Bui l di ng Bul l eti n 90

LIGHTING DESIGN
FOR SCHOOLS
Architects & Building
Branch
Department for
Education and Employment
BUILDING BULLETIN 90
Lighting Design
for Schools
Architects and Building Branch
London: The Stationery Office
Acknowledgements
DfEE would like to thank the following authors:
David Loe, Professor Newton Watson, Edward Rowlands and Kevin Mansfield of
the Bartlett School of Architecture, Building, Environmental Design & Planning,
University College London, who started the research and wrote the original text;
Bob Venning of Ove Arup & Partners, Research & Development for updating the
text;
John Baker for the section on lighting for pupils with visual impairment.
DfEE would also like to thank :
Robin Aldworth formerly of Thorn Lighting Ltd.
John Lambert Gloucestershire County Council
Bob Bell formerly of Siemens Lighting Ltd.
Paul Ruffles Lighting Design and Technology, Bath
Professor Arnold Wilkins Department of Psychology, Visual Perception Unit,
University of Essex

DfEE Project Team
Mukund Patel Head of Architects and Building Branch
Chris Bissell Principal Architect
Richard Daniels Senior Engineer
Lucy Watson Principal Architect
Keith Gofton Senior Engineer, formerly of Architects &
Building Branch
Photographer: Philip Locker, Photo Graphic Design, Bolton
Macintosh File: Malcolm Ward, Malcolm Studio, Croydon
Cover photograph: Victoria Infants School, Sandwell Metropolitan
Borough Council [Photo: P. Locker]
Published with the permission of the DfEE on behalf of the Controller of Her
Majesty’s Stationery Office.
© Crown Copyright 1999
All rights reserved.
Copyright in the typographical arrangement and design is vested in the Crown.
Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit,
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich
NR3 1BQ
First published 1999
ISBN 0 11 271041 7
Contents
1. Introduction 1
2. Components of lighting design 3
2.1 Task/activity lighting 3
2.2 Lighting for visual amenity 5
2.3 Lighting and architectural integration 5
2.4 Lighting and energy efficiency 6
2.5 Lighting maintenance 7
2.6 Lighting costs 7
3. Lighting options 8
3.1 Natural lighting 8
3.2 Electric lighting 12
3.3 Combined or integrated daylighting and electric lighting 14
4. Lighting design guidance 15
4.1 Daylighting 15
4.1.1 Daylight quantity 17
4.1.2 Daylight quality 19
4.1.3 Glare 19
4.1.4 Sunlight control 21
4.1.5 Exterior visual contact 22
4.2 Electric Lighting 23
4.2.1 Glare 24
4.2.2 Flicker and high frequency operation 24
4.2.3 Veiling reflections 24
4.2.4 Distribution of light 25
4.2.5 Choice of lamp and luminaire 27
4.3 Integrated daylight and electric light 28
4.4 Aids to lighting design 29
5. Lighting for particular applications 31
5.1 Circulation areas 31
5.2 Areas with display screen equipment 34
5.3 Science work and laboratories 36
5.4 Design and technology rooms and workshops 37
5.5 Libraries 37
5.6 Art rooms 38
5.7 Sports halls and gymnasia 38
5.8 General purpose halls (examination, assembly, performances and PE)
and drama & dance studios 40
5.9 The lighting of chalkboards 41
5.10 Lighting and visual aids 42
5.11 Lighting for pupils with visual and hearing impairments 42
5.12 Local task lighting 45
5.13 Exterior lighting 45
5.14 Emergency lighting 47
Contents
6. Check-list for lighting design 48
6.1 Task/activity lighting 48
6.2 Lighting for visual amenity 48
6.3 Lighting and architectural integration 48
6.4 Lighting and energy efficiency 48
6.5 Lighting maintenance 49
6.6 Lighting costs 49
6.7 Exterior and emergency lighting 49
Appendices: 50
1. School Premises Regulations and DfEE Constructional
standards for new school buildings 50
2. Lighting and health 51
3. Lamps 52
4. Control gear 55
5. Luminaires 56
6. Lighting controls 60
7. Disposal of used lamps 62
8. Examples of lighting design strategies 64
8.1 Site analysis 64
8.2 A typical classroom 67
8.3 An atrium 71
Glossary 77
Bibliography 81
The best school environments
give an impression of liveliness, with
attractive spaces and a general feeling of
pleasantness which it is difficult to define.
There can be no doubt that in these
cases the surroundings contribute to the
happiness and well-being of teachers and
pupils, and that lighting plays a significant
if not the leading role. Lighting (both
natural and electric) will be recognised as
an essential contribution if it stems from
and encourages the fulfilment of school
activities.
The aim of good lighting rather than
being a purely formal exercise to provide
enough illumination to enable building
users to go about their tasks safely and
comfortably, though this must always
be a prime aim, is to create a pleasant
environment which enhances the building
form and is in sympathy with the
architectural intention.
Natural lighting during daylight hours
should always be the major source,
supplemented when it fades by electric
light which will take over during hours
of darkness. The reasons for this need
for natural light stem both from the
important link with the outside which
windows provide and the essential
character of daylight and its changing
value throughout the teaching day which
electric light cannot replicate. Though
desirable, it is not always possible to
combine arrangements for admitting
daylight with views out, although some
window area for views out is essential;
teaching and spatial needs sometimes call
for glazed internal spaces, for example
where natural light is admitted through
clerestories and/or rooflights. In these
cases, often called atria, it appears that if
the internal view is sufficiently long there
is no necessity for an extensive external
view, provided that they are not used for
excessively long periods of teaching.
Window design, particularly in our
northern climate, forms a crucial part of
the architect's vocabulary, requiring a
delicate balance between formal decisions,
on proportion for example, and functional
considerations. Surprisingly, though much
of the internal and external character
of buildings derives from fenestration
design, one often finds otherwise
attractive environments being marred by a
disruption of this balance. Underglazing
can make interior spaces dismal and
gloomy, whilst overglazing can create
excessive solar gain in summer and
excessive heat loss in winter with
attendant discomfort. Lack of attention
Section 1: Introduction
1
in determining particular aims, to the
structure of lighting design. It then goes
on to consider various lighting options
available and the implications resulting
from them. The section on lighting
design aims to provide positive guidance
where appropriate, but not to stifle
creativity.
Towards the end of the publication
a check-list has been included. This is
to help the designer to ensure that no
aspect has been overlooked. It will also
be helpful to school staff to derive the
most benefit from the lighting provided
in terms of the use of spaces and the
maintenance of these systems.
The publication addresses the lighting
of both primary and secondary schools
but it does not differentiate between
them.
All schools have a range of spaces,
many of which are used for a number
of different activities, either at the same
time or at different times. It is important
therefore for the designer to identify the
particular activities that will, or are likely
to take place in each of the spaces, in
order to achieve appropriate lighting. A
large part of the document concentrates
on the ‘general teaching spaces’, with
additional information for areas with
specific requirements.
No differentiation has been made
between lighting design for new and
refurbished buildings, although the
opportunities available to the designer will
not be exactly similar, as the fundamental
lighting requirements are the same in
both cases.
It is hoped that this bulletin will
provide designers with advice and
guidance to help them develop successful
schools in the future.
to detailed window design can result
in poor visual conditions, inefficient
ventilation and an unattractive space.
The design of electric lighting is part
of the whole architectural scheme, but
sufficient care is not always taken to
provide the necessary visual variety and
stimulation, though schemes are usually
adequate quantitively.
One of the attributes of electric
lighting inherently absent from natural
light is its flexibility to demand, a feature
which can be harnessed in certain cases
to enhance the brightness of vertical
planes in positions adjacent to and away
from window walls, a fact which can be
exploited and used to good effect as a
supplement to natural side lighting.
It is necessary to understand the
means by which daylight is admitted to
schools and to have an overview of the
characteristics of electric lighting systems.
The two are interdependent and in the
best designs this fact is understood and
acted upon.
The aim of this bulletin is to give
advice and examples of how a proper
synthesis can be and is achieved. The
bulletin has a ‘layered approach’. It
takes the reader from the basic range of
lighting considerations which will help
Section 1: Introduction
2
2.1 Task/Activity Lighting
Functional lighting or task lighting is
that which enables users to carry out
their various tasks and activities easily
and without visual discomfort and it is
important that the designer assesses these
requirements carefully.
For general teaching spaces a level
of light is required which makes it easy
to carry out quite small and difficult
tasks. Reading and writing, typical
school activities, require a minimum
level of illuminance with a relatively high
illuminance uniformity over the task
area. Higher levels should be used for
more detailed work and for particularly
demanding visual tasks, such as using a
machine in the workshop or studying
fine detail in the art room. The higher
levels can be provided by using an
adjustable task light to supplement the
general illuminance in the particular area
required (Fig. 2) or by providing localised
lighting to complement the general or
ambient lighting. Localised lighting is
permanently installed lighting equipment
In considering the design it is necessary
to take into account a range of different
and perhaps conflicting requirements and
to do this bearing in mind the possible
constraints. It is also necessary to consider
the overall architectural concept and in
turn the determinants which will enable
it to be achieved. Whilst each element is
important, and must be considered, the
emphasis placed on each facet may not
be equal.
Figure 1 illustrates the main areas of
consideration for lighting design, together
with the determining features and an
indication of how they relate to each
other. The following parts of this section
describe the elements of the framework to
help the designer to develop a strategy.
Section 2: Components of Lighting Design
3
The lighting design for a school needs to provide a
lit environment which is appropriate for the particular
interior and indeed exterior, achieving lighting which
enables students and staff to carry out their particular
activities easily and comfortably in attractive and
stimulating surroundings.
Figure 1: Framework showing
main components of lighting
design & determining factors.
LIGHTING
DESIGN
LIGHTING & ARCHITECTURAL
INTEGRATION
Natural lighting design
Appearance of lighting equipment
Electrical lighting installation
Lighting controls
Integration of natural & electric lighting
TASK/ACTIVITY LIGHTING
Task illuminance
Task illuminance uniformity
Colour rendering
Discomfort glare
Disability glare
Flicker
LIGHTING COSTS
Capital costs of installation
Running costs of installation
LIGHTING MAINTENANCE
Lamp replacement
Luminaire type
Cleaning & redecoration programme
Lamp disposal
LIGHTING & ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Natural lighting design - windows,etc
Lamp type
Luminaire type
Lighting controls
Integration of natural & electric lighting
LIGHTING FOR VISUAL AMENITY
Light pattern
Overall lightness
Colour appearance
Discomfort glare
Disability glare
Flicker
External & internal view
Figure 2: Use of
supplementary local task
lighting. [Photo: P. Locker]
which provides the increased illuminance
where and when it is required (Fig 3).
If, however, it is impossible to define
the area where a higher illuminance may
be required, then it will be necessary to
provide the increased illuminance over the
whole area.
Another aspect of task lighting which
needs to be considered is helping to
define the three-dimensional qualities of
the task, ie, its shape and surface texture.
This will demand a directional quality in
the lighting, ie, a flow of light, and can
be provided for example by natural light
from side windows or electric lighting
used to enhance the brightness of a
vertical surface.
Colour plays an important role in
learning and light sources should have a
good colour rendering performance: this
will enable accurate colour judgements
to be made. Because this requirement
is necessary for a number of school
activities, eg, art, science and craft
subjects, it is recommended that a good
colour rendering light source is used in all
teaching spaces.
Colour and contrast are particularly
important to the hearing impaired and
the visually impaired (see 5.11). For
example, downlights in reception or
teaching areas produce harsh shadows
which obstruct lip reading, and use of
electrical socket outlets with backplates of
contrasting colour located at a standard
height is helpful to the visually impaired.
Visual comfort is also very important,
and to avoid the possibility of eye strain
and headaches it is necessary to limit the
brightness range within the normal field
of view. Discomfort can be caused for
example by electric lighting equipment,
views of the sky, or of bright lights being
reflected in the task such as a computer
screen or glossy reading material. Direct
sunlight can also be a problem in this
respect depending on the orientation
of the window and its design, and it is
important that these potentially glaring
sources are avoided. Another aspect of
visual comfort is concerned with flicker
from discharge lamps which, in some
cases, has been shown in recent research
to cause discomfort. It is possible now to
use luminaires that operate at very high
Section 2: Components of Lighting Design
4
Figure 3: Complementary
localised lighting using lines
of suspended fluorescent
luminaires and display spotlights
either side of a central rooflight
fitted with louvre blinds (see
also Fig. 22). [Photo: P. Locker]
frequencies and largely overcome this
problem.
It is essential to analyse the task/
activity requirement before designing
the lighting.
2.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity
Providing suitable lighting for the tasks
and activities of a school is of course
important, but it is equally important
to provide lighting that enhances the
appearance of the space – lighting for
visual amenity. To do this, it is necessary
to light the space so that it appears
‘bright’ and ‘interesting’. Light surfaces,
particularly the walls and perhaps the
ceiling too, contribute to this impression.
It is also desirable to achieve a degree of
non-uniformity in the light pattern, as
spaces which have areas of light and shade
are generally liked, but it is important for
this variation in brightness not to be too
great, otherwise poor visibility or even
visual discomfort may result.
The colour appearance of the electric
light will also need to be considered
because different lamp types produce
different degrees of ‘warmth’ or ‘coolness’.
Throughout a school, not only will
there be a need for bright and airy spaces,
modulated with light and shade, but
there will also be a need for areas that are
more private and secluded. An example
of this is a story-telling area in a primary
school. In this case the designer may like
to consider providing an internal space lit
only by electric lighting where the pattern
of light is arranged to accent the story
teller. A similar effect could be produced
with a small rooflight. A corridor or an
entrance area are other places where the
light pattern should vary to provide small
display areas for objects or pictures. The
display areas would need to be the bright
so that they attract attention.
Whilst direct sunlight on the task area
can be a problem, an additional considera-
tion in visual amenity is the enhancement
of the environment by the appearance of
sunlit areas; these could be in circulation
spaces or in the exterior view.
Lighting for visual amenity is as
important as task lighting and
depends on the balance and
composition of light and shade.
2.3 Lighting and Architectural
Integration
The lighting of a building, both natural
and electric, should enhance the
architecture, and to achieve this, the
electric lighting installation should be
an integral part of the whole and not an
appendage. Equipment should be selected
to harmonise with the architectural
concept and this applies equally to electric
lighting equipment and the detailed
design of windows. In addition, the
Section 2: Components of Lighting Design
5
Figure 4: Tipton Infants’
school, Sandwell. Combination
of side window, clerestory
light and linear electric lighting
system. [Photo: P. Locker]
from the users’ point of view, and be
energy efficient, it will need to have
the controlling switches designed and
positioned to fit in with the use and shape
of the space. By considering this aspect
early in the design process the controlling
circuits can be organised to allow the
electric lighting to complement the
natural lighting in a positive and energy
effective way. They can also be organised
to respond to the uses of the space, eg,
providing accent lighting on separate
circuits to the general lighting. All these
matters are dealt with later.
Both electric and natural lighting must
be an integral part of the architecture.
2.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency
An effective and efficient use of energy
is an important aspect of any lighting
proposal and school buildings are no
exception. This is in order to minimise
the use of primary energy and hence
reduce carbon dioxide emissions and also,
of course, to reduce the running cost of
each lighting installation.
Figure 5: Pattern of light
enhancing the building form.
Farnborough Grange Junior
School. [Photo: Martin Charles]
pattern of light must enhance the building
form and be in sympathy with it, care being
taken to ensure that projected patterns of
light respond to this need. (Fig 5)
It has already been stressed that most
parts of a school should appear bright
and interesting, and that whilst lighting
can make a major contribution to this,
the reflectance and colour of the main
surfaces will also have a major effect. It
is suggested that the main surfaces of the
interior are light in colour if the space
is to appear light. If however there is a
requirement for a more secluded space
then darker finishes may be used. The
use of strong surface colours should not
be discounted but they need to be used
sparingly.
One of the most important reflecting
surfaces in a building is the floor and it
is important to have this light in colour.
Light carpets are likely to suffer early
deterioration in general teaching spaces
but there are other materials which have
both a light finish and can be easily
cleaned.
For the lighting to function well
6
Section 2: Components of Lighting Design
When planning energy efficiency
in lighting it is necessary to consider
daylighting and electric lighting both
individually and in conjunction with
one another. An extensive use of natural
lighting can provide considerable energy
savings but daylight is not ‘free’ and
the other environmental aspects of
large glazed areas must be taken into
account. Similarly, by the careful selection
of energy efficient electric lighting
equipment, installed in an energy effective
way, together with controls which
encourage the use of electric lighting only
when it is required, an energy efficient
lighting system can be achieved. It would
be futile to create such an energy efficient
scheme if the result was compromised in
terms of performance and appearance.
In these circumstances, users will
often attempt to improve the lighting
themselves, and perhaps, in doing so,
destroy the energy efficiency planned.
An effective use of energy in lighting is
an essential part of lighting design.
2.5 Lighting Maintenance
During the life of a lighting installation
the amount of light it produces will
diminish. This reduction is caused mainly
by dirt building up on the lamps, the
luminaires, or in the case of natural
lighting, on the windows. There will also
be a reduction caused by dirt build-up
on the internal surfaces of the rooms,
diminishing their reflectance. Lamp light
output will also reduce with ageing.
These reductions in lighting levels
will need to be minimised if energy and
money are not to be wasted, and to do
this it is important to pay attention at the
design stage to the proper maintenance
of the lighting installation and of the
building itself. This aspect should be
discussed in advance with the users of the
building to ensure that they are aware of
the proposed maintenance strategy
and its implications and obtain their
co-operation.
Poor maintenance is a cause of bad
lighting and is also a waste of energy
and money.
2.6 Lighting Costs
The cost of lighting can be divided
into two parts; the capital cost of the
equipment including its installation and
the running costs which include both
maintenance and the cost of energy.
It is important that both aspects are
considered when the lighting is being
designed. In terms of capital cost, the
amount will be small compared to the
total cost of the building and yet lighting
has a major effect on its appearance
and operation, and economies need to
be considered carefully to ensure that
they are not false economies. Energy
and maintenance costs are a continuing
burden on the operation of a school and
need to be taken into account at the
design stage to ensure that they can be
kept at an acceptable level.
For many schools, the two cost
elements may be borne by different
bodies which can result in a conflict of
interests. It is important therefore that
the lighting designer produces a scheme
which takes a balanced view of energy and
cost efficiency, considering both capital
and running costs.
Consider both capital and running
costs in concert and avoid false
economies.
7
Section 2: Components of Lighting Design
Swimming pool luminaires
over pool surround for ease
of maintenance and safety
(broken glass is a hazard).
Figure 6: Options and
elements to be considered in
lighting design.
Section 3: Lighting Options
8
The diagram above shows the main
lighting options - natural lighting, electric
lighting or a combination of the two,
together with the elements which need
to be considered. These are examined in
more detail in the following sections.
3.1 Natural Lighting
Unless there are over-riding
educational reasons for not doing so
in certain rooms, the school designer
should assume that daylight will be
the prime means of lighting when it is
available. This is both because of the
unique quality of natural light and the
link with the external environment
which windows of all types provide.
However, in addition to providing
daylighting and a view out, windows can
be a source of annoyance and sometimes
discomfort, for instance when there is
a particularly bright sky or when there
is sun penetration which disrupts the
activities within the space. Both skylight
and sunlight need to be considered, and
the building should be planned to take
account of space organisation in relation
to orientation. Windows can also have
an effect on other environmental factors,
particularly thermal comfort, fresh air
supply, energy efficiency and noise
intrusion. It can be seen therefore that
windows are a complex part of building
design and need careful consideration for
maximum benefit and pleasure together
with minimum dissatisfaction.
The means for admitting daylight can
be broadly classified as follows (Fig 8):
Side windows have the advantage
that they permit a view of the outside,
provided that their heads and cills are at
the correct level and that there are no
Lamps
Luminaires
Lighting controls
Lighting installation
Room orientation
External obstruction
Sun-screening & re-direction
Windows in relation to view
Rooflights & clerestories
Atria & borrowed light
Room size and shape
Furnishings
Room surface colours
& reflectances
Maintenance
INTEGRATED LIGHTING DESIGN
NATURAL
LIGHTING DESIGN
ELECTRIC
LIGHTING DESIGN
Figure 7: Combination of
side and top light. Berrywood
Primary School, Hedge End,
Hampshire. [Photo: Joe Low]
contrast as do clerestory windows, and
to give the same information about the
external environment. They have the
tendency to provide a more even pattern
of light. It goes without saying that
simple rooflights can only be employed in
single storey buildings or on the top floor
of multi-storey buildings. Light-wells
are however a possibility in multi-storey
buildings (Fig 12).
Borrowed lights. In certain cases, where
rooms open off a corridor which is top
lit for example, or are arranged around a
top lit larger space or atrium, borrowed
light can make a contribution to the
light levels in areas remote from window
walls (Figs 11 and 12). Although the
supplement is often quite small it can help
to improve the appearance of the space
quite considerably.
Figure 9: Detailed window
design to avoid obstruction
of view.
9
intrusive transoms to obstruct this view
at sitting and standing eye level positions
for children and adults (Fig 9). It is more
usual for trees, other buildings and rising
ground to cause an obstruction in the
case of side windows, though there is of
course an externally reflected component
of light from these obstructions.
The shape and position of windows
affects the way in which daylight is
distributed, wide shallow windows giving
a broad distribution and tall narrow
windows a deep but narrow distribution
for instance (Fig 10).
.Clerestory windows admit light from
the brighter part of the sky and this is
unlikely to be obstructed: an important
feature of clerestory windows or of any
high level window is that they can provide
daylight deep into a space.
However, there is a higher probability
of the contrast between inside and outside
causing glare. They will probably not
give a direct outside view but do provide
information about weather conditions
- cloud formation etc. Clerestory
windows are usually found in single storey
buildings or in those with a complex
section (Fig 8).
Rooflights also admit light from the
highest and brightest part of the sky, and
will not generally be affected by external
obstruction; they need the same care
in design to take account of glare from
Figure 8: Window types.
c
c
b
a
d
d
d
a. Side windows
b. Clerestory windows
c. Rooflights
d. Borrowed lights
a
b
c
a. care over cill height
b. care over transom position
c. care over window head height and external projection
Section 3: Lighting Options
Figure 10: Indicates the
relationship between window/
rooflight shape and position,
and light distribution.
Atria. These are large internal spaces
with rooflights or clerestory windows.
In schools, they are usually single or
double height spaces and have the
advantage of providing attractive views
for the spaces around their perimeter,
although the amount of light penetration
to these spaces may be small, particularly
at ground floor level. The atrium
can be used for a variety of teaching
purposes, but care will need to be taken
over thermal comfort, ie, heat loss in
winter and heat gain in summer. These
problems can be overcome with careful
consideration of sun penetration and
sun control, together with the design of
the roof, selection of glazing materials
and the design of natural ventilation
using the stack effect. The view into the
atrium and the appearance of the atrium
itself may be improved by planting.
However, care needs to be taken to
ensure that the environment is suitable
for the plants selected. Care will also need
to be taken to avoid visual discomfort
through overglazing and some form of
blinds may be necessary. Some of these
considerations are discussed further in the
10
w/w
w/w
Wide distribution Deep distribution
Wide distribution away from window
Corner windows also light window walls(w/w)
reducing contrast
Concentration on horizontal plane Rooflight highlights the adjacent wall
Section 3: Lighting Options
Figure 11: Diagram showing
borrowed light from rooflight
‘R’ helping to light rooms ‘A’
and ‘B’ by direct and reflected
light.
illustrative example in Appendix 8.3.
For all these window types, the sun’s
angle at various times of day and year
should be studied as sun penetration
can present a problem. However, the
benefits provided by the appearance of
sunlit views, particularly in non-task areas,
should not be overlooked (Fig 12).
Windows provide a considerable
benefit to school buildings: consider
skylight, sunlight, views out and other
related environmental matters
11
Figure 12: Borrowed light
to rooms from central atrium.
Bottom left: Fareham Tertiary
College. [Photo: Joe Low]
Right: Whitefield School,
ground and first floors, with
light wells to ground floor
corridor. [Photo: P. Locker]
R
A
B
Section 3: Lighting Options
3.2 Electric Lighting
When daylight fades, on dull days
and during the hours of darkness, it is
necessary to turn to electric lighting.
Here, as in daylighting, there are
many options. The areas that need to
be considered are the light sources,
the luminaires, the controls and the
installation itself.
The most common light source found
in schools is the linear fluorescent type
which can be used to provide a relatively
even pattern of light. These lamps can
give good colour performance, ie, colour
rendering and colour appearance, good
efficacy and good optical and electrical
control. The more recently introduced
compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) can
be used either for general lighting or
for task and accent lighting, and the
smaller versions are a good alternative to
tungsten filament lamps. These lamps also
provide good colour performance and
good efficacy but only a few can currently
be dimmed.
The tungsten filament lamp together
with the linear halogen lamp have been
used extensively in the past, particularly
for their low capital cost, compact size,
good colour performance and ease of
control. These lamps however do have
a poor efficacy and a relatively short life
and the designer would be well advised
to consider compact fluorescent lamps
as an alternative. Reflector lamps which
include low voltage versions (12 volts
supplied from a small transformer) and
have an integral reflector are available for
special display purposes. These reflector
lamps have a longer life than the tungsten
filament type but are much less efficient
than the CFL type.
The last group of lamps considered
here is the high pressure discharge type.
This includes high pressure sodium, high
pressure mercury fluorescent and high
pressure metal halide lamps. Within this
group the lamps vary in terms of colour
rendering and colour appearance and
this needs to be considered in making a
selection for a particular situation. It is
also important to note that these lamps
have a time delay before reaching their
full light output after being switched on
and in restriking after being switched off.
The selection of luminaires will depend
on the level and pattern of light required.
The level of light or illuminance, will
depend on the light output intensity of
the luminaire and its distribution. The
distribution can be first considered by
reference to the simple categories
shown in Table 1 below.
This is a relatively simple classification
of a luminaire’s light output distribution
but it will help the designer to appreciate
the type of light pattern that will result.
It should be noted that some luminaires
do not have a symmetrical light output
distribution, ie, wall washing luminaires
and wall mounted indirect luminaires.
The equipment selected should be
12
Category Upward Light
Direct 0 - 10%
Semi-direct 10 - 40%
General diffusing 40 - 60%
Direct-Indirect 40 - 60%
Semi-indirect 60 - 90%
Indirect 90 - 100%
Table 1: Distribution of light
from luminaires (see diagrams
in Appendix 5).
Section 3: Lighting Options
chosen to be in sympathy with the
architecture. It is necessary to consider
the way that luminaires are installed, ie,
surface mounted on the ceiling or walls,
recessed into the ceiling, or integrated
into the building structure in some other
way (Fig 13).
A common method of lighting
schools is to use a regular array of ceiling
mounted or suspended luminaires. These
will provide a general wash of light which
may be acceptable for lighting the task
but will produce an even pattern of light
which can often appear bland. If these
are individually mounted or suspended,
they will tend to make the ceiling appear
cluttered. This can be overcome by using
one of the continuous lighting systems
which can combine direct, indirect and/
or accent lighting (Fig 13).
Ceiling recessed luminaires are another
possibility and they produce a more
integrated appearance, but because they
are recessed they provide no direct light
on to the ceiling, and this can make the
space appear underlit. However, if this
type of installation is used with a high
reflectance floor, then it may be perfectly
acceptable.
Indirect or uplighting luminaires can
be used which will generally produce
13
Figure 13: Top: Burnham
Copse Infants’ School
[Photo: R Brooks, Hampshire
County Council]
Left: Victoria Infants’ School,
Sandwell M.B.C.
[Photo: P. Locker]
Section 3: Lighting Options
‘light’ ceilings and shadowless lighting.
It has already been stressed that some
of the internal building surfaces should
appear ‘light’, particularly walls and
ceilings. To achieve this it will sometimes
be necessary to light preferentially these
surfaces by using wall-washing luminaires
and uplighting. However this approach
must not be applied to all such surfaces
or the lighting will appear bland and
uninteresting.
The most effective electric lighting
installations are those comprising different
elements which combine in terms of task
and appearance, eg, general lighting, task
lighting and accent lighting.
Although electric lighting depends
primarily on the equipment, it is necessary
to take into account the reflectance of the
main surfaces of the space as well as the
furnishings, and also the possible light
obstruction caused by the furniture and
other objects within the building.
The electric lighting installation must
provide for visual ability and amenity,
be an effective use of energy and be in
sympathy with the overall design of
the building.
3.3 Combined or Integrated
Daylighting and Electric Lighting
In school buildings most of the spaces
will be predominantly daylit, with electric
lighting taking over on dull days and
at night. There will however be some
spaces which have some daylight, but
not always sufficient over the whole area.
In these cases, it will be necessary to
employ a system combining both daylight
and electric lighting which is used as
and when required. It will be necessary
to consider the distribution of daylight
together with the complementary electric
lighting distribution to ensure they
enhance one another. However, it will
not be sufficient to provide a combined
lighting system that only gives a uniform
horizontal plane illuminance. It will also
be necessary for the electric lighting
installation to create the sensation of
brightness in the areas remote from the
windows. For this it will be necessary to
highlight surfaces, particularly the walls.
For combined lighting installations
consider both the task and the
appearance effects.
14
Section 3: Lighting Options
Left: Queen Elizabeth School,
Alford, Lincs.
Right: Victoria Infants’ School,
Sandwell M.B.C.
[Photo: P. Locker]
Figure 14: Daylight factor
components
4.1 Daylighting
As mentioned earlier, it is generally
considered that schools should have
natural lighting whenever possible.
Natural lighting, however, is very variable
and for design purposes, direct sunlight
is excluded and an overcast sky with a
defined luminance distribution is specified:
in the UK, the CIE (Commission
Internationale de l'Eclairage) Standard
Overcast Sky distribution is used.
The design measure used is the
Daylight Factor which is the percentage
of the horizontal diffuse illuminance
outdoors from an unobstructed sky
hemisphere which is received at a point
indoors: there are three components
- the component received directly
from the sky (Sky Component), the
component received by reflection from
external surfaces (Externally Reflected
Component) and the component received
by reflection from internal surfaces
(Internally Reflected Component) (Fig
14). The Daylight Factor will vary
within a space depending on a number
of parameters including the size and
disposition of the glazing, the dimensions
of the space, the reflectance of the interior
surfaces and the degree of external
obstruction.
Interiors with an Average Daylight Factor
of 5% or more are considered to be day-
lit rooms and will not normally require
electric lighting.
Interiors where the Average Daylight
Factor is below 2% will require frequent
use of electric lighting.
Interiors where the Average Daylight
Factor is between 2% and 5% will require
some electric lighting between October
and March. To take full advantage of the
available daylight will require an automatic
daylight linked control system.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
15
The Average Daylight Factor (DF) can be
estimated from the following formula:
DF =
T W 5 %
A (1 - R
2
)
Where:
T = diffuse transmittance of glazing material
including effects of dirt (see note)
W = net glazed area of window (m
2
)
5= angle in degrees subtended, in the
vertical plane normal to the window, by
sky visible from the centre of the window
(Fig 15)
A = total area of interior surfaces including
windows (m
2
)
R = area-weighted average reflectance of
interior surfaces, including windows
(see Table 3)
Note: Typical transmittance values for clean,
clear single and double glazing are 0.80 and
0.65 respectively. For the value T, the glass
transmittance will need to be multiplied by a
factor to take account of dirt on the glass:
suitable correction factors are given in table 2.
Sky component
Externally reflected component
Internally reflected component
More paint colours and materials are
given in Tables 5.8 and 5.9 of the CIBSE
Code for Interior Lighting. Information
for other glasses and particular surface
finishes should be obtained from
manufacturers.
The glazing area for a required Average
Daylight Factor can be obtained from a
re-arranged formula.
The above formula is applicable to
vertical glazing and to some rooflights:
rooflights which have an upstand or skirt
require an additional term to take account
of inter-reflection and absorption (see
CIBSE Applications Manual: Window
Design).
It is also useful to consider the
uniformity of the daylight. The
Uniformity Ratio is defined as the
Minimum Daylight Factor/Average
Daylight Factor. A Uniformity Ratio in
the range 0.3 to 0.4 is recommended for
side-lit rooms. Where spaces are top-lit,
eg, atria, then higher uniformities should
be expected of the order of 0.7.
The Minimum Daylight Factor value,
required for the estimation of the
Uniformity Ratio, can be obtained
by means of one of the commercially
available computer programs or using
one of a number of tabular or diagram
calculation methods which are described
in Part B1 of CIBSE Applications
Manual: Window Design. The position of
the Minimum Daylight Factor can usually
be estimated from a study of the room
plan relative to the window placing.
The purpose of using the daylight
16
Figure 15: Angle 5which
defines visible sky from centre
of window/rooflight
Table 2: Correction factors to
transmittance values for dirt
on glass.
Correction factors for dirt on glass.
Type of Vertical Sloping Horizontal
location glazing glazing glazing
clean 0.9 0.8 0.7
industrial 0.7 0.6 0.5
very dirty 0.6 0.5 0.4
Table 3: Approximate
reflectance values for various
surface finishes.
Reflectance values will vary depending on
the surface finish: approximate values for
some paints and materials are given in the
following table.
Paint colours Reflectance
White 0.85
Pale cream 0.8
Light grey 0.7
Mid-grey 0.45
Dark grey 0.15
Dark brown 0.1
Black 0.05
Internal materials
White paper 0.8
Carpet 0.45 - 0.1
Brickwork 0.3 - 0.2
Quarry tiles 0.1
Window glass 0.1
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
5
5
Figure 16: No-sky line: locus
of points beyond which there
is no direct light from the sky.
Uniformity Ratio as part of the design
criteria is to ensure that a daylit room
does not have any areas which will appear
dark. Another way of considering this
aspect of design is to take account of
the ‘No-sky line’. This is the line, on
the floor or horizontal working plane,
beyond which no direct light from the
sky will reach. The area beyond this line
will usually receive very low levels of
natural light and this will usually require
supplementary electric lighting (Fig 16).
4.1.1 Daylight Quantity
By the definition of Daylight Factor (DF),
the illuminance provided by the daylight
can be determined from:
The Window Orientation Factor is
introduced because even with overcast
skies, there is a noticeable variation in
luminance, with the southern sky having
the greatest effect. Values of Orientation
Factor are given in the following table
(for a 09.00 - 17.00 day):
Orientation Orientation
of Window Factor
North 0.97
East 1.15
South 1.55
West 1.21
For intermediate orientation, linear interpolation
can be used.
In determining the illuminance
provided by daylight, the variability of
the exterior illuminance must be taken
into consideration, and Figures 17 and 18
provide data on the availability of daylight
for a typical year for both London and
Edinburgh.
17
working plane
'no sky' point
Table 4: Window orientation
factors for calculation of
interior illuminance.
9.00 - 16.00
9.00 - 17.00
9.00 - 19.00
diffuse illuminance (klx)
100
%
80
60
40
20
0
0 20 40 60 80
percentage of year
for which a given
diffuse illuminance
is exceeded
Figure 17: Daylight availability
for three different lengths of
day in London.
Interior
Illuminance
(lux)
Exterior
Illuminance
(lux)
DF
100
Orientation
Factor
= x x
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
‘no-sky’ point
percentage of year
for which a given
diffuse illuminance
is exceeded
diffuse illuminance (lux x 1000)
In order to achieve the daylight
recommendations in rooms lit from one
side, it can be useful in single-storey
buildings and the top floor of multi-
storey buildings to consider the additional
use of rooflights or clerestory lights
remote from the windows. This can
produce an improved distribution of light
in the space (Fig 19). The estimation
of the combined effect of the individual
parts for the average daylight factor can
be made using the method described
above. (For further details see CIBSE
Applications Manual: Window Design).
However, when the daylight
recommendations cannot be satisfactorily
achieved, recourse must be made to the
integration of electric lighting with the
daylighting (see 4.3 below).
By providing good natural lighting,
considerable energy savings can be made,
but, as stated earlier, natural lighting
is not ‘free’. Large areas of glazing can
result in considerable heat loss in winter
and heat gain in summer, and can also
cause visual discomfort. These problems
can be successfully overcome if all aspects
of window performance are properly
18
Figure 19: Queen's Inclosure
Middle School, Cowplain,
showing use of rooflight in
centre of building. [Photo: R
Brooks, Hampshire County
Council]
9.00 - 16.00
9.00 - 17.00
9.00 - 19.00
diffuse illuminance (klx)
100
%
80
60
40
20
0
0 20 40 60 80
percentage of year
for which a given
diffuse illuminance
is exceeded
Figure 18: Daylight availability
for three different lengths of
day in Edinburgh.
Note: Figures 17 and 18 from
BS8206: Part 2: 1992 are
reproduced with the permission of
BSI. Copies of complete standards
can be obtained by post from BSI
Publications, Linford Wood, Milton
Keynes, MK14 6LE.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
diffuse illuminance (lux x 1000)
considered early in the design process.
This may mean including double glazing
or one of the new glasses which have a
high effective thermal insulation (which
can also reduce noise interference from
the exterior). Whilst many provisions,
including blinds and sunshading devices,
will increase the initial building cost,
they have the potential of considerably
reducing running costs, and a balanced
view needs to be taken.
The build-up of dirt on glazing will
gradually reduce the amount of daylight
entering an interior, and windows and
rooflights need regular cleaning: it must
be easy to reach them or maintenance
is likely to be poor or expensive.
Experience indicates that both surfaces
of external glazing should be cleaned at
least once a term, the frequency being
greater in districts which have a high
level of airborne dirt. (It should also
be appreciated that children's work
displayed on external glazing will reduce
the daylight in the room). Surfaces of
rooms will also need regular cleaning
and redecorating to maintain the level of
reflected light.
Note: In the past many schools have
suffered from poor environmental
conditions. It seemed that they had
either an appropriate daylighting
performance and an uncomfortable
thermal environment or vice versa. The
reason for this condition was usually
a lack of an overall design solution. It
is important to remember that in this
country the daylighting and thermal
conditions vary considerably throughout
the year and the building design needs
to be able to take account of these
variations. For example, if a window is
large enough to provide sufficient light
in winter together with acceptable view
conditions, then it is possible it may
provide over-heating and discomfort glare
in summer. To overcome this possible
problem, some form of adjustable
external sun-screening may be necessary
as well as adequate natural ventilation. To
minimise heat loss in winter the window
must have appropriate thermal insulation
(U-value). As mentioned earlier, this
may well require double glazing or one
of the new glasses which minimise heat
loss through the use of special coatings.
It will also be necessary to ensure that
the other elements of the building, ie,
the roof and walls, minimise heat loss
and heat gain. It is important to stress
that the environmental performance of
the building needs to be considered in
an holistic way to ensure an acceptable
performance at all times.
4.1.2 Daylight Quality
In addition to providing the right
quantity of light, daylight can give to
an interior a particular unique character.
Some of this is due to the variability of
the daylight including sunlight: also, the
distribution of the light enhances the
visual field. The directional properties
of light from side windows (the ‘flow of
light’ across the room) are a significant
attribute contributing to the modelling
of the interior, including objects within
it and surface textures, and providing
brightness to vertical surfaces, the amount
depending on the reflectance. Some
variability across room surfaces is also
important (Fig 4).
It is recommended that the reflectance
of the wall surface finish should not
be less than 0.6 because the effective
wall reflectance will be reduced by the
presence of furniture and pin-up material.
With regard to the ceiling, in order to
enhance the daylit appearance of a space,
the reflectance of the ceiling surface finish
should be as high as possible, and at least
0.7.
4.1.3 Glare
One of the most important aspects
of obtaining a satisfactory interior
environment is to provide a balanced
luminance distribution - some contrast
but not excessive. If the luminance of the
sky seen through a window is very high
and close to the line of sight of a visual
task of much lower luminance, disability
glare can occur due to a reduction in the
task contrast making details impossible to
see and thus reducing task performance.
An example of disability glare can occur
where there is a window in a wall on
19
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
which there is a chalkboard: this should
be avoided.
Discomfort can be experienced when
some parts of an interior have a much
higher luminance than the general
surroundings: it may take some time
to become apparent. Discomfort glare
from daylight can be a more common
occurrence than disability glare, and
under most circumstances its degree will
depend not on the window size or shape,
but on the luminance of the sky seen
in the general direction of view. Data
suggests that for the UK an unprotected
window will be uncomfortably glaring
over a significant period of the year. It
has been predicted that skies with an
average luminance exceeding 8900cd/m
2

