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Edition II

© Copyright MMVII T&D PowerSkills, LLC 5501-A John Eskew Blvd. Alexandria, LA 71303 866-880-1380 All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC. Printed in the United States of America

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 1

T&D PowerSkills

General Guidelines for Students

This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics. The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.

**Recommended Sequence of Instruction
**

1. After the instructor’s introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at the beginning of the first segment. 2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members. 3. View the first segment of the DVD. 4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD. 5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct answers provided by the instructor. 6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information given by the instructor. 7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment. 8. Work through all segments in this manner. 9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon completion of the unit. 10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructor’s discretion.

This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot

OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training unit.

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**Field Performance Requirements (FPR)
**

NAME: _____________________________ #___________ Complete Incomplete SECTION: Maintenance Basics UNIT(S):

VG ACC NI NA = = = = Very Good Acceptable Needs Improvement Not Able to Complete on this Crew

Alternating Current Fundamentals

REQUIREMENTS

**SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
**

VG ACC NI NA

SEGMENT 1 – ALTERNATING CURRENT 1.1 Can explain the differences between direct current and alternating current ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 2 – INDUCTANCE 2.1 2.2 Can define inductance and inductive reactance ……………………… Can differentiate between in-phase and out-of-phase current flow …

SEGMENT 3 – CAPACITANCE 3.1 Can describe the effects of capacitance on current and voltage .….

SEGMENT 4 – AC POWER 4.1 Can differentiate among true power, reactive power and apparent power ……………………………………………………………………..

SEGMENT 5 – SINGLE –PHASE AND THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 5.1 Can describe the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems ……………………………………….………………………. 5.2 Can differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems ………………………………………………..

______________________________ ______________________________ _______________ Employee’s Signature Supervisor’s Signature Date

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Performance Notes:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006: The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee’s employment. Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.

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3.1 3.2. 4. and Effective Values Inductance Inductance and Inductive Reactance Factors That Affect Inductive Reactance Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage Capacitance Capacitors Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage AC Power True Power Reactive Power Apparent Power Power Factor Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems Single-Phase Systems Three-Phase Systems Delta Connections Wye Connections Title 7 7 11 14 16 16 18 20 24 25 27 31 31 32 35 36 38 39 40 41 42 Page T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 5 .2 4.2 Alternating Current Current Flow and Polarity Sine Waves Peak Values.2 5.2 1.4 5. 1.2 2.3 4.2.3 3.1 4.1 1.1 5.2 4. 2. 5.1 2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Section 1.1 5. Peak-to-Peak Values.3 2.

Current. and reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit Circuit for Apparent Power Simplified Single-Phase System Simplified Three-Phase System Simplified Three-Wire System Delta-Connected Three-Phase System Wye-Connected Three-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 6 Page 8 9 10 & 11 12 13 17 19 20 21 22 25 26 29 32 33 34 36 38 39 40 41 42 . Current.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 3-1 3-2 3-3 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 Title Simple DC Current Simplified AC Generator Rotation of a Conductor Induced Voltage Graph Voltage and Current Sine Waves Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit Simplified Capacitor Charging a Capacitor Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit Sine Waves for Voltage.

and what factors affect the operation and maintenance of AC equipment such as motors. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 7 . • Define peak value. • Explain what frequency is and how it is measured. • Explain how current flow and polarity change in AC circuits. current flows first in one direction. and effective value with respect to AC voltage and current. current flow is always in one direction. how it works. In a DC circuit. 1.1 Current Flow and Polarity There are two types of current: direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). peak-to-peak value. concepts. 1. then flows in the opposite direction. stops. Alternating Current Most of the electrical equipment used today operates on alternating current (AC). and principles associated with alternating current. lights. In an AC circuit.ALTERNATING CURRENT FUNDAMENTALS 1. Emphasis is placed on what alternating current is. The purpose of this training unit is to review significant terms. Alternating Current OBJECTIVES: • Explain the differences between direct current and alternating current. and communications equipment.

Figure 1-1. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 8 . Their positions do not change. When a power source has fixed polarity. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-1 shows a simple DC circuit. on the other hand. Simple DC Circuit Simple DC Circuit AC power sources. is always the same terminal and the positive terminal is always the opposite terminal. through the circuit. and all other DC power sources. The current flow is always in this direction. Their polarity changes periodically. one negative and one positive. do not have fixed polarity. One way of referring to this is to say that a DC power source has fixed polarity. Current flows from the negative terminal. the direction of the current it produces also changes. It has two important parts – a power source and a load. The power source is a battery and the load is a resistor. to the positive terminal. the current it produces always flows in the same direction. As the polarity of the power source changes.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. The battery has two terminals. The negative terminal in this.

