a conductor. This induced voltage is called counter voltage or. Since the current-carrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. and relative motion. as shown in Figure 2-1. And. the process is called self-induction.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. Likewise. The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. the magnetic field again builds up. Since the motion is opposite. For example. When the magnetic field has collapsed completely. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. 2. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 18 . it decreases until it reaches zero. if current is trying to increase. Then. the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit. there is no motion and therefore. the self-induction is also opposite. So. no self-induction. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil. if current is trying to decrease. the magnetic field also changes. Whenever there is a change in the current. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance. as the current again increases towards its peak value. this time with the opposite polarity. Inductance After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value.

A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes. The more turns there are in the coil. Figure 2-2. In a coiled conductor. as shown in Figure 2-2. Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 19 . the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns. the higher the inductive reactance will be.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. Inductance A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor.

the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow. Inductance The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. 2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. as shown in Figure 2-3. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current. The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 20 . Figure 2-3. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit. also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Since inductive reactance limits current.3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a current-limiting factor. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant.

Inductance In purely resistive circuits.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. current also increases. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 21 . Figure 2-4 shows in-phase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit. Figure 2-4. Since voltage and current stay together. when voltage increases. they are said to be in phase. always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time.

When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. current does not change right away. Figure 2-5. the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase. Therefore. Therefore. because there is always some resistance in a circuit. they are said to be out of phase. Actually. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 22 . A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a current-limiting factor. when voltage starts to increase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit In a purely inductive circuit. Inductance Figure 2-5 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. In a purely inductive circuit. However.

it has the effect of increasing current. 2-6 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2-2. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. b. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. a. Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. 2-7 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 23 . No voltage is induced d. 2-3 2-4 2-5 In a purely inductive circuit. a. Inductance Questions 2-1 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. they are said to be _______________. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False. Circle the correct answer. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing.

in farads The effects of capacitance. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. like the effects of inductance. The device used to do this is called a capacitor.14 f is the frequency. in ohms. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . Name the basic components of a capacitor. Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage. Capacitance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. cause current and voltage to be out of phase. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 24 . like inductive reactance. is measured in ohms. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C where: π is the constant 3. the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. However. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. The value of capacitive reactance. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. For example. when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. as will be explained in this section. in hertz C in the capacitance. Capacitive reactance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. In fact.

A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 3-1. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. Figure 3-1 Simplified Capacitor Dialectric (insulating material) Conducting Plates OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. (a) General.1 Capacitance Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store energy. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 25 . including air. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. the two conductors act like capacitor plates. 3. 2007) Selection and use of work practices. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.333 (as of January. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are side-by-side for any significant distance. In fact. which is called a dielectric. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other. Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts.

Therefore. The electrons stay on the negative plate. electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. Charging a Capacitor A/C Power Source Switch T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 26 . because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. Since like charges repel each other. so it becomes negatively charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. it has to have energy supplied to it. Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source. Figure 3-2. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed. as show in Figure 3-2. Capacitance Before a capacitor can store energy. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. the second plate becomes positively charged. This plate thus has an excess of electrons.

Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 27 . (1) Capacitors. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor.269 (w) (as of February. current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. or simply. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. If the dielectric breaks down. (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. In most cases. 2007) Special conditions. short-circuited.2 Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage When a capacitor is being charged. For any given voltage. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. a difference in potential develops across it. and the current stops flowing. (ii) Before the units are handled. but opposite in polarity. the dielectric could break down. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal. and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. At this point. the capacitor is fully charged. they have the effect of canceling each other out. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. the racks shall be bonded to ground. and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached. and the flow of the capacitor. the capacitance. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important. As a result. When the peak voltage is reached. As the capacitor continues to be charged. 3. If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. Since a difference in potential is voltage.

The sine waves show in Figure 3-3 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. as the source voltage rises from zero. the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. the opposing voltage is at its peak value. During the whole cycle. Current and voltage are out of phase. and current flow is again zero. When the source voltage reaches its peak value. The capacitor is again being charged. At this point. After the source voltage reaches zero. At the beginning of the cycle. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. Capacitance When the source voltage passes its peak. Current now flows in the opposite direction. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. so current is zero. After the source voltage passes its peak. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). but with the opposite polarity. When the source voltage reaches zero. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 28 . because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. the capacitor again starts to discharge. but in the opposite direction. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. current is at its peak positive value. the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. When the source voltage reaches zero again. the capacitor starts to discharge.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 29 . Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage. current leads voltage by 90 degrees. changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. Capacitance Figure 3-3.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. In a purely capacitive circuit. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit The sine waves shown in Figure 3-3 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects.