(corresponding to a whole-sky illuminance
of 28000 lux) will cause discomfort glare,
and in the UK these are experienced for
about 25% of the working year.
Some reduction in the sky glare
can be achieved by reducing the
contrast between the window and its
surroundings, for example, by the use
of splayed light-coloured reveals or
increasing the brightness of the window
wall by increasing its reflectance, or
lighting it from a window in an adjacent
wall. Window frames should be as light
in colour as possible, whether stained or
painted timber, or painted or integrally
coloured metal or plastic. However, the
20
DISCOMFORT GLARE AMELIORATED BY LIGHT COLOURED FRAME AND WINDOW WALL
soffit should be
light in colour
light coloured
ceiling helps
to lessen contrast
with sky
overhang 'outrigger' louvre retractable angular
blind
retractable vertical
blind
FIXED EXTERNAL CONTROLS FLEXIBLE EXTERNAL CONTROLS
venetian blind curtain roller blind concertina blind
FLEXIBLE INTERNAL CONTROLS
Figure 20: Examples of glare
and sun control, blinds may be
either opaque or translucent.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
DISCOMFORT GLARE AMELIORATED BY LIGHT COLOURED FRAME AND WINDOW WALL
reduction of the sky luminance is the
major consideration, and where this is
likely to be a problem provision should be
made for blinds (eg, horizontal or vertical
louvre blinds) or curtains, which can be
translucent or opaque and internal or
external, or retractable screens, canopies
or awnings. Permanent features such as
roof overhangs may also assist in this
matter. However, it has been shown
that in the UK, overhangs of more
than 300mm over windows serve little
purpose in terms of shading or improved
daylighting (see DfEE Building Bulletin
79, Passive Solar Schools, A Design
Guide). If the underside of the overhang
is light in colour, the penetration will be
improved and excessive contrast with the
sky can be avoided (Fig 20).
Rooflights can cause discomfort glare
for most of the working year if the glazing
can be seen directly from normal viewing
positions at angles of less than 35° above
the horizontal (Fig 21). The glare can
be ameliorated by using measures similar
to those for vertical windows (Fig 22).
Contrast between the glazing and its
surroundings can be reduced by using
coffers with high reflectance sides which
also cut off the view of the direct sky
and by setting the rooflight in a light-
coloured ceiling. The luminance of the
sky seen can be reduced by adjustable
blinds, shades or louvres. The use of
a permanent diffusing panel to close
in a coffer at ceiling level can provide
unsatisfactory conditions: it may become
difficult to appreciate that the source of
light is natural and the feeling of ‘daylight
contact’ may be lost, particularly if the
exterior glazing material is also diffusing
(see 4.1.5). Further, on dull days, there
will be a noticeable reduction in the
amount of contributed light.
4.1.4 Sunlight Control
While most of the time sunlight is
considered to be an amenity in this
country, there are occasions particularly in
the summer months when it is necessary
to provide some protection from its
inconveniences such as excessive direct
21
35o
Figure 21: Rooflight glazing
should not be visible below a
cut-off angle of 35°.
Figure 22 Left: Victoria
Infants’ School, Sandwell
M.B.C. Motorised perforated
metal louvre blinds fitted to
rooflights over classrooms
(see also Figure 13). [Photo:
P. Locker, Photo Graphic
Design]
Right: Netley Abbey School
showing use of translucent
roller blinds. [Photo: J. Low]
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
35°
or curtailment of it by their position,
height or width. A minimum glazed area
of 20% of the internal elevation of the
exterior wall is recommended. Any serious
obstruction to the view can be annoying
and appropriate sill and head heights are
important (Fig 9).
While the view out should preferably
have close, middle and distant
components, and contain some natural
elements, frequently this is not possible,
and a popular alternative is the use of
courtyards. For these to be successful,
they must be well maintained, preferably
with suitable landscaping and some views
of the sky, and have an adequate view
dimension across the courtyard of not less
than 10m.
In some instances, a reasonable view of
the exterior may not be feasible, and in
these cases a long internal view is a useful
addition - within a large space or possibly
through glazed partitions. However, it is
preferable to have a feeling of ‘daylight
contact’ maybe from rooflights and
including atria (Fig 19).
On some occasions, a view out can be
a disadvantage and cause distraction, and
in these circumstances, blinds or curtains
should be provided. In addition, there
are situations where there is a need for
privacy and here the view into a building
needs to be considered.
heat and glare, and shading devices
are required. These can usually be
designed in conjunction with the devices
considered for the reduction of sky glare
(see section 4.1.3).
It is not usual in the climate of this
country to design permanently fixed
features because they will reduce the
amount of daylight entering the room
at all times and this could be particularly
undesirable in the winter months.
The protection can be provided by
adjustable screening devices such as
curtains and blinds including louvre blinds
(Fig 22). For optimum sun protection,
the solar control devices should be placed
outside the window: retractable screens,
canopies or awnings can be used here
(Fig 20). It is important in designing
a sunlight control system that it takes
into account the extent of the use of the
school during the summer months.
4.1.5 Exterior Visual Contact
In addition to providing natural light,
one of the main properties of windows is
the provision of visual contact with the
outside. This avoids a feeling of enclosure
and claustrophobia, and also provides
visual relaxation and a ‘view’. Wherever
possible, the shape, size and disposition
of the windows should be related to
the view, and avoid any deprivation
22
Figure 23: Courtyard view.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
4.2 Electric Lighting
As with natural lighting, the main aims
are concerned with:
function - to enable tasks to be
performed accurately and comfortably
and to facilitate safe movement about the
building, and
amenity - to light the interior of the
building in order to provide a pleasant
and stimulating environment.
The values of illuminance quoted
in this document are given in terms
of ‘Standard Maintained Illuminance’
which is the form of recommendation
used by the national and international
lighting institutions. This is the minimum
illuminance which should be provided at
all times through the life of the installation.
The CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting,
1994, ‘Section 2.6.4.4 Public and education
buildings’ provides figures for a wider
range of specific interiors and activities.
An illuminance of 500 lux for
demanding tasks may be provided by
using local lighting to supplement general
23
Table 6: Illuminance,
Uniformity Ratio and Limiting
Glare Index for schools.
Standard Maintained Uniformity Limiting
Illuminance Ratio Glare
lux Index
1. General Teaching 300 * 0.8 19
Spaces