they slide against the brushes as the conductor rotates. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 2-1 shows a simplified AC generator. a loop of wire is the conductor. In this generator. This movement is illustrated in Figure 1-3. the lines are shown as straight lines. without the slip rings or brushes. a magnetic field. Figure 1-2. is made up of a number of lines of flux. Actually. indicated by the blue lines in Figure 1-2. The three requirements for inducing voltage are: a conductor. the two ends of the conductor have been labeled X and Y. For ease of explanation. first in one direction and then in the opposite direction.) The relative motion occurs when the conductor is rotated through the magnetic field.) When the conductor turns. and relative motion.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. which shows an end view of the conductor. they are curved. each half of the loop cuts through the magnetic lines of flux. Because the conductor moves in a circular pattern. its rotation can be demonstrated by using the 360 degrees that make up a circle. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 9 . Current produced by the generated voltage could flow through the brushes and through a circuit connected to the generator. Simplified AC Generator The magnetic field. and the magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet. (For simplicity. This generator produces voltage by means of induction. (The north and south poles of the magnet are visible in the figure. the slip rings are attached to the ends of the conductor. This simplified generator has two more components: slip rings and brushes.

while the Y end of the conductor cuts the magnetic field in an upward direction. When the conductor reaches 180 degrees. no voltage is induced. the ends of the conductor are not cutting across any of the lines of flux. so the induced voltage increases. the conductor cuts fewer and fewer flux lines. voltage is being induced. the X end of the conductor begins to cut the magnetic field in a downward direction. Now. As the conductor starts to rotate. more and more flux lines are cut. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-3 Rotation of Conductor At zero degrees. As the conductor moves toward 90 degrees. Since there is no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 10 . the conductor is cutting through no lines of flux. so no voltage is induced.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. Maximum voltage is induced at the instant that the conductor reaches the 90-degree point. As rotation continues towards 180 degrees. so the induced voltage decreases.

At the instant that the conductor reaches 270 degrees. because the conductor is cutting through few and fewer lines of flux. it is again cutting the maximum number of flux lines. From 180 to 270 degrees. because no flux lines are being cut. 1.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. the conductor once again cuts through more and more lines of flux. Alternating Current (continued) At 180 degrees. The X end of the conductor starts cutting the magnetic field in an upward direction. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 11 . no voltage is induced. so maximum voltage is induced. As rotation continues from 270 degrees to 360 degrees. at 360 degrees. as easy method of showing how the polarity changes is to use a graph. When the conductor completes its rotation.2 Sine Waves The direction in which a conductor cuts a magnetic field. the polarity changes. while the Y end cuts the field in a downward direction. determines the polarity of the voltage that is induced. voltage begins decreasing. or the direction in which a magnetic field cuts a conductor.

so no voltage is induced. voltage is again zero. the horizontal line also represents the time that elapses as the voltage changes. voltage increases in the negative direction. At 270 degrees. At 360 degrees. it reaches its maximum negative direction. As the conductor rotates toward 90 degrees. so voltage increases. because the conductor cuts across fewer and fewer lines of flux. voltage decreases again. At 270 degrees. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 12 . the induced voltage reaches its maximum positive value. the conductor starts to cut across the flux lines in the opposite direction. At 180 degrees. voltage decreases.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. because the conductor is not cutting across any flux lines. Induced Voltage Graph At zero degrees. Voltage that is above the horizontal line is positive. so no voltage is induced. the conductor is not cutting through the magnetic fields. From 270 degrees to 360 degrees. From 90 degrees to 180 degrees.) Figure 1-4. Alternating Current (continued) Figure 1-4 is a graph that represents the voltage induced as the conductor in Figure 1-3 makes a complete rotation through the magnetic field. more and more lines of flux are cut. At 90 degrees. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. no flux lines are being cut. it reaches its maximum negative value. and voltage that is below the horizontal line is negative. Voltage that is on the horizontal line is neither positive nor negative – it is zero. At this point. (On this graph. the vertical line of the graph represents the magnitude of the induced voltage.

so no current can flow. A sine wave has no sharp bens or straight portions. Finally. Alternating Current (continued) The type of graph shown n Figure 1-4 is called a sinusoidal curve. as the conductor moves from 270 to 360 degrees. In Figure 1-5. reaching their maximum negative values at 270 degrees. If the simplified generator shown in Figure 1-2 were part of a complete circuit. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 13 .AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. At 360 degrees. as the conductor begins to rotate. no voltage is induced. both voltage and current decrease. Voltage and Current Sine Waves When the conductor is at zero degrees. Figure 1-5. both voltage and current are again zero. As rotation continues. so no current flows. voltage and current increase. voltage and current increase in the negative direction. no voltage is induced. it is just a smooth rise and fall. sine waves are often used to plot electrical quantities. a sine curve. a current sine wave has been added to the voltage sine wave shown in Figure 1-4. the induced voltage would cause current to flow. Both voltage and current reach their maximum values at 90 degrees. At 180 degrees. The current sine wave represents current flow through the complete circuit. From 180 degrees to 270 degrees. voltage and current decrease. or a sine wave.

