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Ziegler-Nichols & Relay Tuning Experiments
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ŒY Y
The objectives of this experiment are:

a)Y To estimate a first-order dead-time process model from an open-loop step


response test for the Ziegler-Nichols open-loop method of tuning.
b)Y To obtain the ultimate gain and ultimate period from a relay experiment for
the Ziegler-Nichols ultimate cycling method of tuning
c)Y To estimate a transfer function model of the process from the ultimate gain
and ultimate period

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 Y
Œ. DIGIAC Œ  Transducer and Instrumentation Trainer
2. Connecting Wire
3. Digital Multi-meter
4. Personal Computer
. Matlab
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Œ. Obtain temperatures in degree Celsius using Equation (Œ) and subtract them from
the ambient temperature to give the temperatures above ambient in Table Œ.
2. Divide the temperatures above ambient by the input power u Œ2 (=8.492) and record
the step response, y, in Table Œ.

Refer to following page for Table Œ.

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 ÔY YY 
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Y Y YY
 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y !Y " Y Y Y  !Y Y #Y !#Y "Y Y
$$Y%Y&%Y Y Y Y Y Y "Y #Y " Y !Y Y  Y
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Y)Y YY Y # Y  Y # Y ##Y !!Y !# Y !Y  #"Y #!"#Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Y Y Y #Y #Y !Y !Y "Y "Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y  !Y Y Y Y Y Y !Y #Y
$$Y%Y&%Y Y Y Y "Y Y #Y #Y !Y !Y !"Y "Y
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Y)Y Y "! Y  "Y   !Y  #Y  !Y  " Y  "Y  "Y  #!Y  Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
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Y Y Y # Y #Y #!Y #Y !Y ! Y !Y !#Y !!Y !"Y
$$Y%Y&%Y Y "Y "Y ""Y Y  Y Y Y !Y "Y Y
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Y)Y Y  ""Y  ##Y  #" Y  ##Y  ##!Y  #!!"Y  ! Y  !!Y  !#Y  !#" Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
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Y Y Y "Y "Y "Y "Y "Y " Y "Y "Y "Y "Y
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Y)Y Y  !""#Y  !""#Y  " Y  " Y  " Y  "#Y  ""Y  ""Y  "#Y  "#Y
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Y Y Y "Y "Y "Y "Y "Y "#Y "#Y "!Y ""Y ""Y
$$Y%Y&%Y Y #Y #Y #Y #Y #Y !Y !Y "Y Y Y
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Y)Y Y  "!Y  "!Y  "!Y  "!Y  "!Y  "!"Y  "!"Y  ""#"Y  "Y  "Y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
 Y Y Y #Y #Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y "Y "Y "Y "Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
„teady state voltage vss = 3.Œ89 V
$$Y%Y&%Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
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(c) find a first-order plus dead-time transfer function model using the method of areas
Using the method of areas, we find A and AΠfrom the experimental unit step
response.
First, A is found with function trapz(t,y)
A = KP (T+L) § .3*26. ± trapz(t,y) = .3*26. ± 6.Œ9Œ = Œ. 9
From the graph.KP = .3 so T+L = Œ. 9$.3 = .86 § 6

Next, AΠis found by integrating y(t) from t = T+L to t = 


AŒ = trapz(tŒ,yŒ) where tŒ amd yŒ are data points from  to . minutes = .348
AŒ = KPTe-Œ= .348
„ince KP = .3, T = AŒ $(KPe-Œ) = 4.8
„ince T+L = .86, L = .86 ± T = Œ.Œ

Thus, the first-order plus dead-time model we obtain is:


KP e-sL$(sT+Œ) = .3e-Œ.Œs$(.86s +Œ)
Y(s) = .3e-Œ.Œs$s(.86s +Œ) for unit step input
y(t) =  for t < L
y(t) = .3(Œ ± e-(t-Œ.Œ)$.86 )
(d) superimpose the unit step response from the estimated first-order plus dead-time
model on the experimental data.
The graph obtained is shown below.

(e) find a first-order plus dead-time transfer function using least-square estimation,
Using least square approximation,
Œ= .9233, 2= .232
KP = 2 2$Œ- Œ = .326
T = h* Œ$Œ- Œ = 6.22Œ
Thus the Œst order plus dead-time model obtained using least squares approximation is
KP (Œ ± e-t$T) = .326 (Œ ± e-t$6.22Œ )
(f) superimpose the unit step response from the estimated first-order plus dead-time
model on the experimental data

The graph obtained is shown below.

. Determine the ultimate period, T u, the period of the relay oscillation from Table 2

Using steady state voltage vss = 3.Œ89 V

 YY  Y YYY YY


No. tON (Œ2V) tOFF (V)

Œ Œ:26: = 86. s Œ:2:63 = 8.63 s


2 Œ:26: = 86. s Œ:28:Œ9 = 88.Œ9 s
3 Œ:28:69 = 88.69 s Œ:3:4 = 9.4 s
Average 8 .23 s 88. s

Referring to Table 2, we can calculate ultimate period T u

Tu= tON+ tOFF= 8 .23 + 88. = Π.93 = 2.93 mins


6. Determine a, half the peak-to-peak amplitude of the temperature oscillations in
Table 3.

 YY  Y Y Y   YYY  Y


No. Maximum Temperature (°C) Minimum Temperature (°C)
Π4 . 4.
2 4 . 4.
3 4 .9 4.
Average 4 .8 4.

From Table 3, we can calculate half the peak-to-peak amplitude, a:

a = (4 .8-4)$2 = Œ.4 °C
. Calculate Ku, the ultimate gain
Ku = (4d)$(ʌa)
Õ 
= 4*( )$(ʌ*Œ.4)
= 6.

8. By inspecting the experimental data, give an estimate of the dead-time, L. Together


with Kp, Ku and Tu obtained previously, find a second-order plus dead-time transfer
function model:

    

Õ 


From the second-order plus dead-time transfer function, substitute s = jȦ (system


oscillating at marginal stability)
Given that the conditions for oscillation are   = Œ$Ku and arg =  , we
Õ  Õ
have:           
    Õ    Õ 
   

We have obtained previously Kp= .3, Ku = 6., Tu = 2.93 and by observing the
experimental data L = .63.
Thus      !" # and we obtain the equation:


$"%

&!" #
Õ &!" #
'("(
Now, given that arg =  , we have
 )  *+, Õ 
Õ  *+, Õ 
  
!" #$"'%  *+, Õ !" #
Õ  *+, Õ !" #
  

„olving the 2 equations simultaneously, we obtain



Õ  $"!--

  ("(
Thus the second order plus dead-time model is
$"%
    ."/0
$"!--  ("( 

9. „uperimpose the unit step response from the estimated second-order plus dead-time
model on the experimental data.

The graph obtained is shown below.