2. Teaching Spaces 500 * 0.8 19
with close and
detailed work
(eg, art and craft rooms)
3. Circulation Spaces:
corridors, stairs 80 - 120 - 19
entrance halls, lobbies &
waiting areas 175 - 250 - 19
reception areas 250 - 350 - 19
4. Atria 400 * - 19
*Although particular illuminance values are quoted for the different areas, a small variation in
these values is unlikely to be a problem.
lighting: under these circumstances, the
illuminance on the surround area should
ideally not be less than one third of that
of the working area to avoid excessive
contrast and distraction.
Because of the special characteristics
of atria and in particular the spatial
con-siderations, it is advised that an
illuminance of not less than 400 lux with
a high uniformity should be used for
these areas and in addition, light vertical
surfaces incorporating high reflectance
values should be a feature of the design.
The lighting of atria is discussed in
more detail in the illustrative example in
Appendix 8.3.
Many rooms in educational buildings,
and particularly spaces in primary
schools, are used flexibly for a variety of
purposes without very fixed work places.
The lighting arrangements must reflect
this requirement and provision made
by controls and particularly switching
facilities to satisfy this flexibility.
Lamps and luminaires need to be
regularly cleaned to minimise the
deterioration of their light output
performance. To ensure this can happen
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
in which the lamps are not directly
visible from below may be preferable to
avoid high luminance reflections on the
horizontal working plane.
Direct glare from a ceiling mounted
luminaire depends on a number of
factors including the contrast between
the luminaire and the ceiling surface.
With the narrow downward distribution
the only light reaching the ceiling may
be that reflected from the work surfaces
below and the contrast with the luminous
area of the luminaire may be high. A
luminaire, perhaps surface mounted or
suspended, depending on the ceiling
height, which emits light directly on to
the ceiling will reduce this contrast and be
more generally acceptable. Various types
of luminaires are detailed in Appendix 5.
4.2.2 Flicker and High Frequency
Operation
Electric light sources, particularly some
discharge lamps, can frequently be seen
to flicker, a problem that can cause
discomfort or even annoyance to some
people. This is caused at the cathode of
the lamp and by oscillation in light output
which can also produce stroboscopic
effects with moving objects: these can
be dangerous - for example, rotating
machinery in a workshop can appear to be
stationary.
This phenomenon can usually be
overcome by the use of luminaires with
high frequency control gear. These do not
remove the oscillation but raise the rate
to a very high level which is not perceived
by humans. An additional advantage of
using high frequency control gear is the
improved efficacy that can be obtained
from the lamps.
4.2.3 Veiling Reflections
High luminance reflections in a task are
referred to as veiling reflections, and
can affect task performance due to a
reduction in the task contrast and could
cause discomfort or distraction: the term
‘reflected glare’ is sometimes used. The
task detail or its background, or both, is
likely to have some degree of specularity,
and any high luminance source situated
in the offending zone will be specularly
with the minimum of fuss, it is necessary
to consider maintenance when selecting
the lighting equipment: luminaires which
require the use of special arrangements
for cleaning and re-lamping should
be avoided unless there is definite
provision for this matter. The possibility
of installing an incorrect lamp can be
reduced by keeping the number of
different lamp types used in a building to
a minimum. This particularly applies to
fluorescent lamps where it is possible to
use the wrong colour and with spot lamps
where it is necessary to ensure the correct
beam characteristics are used.
In a typical school, all electric lighting
equipment should be cleaned at least once
a year. The cleaning should be more often
in districts which are particularly dirty. As
in the case of natural lighting, the level of
reflected light needs to be maintained by
ensuring the room surfaces are kept clean
and repainted regularly.
4.2.1 Glare
Disability glare does not usually occur
from electric lighting in ordinary interior
spaces, but discomfort glare caused by
luminaires can be a problem. This is
controlled by the luminance and size of
the glare source, its position in the field
of view and the visual adaptation given
by the background luminance. These
factors when combined in the Glare
Evaluation System described in CIBSE
Technical Memorandum No. 10 produce
a Glare Index which should be below
the specified Limiting Glare Index for
freedom from discomfort glare. (Many
manufacturers publish tabular data for
their luminaires which enables the Glare
Index information to be obtained fairly
quickly.)
There is a recent tendency to adopt
luminaires with tightly controlled
downward light distributions in the
belief that this will minimise direct glare,
particularly in areas where VDUs are
in use. This is true for distant views of
the luminaire but the student is often
left with a bright light source directly
overhead which can be disconcerting and
can make reading text printed on a glossy
surface almost impossible. A luminaire
24
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
reflected to the observer.
Common examples of the veiling
reflection problem occur with VDU
screens, glossy paper and shiny instruments,
and with windows or luminaires in the
offending zone (Figs 24 and 25).
Veiling reflections can be reduced by
using matt materials in the task area, by
reducing the luminance in the offending
zone or by altering the geometry of the
situation so that the high luminance is
not in the offending zone.
4.2.4 Distribution of Light
The appearance of a space is controlled
to a large extent by the distribution of
light within it. It is important that the
walls and ceiling receive light, ideally
both directly from the luminaires and
by inter-reflection, and to ensure this
happens the selection of luminaires is
important (see Appendix 5).
For a space to have an acceptable
overall lightness, it will be necessary to
use relatively high surface reflectances, ie,
wall finish reflectance not less than 0.6
with a ceiling finish reflectance not less
than 0.7 and a floor reflectance as high as
is practicable. Glossy finishes to ceilings
and walls should be avoided to minimise
confusing reflections and glare. (Note:
since it is common practice for teachers to
use the wall surfaces for display, a lower
average wall reflectance value, eg, 0.3 -
0.5 will need to be used for calculations,
25
Figure 24: Veiling reflections,
schematic diagram of
‘offending zone’.
Figure 25: Veiling reflections
on vertical and horizontal
surfaces.
offending zone
Figure 26: Preferential
lighting of wall and display
surfaces.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
Zbü · 3üümm
cross
ball|e
Zb"
depending on the wall finish and the
amount of display material.)
As with natural lighting, character
and interest can be given to the interior
if some directional light is introduced to
provide modelling and some variety is
provided by controlled visual contrasts
on the main surfaces. The preferential
lighting of some wall surfaces, using
spotlights which produce soft-edged
pools of light or wall-washing by tubular
fluorescent lamps, is useful for this
purpose and, of course, lighting for the
display of particular items such as pupils’
work can assist this process (Fig 26 and
27). It is suggested that the average
supplementary illuminance on the wall
surface is at least 200 lux when the
horizontal reference plane illuminance
is 300 lux, and this should be scaled up
when the horizontal plane illuminance is
500 lux.
As stated earlier, the most effective
electric lighting designs are those
comprising different elements which
combine to make a successful lighting
installation in terms of function and
appearance - for example, general
lighting, task lighting and accent
lighting.
26
Figure 27: Examples of
wall-washing luminaires which
can be used for preferential
lighting.
Zbü · 3üümm
cross
ball|e
Zb"
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
4.2.5 Choice of Lamp and
Luminaire
Energy efficiency in electric lighting is
a matter of selecting equipment which
produces the lighting required in an
energy effective way, and which is only
used when it is actually needed. This
will require choosing lamps which have
a high efficacy, ie, those lamps which
provide high levels of light for the energy
they consume, and using luminaires
which have high light outputs as well as
controls to provide electric lighting which
complements the natural lighting.
The choice of lamp will be dependent
on a number of parameters, including
luminous efficacy, total light output
(or wattage), colour rendering, colour
appearance, life, size, need for control
gear, starting characteristics and, of
course, cost. Some typical characteristics
for the types of lamp most suitable for use
in schools are given in Appendix 3, and
greater detail can be obtained from the
manufacturers.
While some properties including
efficacy and life are of paramount
importance in selecting the most efficient
and economically acceptable scheme,
much consideration has to be given
in schools to the colour properties.
Two colour properties, related to the
spectral composition of the emitted light,
are normally specified. One is colour
appearance concerned with the apparent
colour of the light and is indicated by
its Correlated Colour Temperature
(CCT) and the other is colour rendering
concerned with the effect the light
has on the colours of surfaces - this is
quantified by the CIE General Colour
Rendering Index (Ra). For practical
purposes, CCT values and Ra values are
grouped according to the descriptions
given in the table in Appendix 3. For
schools, it is suggested that lamps with a
Warm to Intermediate colour appearance
classification are used. Warmer coloured
lamps with a CCT 2800K - 3000K
should be used as accent lighting or in
areas where a more domestic atmosphere
is required. For installations where
the electric lighting supplements the
daylighting, it is suggested that lamps of
Intermediate CCT class of about 4000K
should be used, wherever possible. Due to
the variations which occur in the colour
appearance of daylight, the bare lamps
should be screened from direct view. To
enable accurate colour judgements to be
made, it is suggested that lamps with an
Ra of not less than 80 (Group 1B) be
used.
Small light sources enable the optical
control to be more accurate but, for the
same output, will have a higher luminance
and are potentially more glaring and
therefore should be screened from normal
directions of view.
It should be noted that all discharge
lamps require the use of control gear for
their operation and that high pressure
discharge lamps have a time delay in
reaching their full light output after being
switched on and in re-striking after being
switched off. The use of high frequency
control gear with fluorescent tubes will
need consideration in situations where the
avoidance of flicker is important.
The choice of lamp and luminaire are,
of course, interdependent and one cannot
be considered without reference to the
other.
The main items to be examined in the
choice of luminaire are:
(i) luminous efficiency and light
distribution.
These are characterised by the Light
Output Ratio values (total, downward
and upward) and the shape of the
luminous intensity distribution (polar
curve). These factors describe not
only the amount of light falling on
the working plane but also that on the
ceiling and walls - a prime component in
determining the visual appearance of the
space. This light distribution data will
also provide information regarding the
possibility of glare being a problem. The
nominal spacing/mounting height ratio
will also have to be noted to achieve the
recommended uniformity of illuminance.
(Detailed photometric information
can be obtained from the luminaire
manufacturers: some typical characteristics
are given for guidance in Appendix 5).
(ii) appearance.
The appearance of the luminaires,
27
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
when lit and unlit, should complement
the general design of the interior. The
contribution which the luminaires will
make to the character of the space will
have to be examined. Mounting position
(ceiling recessed, surface mounted,
suspended etc.) is very important in this
respect (Fig 28).
(iii) ease of maintenance.
The luminaire design should, wherever
possible, avoid surfaces on which dust and
dirt can be deposited. It should also allow
maintenance - cleaning and re-lamping
– to be performed easily without the
need for a special procedure.
Note: All lighting equipment should
generally comply with the relevant British
Standards and Euronorms or equivalent.
4.3 Integrated daylight and
electric light
When the daylight recommendations
cannot be achieved throughout the space,
a supplement of electric lighting can be
provided, but it is usual to require the
space to appear predominantly daylit.
The first requirement is for the electric
lighting to supplement the daylight so
that the combined illuminance is suitable
for the task or activities being undertaken,
and an effective use of controls is
necessary.
The other requirement is to achieve
a satisfactory appearance by the balance
of brightness throughout the space so
that surfaces in parts remote from the
windows do not seem dim and gloomy.
This can occur even when there is
technically enough light due to the visual
adaptation caused by a relatively bright
window. An appearance which is more
visually acceptable can be achieved by
lighting preferentially the wall remote
from the windows by ‘building lighting’
which is separate to that required for
the task. This wall lighting can be
more effective when some variety is
incorporated, as previously described
(4.2.4). The ceiling will also need to be
well-lit.
The electrical distribution circuits
and their switching arrangements
should be suitably organised. In many
circumstances, the supplementary electric
light will have to be designed to operate
separately from the night-time electric
lighting (see Appendix 6).
As mentioned earlier, it is advised that
the lamps used for electric lighting in this
type of combined lighting should be of
Intermediate CCT class of about 4000K.
The bare lamps should, wherever possible,
be screened from direct view because
of the variation which can occur in the
colour appearance of daylight.
With regard to the possibility of
discomfort glare for combined installations
and to ensure the degree of glare from
28
Figure 28: New Bradwell
Priory Common First School.
Milton Keynes. Suspended
linear lighting system. [Photo:
Bucks County Council].
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
Note: BS 4533 : Luminaires.
Part 101 : 1990. Specification
for general requirements and
tests.
Part 102 : 1990. Particular
requirements.
the two installations operating together
is acceptable, it is advised that each
installation should be designed to be
independently within acceptable limits.
4.4 Aids to Lighting Design
In this section, guidance is given on
daylighting, electric lighting and a
combination of the two. This includes
numerical recommendations and
techniques. Whilst numerical values have
their place, particularly regarding visual
performance and comfort, it is virtually
impossible to quantify the lit appearance
in the same way. As an aid to developing
this aspect of design, it is helpful for the
designer to use a number of techniques to
enable design possibilities to be explored
and ultimately tested. These include
shaded perspectives and architectural
models, particularly for daylight and
sunlight studies, and it is likely that
computer visualisation programs will
become more common in the near future.
With regard to shaded perspectives,
these can be used to develop the required
light pattern to identify the areas that
need to be ‘high lit’ or to explore, in
a three-dimensional way, the lighting
performance of a window/rooflight
system. They are also particularly useful as
a way of communicating design ideas.
Architectural models are commonly
used to explore daylighting designs.
For this purpose it is advised that a
scale of not less than 1:20 be used and
that they are made from materials that
are opaque and have the appropriate
surface reflectance and colour. It is
obviously important that the models
are dimensionally correct and that any
external obstructions are included. It is
not essential to model precisely window
details such as glazing bars or glazing
materials, but these must be taken
into account if the model is used for
measurements. It is important to include
any permanent shading devices including
roof overhangs. The model can be used
in three ways, to appraise the appearance
of the lit space, to measure the daylight
distribution and to examine the direct
sunlight penetration.
For the appearance appraisal it will
be necessary to provide viewing slots.
These need to be placed at a normal head
position and can be used under real or
artificial sky conditions. It is of course
important that no stray light enters the
model through the viewing slot. It is
often easier and more convenient to use
a modelscope either directly or with a
camera.
When the model is to be used for
measuring the daylight distribution,
usually under an overcast sky condition,
it will be necessary to provide entry
positions for small photocells, but it
must be possible to seal these openings
when the measurements are being made
to avoid errors due to light leakage. It
is useful to measure not only the inside
values but also an outside, unobstructed,
sky value: which will enable the
measurements to be quoted in terms of
daylight factor. The measurements can
be made under a real overcast sky, but it
29
Figure 29: Use of model in
artificial sky at the Building
Research Establishment,
Garston.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
is more convenient to use an artificial sky
to overcome the problem of light level
variability (Fig 29). The artificial sky is a
piece of equipment which typically models
the CIE overcast sky condition using
mirrors and electric lamps and therefore
remains constant whilst the measurements
are made.
Models can also be used to test sun
penetration. In this case the model can be
used in conjunction with a spot lamp to
represent the sun and a sundial to enable
the correct relationship between the
model and the spot light (artificial sun)
to be established. With this equipment a
range of sun positions can be explored.
An alternative is to use the model in
conjunction with a heliodon, a piece of
equipment that enables the sun/site/
building relationship to be explored more
easily (Fig 30).
Whilst few design practices have their
own artificial sky or heliodon, these pieces
of equipment are commonly available
in Schools of Architecture, University
Building Departments and Research
Establishments.
Calculations for the determination of
point daylight factor, illuminance and
luminance, have not been included in this
publication because they appear elsewhere
and in particular the CIBSE Publications:
Code for Interior Lighting 1994 and
Applications Manual: Window Design
1987.
30
Figure 30: Use of model in
conjunction with a heliodon.
Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance
5.1 Circulation Areas.
The circulation routes through a school
are its main arteries taking pupils, staff
and visitors from the main gate through
to the various particular areas. They
need to be functional in that people
need to find their way easily and safely
through the building, even when they
are unfamiliar with it. These routes also
need to be visually stimulating. Finally
they need to provide means of escape and
this may require emergency lighting (see
Section 5.14).
5.1.1 Exterior circulation and the
main entrance
During the daytime the route from the
main gate to the main entrance will
usually be obvious. This is because of the
site organisation and the architectural
treatment of the main entrance. At night-
time, however, things will be different.
The main gate may need to be identified,
perhaps with an illuminated sign, together
with a high-lit area around the gate. This
area then needs to be linked visually to
the main entrance of the school, which
will mean lighting the walkway and
vehicle routes. The important thing is
to light the pavement and road surfaces;
it can be done from a low height using
bollard type fittings or higher post-top
lanterns, but the luminance in the normal
directions of view should be kept to a
minimum. This is to avoid glare and to
maximise the visual effectiveness of
the lighting.
To aid progress across the site, the
main entrance needs to be bright and
welcoming. This can be achieved, if the
front of the main entrance is glazed, by
high-lighting the vertical surfaces within
the entrance area. These can also be
used for student displays and the display
of school trophies. The interior light in
the entrance area will also spill out into
the area in front of the doorway making
it inviting and helping to identify any
steps. During daytime the entrance area
should receive a good level of daylight
particularly on vertical surfaces; however,
if this is not possible then supplementary
electric lighting may be necessary in
display areas.
5.1.2 Corridors and stairs
The corridors and stairs are the main
elements of circulation and although
their prime purpose is to get people
from one place to another, they are also
31
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
The discussion in the earlier parts of this document
applies to all areas of a school. However, particular
spaces may need additional attention due to their
specialised requirements, some of which are more
commonly found in secondary schools.
Figure 31: Blenheim High
School, Epsom, Surrey, main
entrance. [Photo: P. Locker]
an important facility in identifying the
work and character of the school. They
should be lit to provide safe movement
around the building and also to produce
interesting and, if possible, stimulating
spaces. The lighting, both natural and
electric, should aim to provide visual
variety and an enhancement of some
areas rather than others. Different surface
materials and particularly different
textures, can be useful in this respect.
Again, the brightness of individual
luminaires should be limited and they can
preferentially light walls and alcoves used
for sitting and display. In this instance,
for single storey buildings, rooflights
can make a major contribution. View
windows which look out, or into some
internal spaces, can be valuable sources of
orientation. The electric lighting can be
wall or ceiling mounted but it needs to be
an integrated part of the building.
Stairs need to be well lit to avoid
accidents. The main consideration is to
provide lighting which ensures that the
staircase treads and risers are well defined
with a contrast between the treads and
the risers and that the luminance pattern
is such that there are no problems
from glare. This means avoiding bright
luminaires or windows in the normal field
of view when using the staircase.
It is recommended that an average
illuminance of 80 - 120 lux be provided
at floor level in corridors and stairs.
Entrance halls, lobbies and waiting rooms
require a higher illuminance of 175 - 250
lux. Reception areas should be lit to 250
- 350 lux (Fig 33). Downlighters are not
recommended over reception desks as
the lack of a diffuse component of light
makes lip-reading difficult (see 2.1)
Special attention must be given to
the avoidance of glare and other visual
problems. For example, the positioning of
32
Figure 32: Low energy
corridor lighting with change
of luminaire and daylighting in
sitting area. Netherhall School,
Cambridgeshire.
[Photo: P. Locker]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
Daylighting of staircase with
contrasting treads and risers
and avoidance of glare from
windows. [Photo: P. Locker]
a window at the end of a corridor can be
annoying because of the silhouette vision
it can cause and can be dangerous in
producing disability glare (Fig 34).
Interest and variety can be supplied in
circulation areas by display and exhibition
spaces, possibly in alcoves, which are
preferentially lit (Fig 35). If private study
areas are provided off circulation routes,
they should have suitable local electric
lighting, and ideally be near a window.
In primary schools, it is common for
circulation to be part of general teaching
spaces and vice versa. This will require
the designer to decide on the particular
lighting needs of this type of space.
Usually the more demanding task will
take priority.
33
Figure 34: The benefit of a
side-lit corridor.
A side-lit corridor is preferable
Windows at the end of a corridor show
objects in silhouette.
Figure 33: Main foyer and
reception area at Blenheim
High School, Epsom, Surrey.
[Photo: P. Locker]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
5.1.3 Circulation/activity areas
Where areas cater for other activities as
well as circulation, lighting will need
to consider both functions. It will be
helpful if the circulation route, though
part of an activity area, can be separately
identified. This may be achieved with
changes in the lighting, but also changes
in surface colour can be used. Another
possibility is a change in ceiling height
which can be combined with a change in
lighting. Some recent designs have daylit
‘streets’ which are used for a wide range
of activities and also form an important
focus for the school. As with corridors,
these areas often incorporate displays,
which may be two or three dimensional,
on vertical surfaces or free-standing.
These benefit from accent lighting and
their changing nature requires a degree of
flexibility in the display lighting. This can
be achieved with a track lighting system
equipped with very low glare, adjustable
luminaires.
5.2 Areas with Display Screen
Equipment
Display Screen Equipment(DSE) is the
name now given to Visual Display Units
(VDUs) which have become increasingly
important items of teaching equipment
in both primary and secondary schools.
The visual conditions and correct lighting
for their satisfactory use need care and
attention. DSE is generally found in use
throughout schools with small numbers
of computers in all subject areas. Larger
numbers of machines may be grouped in
areas such as library resource areas and
specialist computer studies rooms.
One of the main problems encountered
concerns the unwanted reflections which
can occur in the screens of DSE. These
can be bright enough to make it difficult
to read the screen characters, reducing
the contrast between them and the screen
background. To control this situation,
the lighting of the space in front of the
screen must be such that the luminance of
any surface is low enough not to interfere
with the reading of the screen characters;
changes in luminance must be gradual,
and luminaires and windows having a
high luminance in directions affecting the
screen must be avoided (Fig 25).
One obvious demonstration of this
effect is the student’s white shirt or
blouse acting as a large luminous source,
producing a reflection in the screen.
Whether this is critical or not will depend
on the luminance of the screen. Positive
polarity screens (eg, Windows based
programmes or screens with a white or
light coloured background) will have
relatively high brightness (70-100cd/m
2
)
which will significantly reduce the effect
of reflected images. Negative polarity
screens (DOS based programmes or
screens with a black or dark coloured
background) will have relatively low
brightness (2-8cd/m
2
) and reflections
on the screen will be relatively brighter
which can make it difficult to see the data
displayed. With positive polarity screens
there should be no problem but with
negative polarity screens some action
may be necessary. The students could be
encouraged to wear darker clothing such
as pullovers or jackets where the problem
34
Figure 35: Circulation street
with activity areas. Victoria
Infants’ School, Sandwell
M.B.C. [Photo: P. Locker]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
is greatest. Filters might prove useful in
reducing the brightness and sharpness
of the images and many screens are now
being produced with a matt surface
which will reduce the sharpness of any
reflected images. Fortunately the majority
of software used in schools is of the
Windows type which produces a positive
polarity display on the screens. Allowance
can be made for screen brightness when
choosing luminaires (see CIBSE LG3
reference at end of section) but most
teaching spaces will only require to be
designed for the use of high brightness
screens. The 1996 edition of LG3
quantifies the changes to the luminance
limiting value of a luminaire with respect
to the type of software and the type of
screen being used. In areas where DSE is
used intensively, ie, computer rooms and
library resource areas, electric lighting
schemes which have been found suitable
employ ceiling mounted luminaires which
have a louvre type optical control system
with low luminance above defined critical
angles. Another possibility is indirect
lighting or uplighting; this technique has
the benefit of not normally creating high
luminance within the offending zone. In
appearance terms, a combination of both
systems is preferable.
The combination of direct and indirect
lighting offers a number of advantages
over either direct or indirect only. Where
suspended luminaires can be used (due to
floor to ceiling heights greater than 3.0m)
the uplighting element will increase the
background surface brightness, reducing
the contrast between it and the direct
lighting element. By reducing the contrast
it is possible to consider a less onerous
luminaire distribution. For example a
Category 3 louvre, as described in CIBSE
publication LG3, might be replaced with
a non-Category louvre. Surface mounted
luminaires can also provide some light
onto the ceiling but recessed type
luminaires generally do not.
These techniques have been widely
used in commercial premises where the
spaces and rooms can be large.
In schools where classrooms are
generally small in comparison with open
plan offices it is much more important
to consider the geometry of spaces
containing computers. Relatively small
rooms or those with high ceilings (more
than 3.5m) may not need any special
treatment other than good classroom
lighting, as the luminaire mounting
height may not cause any images in
the screen. Simple changes in layout of
equipment might also be sufficient to
reduce bright images.
In most teaching spaces the number
of computers in use is small and the main
design consideration should be work
on the horizontal plane. This includes
reading, writing and practical activities.
Louvre type fittings designed to reduce
glare on vertical screens may still produce
high luminance reflections on the
horizontal plane which can make working
on reflective materials very difficult.
This can be a problem when reading
glossy books, working on metal objects
etc (Figures 24 and 25). Reflections
are a particular problem for the visually
impaired.
There is a tendency to specify louvre
type fittings in all spaces because DSE is
used to support teaching in any subject
area. This is not necessary considering
the small number of computers in most
spaces and the simplicity of moving the
screens to avoid glare from luminaires,
the short periods for which computers are
in use and the high brightness of Windows
based programmes which are now in use
almost everywhere.
There is no substitute for good
classroom lighting design.
One element that should always be
considered is the distribution of light to
ensure that the vertical surfaces within the
room are adequately lit. This may involve
using two or three lighting installations in
the same space in order that a satisfactory
balance of light is achieved.
Some control over the illuminance,
in rooms specially used for computing,
may be considered desirable, so that
the excessive initial illuminances do not
cause problems to the user. Dimmable
high frequency fluorescent luminaires
may be considered necessary in these
circumstances. These are more expensive
than normal luminaires but will provide
35
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
better conditions, especially where the
users are in the classroom for a long time
(eg, double periods, or longer).
Windows are usually the biggest
lighting problems encountered in areas
containing DSE because of their relatively
large size and high brightness. However,
room layout can usually avoid placing
computers where windows are visible to
computer users as high luminance glare
sources. Windows can also be screened
using one of the devices discussed earlier
for the control of sun and sky glare.
A wide range of luminances in the
general field of view when using DSE
can cause visual adaptation problems.
The consequences can be a reduction in
task performance and visual distraction,
discomfort or even disability. The
contributing luminances are concerned
with the display screen, the keyboard,
objects such as documents on the desk,
and with the background, particularly the
immediate background to the screen. An
unfortunate common example of the last
item occurs when a display screen is seen
against a window. Measures to restrict
this luminance range must be taken by
controlling the distribution of the light
and the position and reflecting properties
of the components.
DSE is often used by an individual
for a relatively short time (for example,
to find one item of information), and
the problems mentioned are tolerated.
However, for more extended work, the
visual conditions become important for
satisfactory, comfortable use. Detailed
guidance is given in CIBSE Lighting
Guide LG3 1996: The visual environment
for display screen use.
5.3 Science Work and
Laboratories
For primary schools this type of activity
will usually take place in general teaching
areas, and the recommendations for
those areas will usually suffice but the
designer should check that there are no
unusual requirements. For the secondary
school laboratory where intricate tasks
are undertaken which need accurate
readings and subtle observations, higher
illuminance may be appropriate. This can
be provided by general lighting (Fig 36)
or by local task lighting supplementing
the general lighting.
Where fixed benching is used,
adjustable bench lights are suitable,
particularly where directional lighting is
36
Figure 36: Science
laboratory, Dr Challenor’s Boys
Grammar School, Amersham.
[Photo: Bucks County Council]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
appropriate, but they must be controlled
so that they do not cause distraction or
glare to neighbouring work positions or
become a physical encumbrance.
Visual conditions can be made more
comfortable if the bench tops are made
of a material which is light rather than
dark in colour and has a reasonably
matt surface to avoid awkward specular
reflections. Advice regarding the finishes
of tables etc, can be obtained from
British Standard, BS 5873: Part 1 1980,
Educational Furniture.
Demonstration benches may benefit
from some preferential and directional
lighting.
Many of the considerations for
laboratories also apply to preparation
rooms associated with the laboratories.
Good lighting is particularly important
for the users of laboratory areas to avoid
accidents and to ensure the safe handling
of equipment.
5.4 Design and Technology Rooms
and Workshops
As with other situations where
detailed work is done, the lighting of
areas for design and technology can
most conveniently be achieved by
supplementing the general lighting
with local individual lighting which can
be adjusted to suit the particular task,
especially where directionality of the
light is important but provision must be
made to avoid interference to the work
positions and machines and those nearby.
For lathes and other machine tools, local
lights are often provided on the machines.
For safety reasons, these must be on an
extra low voltage supply. All luminaires
should be robust and it may be necessary
to protect the lamps with wire mesh
guards. They should be easily maintained
and cleaned at least once a term because
such spaces are often environmentally
dirty.
A particular hazard, mentioned earlier,
can occur with discharge lamps lighting
machinery with rotating parts as it may
be difficult to assess the speed of rotation
due to the stroboscopic effect. This can
be avoided by wiring alternate luminaires
on different phases of the electrical supply
(not usually recommended as it increases
hazards during electrical maintenance), or
by using high frequency control gear.
In Design and Technology areas it is
often desirable to have a display space
for completed work, and this should
be preferentially lit. As with laboratory
spaces, some preferential lighting may be
required for demonstration areas.
It is particularly important for people
in these areas to have good lighting
to avoid accidents and to enable tools
and equipment to be used safely. Good
rendering of colours is very important and
lamps of CIE colour rendering group 1B
should be used.
5.5 Libraries
The lighting of library spaces must
be co-ordinated to fulfil a number of
functions - general ambient lighting,
lighting for vertical bookstacks, lighting
for study and lighting for browsing. It is
important that the lighting arrangements
are designed so that there is no conflict
between the appearance of the different
parts of the installation or with the light
distribution throughout the space (Fig
37). Particular attention needs to be given
to the avoidance of problems with veiling
reflections, with glare and with the use of
VDUs (see previous sections).
Ambient lighting from overhead
luminaires can be used for general reading
37
Figure 37: Library with
bookstacks and study area.
Netherhall School, Cambridge.
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
Reference:
BS 5873 :
Educational Furniture.
Part 1 : 1980. Specification
for functional dimensions,
identification and finish
of chairs and tables for
educational institutions.
tables and browsing, but, due to its
distribution characteristics, this arrange-
ment is generally not ideal for vertical
bookstacks as the illuminance level will
usually be low, particularly for the bottom
shelves. The vertical spines of books on
the stacks need to be lit by special means,
and using luminaires with an asymmetric
distribution. Increased illuminance
for the lower shelves can be obtained
by the use of a light-coloured floor
covering or by inclining them outwards.
If it is not possible to provide ceiling
mounted lighting directly related to the
bookstacks due to the need for flexibility
in bookstack position, it is suggested that
a continuous line or lines of luminaires
be used and positioned at right angles
to the line of the bookstacks (Fig 38).
The type of luminaire and its spacing
will need to be selected to provide an
even illuminance over the vertical spines
of the books. More detailed information
is given in CIBSE Lighting Guide:
Libraries. Supplementary lighting should
be provided for study tables and carrels
and for the issue control desk. It may also
be necessary to provide accent lighting for
special displays.
Individual luminaires attached to
the bookstacks or overhead luminaires
in continuous rows at right angles to
bookstacks, allows bookstacks to be moved.
5.6 Art Rooms
The main requirement is good general
lighting with artificial lighting at about
the 500 lux level. There are frequent
preferences for daylight from north-facing
windows and for the availability of strong,
directional lighting (Fig 39), particularly
for sculpture and work involving texture.
At times, the entry of sunlight can be an
advantage, but windows associated with
this entry must be fitted with adjustable
sun-screening devices. Good rendering
of colours is very important and lamps of
CIE colour rendering group 1B should
be used. Some additional flexible lighting
for the display of work is desirable.
5.7 Sports Halls and Gymnasia
Although it is generally considered that
daylight is beneficial in sports halls and
gymnasia, windows and rooflights are
frequently excluded because the sun
and sky can cause both disability and
discomfort glare to users who are moving
quickly and often with an upward field
of view. Reflected glare from shiny
surfaces and particularly floors can also
be a nuisance. If daylight apertures are
provided, screening facilities for use when
necessary should be available. To enhance
the visual environment, it is suggested
that luminaires with both upward and
downward light should be utilised. There
should be some control to keep glare to
38
Figure 38: Lighting of
bookstacks.
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
a minimum and the light distribution
should provide adequate light on vertical
surfaces.
Lamps and luminaires should have wire
guards or other impact-resistant protection.
Sports halls and gymnasia in schools
are often used for non-sporting events
including examinations, and therefore
adequate consideration must be given
to the lighting required for these events,
some supplementary arrangement being
installed if necessary (see section 5.8).
Because of the high mounting of the
luminaires, satisfactory maintenance of
the lighting installation will be difficult
unless special provision in the form of
access facilities is made. The use of long-
life lamps in these circumstances should
be examined.
Reference should be made to the
CIBSE Lighting Guide LG4: Sports.
See also BRE General Information
Report 35: Daylighting for sports halls,
Two case studies.
39
Figure 39: Directional light in
an art room.
Figure 40: Sports Hall
at Oakmead School,
Bournemouth, fitted with
occupancy controls to switch
on lights only in parts of the
hall which are in use.
[Photo: Ex-Or Limited]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
5.8 General Purpose Halls
(Examination, assembly, performances
and PE) and drama & dance studios
Very often there will be a need for a
large space within the school to cater
for activities ranging from examination
to drama (Fig 41). The design will
depend on the range of activities.
Blackout will almost certainly be
required as will a degree of flexibility
in the lighting dependent on the range
of uses envisaged and the budget. If
the budget is limited a general lighting
installation of luminaires which provide
both upward and downward light should
be used. The installation should meet
the most stringent requirements in
terms of activity, allowing the luminaires
to be switched in groups to provide
some flexibility. To complement
this installation there should be a
system of electric wiring which allows
supplementary lighting equipment to be
installed when needed. This may be of
a stage lighting type which can be easily
hired when required.
For teaching of GCSE and A-level
Drama and theatre studies courses a
good standard of stage and drama studio
lighting will be required (see typical plans
on the following page).
In halls likely to be used for concerts,
theatrical and dance productions it may
be necessary to arrange for an adaptable
stage lighting system to be installed so
that each event can be appropriately lit.
Lighting barrels will need to be placed
above the stage and in front of it so that
stage lights can be positioned to light the
faces of people performing on all areas of
the stage. To achieve this, lighting needs
to come from about 45° above and 45° to
either side of any position on stage. This
may involve using wall mounted brackets
and lighting sockets. Where there is a
fixed stage, floor-traps with stage lighting
sockets should be located on either side
for side-lighting dance, and for special
effects lighting.
High level, wall mounted and stage
sockets should all be wired back to a
dimmer panel on one side of the stage.
40
Figure 41: left: Hall at
Winton School, Andover.
[Photo: Peter Cook]
Right: Drama Space at
Cambridge Regional College:
daylight with black out.
Bernard Stilwell Architects.
[Photo: Jeremy Cockayne]
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
For larger halls there may be a need to
provide a patch panel so that perhaps
thirty individually wired sockets can be
patched into eighteen or twenty-four
dimmer ways. Control sockets for a
mobile control desk should be positioned
near dimmer racks for setting-up the
stage lighting and at the back of the
hall for controlling the lighting during a
production.
Drama and dance studios are used
primarily for the teaching of drama with
some need for small dance class use.
Whilst windows and daylight are of use,
during lessons full blackout facilities will
be needed on all windows.
Drama lessons are used to teach
group skills, focusing on social and
personal development, where general
mood lighting across the whole studio is
needed, as well as performance and stage
craft skills, such as set and lighting design,
where full theatre lighting is needed for
performance use in any area of the room.
To achieve this there needs to be a
basic structure of lighting points across
the space for locating lights in any part
of the room. Often the most convenient
solution is to place a series of pre-wired
lighting barrels at intervals across the
width of the room. The lighting sockets
should all be wired back to a dimmer
panel and eighteen way control desk
located in one corner of the room.
5.9 The Lighting of Chalkboards
It is essential to light chalkboards so
that the material on them can be seen
easily and comfortably by all members
of the class. (The term chalkboard here
includes blackboards used with chalk
and whiteboards used with marker
pens.) One of the frequent problems
which occurs is caused by bright veiling
reflections in the chalkboard of luminaires
or windows. While it may be difficult to
reduce sufficiently the luminance of these
sources, the problem can be appreciably
alleviated by having the chalkboard
surface as matt as possible. A blackboard
need not be black, but to retain a
satisfactory contrast for the chalk writing,
its surface reflectance should not be
41
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
Left: Stage lighting of general
purpose hall