3 Peak Values. the insulating rating on equipment is based on peak voltage). This relationship. which refers to the mathematical formula used to determine effective values. Peak AC values and peak-to-peak AC values are related as follows: Peak-to peak = 2 x peak And RMS values are related to peak values like this: RMS = Peak x . they discovered that one ampere. The amount of voltage or current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak is called the peak-to-peak value. or 60 Hz. Unless the data plate on a meter or piece of equipment indicates otherwise. effective values are use. all AC values are RMS (effective) values. Peak values occur twice in each cycle: once positive and once negative. The formula itself is not important here. Peak-to-Peak Values. RMS stands for root-mean-square. therefore. Alternating Current (continued) In this example. too. be referred to as 60 hertz. It does not build up to a peak and then stay there. each time the conductor rotates a full 360 degrees. 60 cycles are completed every second. What is important is to understand that RMS values are used to rate operating voltages on almost all AC equipment. Effective values for AC are often called RMS values. like direct current does. Peak values and peak-to-peak values are not commonly used for AC current or voltage except when designing AC equipment (for example. Most meters read RMS values. Frequency is measured in units called hertz. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called frequency. Most often. In a typical AC power system. Sixty cycles per second can. The reason for using effective values instead of peak values is that alternating current does not maintain a constant value. which applies to both current and voltage (because voltage produces current) is the basis for effective values. of alternating current produces the same heating effect as . 1. A peak AC value is not equivalent to a DC value with the same numbers: 120 volts peak AC voltage is not the same as 120 volts DC. peak value.707. Effective AC values are equal to peak AC values multiplied by . and Effective Values The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave is called the peak value of the voltage or current. it completes a cycle. In summary.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. When scientists conducted tests to find the exact relationship between peak AC values and DC values.707 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 14 .707 amperes of direct current.

b.AC FUNDAMENTALS 1. a. 1-5. The letters used to express effective AC values are __________________. 1-4. c. The ____________ of an AC power source changes periodically. 1-6. The conductor stops moving No voltage is induced Maximum voltage is induces None of the above True or False. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 15 . List the three requirements for inducing a voltage. When a sine wave is used to represent voltage. a. ___________________________________ 1-3. When a conductor rotating in a magnetic field is cutting through the maximum number of flux lines. Alternating Current (continued) Questions 1-1. 1-2. ___________________________________ c. Circle the correct answer. d. ___________________________________ b. voltage below the horizontal line is negative The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage is called (a) _____________ and is measured in (b) ______________.

In DC circuits. Ohm’s Law states that current is equal to voltage divided by resistance. Differentiate between in-phase and our-of-phase currents and voltages. Since inductive reactance.AC FUNDAMENTALS 2. Inductive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance. It is measured in units called henrys. which must be taken into account. AC current. Inductance is covered i this section. in hertz L is the inductance. The value of inductive reactance. The symbol for inductance is a capital L.1 Inductance and Inductive Reactance Inductance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in current flow. but AC current is also affected by inductance and capacitance. 2. Ohm’s Law holds true for all applications. Like DC current. AC current is affected by voltage and resistance. however. like resistance. Explain how inductive reactance limits current flow.14 f is the frequency. can be calculated by using the following formula: XL = 2 π f L where: π is the constant 3. capacitance is covered in Section 3. is affected by additional factors. it is measured in ohms. Inductance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define inductance and inductive reactance. limits current flow. The common symbol for inductive reactance is XL. because the only two factors that affect DC current are resistance and voltage. in ohms. in henrys T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 16 .

The current flow causes a magnetic field to build up around the conductor. its motion induces a voltage in the conductor. which is the induction of voltage i a conductor by AC current following through that same conductor. counter electromotive force (CEMF). Because the CEMF opposes the applied voltage. This induced voltage is called counter voltage or. as the magnetic field builds up. Inductance To understand how inductive reactance limits current flow. because the field itself is moving. is counter electromotive force. as shown in Figure 2-1. it is first necessary t understand a process call self-induction. whenever there is a conductor.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. When voltage is applied to a conductor. the induced voltage. and relative motion. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 17 . which is opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. more commonly. Counter electromotive force is caused by self-induction. the process is called self-induction. there is relative motion between it and the conductor. a magnetic field. The magnetic field continues to expand outward from the center of the conductor until the current that is producing it reaches its peak value. it limits current. Since the current-carrying conductor is inducing a voltage in itself. Current flow is actually limited by an induced voltage that opposes the applied voltage. And. Figure 2-1 Magnetic Field Around a Conductor Conductor While the magnetic field is building up. voltage is induced. current starts to flow through the conductor. In this case.

The voltage that is induced in the conductor now has the same polarity as the applied voltage. Since the motion is opposite. So. the induced voltage opposes the applied voltage. the magnetic field also changes. 2. the self-induction is also opposite. The voltage that is induced in the conductor by the changing magnetic field is always in such a direction as to oppose the current change. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 18 . Inductance After the current flowing through the conductor reaches its peak value. anything that decreases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor decreases the inductive reactance. It can be increased even more by placing a metal core inside the coil. if current is trying to decrease. this time with the opposite polarity. no self-induction. there is no motion and therefore. it decreases until it reaches zero. inductive reactance can be increased by coiling a conductor. The basis behind both of these factors is that the number of lines of flux that cut a conductor affects the amount of inductive reactance. Then. The decreasing current causes the magnetic field to collapse. The motion of the magnetic field collapsing is opposite to the motion of the field building up. the magnetic field again builds up. Anything that increases the number of magnetic lines of flux cutting a conductor increases the inductive reactance.2 Factors that affect Inductive Reactance There are several factors that affect the amount of inductive reactance – the amount that current flow is limited by inductance – in a circuit. if current is trying to increase. Likewise. When the magnetic field has collapsed completely.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. the induced voltage aid the applied voltage. Whenever there is a change in the current. as the current again increases towards its peak value. For example.