What is capacitive reactance? 3-2. 3-7. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate 3-5. b. A dielectric in a capacitor: a. it must first be ______________________. True or False. the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity. 3-3. Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. Capacitance Questions 3-1. Before a capacitor can store energy. 3-4. When a capacitor is fully charged. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase. Circle the correct answer. c. True or False. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 30 . d. 3-6.

inductance and capacitance must also be considered.1 True Power True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. reactive power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. reactive power. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit. In DC circuits. so the only factors that affect DC power are current. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). current.) Figure 4-1 shows simplified voltage. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance. In AC circuits. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power. and resistance. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. and apparent power. 4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 31 . Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits. there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. and apparent power. however. voltage. AC Power OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power.

AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. 4-2. will always be positive. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 32 . true power. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 4-1 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant. is power that is returning to a power source from a load. AC Power Figure 4-1. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive result-positive power. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time. Since voltage and current are in phase. Reactive Power Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit. Sine Waves for Voltage. Therefore. the. This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. Negative power. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source. Current. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. Unlike true power. their product. reactive power does no useful work.

so the product of voltage and current is negative power. voltage times current equals negative power. voltage is still positive. the result is positive power. their product is positive power. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 33 . but current is now also positive. AC Power Figure 4-2 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. with current lagging behind voltage. at this point. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. When voltage becomes negative. Voltage and current are out of phase. voltage is positive and current is negative. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. current is still positive. Current. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-2. During the second quarter of the cycle. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle. current. Figure 4-2. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. in the final quarter of the cycle. Sine Waves for Voltage. Thus. When voltage and current are both negative.

Negative power. In a purely inductive circuit. is power returning to the power source from a load. Since no power is used to do work. As was explained earlier. In an inductive circuit. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. Figure 4-3 shows voltage. power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. then. In a purely inductive circuit. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 4-2. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 34 . current leads voltage. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power. as defined earlier. AC Power As defined earlier. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. Current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up. Sine Waves for Voltage. current. in a purely capacitive circuit. Figure 4-3. there is no power that can be identified as true power.

because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits. the capacitor is discharging. so their product. Finally. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 35 . a resistor. so it is storing up power. either. is positive. 4. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. AC Power During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-3. so power is negative. it is returning power to the power source. power. In the second quarter of the cycle. which makes power positive again. In a purely capacitive circuit. and a capacitor. apparent power and true power are the same. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. both current and voltage are negative. When power is negative. During the third quarter of the cycle. so it is reactive power rather than true power. (In a purely resistive circuit. current is positive and voltage is negative. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit. when power is positive.) Figure 4-4 shows a circuit that includes a power source. both voltage and current are positive.3. current is negative and voltage is positive. so power is again negative. The product cannot be reactive power. Apparent Power Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source. in the last quarter of the cycle. because thee is a resistor in the circuit. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. an inductor. the capacitor is charging.

In other words.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and. Impedance can be calculated. AC Power Figure 4-4. inductance. on power. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 36 . the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor. Taken together. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF. the effects of resistance. Circuit for Apparent Power 4. therefore. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. In mathematical terms.4 Power Factor In a circuit like the one shown in figure 4-4. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel. is called impedance. In most cases.

what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values. (in. calculate true power. b. inductance. does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase. 4-5. .8. The combined effect of resistance. Questions: 4-1. 4-9. Circle the correct answer. True or False. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________. 4-8.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is . Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit. (does. 4-4.5 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 37 AC Power (continued) 4-3. Positive power is power that is a. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. Going to a load from a power source. out of) True or False. If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. 4-7. Returning to a power source from a load c. 4-2. 4-6. Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work. In most cased. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d.

Simplified Single-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 38 . Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems Explain how a three-wire single-phase AC system supplies two different voltages. A simplified single-phase system is illustrated in Figure 5-1. and a load. a voltage source.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems. Figure 5-1. which is represented by a resistor. It consists of two wires. Differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems. There are two common types of AC power systems: single-phase systems and threephase systems.