Right: Stage lighting of a
drama studio
DIMMER RACKS
SOCKET FOR CONTROL
DESK FOR SETTING
UP LIGHTING
POSSIBLE
PROSCENIUM
ARCH LOCATION
WALL BRACKETS
HIGH UP ON WALL
SOCKET FOR
CONTROL BOARD
DURING
PERFORMANCE
FRONT OF HOUSE
BARREL NEEDED
TO LIGHT THOSE
ON FORE STAGE
FRONT STAGE BARREL
(Deep stages may
need one or more
intermediate
barrels)
REAR STAGE
BARREL FOR
BACK LIGHTING
[STAGE MAY BE WHOLE WIDTH OF
HALL OR BE PLATFORM ONLY]
FLOOR TRAP WITH
SOCKETS ON STAGE
(if fixed stage)
PRE-WIRED LIGHTING
BARRELS ACROSS
WHOLE ROOM
WINDOWS SHOULD
HAVE FULL BLACK-
OUT FACILITIES
SOUND AND LIGHT
CONTROL DESK
STORAGE FOR LIGHTING
AND OTHER EQUIPMENT
Chalkboard luminaire must be installed within the
shaded triangle, to avoid reflections in the board to
the nearest viewer
Figure 42: Chalkboard
lighting
greater than 0.1. A window in the same
wall as a chalkboard should be avoided
because there could be disability glare for
the class producing severe difficulties in
seeing the material on the chalkboard.
The chalkboard should be lit
preferentially and a ceiling-mounted
luminaire shielded from the direct view
of the class is suitable (special luminaires
are available commercially). The luminaire
should be positioned as much as possible
above and in front of the chalkboard but
such that veiling reflections to the front
of the class are avoided (Fig 42). The
uniformity over the whole board surface
should be as high as possible with little
spill light around it. The recommended
average illuminance over the surface is
500 lux, but this can be halved in the case
of whiteboards.
5.10 Lighting and Visual Aids
Visual aids are commonly used for
teaching, particularly film, slide and
overhead projectors as well as television
and video equipment. For the use of
these teaching aids it is necessary to
provide a lower level of lighting so that
the presentation can be seen comfortably
and clearly. For film and slide use, natural
light must be excluded with suitable
black-out facilities. Curtains and normal
window blinds are usually not adequate;
ideally black-out blinds which fit into
slots surrounding the window reveals
should be used. Sufficient light should
be provided to enable notes to be taken
during the presentation, and an illuminance
over the seating areas within the range
15-30 lux is suitable. It is important that
this should be provided by luminaires
which have no lit element within the
normal field of view. The reason for this
is that if there are self-luminous elements
within the field of view under these
conditions, they will make the viewing
of the presentation difficult. Also, light
should not fall on to the projection screen
and it should not be possible to see
reflected images of luminaires or windows
on the screen surface of television
monitors. (See also Appendix 6 for details
regarding lighting controls).
5.11 Lighting for pupils with visual
and hearing impairments
Lighting and acoustic criteria are
very important both to the visually
impaired and to the hearing impaired.
If one sensory channel is impaired more
reliance is placed on the other channel.
For example, the use of aural cues by the
visually impaired and lip-reading by the
hearing impaired. (See Building Bulletin
87
(1)
for advice on acoustic criteria for
the hearing impaired).
The design of specialist
accommodation for the visually impaired
is beyond the scope of this document and
expert advice should be sought
(2,3)
.
The move towards integration of
pupils with special educational needs
into mainstream schools means that
there are some measures that should be
considered in the initial design brief of
all schools. Whilst there is some special
accommodation in mainstream schools,
for the most part those with visual
impairments are taught alongside their
peers in ordinary classrooms. Therefore,
all schools may have to cater for a
continuum from pupils with quite minor
visual impairments to those who are
educationally blind. Although pupils with
visual impairment are a minority they will
be present in most sixth forms.
Many of the low cost or no cost
measures can be applied to existing
buildings such as the choice of decor (see
Use of colour on page 43), tactile surfaces
and types of luminaires. For a detailed
description of possible measures see
Building Sight published by the RNIB
(4)
.
Other measures, such as providing or
facilitating the use of visual aids can be
considered as necessary. There is no single
solution and what may assist one person
may well not assist another. The following
notes are offered as a general guide and
should help in the majority of cases.
Types of visual impairment
It is useful for the designer to have a
general understanding of the problems
with which the student may have to deal.
Visual impairments can be put into two
42
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
References:
(1) Building Bulletin 87:
Guidelines for Environmental
Design in Schools, DfEE,
ISBN 0 11 271013 1,
The Stationery Office 1997
(2) RNIB/GBDA Joint Mobility
Unit, 224 Great Portland
Street, London W1N 6AA
Tel: 0171 388 1266
Fax 0171 388 3160
(3) The Partially Sighted
Society, 62 Salusbury Road,
London NW6 6NS
Tel: 0171 372 1551
19/3/97 revision
(4) Building Sight, Peter
Barker, Jon Barrick, Rod
Wilson, RNIB, ISBN 011 701
993 3, HMSO 1995, £35
broad classifications resulting from a wide
range of clinical conditions.
1. Field defects
Firstly, there are conditions where what is
seen is seen clearly but the visual field is
restricted. It may be that only the central
part of the field is seen (tunnel vision)
which can result from advanced glaucoma
or some forms of retinitis pigmentosa.
In this case mobility would be impaired
although reading and the ability to do
fine work would be largely unaffected.
The converse, loss of central vision,
which might result from juvenile
macular degeneration, would mean that
movement could be made in safety but
the ability to perform detailed tasks such
as reading or sewing would be extremely
difficult if not impossible.
Vision can be lost in ‘patches’, often
resulting from diabetes, which may
change in size and position with time.
There can also be the loss of one half of
the visual field, either the right or left
side, or the upper or lower portion.
In all types of field defect the
quantity of task illumination is generally
unimportant providing normal
recommendations are followed. Glare
should be avoided (see section on acuity
below). Decor can help rapid orientation
(see section on use of colour below).
2. Acuity
The other main condition is a loss of
acuity or a blurring of vision. The extent
of the blurring varies widely from person
to person and some may have to bring
objects and print extremely close to their
eyes to see best. There may also be an
associated loss of colour vision.
Large print will, and higher illuminance
may, be of assistance depending upon the
cause of the loss of acuity. Many schools
now have the facility to produce their
own reading material and the use of a
sans serif font of at least 14pt size can be
a useful aid.
The effects of low acuity can be
aggravated by glare, by which is meant
any source of light or its reflection
which is much brighter than the level to
which the individual is adapted, and this
should be avoided. A ‘white’ board on a
dark coloured wall can be a glare source
whereas a traditional ‘blackboard’ would
not. Similarly, a view of a daylit scene
through a window can be a disabling glare
source.
Both loss of field and loss of acuity can
occur together and, even when causes are
similar, the particular difficulties which
people with visual impairment experience,
and their responses to light and other
environmental features, can vary widely.
The use of higher than normal task
illuminances can be of help to those
whose acuity can be improved by the
contraction of the iris, producing a greater
depth of field. In some cases, however,
such as those with central cornea
opacities, the iris needs to be dilated so
that the student sees ‘around’ the opacity.
In such a case more light will aggravate,
not relieve, the condition.
Positioning
In the past, many difficulties were
caused by not realising the problems of
the visually impaired. It should not be
necessary to say that students with visual
impairment should be seated where they
can best see the work in progress. This
may mean a position outside the normal
arrangement, eg, immediately in front of
the teacher or board.
It is also important that any visual aids
are readily available for use. These may
range from hand-held or stand mounted
optical magnifiers to CCTV magnifiers.
Local lighting may also be used as an aid
(see Local task lighting on page 45).
It may also be necessary to allow the
student to change position within the
teaching space to accommodate access
to an electrical supply, cope with excess
daylight or use any other aid that is
available.
Use of colour
A carefully designed colour scheme
can be of great help in recognising and
identifying a location and often more can
be done with coloured surfaces to aid
the visually impaired than with elaborate
lighting installations. While in some
spaces orientation may be established by
43
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
the furniture arrangement or by windows
during daylight hours, in others it can be
aided by the colour scheme. Whatever
method is used, it is best adhered to
throughout the building, ie, the different
wall is always to the same side of the main
exit from the space.
Some visual impairments involve
a degree of colour blindness and it
is important that contrast should be
introduced in luminance and not just
colour. For example, pale green and pale
cream may be clearly distinguished by the
normally sighted but be seen as a single
shade of grey even by some pupils where
an impairment has not been identified.
Contrast in the decor should be used
to aid orientation within a space. The
visually impaired primarily use sufficiently
differentiated large surface areas to
orientate themselves in a space particularly
when it is unfamiliar. It may therefore be
worth providing contrast between critical
large surfaces such as ceiling, wall, floor
and doors
(5,6)
.
Special features such as stair nosings,
handrails, door handles, the vertical edges
of doors, electrical switches and control
buttons need to be highlighted by a
bigger colour difference to differentiate
them from the surrounding large surface
areas. For instance, using a darker colour
for a handle which clearly contrasts with
the surface of the door will indicate which
way it swings. Coloured backplates to
electrical socket outlets and light switches
are available. They should also be located
at constant heights throughout the
building and be within easy reach.
Strong contrast is also needed for
general obstacles particularly if they
protrude at high level such as telephone
booths, literature displays and coat and
hat stands.
Finally, high gloss finishes should be
used with care as they can appear as glare
sources when they reflect bright lights
such as sunlight. In general, eggshell
finishes are to be preferred as some
directional reflection is desirable rather
than dead matt surfaces which may be
difficult to place precisely.
Changes in the tactile qualities of
surfaces can also be useful to reinforce
visual contrasts. They are most important
in schools for the blind.
Daylight
The fenestration will have been designed
to facilitate the penetration of daylight
which will be available for the majority
of normal school hours. The window
wall should be light in colour, to reduce
contrast with the outdoor scene, and
window reveals may be splayed to increase
the apparent size of the glazing. It is
important that students should be allowed
to position themselves to use daylight to
their advantage rather than be constrained
to a formal classroom positioning.
Sunlight can be either a help or a
hindrance, depending on the type of
visual impairment, and some means
of controlling the quantity should be
provided. Traditionally this has been by
means of blinds, either horizontal or
vertical; both are successful but proper
maintenance is necessary to ensure their
continuing effectiveness.
It should be remembered that in the
UK the greatest problems, both visual
and thermal, are caused by low altitude
sunlight at either end of the school day.
Any solar shading devices, including
those for rooflights must, therefore, be
readily adjustable to cater for a range of
conditions. Adjustment of solar shading
should preferably be at the discretion of
the students and not the teaching staff
who may not fully appreciate the visual
difficulties of the students.
Rooflights allow the ingress of
sunlight over long periods therefore their
design and positioning requires careful
consideration to prevent obstruction of
the sunlight by neighbouring buildings
and to eliminate glare (see page 21).
Electric light
The control of glare from overhead
lighting is particularly important to
students with a visual impairment.
High frequency electronic ballasts for
fluorescent lamps are to be preferred as
they are more efficient, and they avoid
the subliminal flicker that has been shown
in scientific studies to increase headaches.
Electronic ballasts also eliminate the
44
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
References:
(5) A design guide for the
use of colour and contrast to
improve the built environment
for visually impaired people,
ICI, 1997, £15, obtainable
from Dulux Technical Group,
ICI Paints, Wexham Road,
Slough, SL2 5DS
Tel: 01753 691690
(6) Colour, Contrast and
Perception - Design Guidance
for Internal Built Environments,
£14.95 from Wayne Collins
Associates,
171-177 Great Portland
Street, London, W1N 6NY.
Tel: 0171 470 0202
Further information from:
The University of Reading
Research Group for
Non-Handicapping
Environments, Department of
Construction Management and
Engineering, P.O. Box 219,
Whiteknights, Reading,
RG6 6AW.
Tel: 0118 931 6734
annoying visible flicker that conventionally
ballasted lamps can demonstrate at the
end of their life. If high frequency ballasts
are used, consideration should be given
to using a regulated version which can be
dimmed to allow the illuminance level to
be adjusted to suit the individual as well
as to save energy. The additional cost for
this is usually modest. It is important that
the dimming circuit does not introduce
additional flicker.
It is not normally economic to
install more than the recommended
illuminances on the off-chance that they
will be useful some day to a hypothetical
visually impaired student but additional
illuminance can often be readily supplied
when the need arises from local task
lighting luminaires.
Summary
• Provide contrast in the decor to aid
orientation and the location of doors,
door-handles, switches and socket outlets,
changes in direction in corridors, changes
in floor level, stairs and steps.
• Avoid glare from windows, rooflights
and luminaires either distant or
immediately overhead.
• Provide facilities for the use of any
visual aids, eg, magnifiers, telescopes, etc.
• Provide additional illumination by
adjustable local task lighting as needed.
5.12 Local task lighting
Local task lighting is best provided from
adjustable reading luminaires using
compact fluorescent lamps. These have
the advantage of long life and low energy
consumption leading to low operating
temperatures, thus avoiding thermal
discomfort when used close to the task
and the student.
Such luminaires can be positioned to
provide the directional characteristics and
illuminance best suited to the student.
Luminaires should have a heavy base to
aid stability or be clamped to the desk,
and the heads should be adjustable in
all planes so that they can be optimally
positioned. Note that it is possible for
a local lighting unit to cause glare to
adjacent students but this can usually be
avoided by careful siting.
A problem with local task lighting is
the need for an electrical supply which,
if only wall or floor mounted supply
socket outlets are available, may introduce
the hazards of trailing leads. If the
student cannot be positioned close to
a socket there is no simple solution to
the problem. An overhead supply would
enable leads to be dropped down to
the desk position but it is hardly likely
to be installed on a speculative basis.
Battery powered reading lights are also a
possibility.
5.13 Exterior Lighting
The exterior lighting of a school can
serve three main functions. The first is
concerned with ensuring that pedestrians
and those travelling by car or bicycle,
can see sufficiently well to enable them
to move safely from the street to the
entrance of the school. This will require
a system of roadway/pathway lighting
which will not only light these surfaces,
but also provide sufficient vertical
illuminance so that people and cars
can be seen. It will be beneficial if the
immediate surrounding areas also receive
some light to define the general area. The
school entrance will also need to be lit
either internally or externally so that it
can be clearly identified. If car parking is
provided on the site this may also require
a system of area lighting.
The illuminance chosen should
reflect the location eg, urban or rural
environment, and the level of risk from
vandalism. The higher the risk, the higher
the illuminance and the larger the area
that should be covered.
The second function is concerned
with the appearance and security of
the school buildings at night (Fig 31).
If a modicum of floodlighting can be
provided it will show the importance
of the school within the community.
Two stage security lighting can be
very effective. The first stage would be
to provide a low level of background
lighting, just above the ambient level, to
deter opportunist vandals and to enhance
the night-time appearance of the school.
This is combined with second stage
floodlighting of strategic areas such as
45
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
needs to be justified, and if by installing
sports floodlighting the facilities can be
used more extensively, perhaps the school
can obtain revenue by hiring out these
facilities, enabling some of the capital cost
to be recovered.
It is not possible to describe here in
detail the techniques of designing
exterior lighting. The aim is to indicate
possibilities which should be considered
and if it is decided to include these forms
of lighting then further information can
be obtained from the CIBSE publications
referring to outdoor lighting
7
and
sports lighting.
Aspects of exterior lighting which
need special attention are: the avoidance
of light trespass, which is light causing
a nuisance to people and dwellings in
neighbouring areas; and light pollution
which affects the local environment
and atmosphere. Light trespass can be
controlled by suitable selection of the
light distribution of the luminaires to
avoid ‘spill light’ and careful aiming of
floodlights with the use of shields
if necessary.
Generally the intensity of a floodlight
beam diminishes away from the centre. In
order to control glare from light it is often
necessary to refer to an outer beam where
the intensity of the light has fallen to
1/10th of the intensity of the main beam.
To prevent light pollution, luminaires
must be chosen with a light distribution
where all the light from this outer beam
falls below an angle of 70° from the
downward vertical. These are called full-
cut lanterns and usually require flat glasses.
(see Fig 43).
To achieve the correct uniformity in
car parks or playing fields higher columns
or closer spacing may be required.
Whilst there is no legislation
concerning light pollution it has
become a major planning issue with
local authorities and some have adopted
standards which define acceptable levels
of light pollution
8
. Planning Departments
often turn down proposals which would
introduce major new light sources into
areas without bright lights and would
create substantial sky glow.
External lighting without automatic
entrances and footpaths which is brought
on by intruder detectors. High intensity
tungsten halogen floodlights can be used
for this second stage lighting. It should
be remembered that security lighting
is only of benefit where the building
is under surveillance from neighbours
or passers-by or by a CCTV system.
The Department’s Building Bulletin 78
Security Lighting and the draft Security by
Design bulletin (available from
www.teachernet.gov.uk/lighting) give
further guidance on security lighting and
CCTV systems. The choice of light source
is most critical when designing for CCTV.
The most energy efficient light source,
low pressure sodium (SOX), is not suited
to colour CCTV installations as it is
mono-chromatic with little or no colour
rendering properties and the narrow
spectrum of the light does not match the
spectral response of the cameras available.
However an adequate picture may still
be possible, particularly with a black and
white camera.
The third function of exterior lighting
is the lighting of sports facilities such as
playing fields, tennis courts etc. Obviously
the provision of this kind of lighting
46
Figure 43: Lighting of
footpath with a luminaire which
projects light in a downward
direction. [Photo: P. Locker]
References:
7. CIBSE Lighting Guide LG6
Outdoor Environment.
8. The Institution of Lighting
Engineers, Guidance notes for
the reduction of light pollution,
1994, available from ILE,
Lennox House, 9 Lawford
Road, Rugby, Warwickshire,
CV21 2DZ.
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
control is not energy efficient. Some form
of automatic control should be provided.
Control can be by photocells and
timeswitches or passive infra-red or other
intruder detectors.
Although the purpose of exterior
lighting equipment is to provide
illumination at night, its daytime
appearance should not be overlooked and
it should complement the appearance of
the building and its landscape.
5.14 Emergency Lighting
The purpose of emergency lighting is
to provide sufficient illumination in the
event of a failure of the electricity supply
to the normal electric lighting to enable
the building to be evacuated quickly and
safely and to control securely processes,
machinery, etc.
In schools, emergency lighting is
only usually provided in areas not lit by
daylight and those accessible to parents,
teachers, pupils and the general public
during the evenings. These include halls
and drama spaces used for performances.
Examples of places where emergency
lighting might be considered are escape
corridors, escape stairways and corridors
without any windows. It should always
be provided in sleeping accommodation.
If necessary check escape routes during
the hours of darkness to assess whether
emergency lighting is required. In some
cases, fluorescent marker lines may be
an effective means of way marking. This
reduces the level of light necessary to see
the escape route.
It is recommended that for halls,
gymnasia and other areas used by the
public during the hours of darkness
the emergency lighting should be of
the maintained type which keeps the
emergency lighting on at all material
times.
On designated escape routes and fire
escape stairs the installation can be of
the non-maintained type which will only
operate when the normal electric lighting
fails, and will operate for not less than 1
hour’s duration.
Where part of the premises is licensed
it will be necessary to seek the advice and
guidance of the Local Fire Authority.
The installation should reveal safe
passageways out of the building together
with the fire alarm call points, the fire
fighting equipment, escape signs and any
permanent hazards along the escape routes
such as changes of direction or stairs.
Further detailed guidance is given
in the CIBSE Technical Memorandum
TM12: Emergency Lighting 1986 and in
the British Standard Code of Practice for
Emergency Lighting, BS 5266: Part 1:
1988. The latter is to be replaced by
EN 1838, EN 50172 and the European
Signs Directive which is already current.
These include details regarding levels
of illuminance, illuminance uniformity
and specific details on escape signs. The
following points (in EN 1838) should
be noted.
• For escape route lighting and open-
area (anti-panic) lighting the emergency
lighting shall reach 50% of the required
illuminance within five seconds and 100%
within 60 seconds.
• The minimum value for the colour
rendering index (Ra) of the light source
shall be 40.
These criteria will generally be met
by standard, self contained tungsten or
fluorescent luminaires.
The primary requirement of an
emergency lighting system is that of
safety. However, there will be considerable
visual benefits from taking this system into
account when the normal electric lighting
is being planned, because it may be
possible to integrate the two installations.
Some luminaires are available which can
incorporate the emergency lighting as
well as the normal lighting: alternatively
luminaires can be specially modified to
do this. The designer should be aware
that any luminaire with a CE mark that
is specifically modified must have the
original mark removed and the luminaire
retested and a new CE mark applied.
The servicing of a building continues
to require more and more equipment,
which without a proper integrated
approach, results in visual ‘clutter’.
Emergency lighting equipment is one
possible cause of this if not properly
considered early in the design process.
47
Section 5: Lighting for particular applications
6.1 Task/Activity Lighting - 2.1
Examine how the space will be used and in particular the tasks and activities that will
be undertaken. For this, consider the following:
Task illuminance (lux or daylight factor) - 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.1.1 & 4.2
Task illuminance distribution/uniformity - 4.1 & 4.2
Discomfort glare (sun, sky & electric lighting) - 4.1.3, 4.2.1 & Appendix.5
Reflected glare (sun, sky & electric lighting) - 4.1.3, 4.2.1 & 4.2.3
Disability glare (sun, sky & electric lighting) - 4.1.3, 4.1.4 & 4.2.1
Lamp colour rendering (CIE colour rendering index) - 4.2.5 & Appendix.3
Lamp flicker - 4.2.2
Glare, colour and contrast for visually and hearing impaired pupils - 5.11
6.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity - 2.2
Determine the appearance of the lighting. Consider the following:
Light pattern - 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.1.2 & 4.2.4
Subjective lightness - 3.1 & 3.2
Lamp colour appearance - 4.2.5 & Appendix.3
Discomfort glare - 3.1 & Appendix.5
Disability glare - 3.1
Lamp flicker - 4.2.2 & 5.4
Exterior/Interior view - 4.1.5
6.3 Lighting and Architectural Integration - 2.3
Ensure that the lighting equipment, together with its performance, forms an integrated
part of the whole design. Consider the following:
Windows/rooflights - 3.1
Natural light design/pattern - 3.1
Luminaire/s - 3.2
Electric lighting installation - 3.2
Integration of natural and electric lighting - 4.3
Lighting controls - Appendix.6
6.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency - 2.4
Check that the lighting installation, both natural and electric, utilises energy effectively.
Consider the following:
Natural lighting design (windows/rooflights) - 3.1 & 4.1
Lamp type/s (efficacy lm/w) - 3.2, 4.2.5 & Appendix.3
Section 6: Check-list for lighting design
48
The purpose of this publication is to help the architect and the lighting designer to
create a successfully lit school environment, an environment that is successful in terms
of operation and appearance. Since this requires the consideration of a number of
interlocking elements of building design, it is important that the designer considers
the implications of each element both individually and holistically. Because of this
complexity it is stressed that the designer should pay attention to all aspects of the
information provided in the body of this publication and that the following check-
list is used towards the end of the design process to ensure that nothing has been
overlooked.
The numbers associated with each element of the check-list refer to the sections of
the publication where further information can be obtained.
Luminaire type/s - 3.2, 4.2.5 & Appendix.5
Electric lighting controls - Appendix.6
Integrating electric light with daylight - 3.3 & 4.3
6.5 Lighting Maintenance - 2.5
Poor maintenance of the lighting installation, both natural and electric, will reduce
visual quality as well as waste money and energy. Consider the following:
Degree of environmental cleanliness/dirtiness
Cleaning and redecoration programme - 4.1 & 4.2
Lamp life and lamp replacement - Appendix.3
Disposal of used lamps - Appendix.7
Luminaire type/s - 4.2.5 & Appendix.5
6.6 Lighting Costs - 2.6
Lighting constitutes a relatively small part of the capital cost of a school, but none-the-
less, it is an important element of design. Consider the following:
Capital cost of the lighting installation
Running costs of lighting equipment
6.7 Exterior and Emergency Lighting
These two special topics may not apply to all schools but a positive decision needs to
be made regarding their use -5.13 & 5.14
49
Section 6: Check-list for lighting design
The Regulations which apply to both
new and existing school buildings are the
Education (School Premises) Regulations,
1996.
(1)
For new school buildings, Building
Bulletin 87
(2)
is the recommended
environmental standard quoted in the
DfEE Constructional Standards for
School Buildings in England.
Schools that are subject to the DfEE
Constructional Standards
(3)
are exempt
from the procedures of the Building
Regulations, but the Constructional
Standards quote the Approved
Documents to the Building Regulations
in many cases. For example, in the case
of fire the Constructional Standards
quote Aproved Document B Fire Safety
plus the DfEE vaiations given in the
Constructional Standards.
The following points from the
Building Regulations Part L (July 1995),
Conservation of Fuel & Power
(4)
are
summarised for information.
Part L requires lighting installations to
satisfy two basic criteria:
• the light sources and their circuits
should be of the energy efficient type;
and
• the lighting installations must be
controlled.
Guidance is given on how to achieve
both these criteria, with alternative
methods for calculation.
To satisfy the energy efficiency criteria
requires that either 95% of the electric
lighting load uses sources such as
fluorescent tubes, compact fluorescent
lamps or high pressure discharge lamps,
or alternatively, the average circuit
efficiency should be greater than
50 lumens/watt.
Exceptions are permitted, such as
display areas or areas where a less efficient
source would be more appropriate.
To satisfy the criteria of control
requires switches to be placed locally.
Arrangements can be made for central
control, provided the central control
point is manned or under the control of a
responsible person.
It should be noted that both the
CIBSE and DfEE have opted for a higher
circuit luminous efficacy of 65 lumens/
watt as an average, rather than the 50
lumens/watt as set out in the Building
Regulations. However the method of
calculating the value remains the same.
It is recommended that the Building
Regulations requirements for lighting
control are followed as being a sensible
approach to Energy Conservation, but
with the higher efficacy of 65 lumens/
watt.
Construction Design and
Management Regulations 1994
(CDM Regulations)
The CDM regulations apply to most
new school building projects except for
minor refurbishment work. They make
it the responsibility of the designer to
inform the client that he is required to
appoint a Planning Supervisor to oversee
the Health and Safety aspects of both
the design and the construction. The
designer must consider the Health and
Safety implications of his design and
input into the Health and Safety Plan and
the Health and Safety File. For lighting
installations, this means that it is the
responsibility of the designer to ensure
that the luminaires can be operated and
maintained in safety. Means for relamping
areas such as staircases, gymnasia, halls,
external lighting etc, should be allowed
for and where necessary agreed.
50
Appendix 1: School Premises Regulations and DfEE Constructional
Standards for new school buildings.
References:
1. Education (School
Premises) Regulations 1996,
Statutory Instrument 1996
No.360, available from The
Stationery Office.
2. Building Bulletin 87:
Guidelines for Environmental
Design in Schools (Revision of
Design Note 17), 1997, The
Stationery Office,
ISBN 0 11 271013 1.
3. DfEE Constructional
Standards available from
Architects and Building
Branch, DfEE, Caxton House,
6-12 Tothill Street, London,
SW1H 9NF.
Tel: 0171 273 6237
Fax: 0171 273 6762
4. Approved Document
L (Conservation of fuel
and power) in support of
the Building Regulations,
Department of the Environment
and Welsh Office, HMSO
1995, ISBN O 11 7529338,
£11.
From time to time reports emerge which
suggest that lighting may be a possible
cause for concern within the working
environment. In the past, these have
ranged from a cause of headaches and eye
strain to a possible cause of skin cancer.
Not surprisingly the lighting profession
takes these reports very seriously and
endeavours to investigate the claims to
ensure that the lighting it recommends
is perfectly safe. It is not appropriate to
describe here in detail the results of the
various studies but to explain the general
understanding at present.
One common area of concern is that of
unseen radiation from fluorescent lamps,
and in particular ultraviolet radiation:
these produce considerably less than that
produced by the sun. It is considered by
those who have studied this topic that
the risk from radiation is extremely small
indeed and is thought unlikely to be
a hazard.
Another potential problem is that of
glare and flicker. It has been known for
some time that these conditions can be
the cause of visual discomfort which can
impair vision, reduce visual performance
and in some people cause headaches and
eye strain. These temporary afflictions can
be avoided by the use of high frequency
ballasts. These topics have been con-
sidered elsewhere in this publication and
here the importance of avoiding problems
by good lighting design is stressed.
Some recent research
(1,2)
has shown
that approximately 14% of the population
are susceptible to eyestrain and headaches
caused by 50Hz fluorescent lighting and
that this reduces to about 7% with high
frequency fluorescent lighting.
Epilepsy is sometimes triggered by
low frequency flashes of light by which
can occur with strobe lights, with some
compact fluorescent lamps at ignition, or
more generally with discharge lamps at
the end of their life. Flicker at less than
4 flashes per second is unlikely to be a
problem. 50Hz fluorescent lighting has
not been shown to be a trigger for epilepsy.
There have been in recent times
a number of studies related to ‘sick
building syndrome’. These studies found
it extremely difficult to determine the
51
exact cause of a particular problem, but
it is interesting to note that problems
rarely occurred in buildings with windows
which provided people with both views
out and natural ventilation. There seems
to be little doubt that windows are a
considerable benefit to an environment.
It is suggested therefore that daylighting
and natural ventilation should be a
positive feature in school design.
Other studies have shown that people
prefer lighting which creates a ‘light’
interior with a non-uniform light pattern.
There is currently no evidence that this
form of lighting improves health, but if
people prefer it, the feeling of ‘well being’
which is created can only be beneficial.
The remaining subject to be considered
here is that of the use of Polychlorinated
Biphenyls (PCBs). Until 1976 this
material was used in capacitors as part of
some fluorescent lamp control circuits.
Since that time manufacturers have moved
to other materials. In 1986 Government
Regulations prohibited the sale of PCBs
in small capacitors for lighting equipment,
but in existing installations they may
continue in use - assuming they are in a
serviceable state. After a period of use,
some PCBs may leak from the capacitor,
but the amounts involved are very small.
However contact with the body should be
avoided and for handling leaky equipment
it is essential to use suitable gloves.
Appropriate measures for disposal should
also be taken.
In this Appendix an attempt has
been made to indicate the present
understanding of lighting and health
as it affects the school designer. It is
felt that if the guidance presented in
this publication is adhered to, then it is
likely that a well-lit environment will be
produced with risks to health avoided.
Appendix 2: Lighting and Health
References:
1. Modulation of light from
fluorescent lamps, Wilkins A.J.
& Clark. C., Lighting Research
and Technology 22 (2)
103-109, 1990, CIBSE.
2. Fluorescent lighting,
headaches and eyestrain,
Wilkins A.J., Nimmo-Smith
I., Slater A.I., & Bedocs
L., Lighting Research and
Technology 21 (1) 11-18,
1989, CIBSE.
This appendix has been included to provide designers with an overview of the
performance of a range of lamp types which could be used in schools. The information
is presented mainly to help the designer make a first selection and it is assumed that
manufacturers’ data will be used for design purposes.
The data on pages 54 and 55 includes information on lamp efficacy, lamp life
and colour performance together with the run-up and re-strike characteristics, and
dimming capabilities.
52
Appendix 3: Lamps
General lighting service (GLS), Reflector (R) and (PAR), tungsten filament lamps
Advantages:
Point sources: Excellent colour rendering; Warm colour appearance; Dimmable;
Cheap (GLS only, Reflector and PAR lamps are relatively expensive);
Instant start;
No Control gear required.
Disadvantages:
Short Life; Low efficacy; Sensitive to voltage variations and vibrations (any structural
borne vibrations which shake the filament will reduce life, consider Rough Service lamps.)
Low and Mains Voltage Tungsten Halogen Lamps
Linear and Capsule TH (K), Reflector TH (M)
Advantages:
Point source; Excellent colour rendering; Warm colour appearance; Dimmable (Hard fired
dimmer required); Instant start; range of wattages, sizes, and beam angles.
Disadvantages:
Low efficacy; Iow voltage 12 volt lamps require a transformer; Relatively expensive
(compared to GLS); Sensitive to voltage variations and vibrations (any structural borne
vibrations which shake the filament will reduce life, consider Rough Service Lamps).
Low Pressure Mercury Discharge Tubular Fluorescent Lamps (MCF)
Advantages:
Linear lamp, with some exceptions (circular, U shape not widely used – old technology);
High Efficacy; Various colour appearances, Cheap; Long life; T12 - Halophosphate old
technology 38mm tube, less efficient than - T8 - 26mm lamps Triphosphor, Generally
better colour rendering than T12, new generation have low mercury content and low
output depreciation. T5 - Triphosphor smaller lamp diameter 16mm tube, highest
efficacy. All run off High Frequency Control gear, T12 & T8 will also run off Standard
and low loss wire wound ballasts. Dimmable circuits are available for most types of
fluorescent lamps.
Disadvantages:
Diffuse source; standard lengths; Control gear required; T5 only works on HF gear which
is expensive.
Low Power Compact Fluorescent Lamps (SL, PL, 2D, 2L)
Advantages:
Smaller size than linear fluorescent; Some lamps dimmable; High efficacy;
Long life; Relatively Cheap; some sizes can be used as direct tungsten
lamp replacements (complete with control gear). High frequency gear
available for higher wattage lamps (greater than 2x13w).
Disadvantages:
Diffuse source; Requires control gear; most circuits run at low power
factor; tube wall very bright, can cause glare.
Lamp illustrations reproduced from CIBSE Code for interior lighting (1994) with the permission of the
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London, SW12 9BS
Appendix 3a: Lamp Types
Appendix 3: Lamps
53
Low Pressure Sodium Lamp (SOX)
Advantages:
Very High efficacy; long Life; relatively cheap; various wattages.
Disadvantages:
Mono-chromatic (yellow) light; no colour rendering; requires control gear. Run-up time
required to reach full output.
High Pressure Sodium (SONDL)
Advantages:
High efficacy; Long life except "white" SON.
Disadvantages:
Effect of light source can be oppressive when used in an interior, except "white" SON;
poor to average colour rendering except "white" SON which is good; colour appearance is
warm (golden white); Requires control gear; requires run-up time.
High Pressure Mercury Vapour (MBF)
Advantages:
Long life; various wattages; De luxe versions average to good colour rendering; relatively
cheap.
Disadvantages:
Generally poor to average colour rendering; poor efficacy; requires control gear; requires
run-up time. Blue-green white light.
High Pressure Metal Halide Lamps (MBI, MBIF)
Advantages:
High efficacy; good colour rendering; warm/intermediate/cold colour
appearance versions available; average to long life depending on wattage.
Ceramic arc versions - good colour stability, longer life.
Disadvantages:
Some lamps change colour through life; high UV output-source needs glass
cover; failure unpredictable; No British Standard. Requires control gear;
requires run-up time. Ceramic arc versions - more expensive.
Lamp illustrations reproduced from CIBSE Code for interior lighting (1994) with the permission of the
Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 222 Balham High Road, London, SW12 9BS
Appendix 3b: Lamp Types
Induction Lamp
Advantages:
Very long life (except reflector lamp which is long life); low pressure lamp; good colour
rendering; no flicker; virtually maintenance free.
Disadvantages:
Limited range; high electromagnetic radiation generated, requiring careful use; small
lumen packages; diffuse source.
54
Appendix 3: Lamps
Appendix 3c: Lamp data
Lamp type
Tungsten
Mains (230V)
GLS and reflector
PAR
Tungsten halogen
Linear tungsten
halogen
Low voltage (12V)
tungsten halogen
Fluorescent
T12
(Halophosphate)
T8 (Triphosphor)
T5
Circular
Compact
Colour Rendering
group/Colour
Temperature, K
(see Note 3)
1A/2700K
1A/2700K
1A/2900K
1A/2900K
1A/3000K
Efficacy
(approximate)
Lumens/Lamp Watt
(see Note 2)
8–12
10–12
10–18
14–22
12–25
Typical lamp life
(hours)
1000
2000
2000
2000
3000–5000
Typical range
of lamp power
rating
(wattage)
15–1000
80–500
50–100
60–2000
5–100
Control gear
required
No
No
No
No
Transformer
Lamp start-up
time
(Approx)
Instant
Instant
Instant
Instant
Instant
Lamp re-strike
time
(see Note 4)
Instant
Instant
Instant
Instant
Instant
2/3000–5000K
1A,1B/3000–6000K
1B/3000–4000K
2/3000–5000K
1B/3000–6000K
60–80
60–95
95–110
30–50
43–83
7500
7500–15,000
10,000–15,000
7500
7,000–10,000
20–125
18–70
14–50
22–60
5–55
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–3 secs
1–2 secs
1–3 secs
Low pressure
Sodium (SOX)
High pressure
Sodium (SON)
Standard
De luxe
White
Mercury
Vapour (MBF)
Standard
De Luxe
Metal halide
(MBI)
Single ended
Double ended
Tubular/elliptical
Ceramic arc tube
Induction
Standard
Reflector
None
4/2000
2/2200
1B/2500
3/4000
2/3400
1B,2/3000–4200
1B,2/3000–4200
1A,2/4000–6000
1B/3000
1B/3000–4000
1B/3000
100–190
65–140
75–90
35–50
40–60
40–60
60–68
68–75
70–80
70–75
70
47
12,000–16,000
16,000–20,000
12,000–16,000
5,000–10,000
24,000-29,000
24,000-29,000
6000
6000
6000–15000
6000–8000
60,000
10,000
18–180
50–1000
150–400
35–100
50–1000
50–400
70–150
70–250
70–1000
35–150
55–85
23
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Built in
8-12 mins
1.5-6 mins
5–6 mins
5–6 mins
2–5 mins
2–5 mins
3–6 mins
3–6 mins
3–6 mins
3–6 mins
Prompt
Prompt
Prompt <55w
10 mins >90w
>1 min
>1 min
>30 secs
4–7 mins
4–7 mins
6–10 mins
6–10 mins
6–20 mins
6–10 mins
Prompt
Prompt
Notes to Appendix 3: Lamps
Note 1: The tabular data provide an
indication of lamp performance: for exact
data, information from manufacturers
should be consulted.
Note 2: The power consumption of
the control gear associated with discharge
lamps should be included in estimating
the efficacy of the installation: values
vary and should be obtained from the
manufacturer.
Note 3: See tables on the right for
colour rendering groups and correlated
colour temperature classes as defined by
CIE.
Note 4: The re-strike time after an
interruption to the electrical supply.
'Prompt' re-strike is not instantaneous
but barely noticeable. Instant re-strike
is available for all double ended high
intensity discharge lamps using special
high voltage ignitors, but they are too
expensive for general use and do not
affect the lamp start-up time.
55
Colour rendering
groups
1A
1B
2
3
4
CIE general colour
rendering index (R
a
)
Ra r 90
80 b R
a
< 90
60 b R
a
< 80
40 b R
a
< 60
20 b R
a
< 40
Typical application
Wherever accurate colour matching is
required,
eg, colour printing inspection
Wherever accurate colour judgements are
necessary and/or good colour rendering
is required for reasons of appearance, eg,
shops and other commercial premises.
Wherever moderate colour rendering is
required.
Wherever colour rendering is of little
significance but marked distortion of colour
is unacceptable.
Wherever colour rendering is of no
importance at all and marked distortion of
colour is acceptable.
Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT)
CCT b 3300 K
3300 K < CCT b 5300K
5300 K < CCT
CCT Class
Warm
Intermediate*
Cold
* This class covers a large range of correlated colour temperatures. Experience in the
UK suggests that light sources with correlated colour temperatures approaching the
5300 K end of the range will usually be considered to have a 'cool' colour appearance.
Appendix 3: Lamps
Appendix 4: Control gear
All discharge lamps require control gear
to limit the current taken by the lamp
it controls. There are various types of
control gear which effect the overall
performance of a lamp.
Control gear for Fluorescent
lamps
Standard control gear consists of a
basic unit with relatively high losses and
harmonic components. Unless specified
otherwise most luminaires will be
supplied with this gear.
Low loss gear is slightly more expensive
but generally the losses are half those of
standard gear. The physical size allows
it to be installed in most luminaires. For
energy efficiency this is the minimum
standard which should be adopted.
Super low loss gear is more expensive
than low loss gear with roughly half
the losses but the physical size is larger
making it difficult to use in most
luminaires.
High frequency gear is electronic gear.
It is lighter and has the lowest electrical
losses of all the conventional types of
gear. It is much more expensive than
conventional (wire wound) gear. It can
be supplied in dimming form (more
expensive still).
There is no simple payback advantage
for this type of gear, at present. The life of
the gear (not yet proven) is thought to be
less than conventional gear and it is more
susceptible to high temperatures
(50-60°C).
Other advantages apart from low power
losses are: it is flicker free; it reduces risks
of epileptic fits; and it has a ‘soft’ start
(increases lamp life).
There are two types of high frequency
circuits, analogue and digital. Digital is
more expensive but provides smoother
dimming whilst analogue circuits provide
step dimming. The choice will depend on
the degree of control required.
Electronic starters. There are a number
of canister type electronic starters
available which provide a ‘soft’ start.
These are slightly more expensive than
a standard glow switch starter but when
these electronic starters are combined
with low loss gear many of the features
of the high frequency circuit are provided
but at a much lower capital cost.
Control gear for high pressure
discharge lamps. Most lamps require
their own dedicated control gear for
efficient operation. However, there are
some high pressure sodium lamps which
will operate on mercury vapour lamp
56
Appendix 5: Luminaires
control gear. These are special lamps
designed to be used as replacement
sources for mercury lamps.
Metal Halide lamps. Most metal halide
lamps require an ignitor which produces
a 5kV pulse to start the lamp. It is
essential to keep the ignitor close to the
lamp, unless special high voltage cable is
used when the ignitor can be remotely
mounted. At the end of their life metal
halide lamps can cycle and eventually may
rectify. These conditions can be annoying
and dangerous. It is advisable to specify
the use of timed ignitors which will shut
the circuit down before any damage can
be done.
Mercury Vapour lamps. Power switches
are available for some circuits which
allows the lamp to run at reduced output
and reduced power. This could be useful
for areas where lighting is required during
unoccupied times, or for security lighting
when the lamps could be run all night at
reduced consumption.
Sodium lamps. A similar power switch is
available for some high pressure sodium
lamp circuits.
This appendix provides designers with an
overview of the performance of a range of
luminaire types so that simple comparisons
can be made. The information is intended
to help the designer make a first selection
and that manufacturers’ data will be used
for design purposes.
The first data sheet is concerned
with luminaires used in a regular array.
Information is included on suitable lamp
types, light output and distribution,
luminaire mounting and spacing,
utilisation factors and glare indices.
The likely distribution of light within a
space is also included.
The second sheet is concerned with
luminaires used individually: in addition
to lamp types, some general information
is provided and a variety of data is
available from manufacturers.
Appendix 4: Control gear
57
Appendix 5: Luminaires generally used in regular arrays: Typical characteristics
Figure
Caption
58
Appendix 5: Luminaires generally used in regular arrays: Typical characteristics
APPENDIX 5 (CONTINUED): LUMINAIRES USED INDIVIDUALLY
59
TASK/LOCAL LUMINAIRES
Often fitted with an integral dimmer and transformer. Some
luminaires which are generally used in regular arrays (pages
57– 58) can also be used individually for localised lighting.
GLS R TH(K) TH(M) MCF SL PL 2D 2L
ACCENT & DISPLAY LUMINAIRES (SPOTLIGHTS &
FLOODLIGHTS)
Generally wall, ceiling or track-mounted in either mains or low-
voltage versions. Total beam widths are as follows: pencil(<10°);
narrow (10-25°); medium (25-40°); wide (>40°).
GLS PAR TH(K) TH(M) SL PL 2D 2L MBI
UPLIGHT LUMINAIRES
Available in free-standing and wall-mounted versions and a variety
of light distributions. Occasionally used in regular arrays.
GLS TH(K) MCF SL PL 2D 2L MBI MBIF SONDL
WALL-WASHING LUMINAIRES
Used to emphasise vertical surfaces.
GLS TH(K) MCF PL 2L MBI
DOWNLIGHT LUMINAIRES
Available in recessed or surface-mounted versions. Often used in
regular arrays.
GLS PAR R TH(K) TH(M) SL PL 2D 2L
MBF MBI MBIF SONDL
break in the day, eg, the mid-morning or
lunch-time break. If after the break there
is sufficient daylight, then the electric
lighting will remain off until the daylight
level falls below an acceptable minimum.
For this type of control it is necessary
to have special devices in individual
luminaires, or groups of luminaires,
to allow them to be switched off by
a momentary break in the electricity
supply which is activated by the time-
switch. There should also be switches
which the user can operate to switch on
the luminaires at any time that they are
required.
Photocell controls
The next level of automatic lighting
control is to use light responding switches
or photocell controlled switches. These
will switch off luminaires as the daylight
reaches a required level. The lighting can
then be switched on again by the user
as required. The designer should assess
the performance and cost effectiveness of
these automatic control systems.
Occupancy Controls
Another type of lighting control is the
occupancy sensor controlled switch. This
is a device that responds to the occupancy
of a room. It can be used to switch lights
on as people enter the space or switch
them off when a room is not being used.
These types of controllers are appropriate
in intermittently occupied rooms. They
have been used to good effect in toilets
and changing rooms, and in assembly
halls and sports halls where energy savings
of 25-30% and payback periods of 3 years
or less are possible (Fig 40).
It should be noted that frequent
switching of light sources can have a
detrimental effect on the lamp life. Using
high frequency gear or electronic soft
starts for fluorescent circuits can help to
prolong lamp life.
Dimmers
Dimmers, or lighting regulators, can
be used to adjust light levels between
Appendix 6: Lighting Controls
60
The lighting controls of an installation,
ie, the switches, dimmers, etc, are an
important part of a lighting design and
need careful attention if the installation is
to be convenient to operate and energy
efficient. If the light switches are placed
near the entry/exit point from general
circulation, this is convenient, but the
switches need to operate the luminaires
relative to the distribution of daylight,
ie, it should be possible to switch off the
luminaires which are near the window,
whilst keeping the lights on at the back
of the room. In the first instance the
switching of the lighting installation
should be planned both to accommodate
the convenience of the users and to allow
the electric lighting to be switched to
complement the daylight distribution.
The arrangement of the switches on the
switch plate also needs to be considered if
the users are to operate the lighting with
the minimum of inconvenience.
In many schools, the electric lighting
is usually on longer than is necessary.
Often the lighting is switched on first
thing in the morning, perhaps by the
cleaners or the first person to arrive, and
because it is then overlooked it is left on
all day until the last person leaves in the
evening. This occurs, even though for a
considerable part of the day, natural light
would be sufficient to light the space and
is a waste of energy and money. There
are a wide range of automatic lighting
control systems available, some of which
are complex, and therefore too expensive
for the typical school situation.
Time-switch controls
One system which is relatively inexpensive
and which is likely to produce considerable
energy savings, is a time-operated switch
which will switch off all or some of the
luminaires at a time in the day when it is
likely that there will be sufficient daylight
present. It must however be possible to
over-ride the time-switch at any time that
the users feel it necessary to switch on
all, or some of the lights. The automatic
switch-off time will depend on the
particular daylight design, but it would be
convenient if it could occur at a natural
full light output and off or in the case
of some fluorescent lamp circuits to
approximately 10 or 20% of full light
output. These controllers are useful in
rooms where visual aids are to be used,
eg, overhead, film and slide projectors.
Here the lighting can be dimmed to
reduce the lighting level so that the
overhead, film or slides can be seen
comfortably but with sufficient light to
enable notes to be taken. Other situations
which probably require dimming circuits
are drama studios and general purpose
halls if these are to be used for drama or
other events. If a dimming circuit is to
be included, it is important to use lamps
which can be dimmed satisfactorily. These
include incandescent, tungsten halogen
and some fluorescent lamps including
cold cathode types. For schools it would
be inappropriate to use high pressure
discharge lamps in places where dimming
is required.
Drama studios and halls which are to
be used for theatrical presentations also
require stage lighting control equipment
(see section 5.8). Stage lighting is of
a specialist nature and the choice will
depend on the sophistication required
and it is suggested that the manufacturers
are consulted.
In-Luminaire Controls
Luminaires are available which contain
elements of automatic control which can
be beneficial to the end user. The systems
are relatively simple to use, are cheaper to
install (as no switch is required at the door)
but the luminaires are more expensive.
These controls vary from a simple on/
off device, presence or absence detectors,
through to more sophisticated units
which can be set to provide a maintained
illuminance, daylight linked to allow for
daylight by dimming, up to individual
control by means of a hand held override
unit.
This method of control is probably
only going to be worthwhile where
daylight linking and the maintenance of a
set illuminance are going to be adopted as
a means of reducing the operating costs
of the building.
61
APPENDIX 6: Lighting Controls
It is unlikely that the more
sophisticated type of control will produce
a short payback period, but developments
in electronics are such that these devices
should be kept under close scrutiny.
Individual ‘clip-on’ light sensors can be
used to help maintain a set illuminance.
These can simply be attached to any
luminaire with an analogue dimmable
ballast.
Mercury
milligrammes
per lamp(mg)
Sodium
milligrammes
per lamp(mg)
Average weight
of lamp (g)
Fluorescent
tubes
20 - 35
0
200
Compact
Fluorescent
lamps
20 - 35
0
200
High
Pressure
mercury
20
0
100
Metal
Halide
30 - 45
3
150
Low
pressure
sodium
0
400
300
High
Pressure
Sodium
10 - 20
5
300
Fluorescent tubes, compact fluorescent
lamps, high pressure mercury lamps,
metal halide lamps and high pressure
sodium lamps all contain mercury. The
amount of mercury varies between
about 5mg and 35mg depending on the
manufacturer and the age of the lamp.
Some of the mercury is absorbed into the
glass, some is present in the phosphor
layer and some is present as free mercury.
Many older lamps also contain cadmium
which is a known carcinogen. This needs
to be considered during disposal. Lamps
currently manufactured in Europe do not
contain any cadmium.
Fluorescent tubes also contain rare
earth metals such as antimony. However
the main concern is mercury. It fulfils
essential physical functions within the gas
discharge and there is no substitute. The
EC permissible limit for mercury is only
one part per billion in drinking water.
This gives an indication of its toxicity.
It is worth remembering that mercury
contained in fluorescent lamps is only
a small part of the mercury released
to the environment. The UK Lighting
Industry Federation states that only 0.3%
of the mercury entering the environment
comes from lamps. Nevertheless the total
amount of mercury contained in the
world's annual production of lamps has
been estimated at 75 tonnes.
The CIBSE Interior lighting guide
appendix 5.11 Environmental aspects
of lighting gives an analysis of the total
amount of mercury released to the
environment both by the production of
the electricity used by the lamp and by
the disposal of the waste lamp at the end
of its life, for the different types of lamp.
This shows that compact fluorescent
lamps have the most mercury in the waste
lamp per KWh of electricity produced.
However, due to their inefficient use of
electricity, ordinary filament lamps lead
to a greater release of mercury to the
environment, than any other type of
lamp, although the waste lamp does not
contain any mercury.
It is best from an environmental point
of view to arrange for used lamps to be
recycled by a specialist company. Sweden,
Austria and America have been recycling
used lamps to recover the mercury
for many years and this facility is now
available in the UK. Mercury presents a
long term threat in the environment.
Free mercury may be safely absorbed
at first but in time can react to form
mercury metal compounds which can be
more dangerous.
The charge for recycling is currently
between £0.25 - £0.50 per tube. The
price reduces with increasing quantities
of lamps, therefore it may be desirable
to store used lamps until there are a
sufficient number to benefit from a
reduced rate. Some relamping contractors
will arrange to recycle lamps as part of
their contract. Alternatively schools can
consult their waste disposal company
about the method of disposal used and
what facilities are available for recycling
lamps. Some of the big waste disposal
companies are now linked to the
specialists who recycle lamps. Sites that
recycle lamps containing mercury need a
license to do so.
There are safety implications of storing
used lamps on site and a school doing this
has a duty of care to do it safely. If lamps
are stored for more than one school a
license to do this will be required from
the local waste regulation authority.
Questions on disposal are usually
directed to the Local Office of the
Environment Agency which has
responsibility for implementing the 1990
Environmental Protection Act and the
1996 Special Waste Regulations. Lamps
from schools are not classified as Special
Waste under the 1990 Environmental
Protection Act. Waste from schools is
classified as household waste and under
Appendix 7: Disposal of used lamps
62
the 1996 Special Waste Regulations
household waste, as defined by the
EPA, cannot be Special Waste, unless it
is asbestos or comes from a laboratory.
In any event lamps containing mercury
would not be classed as Special Waste
unless they contained over 3% by
weight of mercury, or they contained
sodium as well as mercury. However,
low pressure sodium lamps which have
not been broken would be classed as
Special Waste(unless they are present
in household waste) due to the risk of
the sodium igniting. The manufacturers
instructions with each lamp contain the
recommended safe method of storage
and disposal. They can be broken in
accordance with the manufacturers
guidelines and doused with water to
react with the sodium. The liquid can
then be put down the drain and the glass
fragments treated as ordinary waste.
The breaking of fluorescent tubes is
a hazardous operation. However, small
quantities of unbroken fluorescent tubes
can be put into the normal domestic
refuse. Where lamps are replaced in
large quantities the used lamps must be
treated as difficult waste and taken to a
site licensed to handle them. Although it
is permitted to dispose of used lamps to
normal land fill sites they are becoming
increasingly wary of taking waste
containing mercury, and disposal via a
specialist recycling company is preferable.
Lamp Breakage
When lamps have been removed from
service the principal hazard is broken
glass. Placing them in the packaging
provided with the new lamps is one
way of protecting them from accidental
mechanical breakage or scratching, which
could lead to glass fracture and possibly
flying fragments. Special storage bins are
available from lamp recycling companies.
Where recycling is not possible and it
is necessary to break lamps to reduce
bulk, good housekeeping practice should
be followed, ie, protective clothing
including gloves should be worn, and
preferably the operation should be in a
well ventilated area or outdoors.
Many lamps are filled to pressures
above or below atmospheric pressure
and therefore care must be exercised in
fracturing the lamp envelope. Whenever
glass is broken it is a requirement of the
Protection of the Eyes Regulations 1974
that eye protection must be worn.
Only the outer envelopes of high
pressure discharge lamps should be
broken. The inner arc tubes are strong
and should be left intact as a container of
the lamp constituents, eg, small quantities
of mercury.
If there are large numbers of lamps to
be broken, machines are available which
break the glass while at the same time
spraying the debris with water to prevent
powder flying and to react any sodium
if this type of lamp is being crushed.
The advice of the local water supply
company should be sought regarding
the safe disposal of this water (Statutory
Instrument SI 1156