The more turns there are in the coil.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. the higher the inductive reactance will be. Figure 2-2. Inductance A conductor that is wound into a coil provides more inductive reactance than a straight conductor. In a coiled conductor. the magnetic field from each turn cuts across the other turns. as shown in Figure 2-2. A straight conductor is cut only once by its magnetic field when the magnetic field changes. Magnetic Fields Around a Coiled Conductor T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 19 .

also more line of flux cut across the conductor as current changes. The magnetic field produced by the coil is concentrated and directed by the metal core. 2. Such a circuit is called a purely resistive circuit. the term ”purely resistive” means that resistance is the only factor that limits current flow. Metal Core Placed Inside Coil Since inductive reactance limits current. Any inductance in the circuit was considered to be so small that it was insignificant. Inductance The inductive reactance that a coil provides can be further increased by placing a metal core inside the coil. a change in inductive reactance also means a change i current. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 20 . as shown in Figure 2-3.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. and decreasing the inductive reactance increases the current. Increasing the inductive reactance decreases the current.3 Effects of Inductance on Current and Voltage The current and voltage sine waves shown in Section 1 were associated with a circuit that had only resistance as a current-limiting factor. Figure 2-3.

current also increases. they are said to be in phase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. Since voltage and current stay together. Figure 2-4. Inductance In purely resistive circuits. Figure 2-4 shows in-phase voltage and current sine waves for a purely resistive circuit. when voltage increases. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Resistive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 21 . always increasing or decreasing in the same direction at the same time.

because there is always some resistance in a circuit. there is no circuit that is purely inductive. Because the changes in current always take place later than the changes in voltage. When voltage starts to decrease the induced voltage opposes a decrease in current. it can be said that current lags behind voltage by 90 degrees during the entire cycle. The counter EMF keeps current from increasing immediately. the increase in current takes place later than the increase in voltage. Therefore. Whenever voltage and current increase and decrease at different time. the idea of a purely inductive circuit is helpful in understanding the effects of inductance on the relationship between voltage and current. Inductance Figure 2-5 shows sine waves for voltage and current in a purely inductive circuit. they are said to be out of phase. In a purely inductive circuit. Therefore. Actually. inductance causes voltage and current to be out of phase. Figure 2-5. current does not change right away. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 22 . A purely inductive circuit is a circuit that has only inductive reactance as a current-limiting factor. the decrease in current takes place later than the decrease in voltage. However. when voltage starts to increase.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Inductive Circuit In a purely inductive circuit.

2-6 ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2-2. it has the effect of increasing current. When current flowing through a conductor is increasing. The magnetic field around the conductor is collapsing c. 2-7 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 23 . a. Whenever voltage and current increase or decrease at different times. The magnetic field around the conductor is building up b. a. No voltage is induced d. List two ways to increase inductive reactance in an AC circuit. they are said to be _______________. Circle the correct answer. b. When CEMF opposes the applied voltage in an AC circuit. Inductance Questions 2-1 The physical property of all AC circuits that opposes any change in ___________ is called inductance. _________________________ is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by inductance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 2. 2-3 2-4 2-5 In a purely inductive circuit. ______________________ is the only currentlimiting factor. There is no magnetic field around the conductor True or False.

when the inductance in a circuit would limit current flow more than a desirable amount. cause current and voltage to be out of phase. Explain the effects of capacitance o current and voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 24 . the effects of capacitance are not the same as the effects of inductance.14 f is the frequency. in farads The effects of capacitance. For example. Capacitance and capacitive reactance are related in the same way that inductance and inductive reactance are related. can be calculated by using the following formula: XC = 1 ÷ 2 π f C where: π is the constant 3. Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. The device used to do this is called a capacitor. Capacitive reactance. in hertz C in the capacitance. as will be explained in this section. in ohms. Capacitance OBJECTIVES: • • • Define capacitance and capacitive reactance. The common symbol for capacitive reactance is XC . like the effects of inductance. like inductive reactance. However. is measured in ohms. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. capacitance is often added to AC circuits to counter the effects of inductance. The symbol for capacitance is a capital C. In fact. additional capacitance can be added to that circuit to bring current flow up to the level that is needed. Capacitance is measured in units called farads. The value of capacitive reactance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Name the basic components of a capacitor.

which is called a dielectric. the two conductors act like capacitor plates. In fact. The dielectric can be made of any good insulating material. It has three main components: two plates and an insulator. Figure 3-1 Simplified Capacitor Dialectric (insulating material) Conducting Plates OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. air acts as a dielectric whenever two conductors are side-by-side for any significant distance. Safety-related work practices shall be employed to prevent electric shock or other injuries resulting from either direct or indirect electrical contacts. A simplified capacitor is shown in Figure 3-1. The purpose of the dielectric is to keep electrons from flowing from one plate to the other. when work is performed near or on equipment or circuits which are or may be energized. 3. The specific safety-related work practices shall be consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 25 .333 (as of January.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.1 Capacitance Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store energy. (a) General. including air. 2007) Selection and use of work practices.