There are two basic types of single-phase systems: the two-wire system and the three-wire system.1 Single-Phase Systems Single-phase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs. the three-wire system was developed. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 39 . and a load (indicated by the three resistors). a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). This system consists of three wires. The three-wire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source. Figure 5-2. the voltage supplied has only one value. Simplified Three-Phase System 5.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. In the two-wire system. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) A simplified three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-2. Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use.

if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) The component that changes a two-wire system into a three-wire system is a transformer. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in three-phase systems are delta connections and wye connections. Simplified Three-Wire System One of the lines in a two-wire system and the neutral line in a three-wire system are usually grounded as a protective measure. Figure 5-3. two lines come into the transformer on the primary side. in a three-wire system. it has many applications for general electrical use. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit. As Figure 5-3 illustrates. The. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 40 . it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this three-wire system. The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts.2 Three-Phase Systems Three-phase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used. Thus. Because the three-wire system provides more than one voltage.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. 5.

The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). so the phase currents add together to T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 41 . Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) 5. but the phase current does not equal the line current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current. the ends of two coils. Therefore. the three coils represent a three-phase transformer.2. and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage. In a delta-connected system. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 5-4 is connected across two wires. Delta-Connected Three-Phase System The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires.1 Delta Connections Figure 5-4 shows the wiring for a delta connection. which are also delta-connected. However. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage. are connected to one wire. The current that flows through the wires is called line current. In this example. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. Figure 5-4. or two resistors. the phase voltage equals the line voltage.

The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3 In these formulas. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection.73 equals the line current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. EL is the line voltage.73) times the phase current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 42 . one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors. Wye Connected Three-Phase System. multiplying the phase current time 1. 5.) In a wye connected system. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) form the line current. Figure 5-5. IL is the line current. EP is the phase voltage. and IP is the phase current. Then.2 Wye Connections The wiring for a typical wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-5. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines.2.

the current in a wye-connected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system. EP is the phase voltage. In wye-connected systems. the phase current is equal to the line current. However. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line. the phase voltage times 1. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage. EL is the line voltage. Therefore.73 equals the line voltage. IL is the line current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage). In a wye-connected system. The relationships between voltage and current in a wye-connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP In these formulas. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 43 . As shown in Figure 5-4.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5. and IP is the phase current.

the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. Circle the correct answer. phase voltage equals line voltage. d. 5-6. c. 5-5. 5-4. line) True or False. The middle line on the secondary side of a three-wire single-phase system is a. In a three-phase system. In a delta-connected system. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts. but phase current does not equal line current. multiply the phase voltage by __________________. In a wye-connected three-phase system. 5-3. b. To calculate the line voltage of a wye-connected three-phase system. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Questions: 5-1. (phase. The component that changes a two-wire single-phase system into a three-wire single phase system is a __________________. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 44 .AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. 5-2. phase current and line current are ______________.

and then flows in the opposite direction. The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system.707 amperes of DC current. measured in farads. peak value. measured in ohms. measured in ohms. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. A connection used in three-phase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected end-to end so that they effectively form a triangle. The combined effect of resistance. Voltage times current in any circuit. also called RMS values. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. inductance. Current that always flows in the same direction. of AC current produces the same heating effect as . The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) Glossary Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. stops. The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 45 Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection - Direct current (DC) Effective values - Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage - . measured in henrys. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source. and capacitance on current flow.

AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peak-to peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load. Phase current Phase voltage - T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 46 . The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a three-phase system. The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave. The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a three-phase system.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 47 . Polarity (These answers may be in any order. 2-4.) a. 2-2. 2-3. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz 1-3.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers 1-1. Conductor b.) a. Magnetic field c. Relative motion c True a. 2-5. Coil the conductor b. b. 1-2. 1-4. 1-5. 2-7. 2-6. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. 1-6. 2-1.

4-5. 3-6. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 3-1. Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order.) a. Voltage b. 4-7. 4-9. 3-4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 48 .200 watts 550 watts 4-1. 4-8. 4-6. 4-3. 3-7. 4-4. 4-2. 3-3. Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 3-5. 3-2.

Transformer a Phase True 1. 5-2. 5-4. 5-6.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 5-1. 5-3.73 Equal T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 49 . 5-5.

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