must be observed).
63
Appendix 7: Disposal of used lamps
Reference:
Statutory Instrument, 1989
No.1156, Water, England
and Wales, The Trade Effluents
(Prescribed Processes and
Substances) Regulations 1989
Appendix 8: Examples of lighting design strategies
64
The purpose of this appendix is to show
the development of lighting design
decisions based on the criteria described
in the body of the document. It does
not give completed designs but shows
the considerations and processes involved
by means of illustrative examples. The
solutions are not meant to be ‘ideal’, and
should not be used for an actual project
without checking that they are satisfactory
for the particular situation. Every
situation is different and the designer has
to respond to the actual circumstances
including the user requirements and to
the interpretation of the constraints.
The examples are not related specifically
to either primary or secondary schools
but are considered to be appropriate for
either with some modifications to suit the
particular case.
The first example (Appendix 8.1)
explores the interaction between the
building and its site. It examines the
various factors which can influence the
actual position of the building on the site
and also the exact location of classrooms
and other areas.
The second example (Appendix 8.2)
considers a typical basic classroom unit of
2.7m height (floor to ceiling), and it is
presumed that there is only one external
wall. The basic daylighting performance
is evaluated and it is then extended to
consider how this might change by the
addition of a rooflight or clerestory
window at the back of the room. The
electric lighting is then explored, for
both function and appearance, in terms
of supplementing the daylight when
necessary and at night-time.
The third example (Appendix 8.3)
considers a fairly typical two-storey atrium
space. A number of glazing arrangements
are investigated with regard to their
daylighting performance both within
the atrium and in adjoining rooms,
and to other factors including visual
contact with the outside. Three electric
lighting schemes are examined and, as
with the daylighting, maintenance of the
component items is considered.
It is emphasised that these examples
do not provide solutions to be followed
in practice; they are illustrative examples
to demonstrate strategic and other more
detailed considerations concerned with
lighting design for schools.
APPENDIX 8.1 SITE ANALYSIS
The orientation and position of a
building on a site can affect the quantity
and quality of light entering spaces,
in addition to taking advantage of any
pleasant view. The following diagrams
show some of the influences on this
positioning and indicate advantages and
disadvantages in relation to a notional
site. This bulletin is not concerned
with the additional problems of access
and noise intrusion, although these two
factors also affect siting.
65
Appendix 8.1: Site analysis
65
Diagram showing sun’s path for summer & winter solstices and
the equinoxes for approximately a latitude of 52°N (London)
Diagram showing daylight orientation factors.
The luminance of the southern sky is greater than that of the
northern sky (see section 4.1.1)
ORIENTATION
SOLAR GAIN
Tall buildings and dense trees can overshadow, reducing
the amount and penetration of daylight
OVERSHADOWING
VIEW
N
W
S
E
winter solstice
equinox
summer solstice
N
E
S
W
0.97
1.15 1.21
1.55
Tall buildings and dense trees can screen from
low angle sun
Views provide considerable benefit
(see section 4.1.5)
Heat generating activity should not be planned on that side of a building
where solar heat gain is likely to be a problem unless protective measures
are employed (see section 4.1.4)
Night time lighting of playing areas can cause annoyance to
neighbours. ‘Spill light’ and glare from floodlights should be
minimised (See section 5.13).
LIGHT TRESPASS
Appendix 8 Examples of lighting design strategies The purpose of this appendix is to show the development of lighting design decisions based on the criteria described in the body of the document. It does not give completed designs but shows the considerations and processes involved by means of illustrative examples. The solutions are not meant to be ‘ideal’, and should not be used for an actual project without checking that they are satisfactory for the particular situation. Every situation is different and the designer has to respond to the actual circumstances including the user requirements and to the interpretation of the constraints. The examples are not related specifically to either primary or secondary schools but are considered to be appropriate for either with some modifications to suit the particular case. The first example (8.1) explores the interaction between the building and its site. It examines the various factors which can influence the actual position of the building on the site and also the exact location of classrooms and other areas. The second example (8.2) considers a typical basic classroom unit of 2.7m height (floor to ceiling), and it is presumed that there is only one external wall. The basic daylighting performance is evaluated and it is then extended to consider how this might change by the addition of a rooflight or clerestory window at the back of the room. The electric lighting is then explored, for both function and appearance, in terms of supplementing the daylight when necessary and at night-time. The third example (8.3) considers a fairly typical two-storey atrium space. A number of glazing arrangements are investigated with regard to their daylighting performance both within the atrium and in adjoining rooms, and to other factors including visual contact with the outside. Three electric lighting schemes are examined and, as with the daylighting, maintenance of the component items is considered.
This figure represents a notional site with commonly
occurring features:
neighbouring tall building and trees;
pleasant view;
busy road and view to industrial estate;
neighbouring housing.
For the purpose of the example, the north point has
been placed to the top of the site.
The plan is not to scale.
The following diagrams indicate some advantages and
disadvantages of placing a school in various positions
on the site: for clarity the plan is over-simplified.
It will be seen that the best result must be a
compromise after the various components have been
considered.
Appendix 8: Site analysis
PLEASANT VIEW
TALL BUILDINGS
AND TREES
BUSY ROAD
HOUSING
SUN' S
P
A
T
H
play area
C
L
A
S
S
R
O
O
M
S
play
area
C
L
A
S
S
R
O
O
M
S
play
area
C
L
A
S
S
R
O
O
M
S
C
L
A
S
S
R
O
O
M
S
play area
DIAGRAM ‘A’ BUILDING ON NORTH OF SITE
DIAGRAM ‘B’ BUILDING ON EAST OF SITE
DIAGRAM ‘C’ BUILDING ON WEST OF SITE
DIAGRAM ‘D’ BUILDING ON SOUTH OF SITE
ORIENTATION
SOLAR GAIN
OVERSHADOWING
VIEW
LIGHT TRESPASS
NORTH FACING
CLASSROOMS
low sky luminance
none
none
very pleasant
a possibility
SOUTH FACING
CLASSROOMS
high sky luminance
risk of gain in summer
none
less pleasant
a possibility
ORIENTATION
SOLAR GAIN
OVERSHADOWING
VIEW
LIGHT TRESPASS
EAST FACING
CLASSROOMS
medium sky luminance
little risk
none
pleasant
low possibility due to
screening by school
WEST FACING
CLASSROOMS
medium sky luminance
little risk
none
less pleasant
low possibility due to
screening by school
ORIENTATION
SOLAR GAIN
OVERSHADOWING
VIEW
LIGHT TRESPASS
EAST FACING
CLASSROOMS
medium sky luminance
little risk
In early morning from
tall buildings
less pleasant
a probability
WEST FACING
CLASSROOMS
medium sky luminance
little risk
none
pleasant
a probability
ORIENTATION
SOLAR GAIN
OVERSHADOWING
VIEW
LIGHT TRESPASS
NORTH FACING
CLASSROOMS
low sky luminance
none
none
very pleasant
a possibility
SOUTH FACING
CLASSROOMS
high sky luminance
risk of gain in summer
none
least pleasant
a possibility
APPENDIX 8.2: A TYPICAL CLASSROOM
This worked example considers a typical classroom (8 x 6.5m) with a
minimum height of 2.7m and an external wall 6.5 x 2.7m
(Scheme A). The room is expected to be used for general teaching
activities including reading, writing and craftwork. The classroom
may have a formal teaching position together with pin-up boards to
display student work. Alternatively, it may be used informally. The
aim is for the classroom to be mainly daylit for most of the time
and to have electric lighting to complement the natural light when
necessary. At night-time the electric lighting will provide good seeing
conditions for all but the most difficult tasks when supplementary
task lighting can be employed. The following schematic exploration
shows the development of possible lighting solutions together with
the expected performance.
INITIAL DAYLIGHTING STRATEGY
Consider a typical window (6 x 2m), SCHEME A, and its daylighting performance :
Average Daylight Factor DF = TW5 where
A(1- R
2
)
T = glass transmittance, including maintenance factor (0.8 x 0.9 = 0.72)
W = glass area (12m
2
)
5 = window sky acceptance angle (65°)
A = total room surface area (182.3m
2
)
R = area-weighted reflectance (0.45)
Values in brackets are those used for initial calculation.
DF = 3.9% Minimum DF = 1%
If double glazed (ie, T = 0.65 x 0.9 = 0.59) then
DF = 3.1% Minimum DF = 0.8% (Figure 1)
If most of external wall is glazed (ie, W = 16m
2
), SCHEME A*, then
DF = 5.2% (single glazing) Minimum DF = 1.25%
DF = 4.2% (double glazed) Minimum DF = 1% (Figure 2)
(Minimum Daylight Factor values found from point calculation method using
the standard CIE overcast sky).
It can be seen that, even with a fully glazed wall, a DF of 5% (the minimum design
objective for a ‘well’ daylit room) can only be achieved with single glazing which will
encounter thermal problems.
DAYLIGHT ILLUMINANCE
The following table indicates the orientation-weighted Daylight Factors (see Table 4,
page 17) required to provide various levels of daylight illuminance.
Note: orientation-weighted Daylight Factor = DF (CIE overcast sky) x orientation factor.
Unobstructed % of year for Orientation weighted daylight factors to
Illuminance which illuminance achieve given lighting levels
lux is exceeded in UK 100 lux 200 lux 300 lux 500 lux
5,000 84 2% 4% 6% 10%
10,000 68 1% 2% 3% 5%
15,000 50 0.67% 1.34% 2% 3.33%
ANALYSIS
The typical window investigated (12m
2
) will not provide sufficient daylight
for the whole year. For approximately half the time electric lighting will
be required - at least at the back of the room.
There are two possible solutions: a) increase daylighting by the addition
of a rooflight or clerestory if possible and b) provide electric lighting to
supplement daylight when required.
Two extended daylighting solutions have been investigated (Schemes B and C) and
the likely performances are shown in the illustrations (Figures 3 and 4).
M
ª
10 5 2 1
10 5 2 1
10 5 2 2 5 10
10 5 2 1
Appendix 8.2: A typical classroom
Section A
SCHEME A Figure 1
SCHEME A* Figure 2
SCHEME B Figure 3
SCHEME C Figure 4
0.6m
68 68
Ceiling reflectance = 0.7
Wall reflectance = 0.5
Floor reflectance = 0.2
Typical classroom SCHEME A
(glazed above 0.6m high cill)
Rooflight improves
daylight distribution
to back of classroom
SCHEME B
High level clerestory
window improves
daylight distribution to
back of classroom
SCHEME C
2.7m
2m
Scheme A*( full height glazing) 0.6m
6.5m
8m
1m
0.8m
69 69
Typical classroom SCHEME A
SCHEME B
SCHEME C
a
b
a1 a2
a3
a3 a2
a1
a
b
b
b
b
b a1 a2 a3
a
SEMI-DIRECT
SEMI-DIRECT
DIRECT
DIRECT-INDIRECT
ELECTRIC LIGHTING
Assume a basic requirement for a Task Illuminance of 300lx with a horizontal plane uniformity of
not less than 0.8 and a Limiting Glare Index of 19. Suggest using a regular array of ‘Semi-Direct’
distribution luminaires equipped with a single 1.5m 58w tri-phosphor lamp (Average Lamp Light
Output = 5100lm) (Appendix 3).
Room Index = 1.8 (A measure of the proportions of a room. See CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting
Section 4.5.3.2), Typical Utilisation Factor = 0.6 (Appendix 5), Maintenance Factor at end of
one year = 0.86
No. of luminaires =
Illuminance x Area
= 6 luminaires
Utilisation Factor x Maintenance Factor x Lamp Light Output
With a 2x3 array, the maximum spacing = 6.5/2 = 3.25
Maximum Spacing to Mounting Height ratio = 3.25/1.95 = 1.7 (acceptable)
Glare Index = not greater than 19 (Appendix 5)
Luminaire layout as shown in illustration individually switched in rows a1, a2 and a3 parallel to the
window. In addition to the regular array, a line of luminaires should be included to illuminate the
back wall (Scheme A).
Variations on the basic proposal are shown for the schemes which utilise rooflights and
clerestories (Schemes B and C). NOTE: FOR ACTUAL DESIGNS USE MANUFACTURERS’
PHOTOMETRIC DATA
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
To ensure maximum energy efficiency without compromising the quality or visual effectiveness of
the installation, consider the following:
• To optimise use of daylight install photocells or time-switches to turn electric lighting off when
not required (possibly during mid-morning break). Also provide manual over-ride in classroom.
• Install lighting controls (switches) in a logical way to ensure only the luminaires required will
be switched on.
• Consider using high frequency control gear to improve visual comfort and energy efficiency.
• Implement regular lighting maintenance programmes.
CONCLUSIONS
• The basic design with side windows only (window area 12m
2
) is likely to provide adequate
natural light conditions for approximately half the year depending on window orientation
(Scheme A).
• The windows will provide acceptable view out but window blinds may be necessary to obscure
direct sunlight depending on the window orientation and external obstructions.
• When the natural light is insufficient this can be supplemented by luminaires at the
back of the room.
• The regular array of luminaires will provide good working conditions over the whole horizontal
plane with an acceptable comfort level. The luminaires which provide wall lighting at the back of
the room will accent the wall display and enhance the visual appeal of the room (Scheme A).
• The two proposals with the addition of either a rooflight or clerestory window provide a higher
level of daylight and hence a potential reduction in the use of electric lighting. They will also
produce a better visual environment (Schemes B and C).
• The accent lighting aims to provide an additional visual focus. However, it is important that this
equipment integrates with the design of the classroom. This also applies to the regular array of
luminaires for the general lighting.
Appendix 8.2: A typical classroom
DIAGRAM SHOWING POSSIBLE SECTION THROUGH TYPICAL 2-STOREY SCHOOL ATRIUM
The space could to be used for school assembly, dining, general socialising and private or group
study, in addition to circulation and display. It may be landscaped, using suitable plants, and
can form a focal centre. Atria will be predominantly lit by daylight when available and they can
contribute to the enhancement of the visual environment of surrounding areas, by providing a
change of view, and by increasing daylight availability to the rear of teaching rooms which might
otherwise be lit from one side only on their window wall.
There are some general factors to be taken into account when considering atrium design from
the lighting point of view. For example - the level of light should neither be so high that adjoining
spaces appear dim by comparison nor so low that the atrium itself appears under-lit when viewed
from these spaces. In order to achieve a satisfactory distribution of light particularly in the lower
areas of the space, it is important that the majority of surfaces, in particular those on the vertical
plane, have a higher reflectance value. This should also include the floor and furniture. The
orientation of the atrium glazing will be influential in relation to sun and sky glare, and solar gain.
Clear glass is recommended in order to give a view out and to cut out sunlight diffusion which
occurs with translucent materials. If solar control glass is used, consideration should be given
to the possibility of colour distortion and the creation of an ‘under-lit’ effect. Sky luminance is
another factor (see section 4.1.1).
Spaces of this type are often two storeys or more in height and provision for cleaning and
maintenance of the glazing and luminaires is necessary.
The additional problems of acoustic and thermal environments are not specifically dealt with here,
although these factors will have to be considered in atrium design.
The following diagrams show some of the main factors to be considered.
possible clerestory
Access gallery
to upper rooms
open or glazed
glazing
first floor teaching room
ground floor teaching room
zone of possible roof glazing
possible clerestory
first floor teaching room
ground floor teaching room
glazing
open access gallery
ATRIUM
Appendix 8.3: An atrium
APPENDIX 8.3: AN ATRIUM
72
SKY GLARE
In top glazing, sky glare is likely to be more
of a problem than in side glazing, because the
luminance of the upper part of an overcast sky
is greater than that of the lower. This can be
ameliorated by ensuring that areas surrounding
glazing are light in colour, and by the use of
adjustable louvres or blinds.
SUNLIGHT GLARE AND SOLAR GAIN
Sun glare and solar gain can be a problem
which can be controlled by the use of
adjustable louvres or blinds, and by appropriate
orientation. The admission of some sunlight
however will enliven the visual scene. In
summer, solar gain will cause overheating
unless controlled, whereas in winter it can
contribute to the thermal environment.
SUPPLEMENTATION of DAYLIGHT to
ADJOINING SPACES
The atrium can be used to make a contribution
to the lighting of the part of an adjoining
room furthest away from the window wall, by
supplementing the daylight.
VISUAL CONTACT WITH EXTERIOR
Visual contact with the exterior through the
glazing is desirable and diffusing glass is not
recommended. DAYLIGHTING The advantages and disadvantages of the following glazing arrangements are examined with respect to the factors discussed earlier. For the two basic forms an atrium of 15m x 10m in plan, with a height of 7.5m to the top of the wall and 10m to the ridge is considered. Double glazing is assumed, and the area-weighted reflectance of the interior surfaces is taken to be 0.4. It is considered that to achieve appropriate daylighting for a school atrium, a minimum average daylight factor of 7% should be provided.
72
S
N
73 73
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
could be troublesome
- precautions need to be taken
could be troublesome
- precautions need to be taken
good for upper levels of adjoining rooms
good
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
could be troublesome
- precautions need to be taken
could be troublesome
- precautions need to be taken
good
good
DAYLIGHTING
The advantages and disadvantages of the following glazing arrangements are examined with respect to the factors discussed
earlier. For the two basic forms an atrium of 15m x 10m in plan, with a height of 7.5m to the top of the wall and 10m to the
ridge is considered. Double glazing is assumed, and the area-weighted reflectance of the interior surfaces is taken to be 0.4.
It is considered that to achieve appropriate daylighting for a school atrium, a minimum average daylight factor of 7% should be
provided.
ROOF GLAZING
The area of roof glazing required to obtain an
average daylight factor of 7% at the bottom
of the atrium can be determined by adapting
the calculation formula and method used
in Appendix 8.2 for the classroom window
glazing. A correction factor of 0.8 is applied
for dirt on the glass.
In these circumstances the calculated area of
glazing is approximately 55m
2
which could be
obtained by a width of 2.1m either side of the
ridge for the length of the atrium.
CLERESTORY
The area of clerestory required to obtain the
same daylight level can be determined by
a similar calculation to that used above. A
correction factor of 0.9 is applied for dirt on
the glass.
In these circumstances the area of glazing is
approximately 100m
2
which would require a
clerestory height of 2m for the full perimeter
which may be difficult to achieve in practical
terms.
10m
7.5m
Appendix 8.3: An atrium
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
no problem
no problem
good for rooms on south side
less good
COMBINED ROOF & CLERESTORY ‘SAW-TOOTH’ PROFILE
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
less troublesome - precautions
need to be taken
less troublesome - precautions
need to be taken
good for upper levels of adjoining
rooms
less good
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
not troublesome
not troublesome
poor
limited
SKY GLARE
SUN
SUPPLEMENTATION
VISUAL CONTACT
less troublesome
not a serious problem
good for rooms on south side
good for rooms on south side
LAY LIGHTS
ASYMMETRIC PROFILE
N S
N S
It is considered that for the electric
lighting to achieve the desired visual
characteristics discussed earlier for a
school atrium, a suitable arrangement
would be to have a general installation
with a direct/indirect light distribution
providing an illuminance level of
approximately 400 lux at the atrium floor,
and this would be complemented by
some form of accent lighting which could
include highlighting displays, plants, etc.
For this arrangement to be satisfactory,
it is important, as for the daylighting
situation, to ensure that the majority of
surfaces, and in particular for the electric
lighting, the underside of the roof, have
a high reflectance value. In selecting the
equipment, it is necessary to consider its
ease of maintenance, including access to it
for this purpose, so that its performance
remains high.
Three schemes for the electric lighting
installation are outlined below, with some
calculation details for scheme A being
given. The dimensions of the atrium space
are as used for the daylighting study.
Scheme A. Suspended luminaires
For the main lighting, it is proposed
to use high pressure metal halide
lamps (MBIF): these have good colour
rendering properties with a white colour
appearance, high efficacy and long life.
They would be housed in luminaires
providing a ‘Direct/Indirect’ light
distribution, at a mounting height of 5m
above the floor. Using 400 watt MBIF
lamps (average light output = 26,000
lumens), an estimated utilisation factor
U.F. of 0.35 and a one year maintenance
factor M.F. of 0.8:
Number of luminaires =
Illuminance x Area = 8
Lamp light output x U.F. x M.F.
A suitable arrangement would be to
suspend the luminaires in pairs (A1)
on the long axis of the atrium, an
optical system providing an asymmetric
downward light distribution, and the
Glare Index restricted to be less than 19.
A ‘rise and fall’ suspension system would
facilitate maintenance.
Additional general lighting (A2)
would be provided by wall, surface-
mounted diffuser luminaires equipped
with compact fluorescent lamps. (SL, PL,
2D, 2L) with some light on to the wall
surface behind: these luminaires should
be installed in circulation spaces.
Accent lighting would be formed by
display screens employing low wattage
tungsten halogen reflector lamps
(TH(M)) which would be mounted on
the screens.
ELECTRIC LIGHTING
C2
C1
C3
A2/B2
A1
B1
C1
C2
A2/B2
C3
A2/B2
Appendix 8.3: An atrium
A1/B1
A2/B2
C1
C2
C3
DIRECT-INDIRECT
DIRECT
76
Scheme B. Column-mounted
luminaires
This arrangement is similar to that for
Scheme A but with the pairs of luminaires
for the metal halide lamps mounted on
centrally installed columns at the same 5m
height (B1). These columns at floor level
would be within planting or seating areas,
and if necessary be hinged at the base so
that the luminaires could be lowered
for maintenance.
The additional general lighting and the
accent lighting would follow the pattern
in Scheme A, but the lower part of the
columns could now form the basis for the
display lighting.
Scheme C. Perimeter-mounted
luminaires
The direct component of the main
lighting is provided by wall-mounted
prismatic refractor luminaires
incorporating a reflector (C1) and
equipped with 250 watt high pressure
mercury discharge tubular metal halide
lamps (MBI). The indirect component
utilises the same type of lamp installed
in asymmetric reflector floodlights (C2),
their light falling on the adjacent part
of the underside of the roof. Recessed
downlights (C3) using compact
fluorescent lamps are used in this scheme
to illuminate circulation spaces where
there is a soffit. Wall mounted general
lighting (A2) as in Scheme A, is used
where there is no soffit. The display
lighting would be the same as that
mentioned in Scheme A for the screens.
It is important in the selection of all
items of lighting equipment to ensure
that there is good integration with the
atrium design as a whole.
Actual photometric data provided by
manufacturers for their luminaires should,
of course, be used in any practical design.
GENERAL
When the various factors described
in relation to sunlight, daylight and
electric light are taken into account,
a well-lit atrium space can contribute
appreciably to the environment of a
school, both by providing a visual centre
and by complementing the view from
surrounding areas.
76
colour rendering index
A measure of the degree to which the
colours of surfaces illuminated by a given
light source conform to those of the same
surfaces under a reference illuminant,
suitable allowance having been made for
the state of chromatic adaptation
(see Appendix 3).
contrast
Subjectively this term describes the
difference in appearance of two parts
of a visual field seen simultaneously or
successively. The difference may be one of
brightness or colour or both.
correlated colour temperature
The temperature of a full radiator that
emits radiation having a chromaticity
nearest to that of the light source being
considered. The unit is the kelvin, K.
(see Appendix 3).
daylight factor
The illuminance received at a point
indoors, from a sky of known or assumed
luminance distribution, expressed as a
percentage of the horizontal illuminance
outdoors from an unobstructed hemisphere
of the same sky. Direct sunlight is
excluded from both values of illuminance.
(daylight factor = sky component
+ externally reflected component +
internally reflected component).