Figure 3-2. Charging a capacitor requires connecting it to a power source. The electrons stay on the negative plate. Since like charges repel each other. as show in Figure 3-2. so it becomes negatively charged.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. it has to have energy supplied to it. The electrons that are forced away from the positive plate flow back to the power source. the second plate becomes positively charged. because the dielectric keeps them from getting to the other plate. Therefore. Capacitance Before a capacitor can store energy. Charging a Capacitor A/C Power Source Switch T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 26 . electrons flow from the power source to one of the capacitor’s plates. the negatively charged electrons on the first plate force electrons away from the second plate. When the power source is turned on and the switch is closed. The process of supplying energy to a capacitor is called charging. This plate thus has an excess of electrons.

In most cases. When the peak voltage is reached. the capacitors shall be disconnected from energized sources and. the capacitance. or simply. after a wait of at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection. the dielectric could break down.2 Effects of Capacitance on Current and Voltage When a capacitor is being charged. the racks shall be bonded to ground. and the flow of electrons from the positively charged plate of the capacitor back to the power source continues until the peak voltage is reached.269 (w) (as of February. (i) Before employees work on capacitors. two many electrons will be forced onto the negative plate.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. it can be said that voltage builds up across a capacitor as it is charged. As the capacitor continues to be charged. (ii) Before the units are handled. At this point. For any given voltage. OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot 1910. If the cases of capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 27 . (iii) Any line to which capacitors are connected shall be short-circuited before it is considered deenergized. and each electron that leaves the positive plate makes that plate more positive. they have the effect of canceling each other out. Each electron that is added to the negative plate makes that plate more negative. each unit in series-parallel capacitor banks shall be short-circuited between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. Since the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal. Since a difference in potential is voltage. the capacitor is fully charged. 3. the specific number of electrons that the negative plate can hold is called the capacity of the capacitor. 2007) Special conditions. If the dielectric breaks down. the voltage across the capacitor increases until it is equal to the source voltage. but opposite in polarity. a difference in potential develops across it. The following additional requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors. The polarity of this voltage is such that it opposes the source voltage. As a result. and the current stops flowing. Knowing the capacity of a capacitor is important. and the flow of the capacitor. current flowing through a capacitor will destroy the capacitor. short-circuited. Capacitance The flow of electrons from the power source to the negatively charged plate of the capacitor. and the positive plate has lost the same number of electrons. the negative plate has gained a certain number of electrons. current can flow through the capacitor from one plate to the other. If too much voltage is supplied to a capacitor. (1) Capacitors.

current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. the opposing voltage has built up to the same value (but opposite polarity). so current is zero. as the source voltage rises from zero. and current flow is again zero.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. After the source voltage passes its peak. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 28 . the capacitor is completely charged in the opposite direction. The capacitor is again being charged. the capacitor again starts to discharge. By the time the source voltage reaches its peak positive value. Current and voltage are out of phase. current is at its peak positive value. When the source voltage reaches its peak value. Discharging is the reverse of charging: electrons flow onto the positively charged plate and electrons leave the negatively charged plate. During the whole cycle. After the source voltage reaches zero. the opposing voltage is at its peak value. it again begins to increase toward its peak value. At the beginning of the cycle. Capacitance When the source voltage passes its peak. current flow is maximum in the opposite direction. the changes in current take place ahead of the changes in voltage. the source voltage and the opposing voltage have the effect of canceling each other out. the capacitor starts to discharge. because they do not increase and decrease in the same direction at the same time. but in the opposite direction. When the source voltage reaches zero. Current now flows in the opposite direction. At this point. The sine waves show in Figure 3-3 indicates the relationship between the source voltage and the current that is produced during a full AC cycle in a purely capacitive circuit. but with the opposite polarity. When the source voltage reaches zero again.

changes in current always occur ahead of changes in voltage. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 29 . Another way to say this is to say that in a capacitive circuit. Capacitance Figure 3-3. In a purely capacitive circuit. Capacitance is the only factor that affects current and voltage. Because capacitance opposes a change in voltage. current leads voltage by 90 degrees. capacitance causes current and voltage to be out of phase. Voltage and Current Sine Waves for a Purely Capacitive Circuit The sine waves shown in Figure 3-3 represent the behavior of source voltage and current in a purely capacitive circuit – that is a circuit in which resistance and inductance have no significant effects.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3.

What is capacitive reactance? 3-2. Circle the correct answer. b. Capacitance Questions 3-1. 3-4. Capacitive reactance is measured in ___________________. 3-6. Capacitance causes (a) ______________ (b) _______________ to be out of phase. 3-3. Capacitance is a physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. d. the source voltage and the voltage across the capacitor are equal in amount but opposite in polarity. it must first be ______________________. A dielectric in a capacitor: a. c. True or False. When a capacitor is fully charged. 3-7. Before a capacitor can store energy.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 3. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 30 . True or False. Increases the flow of protons to the positive terminal Keeps electrons from flowing from one plate to the other Aids electrons in their flow from positive to negative Decreases the number of electrons on any plate 3-5.

reactive power. reactive power. however.1 True Power True power in an AC circuit is the power actually used to do work. inductance and capacitance must also be considered. current. 4. voltage. (A “purely resistive” AC circuit is one in which inductance and capacitance are not large enough to be significant. The power used in a purely resistive circuit is true power.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. and apparent power. so AC power calculations can be much more complicated than DC calculations. and apparent power. and resistance. In AC circuits. AC Power OBJECTIVES: • • Differentiate between true power. power is equal to voltage times current (P=EI). so the only factors that affect DC power are current. there are three different kinds of power in AC circuits: true power. and true power waves for a purely resistive circuit. In DC circuits. Because inductance and capacitance cause AC current and voltage to be out of phase. The only factor that limits current in a DC circuit is resistance. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 31 . Explain how power factor is used in calculating true power in AC Circuits.) Figure 4-1 shows simplified voltage.

This is done by multiplying the voltage at any instant by current at that same instant. is power that is returning to a power source from a load. the. their product. Therefore. AC Power Figure 4-1. they are both positive at the same time and negative at the same time. 4-2. The term “positive power” is used as a convention. Sine Waves for Voltage. Unlike true power. Since voltage and current are in phase. Positive power is power that is going to a load from a power source. since two positive numbers or two negative numbers multiplied together will always yield a positive result-positive power. true power. reactive power does no useful work. Current. Negative power. Reactive Power Reactive power is the type of power that is found in a purely inductive circuit or a purely capacitive circuit. will always be positive. and True Power in a Purely Resistive Circuit Voltage and current sine waves like the ones shown in Figure 4-1 can be used to determine the true power in the circuit at any instant.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 32 .

Thus. AC Power Figure 4-2 shows simplified sine waves for voltage. in the final quarter of the cycle. current is still positive. and Reactive Power in a Purely Inductive Circuit In the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-2. current. When voltage and current are both negative. When voltage becomes negative. Current. If voltage and current are multiplied together during this portion of the cycle. voltage is positive and current is negative. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 33 . with current lagging behind voltage. their product is positive power. so the product of voltage and current is negative power. Sine Waves for Voltage. because the product of a positive number and a negative number is always a negative number. The same relationships can be seen in the second half of the cycle. voltage times current equals negative power. the result is positive power. at this point. Multiplying the two together will yield a negative value. During the second quarter of the cycle. voltage is still positive. but current is now also positive. because two negative numbers multiplied together give a positive result. and reactive power in a purely inductive circuit. Figure 4-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. Voltage and current are out of phase.

in a purely capacitive circuit. In a purely inductive circuit. the amount of power that is returned from the inductance to the power source is equal to the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the inductance. then. As indicated by the sine waves in Figure 4-2.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. The power in a purely capacitive circuit is also reactive power. there is no power that can be identified as true power. power just goes back and forth between the power source and the inductance. the negative power periods are those during which the power absorbed by the inductance returns to the power source as the magnetic field collapses. positive power is power that goes from a power source to a load. The power in a purely inductive circuit is only reactive power. AC Power As defined earlier. current. Figure 4-3. and reactive power sine waves for purely capacitive circuit. In a purely inductive circuit. positive power goes from the power source to the inductance. Since no power is used to do work. and Reactive Power in a Purely Capacitive Circuit T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 34 . Negative power. Sine Waves for Voltage. Current. current leads voltage. Figure 4-3 shows voltage. is power returning to the power source from a load. In an inductive circuit. The inductance absorbs power from the power source as its magnetic field builds up. As was explained earlier. as defined earlier.

so it is storing up power. The product cannot be reactive power. which makes power positive again. current is positive and voltage is negative. 4. either. so power is again negative. (In a purely resistive circuit. so power is negative. both voltage and current are positive. AC Power During the first quarter of the cycle represented in Figure 4-3. Finally. When power is negative. The product of voltage times current in this circuit cannot be the true power of the circuit. when power is positive. both current and voltage are negative. because thee is a resistor in the circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. In the second quarter of the cycle. During the third quarter of the cycle. power. an inductor.) Figure 4-4 shows a circuit that includes a power source. in the last quarter of the cycle. is positive. apparent power and true power are the same. the capacitor is discharging. the capacitor is charging. and a capacitor. In a purely capacitive circuit. The effect is the same for a purely capacitive circuit as for a purely inductive circuit: the amount of power that is supplied by the power source to the capacitor is equal to the amount of power that is returned from the capacitor to the power source. The power in a capacitive circuit does not do any work. current is negative and voltage is positive. The product of voltage times current in this circuit is apparent power. it is returning power to the power source. so their product. so it is reactive power rather than true power. a resistor. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 35 . Apparent Power Apparent power is the power used to do work plus the power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to the power source.3. Apparent pow3r is voltage times current in any circuit. because true power can be calculated this way only for purely resistive circuits.