direct glare
Glare caused when excessively bright parts
of the visual field are seen directly, eg,
lamps which are inadequately shielded.
directional lighting
Lighting designed to illuminate an object
or surface predominantly from some
preferred direction.
disability glare
Glare which impairs the ability to see
detail without necessarily causing visual
discomfort.
discomfort glare
Glare which causes visual discomfort
without necessarily impairing the ability
to see detail.
77
The definitions and explanations given in
this glossary are based on British Standard
4727: Part 4: Glossary of terms particular
to lighting and colour, and on the fourth
edition of the International Lighting
Vocabulary (CIE 17.4:1987) issued
jointly by the Commission Internationale
de L'Éclairage and the International
Electrotechnical Commission. These
documents should be consulted if more
precise definitions are needed.
adaptation
The process which takes place as the
human visual system adjusts itself to the
brightness or the colour of the
visual field.
average daylight factor
The spatial average of daylight factors
over a reference plane or planes.
(For design purposes in this document, it
is the average over a horizontal
working plane).
ballast
Current limiting device found in a
luminaire.
CIE standard overcast sky
Completely overcast sky for which the
ratio of its luminance L
U
at an angle of
elevation U above the horizon to the
luminance L
z
at the zenith is assumed to
be given by
L
U
= L
z
(1 + 2 sinU)/3
colour appearance
A term used of a light source. Objectively
the colour of a truly white surface
illuminated by the source. Subjectively,
the degree of warmth or coolness
associated with the source colour.
colour rendering
A general expression for the appearance
of surface colours when illuminated by
light from a given source compared,
consciously or unconsciously, with
their appearance under light from some
reference source.
Glossary
downward light output ratio
The ratio of the total light output of a
luminaire below the horizontal under
stated practical conditions to that of the
lamp or lamps under reference conditions.
externally reflected component of
daylight factor
The illuminance received directly at
a point indoors from a sky of known
or assumed luminance distribution
after reflection from external reflecting
surfaces, expressed as a percentage of the
horizontal illuminance outdoors from an
unobstructed hemisphere of the same sky.
Direct sunlight is excluded from both
illuminances.
flicker
Impression of regular fluctuations of
brightness or colour.
glare
The discomfort or impairment of vision
experienced when parts of the visual field
are excessively bright in relation to the
general surroundings.
glare index
A numerical index calculated according
to CIBSE Technical Memorandum TM
10. It enables the discomfort glare from
lighting installations to be ranked in order
of severity and the permissible limit of
discomfort glare from an installation to
be prescribed quantitively (Limiting Glare
Index).
illuminance
The luminous flux density at a surface, ie,
the luminous flux incident per unit area
(lumens per square metre (lm/m
2
) or
lux). [This quantity was formerly known
as the illumination value or illumination
level.]
illumination
The process of lighting an object or
surface.
internally reflected component of
daylight factor
The illuminance received at a point
indoors from a sky of known or assumed
luminance distribution after reflection
within the interior, expressed as a
percentage of the horizontal illuminance
outdoors from an unobstructed
hemisphere of the same sky. Direct
sunlight is excluded from both
illuminances.
light output ratio
The ratio of the total light output
of a luminaire under stated practical
conditions to that of the lamp or lamps
under reference conditions.
luminaire
An apparatus which controls the
distribution of light given by a lamp
or lamps and which includes all the
components necessary for fixing and
protecting the lamps and for connecting
them to the supply circuit. Luminaire has
superseded the term lighting fitting.