In mathematical terms. Power factor is used as follows: When the apparent power of a circuit and the power factor for that circuit are known. the true power in an AC circuit is equal to voltage times current times the power factor. the combined effect of these three factors on current flow and. and capacitance must all be considered in determining true power. but this is not done very often by maintenance personnel. Circuit for Apparent Power 4. the true power in an AC circuit is the ratio of the true power to the apparent power in that circuit. In most cases. Impedance can be calculated. the effects of resistance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. inductance. this is expressed as P = E x I x PF. Taken together. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 36 .4 Power Factor In a circuit like the one shown in figure 4-4. In other words. Power factor is usually expressed as a decimal value. AC Power Figure 4-4. is called impedance. therefore. on power. true power is calculated by multiplying the apparent power times the power factor.

Questions: 4-1. True or False. 4-9. (in. . does not) The voltage and current sine waves for reactive power are always __________ phase. and capacitance on current flow in an AC circuit is called _________________.8. 4-7. In most cased. true power in AC circuits is calculated with the aid of the ________________ associated with the specific circuit. Circle the correct answer. inductance. E I PF = = = 110 volts 10 amps . 4-8. b. what is the true power used by the circuit? Given the following values. out of) True or False. Positive power is power that is a. Equal to voltage times resistance Reactive power is power that _____________ do useful work. 4-5. Returning to a power source from a load c. 4-2. True power is the amount of power actually used to do work. (does. The combined effect of resistance.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 4. calculate true power.5 T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 37 AC Power (continued) 4-3. Apparent power is the result of multiplying voltage times current in any circuit. 4-6. Going to a load from a power source. The product of a negative current and a positive voltage d. If the voltage is 480 volts and the current is 50 amps. 4-4. The power factor for a certain AC circuit is .

and a load. which is represented by a resistor. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems OBJECTIVES: • • • Explain the difference between single-phase and three-phase AC systems Explain how a three-wire single-phase AC system supplies two different voltages.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. Differentiate between delta-connected and wye-connected three-phase AC systems. Simplified Single-Phase System T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 38 . It consists of two wires. The purpose of this segment is to introduce some terms that are associated with these systems. Figure 5-1. a voltage source. There are two common types of AC power systems: single-phase systems and threephase systems. A simplified single-phase system is illustrated in Figure 5-1.

There are two basic types of single-phase systems: the two-wire system and the three-wire system. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 39 . Since it is often desirable to have more than one voltage for home and office use. a voltage source (indicated by the three coils in the circle). Figure 5-2. and a load (indicated by the three resistors).AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. the three-wire system was developed. the voltage supplied has only one value.1 Single-Phase Systems Single-phase systems are the most commonly used AC power systems for general electrical needs. Simplified Three-Phase System 5. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) A simplified three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-2. In the two-wire system. This system consists of three wires. The three-wire system makes it possible to have two different voltages from one voltage source.

T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 40 . two lines come into the transformer on the primary side. The middle line on the secondary side is called the neutral line. and three lines come off the transformer on the secondary side.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. it is possible to get either 110 volts or 220 volts from this three-wire system. The. As Figure 5-3 illustrates. 5. Because the three-wire system provides more than one voltage. Thus. in a three-wire system. Simplified Three-Wire System One of the lines in a two-wire system and the neutral line in a three-wire system are usually grounded as a protective measure.2 Three-Phase Systems Three-phase systems are most often found in large industrial installations where large amounts of power are used. Voltage between the top and bottom lines is 220 volts. if an un grounded line accidentally becomes grounded. Figure 5-3. it has many applications for general electrical use. a short circuit will occur and the circuit’s fuses or circuit breakers will open the circuit. Voltage between the neutral line and either the top line or the bottom line is 110 volts. The two types of connections commonly used for power sources and for loads in three-phase systems are delta connections and wye connections. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) The component that changes a two-wire system into a three-wire system is a transformer.

In a delta-connected system. the phase voltage equals the line voltage.2. so the phase currents add together to T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 41 . Figure 5-4. Therefore.1 Delta Connections Figure 5-4 shows the wiring for a delta connection. and the voltage that is applied to the wires is called line voltage. but the phase current does not equal the line current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) 5. The current that flows through the coils or resistors is called phase current. the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) is equal to the voltage in the wires (the line voltage). which are also delta-connected. the three coils represent a three-phase transformer. In this example.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. are connected to one wire. The current that flows through the wires is called line current. The ends of each coil are connected to the ends of the other two coils. The three wires coming out of the transformer are connected to three resistors. However. the ends of two coils. Each coil or resistor shown in Figure 5-4 is connected across two wires. or two resistors. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils is called phase voltage. Delta-Connected Three-Phase System The current and voltage in the cols and the resistors of a system like this are not always the same as the current and voltage in the wires.