luminance
The physical measure of the stimulus
which produces the sensation of
brightness measured by the luminous
intensity of the light emitted or reflected
in a given direction from a surface
element, divided by the area of the
element in the same direction. The SI
unit of luminance is the candela per
square metre (cd/m
2
).
luminous efficacy
The ratio of the luminous flux emitted
by a lamp to the power consumed by
the lamp (lm/W), this term is known
as lumens/lamp watt. When the power
consumed by control gear is taken into
account, this term is sometimes known
as lamp circuit luminous efficacy and is
expressed in lumens/circuit watt.
luminous flux
Quantity of light emitted by a source,
or received by a surface. The SI unit of
luminous flux is the lumen (lm).
luminous intensity
A quantity which describes the power of a
source or illuminated surface to emit light
in a given direction. It is the luminous
flux emitted in a very narrow cone
78
Glossary
79
containing the given direction divided by
the solid angle of the cone. The SI unit
of luminous intensity is the candela (cd)
equal to one lumen per steradian.
maintained illuminance
The minimum illuminance which should
be provided at all times through the life
of an installation: it takes into account
cleaning schedules for room surfaces and
luminaires, and lamp output depreciation
with time.
no-sky line
The locus of points in the reference plane
delineating the area from which no sky
can be seen.
reflectance
The ratio of the luminous flux reflected
from a surface to the luminous flux
incident on it.
reflected glare
A term used to describe various visual
effects, including reduction of contrast,
discomfort and distraction, produced by
the reflection of light sources or other
bright areas in glossy or smooth surfaces.
sky component of daylight factor
Ratio of that part of the daylight
illuminance at a point on a given plane
which is received directly through
glazing from a sky of assumed or
known luminance distribution to the
illuminance on a horizontal plane due
to an unobstructed hemisphere of this
sky. Direct sunlight is excluded from
both illuminances. Usually expressed as a
percentage.
spacing/height ratio
This ratio describes the distance between
luminaire centres in relation to their
height above the working plane.
specularity
The specular quality of a reflection as
in a mirror, as opposed to a diffuse
reflection from a matt surface in which
the luminous flux comes from many
directions none of which predominates.
standard maintained illuminance
The maintained illuminance
recommended for the assumed standard
conditions of the application.
transmittance
The ratio of luminous flux transmitted by
a material to the incident luminous flux.
uniformity ratio
The ratio of the minimum illuminance to
the average illuminance over a given area,
usually a horizontal working plane.
OR
The ratio of the minimum daylight factor
to the average daylight factor over a given
area, usually a horizontal working plane.
upward light output ratio
The ratio of the total light output of a
luminaire above the horizontal under
stated practical conditions to that of the
lamp or lamps under reference conditions.
utilisation factor
The proportion of the luminous flux
emitted by the lamps which reaches the
working plane both directly and
by reflection.
Glossary
80
Notes
81
The Chartered Institution of Building Services
Engineers (CIBSE)
Code for Interior Lighting, 1994.
Window Design: Applications Manual AM2, 1987.
Calculation of Glare Indices: Technical
Memorandum TM10, 1985.
Emergency Lighting: Technical Memorandum
TM12, 1986.
Libraries: Lighting Guide, 1982.
The visual environment for display screen use:
Lighting Guide, LG3, 1996.
Sports: Lighting Guide, LG4, 1990.
The Visual Environment in Lecture, Teaching and
Conference Rooms: Lighting Guide LG5,1991.
The Outdoor Environment: Lighting Guide LG6,
1992.
CIBSE publications are available from CIBSE,
Delta House, 222 Balham High Road, London,
SW12 9BS, Tel: 0181 675 5211,
Fax: 0181 675 6554.
British Standards Institution
BS 5266: Emergency Lighting.
Part 1: 1988. Code of practice for the emergency
lighting of premises other than cinemas and certain
other specified premises used for entertainment.
BS 8206: Lighting for Buildings.
Part 1: 1985. Code of Practice for artificial
lighting.
Part 2: 1992. Code of Practice for daylighting.
BSI publications are available from
BSI Publications, Linford Wood, Milton Keynes,
MK14 6LE
Building Research Establishment
BRE Digest 232: 1979. Energy conservation in
artificial lighting.
BRE Digest 272: 1985. Lighting controls and
daylight use.
BRE Digest 309: 1986. Estimating daylight in
buildings, Part 1.
BRE Digest 310: 1986. Estimating daylight in
buildings, Part 2.
Daylighting as a passive solar energy option :
an assessment of its potential in non-domestic
buildings, V.H.C. Crisp, P.J. Littlefair, I. Cooper
and G. McKennan. BRE Report (BR129), 1988.
The energy management of artificial lighting
use, V.H.C. Crisp and G. Henderson. Lighting
Research and Technology, 14(4), 193-206 (1982)
Information Paper IP6/96: People and Lighting
Controls.
Designing buildings for daylight, James Bell and
William Burt, BR288, 1995,
ISBN 1 86081 026 8.
Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight - a
guide to good practice, P.J.Littlefair, BR209, 1991,
ISBN 0 85125 506 X.
Good Practice Guide 160, Electric lighting
controls - a guide for designers, installers and users,
1997, from BRECSU.
General Information Report 25, Daylighting
for sports halls, Two case studies, 1997, from
BRECSU.
Good Practice Guide 245, Desktop guide to
daylighting – for architects, 1998 from BRECSU.
Introduction to Energy Efficiency, Building Energy
Efficiency in Schools, A guide to the Whole School
Approach, BRECSU 1996
BRE publications: Tel: 01923 664444,
Fax: 01923 664010.
BRECSU Publications: Tel: 01923 664258
Department for Education and Employment
Building Bulletin 9: Colour in School Buildings
(4th Edition), 1969. Out of print (Photocopy
available from The Stationery Office).
Building Bulletin 73: A Guide to Energy Efficient
Maintenance and Renewal in Educational
Buildings, ISBN 0 11 270772 6, HMSO 1991.
Building Bulletin 78: Security Lighting,
ISBN 0 11 270822 6, HMSO 1993
Building Bulletin 87: Guidelines for
Environmental Design in Schools,
ISBN 0 11 271013 1,
The Stationery Office 1997
Other sources.
Glare from windows: current views of the problem:
P. Chauvel, J.B. Collins, R Dogniaux and J.
Longmore. Lighting Research and Technology,
14(1), 31-46, (1982).
Fluorescent lighting and health: P.T. Stone. Lighting
Research and Technology, 24(2), 55-61, (1992).
Building Sight, Peter Barker, Jon Barrick,
Rod Wilson, RNIB, ISBN 011 701 9933,
HMSO, 1995, £35.
The art and science of lighting: A strategy for
lighting design: D.L.Loe and E.Rowlands.
Lighting Research and Technology 28(4),
p.153-164, 1996.
Bibliography
Printed in the United Kingdom for The Stationery Office
J58549 C20 1/99

BUILDING BULLETIN 90

Lighting Design for Schools
Architects and Building Branch

London: The Stationery Office

Acknowledgements DfEE would like to thank the following authors: David Loe, Professor Newton Watson, Edward Rowlands and Kevin Mansfield of the Bartlett School of Architecture, Building, Environmental Design & Planning, University College London, who started the research and wrote the original text; Bob Venning of Ove Arup & Partners, Research & Development for updating the text; John Baker for the section on lighting for pupils with visual impairment. DfEE would also like to thank : Robin Aldworth John Lambert Bob Bell Paul Ruffles Professor Arnold Wilkins formerly of Thorn Lighting Ltd. Gloucestershire County Council formerly of Siemens Lighting Ltd. Lighting Design and Technology, Bath Department of Psychology, Visual Perception Unit, University of Essex

DfEE Project Team Mukund Patel Chris Bissell Richard Daniels Lucy Watson Keith Gofton

Head of Architects and Building Branch Principal Architect Senior Engineer Principal Architect Senior Engineer, formerly of Architects & Building Branch Philip Locker, Photo Graphic Design, Bolton Malcolm Ward, Malcolm Studio, Croydon Victoria Infants School, Sandwell Metropolitan Borough Council [Photo: P. Locker]

Photographer: Macintosh File: Cover photograph:

Published with the permission of the DfEE on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. © Crown Copyright 1999 All rights reserved. Copyright in the typographical arrangement and design is vested in the Crown. Applications for reproduction should be made in writing to the Copyright Unit, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, St Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ First published 1999 ISBN 0 11 271041 7

Contents
1. 2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Introduction Components of lighting design
Task/activity lighting Lighting for visual amenity Lighting and architectural integration Lighting and energy efficiency Lighting maintenance Lighting costs

1 3 3 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 12 14 15 15 17 19 19 21 22 23 24 24 24 25 27 28 29 31 31 34 36 37 37 38 38 40 41 42 42 45 45 47

3.
3.1 3.2 3.3

Lighting options
Natural lighting Electric lighting Combined or integrated daylighting and electric lighting

4.
4.1

Lighting design guidance
Daylighting 4.1.1 Daylight quantity 4.1.2 Daylight quality 4.1.3 Glare 4.1.4 Sunlight control 4.1.5 Exterior visual contact Electric Lighting 4.2.1 Glare 4.2.2 Flicker and high frequency operation 4.2.3 Veiling reflections 4.2.4 Distribution of light 4.2.5 Choice of lamp and luminaire Integrated daylight and electric light Aids to lighting design

4.2

4.3 4.4

5.
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14

Lighting for particular applications
Circulation areas Areas with display screen equipment Science work and laboratories Design and technology rooms and workshops Libraries Art rooms Sports halls and gymnasia General purpose halls (examination, assembly, performances and PE) and drama & dance studios The lighting of chalkboards Lighting and visual aids Lighting for pupils with visual and hearing impairments Local task lighting Exterior lighting Emergency lighting

2 6. Control gear 5. Examples of lighting design strategies 8.7 Check-list for lighting design Task/activity lighting Lighting for visual amenity Lighting and architectural integration Lighting and energy efficiency Lighting maintenance Lighting costs Exterior and emergency lighting 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 51 52 55 56 60 62 64 64 67 71 77 81 Appendices: 1.Contents 6. 6.1 Site analysis 8. Lighting and health 3.3 6.2 A typical classroom 8.1 6.5 6. Disposal of used lamps 8. School Premises Regulations and DfEE Constructional standards for new school buildings 2. Luminaires 6.3 An atrium Glossary Bibliography . Lamps 4.4 6.6 6. Lighting controls 7.

Section 1: Introduction The best school environments give an impression of liveliness. There can be no doubt that in these cases the surroundings contribute to the happiness and well-being of teachers and pupils. particularly in our northern climate. requiring a delicate balance between formal decisions. though this must always be a prime aim. although some window area for views out is essential. Natural lighting during daylight hours should always be the major source. Window design. The reasons for this need for natural light stem both from the important link with the outside which windows provide and the essential character of daylight and its changing value throughout the teaching day which electric light cannot replicate. it appears that if disruption of this balance. though much of the internal and external character of buildings derives from fenestration design. with attractive spaces and a general feeling of pleasantness which it is difficult to define. provided that they are not used for excessively long periods of teaching. supplemented when it fades by electric light which will take over during hours the internal view is sufficiently long there is no necessity for an extensive external view. forms a crucial part of the architect's vocabulary. often called atria. teaching and spatial needs sometimes call for glazed internal spaces. it is not always possible to combine arrangements for admitting daylight with views out. and functional considerations. whilst overglazing can create excessive solar gain in summer and excessive heat loss in winter with attendant discomfort. The aim of good lighting rather than being a purely formal exercise to provide enough illumination to enable building users to go about their tasks safely and comfortably. and that lighting plays a significant if not the leading role. Surprisingly. for example where natural light is admitted through clerestories and/or rooflights. Though desirable. is to create a pleasant environment which enhances the building form and is in sympathy with the architectural intention. Underglazing can make interior spaces dismal and gloomy. one often finds otherwise attractive environments being marred by a of darkness. Lighting (both natural and electric) will be recognised as an essential contribution if it stems from and encourages the fulfilment of school activities. In these cases. Lack of attention 1 . on proportion for example.