Wye Connected Three-Phase System. and IP is the phase current.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5.2.) In a wye connected system.2 Wye Connections The wiring for a typical wye-connected three-phase system is shown in Figure 5-5. one end of each coil or resistor is connected to one end of both of the other coils or resistors. The line current is actually equal to the square root of three (which is 1. IL is the line current.73 equals the line current. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) form the line current. The relationships between voltage and current in a delta connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP IP √3 In these formulas. EP is the phase voltage. The free ends of the coils or resistors are connected to the three phase lines. 5. EL is the line voltage. Figure 5-5.73) times the phase current. (A wye connection is also known as a star connection. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 42 . multiplying the phase current time 1. Then.

the voltage in each coil or resistor (the phase voltage) has to be added to the voltage in one of the other coils or resistors to form the voltage across any two wires (the line voltage). the current in a wye-connected system cannot split or add together the way it does in a deltaconnected system. and IP is the phase current. the current that flows through each line has to flow through the coil or the resistor in the line.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continuted) 5. Therefore. the phase current is equal to the line current. IL is the line current. the phase voltage times 1. The relationships between voltage and current in a wye-connected system can be summarized in the following formulas: EL IL = = EP √3 IP In these formulas. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Wye connections have different effects on voltage and current than delta connections do. As shown in Figure 5-4. However. In a wye-connected system. EL is the line voltage. EP is the phase voltage.73 equals the line voltage. but the phase voltage is not equal to the line voltage. In wye-connected systems. Notes: _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 43 .

multiply the phase voltage by __________________. c. In a wye-connected three-phase system. To calculate the line voltage of a wye-connected three-phase system. In a three-phase system. Called the neutral line Connected in a delta pattern Never used 110 volts. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Systems (continued) Questions: 5-1. The component that changes a two-wire single-phase system into a three-wire single phase system is a __________________. phase current and line current are ______________. 5-2. The middle line on the secondary side of a three-wire single-phase system is a. phase voltage equals line voltage. Circle the correct answer. In a delta-connected system. b.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) 5. 5-6. 5-4. (phase. d. the current that flows through the coils or resistors is called _____________ current. line) True or False. 5-5. 5-3. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 44 . but phase current does not equal line current.

The measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. Power used to do work plus power stored during part of a cycle by inductance and capacitance and then returned to power source. also called RMS values. measured in henrys. Current that always flows in the same direction. The number of cycles completed each second by a given AC voltage. AC values for current and voltage based on the relationship that one ampere. measured in farads. The voltage that is applied to the wires in a three phase system. The measure of the opposition to current that is created by inductance. inductance. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in voltage. A physical property of all AC circuits that opposes a change in current. The combined effect of resistance. measured in ohms. A connection used in three-phase systems in which three coils (or three resistors) are connected end-to end so that they effectively form a triangle. peak value. measured in ohms. and then flows in the opposite direction. stops. and capacitance on current flow. Voltage times current in any circuit.AC FUNDAMENTALS (continued) Glossary Alternating current (AC) Apparent Power Current that flows in one direction. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 45 Capacitance Capacitive reactance Delta connection - Direct current (DC) Effective values - Frequency Impedance Inductance Inductive reactance Line current Line voltage - . of AC current produces the same heating effect as . The current that flows through the wires in a threephase system.707 amperes of DC current.

The amount of voltage of current represented by the distance between the positive peak and the negative peak on a sine wave. The voltage that is applied across the resistors or induced in the coils of a three-phase system. The amount of voltage or current at the maximum positive or negative point on a sine wave. Phase current Phase voltage - T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 46 .AC FUNDAMENTALS Glossary (continued) Negative power Peak value Peak-to peak value Power that is returning to a power source from a load. The current that flows through the coils or resistors in a three-phase system.

1-2.AC Fundamentals Review Workbook Section Quiz Answers 1-1. 2-4. 1-4. 1-6. 1-5. 2-1. RMS Current flow Inductive reactance a False (These answers may be in any order. Magnetic field c.) a. Add a metal core to a coiled conductor Inductive reactance Out of phase Frequency Hertz 1-3.) a. 2-6. 2-3. 2-5. Polarity (These answers may be in any order. Relative motion c True a. b. 2-7. Coil the conductor b. 2-2. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 47 . Conductor b.

4-7. 3-5. 3-4.200 watts 550 watts 4-1. 4-2. 3-7. 4-6. 3-3. 4-5.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 3-1. True Capacitive reactance is the measure of the opposition to current flow that is created by capacitance. 3-6. 4-3. T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 48 . Ohms b Charged True (These answers may be in either order. Current True a Does not Out of True Impedance Power factor 19. 4-4. Voltage b. 3-2.) a. 4-9. 4-8.

73 Equal T & D PowerSkills – Edition II Page 49 . 5-6.AC Fundamentals Review Answers (continued) 5-1. 5-2. 5-5. 5-3. Transformer a Phase True 1. 5-4.

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