It will also be helpful to school staff to derive the most benefit from the lighting provided in terms of the use of spaces and the maintenance of these systems. either at the same time or at different times. with additional information for areas with specific requirements. The design of electric lighting is part of the whole architectural scheme. The aim of this bulletin is to give advice and examples of how a proper synthesis can be and is achieved. many of which are used for a number of different activities. as the fundamental lighting requirements are the same in both cases. A large part of the document concentrates on the ‘general teaching spaces’. but not to stifle creativity. to the structure of lighting design.Section 1: Introduction to detailed window design can result in poor visual conditions. The section on lighting design aims to provide positive guidance where appropriate. It takes the reader from the basic range of lighting considerations which will help in determining particular aims. but sufficient care is not always taken to provide the necessary visual variety and stimulation. The two are interdependent and in the best designs this fact is understood and acted upon. It is important therefore for the designer to identify the particular activities that will. One of the attributes of electric lighting inherently absent from natural light is its flexibility to demand. in order to achieve appropriate lighting. It is necessary to understand the means by which daylight is admitted to schools and to have an overview of the characteristics of electric lighting systems. a feature which can be harnessed in certain cases to enhance the brightness of vertical planes in positions adjacent to and away from window walls. The publication addresses the lighting of both primary and secondary schools but it does not differentiate between them. No differentiation has been made between lighting design for new and refurbished buildings. It is hoped that this bulletin will provide designers with advice and guidance to help them develop successful schools in the future. or are likely to take place in each of the spaces. a fact which can be exploited and used to good effect as a supplement to natural side lighting. The bulletin has a ‘layered approach’. All schools have a range of spaces. This is to help the designer to ensure that no aspect has been overlooked. It then goes on to consider various lighting options available and the implications resulting from them. 2 . Towards the end of the publication a check-list has been included. inefficient ventilation and an unattractive space. though schemes are usually adequate quantitively. although the opportunities available to the designer will not be exactly similar.

and must be considered. 2. together with the determining features and an indication of how they relate to each other. Figure 1 illustrates the main areas of consideration for lighting design. The following parts of this section describe the elements of the framework to help the designer to develop a strategy. 2) or by providing localised lighting to complement the general or ambient lighting.Section 2: Components of Lighting Design The lighting design for a school needs to provide a lit environment which is appropriate for the particular interior and indeed exterior. typical school activities. The higher levels can be provided by using an adjustable task light to supplement the general illuminance in the particular area required (Fig. achieving lighting which enables students and staff to carry out their particular activities easily and comfortably in attractive and stimulating surroundings. Higher levels should be used for more detailed work and for particularly demanding visual tasks. Whilst each element is important. For general teaching spaces a level of light is required which makes it easy to carry out quite small and difficult tasks. Reading and writing. Localised lighting is permanently installed lighting equipment Figure 1: Framework showing main components of lighting design & determining factors. In considering the design it is necessary to take into account a range of different and perhaps conflicting requirements and to do this bearing in mind the possible constraints.windows. require a minimum level of illuminance with a relatively high illuminance uniformity over the task area.etc Lamp type Luminaire type Lighting controls Integration of natural & electric lighting 3 . the emphasis placed on each facet may not be equal.1 Task/Activity Lighting Functional lighting or task lighting is that which enables users to carry out their various tasks and activities easily and without visual discomfort and it is important that the designer assesses these requirements carefully. It is also necessary to consider the overall architectural concept and in turn the determinants which will enable it to be achieved. LIGHTING & ARCHITECTURAL INTEGRATION Natural lighting design Appearance of lighting equipment Electrical lighting installation Lighting controls Integration of natural & electric lighting TASK/ACTIVITY LIGHTING Task illuminance Task illuminance uniformity Colour rendering Discomfort glare Disability glare Flicker LIGHTING COSTS Capital costs of installation Running costs of installation LIGHTING DESIGN LIGHTING MAINTENANCE Lamp replacement Luminaire type Cleaning & redecoration programme Lamp disposal LIGHTING FOR VISUAL AMENITY Light pattern Overall lightness Colour appearance Discomfort glare Disability glare Flicker External & internal view LIGHTING & ENERGY EFFICIENCY Natural lighting design . such as using a machine in the workshop or studying fine detail in the art room.

Colour plays an important role in learning and light sources should have a good colour rendering performance: this will enable accurate colour judgements to be made. Visual comfort is also very important. its shape and surface texture. it is impossible to define the area where a higher illuminance may be required. Locker] 4 . Discomfort can be caused for example by electric lighting equipment. views of the sky. It is possible now to use luminaires that operate at very high Figure 3: Complementary localised lighting using lines of suspended fluorescent luminaires and display spotlights either side of a central rooflight fitted with louvre blinds (see also Fig. If. and can be provided for example by natural light from side windows or electric lighting used to enhance the brightness of a vertical surface. and use of electrical socket outlets with backplates of contrasting colour located at a standard height is helpful to the visually impaired. downlights in reception or teaching areas produce harsh shadows which obstruct lip reading. and to avoid the possibility of eye strain and headaches it is necessary to limit the brightness range within the normal field of view. For example. Locker] which provides the increased illuminance where and when it is required (Fig 3). [Photo: P. Another aspect of task lighting which needs to be considered is helping to define the three-dimensional qualities of the task. 22). Colour and contrast are particularly important to the hearing impaired and the visually impaired (see 5. then it will be necessary to provide the increased illuminance over the whole area. a flow of light. it is recommended that a good colour rendering light source is used in all teaching spaces. science and craft subjects. or of bright lights being reflected in the task such as a computer screen or glossy reading material. and it is important that these potentially glaring sources are avoided. Because this requirement is necessary for a number of school activities. art.11). Another aspect of visual comfort is concerned with flicker from discharge lamps which. has been shown in recent research to cause discomfort. [Photo: P. This will demand a directional quality in the lighting. ie.Section 2: Components of Lighting Design Figure 2: Use of supplementary local task lighting. however. in some cases. Direct sunlight can also be a problem in this respect depending on the orientation of the window and its design. ie. eg.

otherwise poor visibility or even visual discomfort may result. but it is important for this variation in brightness not to be too great. An example of this is a story-telling area in a primary school. 2. The display areas would need to be the bright so that they attract attention. not only will there be a need for bright and airy spaces.3 Lighting and Architectural Integration The lighting of a building. Light surfaces. It is also desirable to achieve a degree of non-uniformity in the light pattern. A corridor or an entrance area are other places where the light pattern should vary to provide small display areas for objects or pictures. the Figure 4: Tipton Infants’ school. Equipment should be selected to harmonise with the architectural concept and this applies equally to electric lighting equipment and the detailed design of windows. It is essential to analyse the task/ activity requirement before designing the lighting. Locker] 5 . the electric lighting installation should be an integral part of the whole and not an appendage. and to achieve this. A similar effect could be produced with a small rooflight. Throughout a school. modulated with light and shade. In this case the designer may like to consider providing an internal space lit only by electric lighting where the pattern of light is arranged to accent the story teller. To do this. In addition. Lighting for visual amenity is as important as task lighting and depends on the balance and composition of light and shade. it is necessary to light the space so that it appears ‘bright’ and ‘interesting’. should enhance the architecture. contribute to this impression. these could be in circulation spaces or in the exterior view. Combination of side window. 2. an additional consideration in visual amenity is the enhancement of the environment by the appearance of sunlit areas. [Photo: P. as spaces which have areas of light and shade are generally liked. Whilst direct sunlight on the task area can be a problem. particularly the walls and perhaps the ceiling too.Section 2: Components of Lighting Design frequencies and largely overcome this problem. Sandwell. but it is equally important to provide lighting that enhances the appearance of the space – lighting for visual amenity. The colour appearance of the electric light will also need to be considered because different lamp types produce different degrees of ‘warmth’ or ‘coolness’. clerestory light and linear electric lighting system. but there will also be a need for areas that are more private and secluded.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity Providing suitable lighting for the tasks and activities of a school is of course important. both natural and electric.

Light carpets are likely to suffer early deterioration in general teaching spaces but there are other materials which have both a light finish and can be easily cleaned. Farnborough Grange Junior School. All these matters are dealt with later. of course. care being taken to ensure that projected patterns of light respond to this need.Section 2: Components of Lighting Design pattern of light must enhance the building form and be in sympathy with it. the reflectance and colour of the main surfaces will also have a major effect. They can also be organised to respond to the uses of the space. providing accent lighting on separate circuits to the general lighting. It is suggested that the main surfaces of the interior are light in colour if the space is to appear light. One of the most important reflecting surfaces in a building is the floor and it is important to have this light in colour. (Fig 5) It has already been stressed that most parts of a school should appear bright and interesting. 2. and that whilst lighting can make a major contribution to this. For the lighting to function well from the users’ point of view. eg. This is in order to minimise the use of primary energy and hence reduce carbon dioxide emissions and also. The use of strong surface colours should not be discounted but they need to be used sparingly. to reduce the running cost of each lighting installation. [Photo: Martin Charles] 6 . By considering this aspect early in the design process the controlling circuits can be organised to allow the electric lighting to complement the natural lighting in a positive and energy effective way. and be energy efficient. Figure 5: Pattern of light enhancing the building form. it will need to have the controlling switches designed and positioned to fit in with the use and shape of the space.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency An effective and efficient use of energy is an important aspect of any lighting proposal and school buildings are no exception. If however there is a requirement for a more secluded space then darker finishes may be used. Both electric and natural lighting must be an integral part of the architecture.

2. An effective use of energy in lighting is an essential part of lighting design. the amount will be small compared to the total cost of the building and yet lighting has a major effect on its appearance and operation. in doing so. installed in an energy effective way. destroy the energy efficiency planned. Similarly. or in the case of natural lighting. by the careful selection of energy efficient electric lighting equipment. These reductions in lighting levels will need to be minimised if energy and money are not to be wasted. It is important therefore that the lighting designer produces a scheme which takes a balanced view of energy and cost efficiency. Poor maintenance is a cause of bad lighting and is also a waste of energy and money. diminishing their reflectance. and economies need to be considered carefully to ensure that they are not false economies.6 Lighting Costs The cost of lighting can be divided into two parts. It is important that both aspects are considered when the lighting is being designed. There will also be a reduction caused by dirt build-up on the internal surfaces of the rooms. For many schools. In terms of capital cost. an energy efficient lighting system can be achieved. considering both capital and running costs.Section 2: Components of Lighting Design When planning energy efficiency in lighting it is necessary to consider daylighting and electric lighting both individually and in conjunction with one another. and perhaps. on the windows. the two cost elements may be borne by different bodies which can result in a conflict of interests. Consider both capital and running costs in concert and avoid false economies. the luminaires. together with controls which encourage the use of electric lighting only when it is required.5 Lighting Maintenance During the life of a lighting installation the amount of light it produces will diminish. and to do this it is important to pay attention at the design stage to the proper maintenance of the lighting installation and of the building itself. An extensive use of natural lighting can provide considerable energy savings but daylight is not ‘free’ and the other environmental aspects of large glazed areas must be taken into account. This reduction is caused mainly by dirt building up on the lamps. 7 . This aspect should be discussed in advance with the users of the building to ensure that they are aware of the proposed maintenance strategy and its implications and obtain their co-operation. users will often attempt to improve the lighting themselves. It would be futile to create such an energy efficient scheme if the result was compromised in terms of performance and appearance. Lamp light output will also reduce with ageing. 2. the capital cost of the equipment including its installation and the running costs which include both maintenance and the cost of energy. Swimming pool luminaires over pool surround for ease of maintenance and safety (broken glass is a hazard). In these circumstances. Energy and maintenance costs are a continuing burden on the operation of a school and need to be taken into account at the design stage to ensure that they can be kept at an acceptable level.

energy efficiency and noise intrusion. The means for admitting daylight can be broadly classified as follows (Fig 8): Side windows have the advantage that they permit a view of the outside. windows can be a source of annoyance and sometimes discomfort.natural lighting. This is both because of the unique quality of natural light and the link with the external environment which windows of all types provide. the school designer should assume that daylight will be the prime means of lighting when it is available. 3. and the building should be planned to take account of space organisation in relation to orientation.Section 3: Lighting Options NATURAL ELECTRIC LIGHTING DESIGN Room orientation External obstruction Sun-screening & re-direction Windows in relation to view Rooflights & clerestories Atria & borrowed light Figure 6: Options and elements to be considered in lighting design. Hedge End. However. for instance when there is a particularly bright sky or when there is sun penetration which disrupts the activities within the space. electric lighting or a combination of the two. These are examined in more detail in the following sections. Windows can also have an effect on other environmental factors.1 Natural Lighting Unless there are over-riding educational reasons for not doing so in certain rooms. provided that their heads and cills are at the correct level and that there are no Figure 7: Combination of side and top light. Both skylight and sunlight need to be considered. LIGHTING DESIGN Room size and shape Furnishings Room surface colours & reflectances Maintenance Lamps Luminaires Lighting controls Lighting installation INTEGRATED LIGHTING DESIGN The diagram above shows the main lighting options . together with the elements which need to be considered. in addition to providing daylighting and a view out. particularly thermal comfort. It can be seen therefore that windows are a complex part of building design and need careful consideration for maximum benefit and pleasure together with minimum dissatisfaction. [Photo: Joe Low] 8 . fresh air supply. Berrywood Primary School. Hampshire.

they need the same care in design to take account of glare from a a. Borrowed lights d c b d d a intrusive transoms to obstruct this view at sitting and standing eye level positions for children and adults (Fig 9). care over transom position c. c b Rooflights also admit light from the highest and brightest part of the sky. Rooflights d. Clerestory windows are usually found in single storey buildings or in those with a complex section (Fig 8). It goes without saying that simple rooflights can only be employed in single storey buildings or on the top floor of multi-storey buildings. They have the tendency to provide a more even pattern of light. . Borrowed lights. Figure 9: Detailed window design to avoid obstruction of view. Figure 8: Window types.Section 3: Lighting Options c a. They will probably not give a direct outside view but do provide information about weather conditions . It is more usual for trees. wide shallow windows giving a broad distribution and tall narrow windows a deep but narrow distribution for instance (Fig 10). Side windows b. Light-wells are however a possibility in multi-storey buildings (Fig 12). or are arranged around a top lit larger space or atrium. care over cill height b. contrast as do clerestory windows. there is a higher probability of the contrast between inside and outside causing glare. other buildings and rising ground to cause an obstruction in the case of side windows. and to give the same information about the external environment. Although the supplement is often quite small it can help to improve the appearance of the space quite considerably. However. borrowed light can make a contribution to the light levels in areas remote from window walls (Figs 11 and 12). The shape and position of windows affects the way in which daylight is distributed. care over window head height and external projection 9 .cloud formation etc. though there is of course an externally reflected component of light from these obstructions. Clerestory windows c. In certain cases. and will not generally be affected by external obstruction. where rooms open off a corridor which is top lit for example. Clerestory windows admit light from the brighter part of the sky and this is unlikely to be obstructed: an important feature of clerestory windows or of any high level window is that they can provide daylight deep into a space.

although the amount of light penetration to these spaces may be small. they are usually single or double height spaces and have the advantage of providing attractive views for the spaces around their perimeter. heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer. Care will also need to be taken to avoid visual discomfort through overglazing and some form of blinds may be necessary.Section 3: Lighting Options Figure 10: Indicates the relationship between window/ rooflight shape and position. In schools. These problems can be overcome with careful 10 consideration of sun penetration and sun control. particularly at ground floor level. and light distribution. The atrium can be used for a variety of teaching purposes. care needs to be taken to ensure that the environment is suitable for the plants selected. Wide distribution Deep distribution w/w w/w Wide distribution away from window Corner windows also light window walls(w/w) reducing contrast Concentration on horizontal plane Rooflight highlights the adjacent wall Atria. selection of glazing materials and the design of natural ventilation using the stack effect. together with the design of the roof. Some of these considerations are discussed further in the . but care will need to be taken over thermal comfort. However. These are large internal spaces with rooflights or clerestory windows. ie. The view into the atrium and the appearance of the atrium itself may be improved by planting.

Section 3: Lighting Options R Figure 11: Diagram showing borrowed light from rooflight ‘R’ helping to light rooms ‘A’ and ‘B’ by direct and reflected light. [Photo: P. particularly in non-task areas. the benefits provided by the appearance of sunlit views. For all these window types. [Photo: Joe Low] Right: Whitefield School. the sun’s angle at various times of day and year should be studied as sun penetration can present a problem. Locker] illustrative example in Appendix 8. A Figure 12: Borrowed light B to rooms from central atrium. However. ground and first floors. sunlight. Windows provide a considerable benefit to school buildings: consider skylight. should not be overlooked (Fig 12). Bottom left: Fareham Tertiary College. views out and other related environmental matters 11 .3. with light wells to ground floor corridor.

The last group of lamps considered here is the high pressure discharge type. and the smaller versions are a good alternative to tungsten filament lamps. supplied from a small transformer) and have an integral reflector are available for special display purposes. colour rendering and colour appearance. high pressure mercury fluorescent and high pressure metal halide lamps. ie. wall washing luminaires and wall mounted indirect luminaires. These lamps however do have a poor efficacy and a relatively short life and the designer would be well advised to consider compact fluorescent lamps as an alternative. Here. good efficacy and good optical and electrical control.60% 60 . The distribution can be first considered by reference to the simple categories shown in Table 1 below. particularly for their low capital cost. Reflector lamps which include low voltage versions (12 volts Table 1: Distribution of light from luminaires (see diagrams in Appendix 5). It should be noted that some luminaires do not have a symmetrical light output distribution. The tungsten filament lamp together with the linear halogen lamp have been used extensively in the past. It is also important to note that these lamps have a time delay before reaching their full light output after being switched on and in restriking after being switched off. the controls and the installation itself. These lamps can give good colour performance. These lamps also provide good colour performance and good efficacy but only a few can currently be dimmed. will depend on the light output intensity of the luminaire and its distribution. Within this group the lamps vary in terms of colour rendering and colour appearance and this needs to be considered in making a selection for a particular situation. The more recently introduced compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) can be used either for general lighting or for task and accent lighting. good colour performance and ease of control. on dull days and during the hours of darkness.40% 40 .2 Electric Lighting When daylight fades. This is a relatively simple classification of a luminaire’s light output distribution but it will help the designer to appreciate the type of light pattern that will result. The equipment selected should be Category Direct Semi-direct General diffusing Direct-Indirect Semi-indirect Indirect Upward Light 0 . it is necessary to turn to electric lighting. there are many options. ie. compact size.100% 12 . The level of light or illuminance. The areas that need to be considered are the light sources.90% 90 .Section 3: Lighting Options 3. These reflector lamps have a longer life than the tungsten filament type but are much less efficient than the CFL type. the luminaires. The most common light source found in schools is the linear fluorescent type which can be used to provide a relatively even pattern of light.10% 10 . The selection of luminaires will depend on the level and pattern of light required. This includes high pressure sodium. as in daylighting.60% 40 .

If these are individually mounted or suspended.C. Ceiling recessed luminaires are another possibility and they produce a more integrated appearance. However. and this can make the space appear underlit. recessed into the ceiling. A common method of lighting schools is to use a regular array of ceiling mounted or suspended luminaires. Locker] 13 . It is necessary to consider the way that luminaires are installed. or integrated into the building structure in some other way (Fig 13). ie. These will provide a general wash of light which may be acceptable for lighting the task but will produce an even pattern of light which can often appear bland. Sandwell M. surface mounted on the ceiling or walls. [Photo: P. if this type of installation is used with a high reflectance floor.Section 3: Lighting Options chosen to be in sympathy with the architecture. Hampshire County Council] Left: Victoria Infants’ School. but because they are recessed they provide no direct light on to the ceiling. they will tend to make the ceiling appear cluttered. This can be overcome by using one of the continuous lighting systems which can combine direct. Indirect or uplighting luminaires can be used which will generally produce Figure 13: Top: Burnham Copse Infants’ School [Photo: R Brooks. indirect and/ or accent lighting (Fig 13).B. then it may be perfectly acceptable.

It has already been stressed that some of the internal building surfaces should appear ‘light’. Sandwell M. with electric lighting taking over on dull days and at night. particularly the walls. However. For this it will be necessary to highlight surfaces. 14 . Left: Queen Elizabeth School.3 Combined or Integrated Daylighting and Electric Lighting In school buildings most of the spaces will be predominantly daylit. In these cases. Alford. To achieve this it will sometimes be necessary to light preferentially these surfaces by using wall-washing luminaires and uplighting. Lincs. Although electric lighting depends primarily on the equipment. eg. it will be necessary to employ a system combining both daylight and electric lighting which is used as and when required. [Photo: P. general lighting. However this approach must not be applied to all such surfaces or the lighting will appear bland and uninteresting. There will however be some spaces which have some daylight. 3. The most effective electric lighting installations are those comprising different elements which combine in terms of task and appearance. It will also be necessary for the electric lighting installation to create the sensation of brightness in the areas remote from the windows. it will not be sufficient to provide a combined lighting system that only gives a uniform horizontal plane illuminance. it is necessary to take into account the reflectance of the main surfaces of the space as well as the furnishings.B.Section 3: Lighting Options ‘light’ ceilings and shadowless lighting. Locker] For combined lighting installations consider both the task and the appearance effects. Right: Victoria Infants’ School. but not always sufficient over the whole area. and also the possible light obstruction caused by the furniture and other objects within the building. The electric lighting installation must provide for visual ability and amenity. task lighting and accent lighting. particularly walls and ceilings. It will be necessary to consider the distribution of daylight together with the complementary electric lighting distribution to ensure they enhance one another. be an effective use of energy and be in sympathy with the overall design of the building.C.

Interiors where the Average Daylight Factor is below 2% will require frequent use of electric lighting. the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) Standard Overcast Sky distribution is used. Figure 14: Daylight factor components Sky component Externally reflected component Internally reflected component 15 . The Daylight Factor will vary within a space depending on a number of parameters including the size and disposition of the glazing.65 respectively. it is generally considered that schools should have natural lighting whenever possible. the glass transmittance will need to be multiplied by a factor to take account of dirt on the glass: suitable correction factors are given in table 2.1 Daylighting As mentioned earlier. in the vertical plane normal to the window. The Average Daylight Factor (DF) can be estimated from the following formula: % DF = T W A (1 . For the value T. by sky visible from the centre of the window (Fig 15) A = total area of interior surfaces including windows (m2) R = area-weighted average reflectance of interior surfaces. the component received by reflection from external surfaces (Externally Reflected Component) and the component received by reflection from internal surfaces (Internally Reflected Component) (Fig 14). however. direct sunlight is excluded and an overcast sky with a defined luminance distribution is specified: in the UK. including windows (see Table 3) Note: Typical transmittance values for clean.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance 4.R2) Where: T = diffuse transmittance of glazing material including effects of dirt (see note) W = net glazed area of window (m2) = angle in degrees subtended.80 and 0. Natural lighting. Interiors with an Average Daylight Factor of 5% or more are considered to be daylit rooms and will not normally require electric lighting.the component received directly from the sky (Sky Component). Interiors where the Average Daylight Factor is between 2% and 5% will require some electric lighting between October and March. To take full advantage of the available daylight will require an automatic daylight linked control system. is very variable and for design purposes. The design measure used is the Daylight Factor which is the percentage of the horizontal diffuse illuminance outdoors from an unobstructed sky hemisphere which is received at a point indoors: there are three components . the dimensions of the space. clear single and double glazing are 0. the reflectance of the interior surfaces and the degree of external obstruction.

Where spaces are top-lit. required for the estimation of the Uniformity Ratio.2 0. 16 The glazing area for a required Average Daylight Factor can be obtained from a re-arranged formula. atria. A Uniformity Ratio in the range 0.0.7 0.7.8 0.1 0.8 and 5.1 More paint colours and materials are given in Tables 5.9 of the CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting.1 0. Information for other glasses and particular surface finishes should be obtained from manufacturers. Type of Vertical Sloping Horizontal location glazing glazing glazing clean industrial very dirty 0.3 . The Minimum Daylight Factor value.05 0.7 0.6 0.85 0.4 Reflectance values will vary depending on the surface finish: approximate values for some paints and materials are given in the following table.8 0.45 0.4 is recommended for side-lit rooms.7 0.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance Figure 15: Angle which defines visible sky from centre of window/rooflight Table 2: Correction factors to transmittance values for dirt on glass. eg. Paint colours White Pale cream Light grey Mid-grey Dark grey Dark brown Black Internal materials White paper Carpet Brickwork Quarry tiles Window glass Reflectance 0. The Uniformity Ratio is defined as the Minimum Daylight Factor/Average Daylight Factor.45 .3 to 0.15 0.8 0. then higher uniformities should be expected of the order of 0. The purpose of using the daylight . can be obtained by means of one of the commercially available computer programs or using one of a number of tabular or diagram calculation methods which are described in Part B1 of CIBSE Applications Manual: Window Design. Correction factors for dirt on glass.9 0. Table 3: Approximate reflectance values for various surface finishes.6 0. The above formula is applicable to vertical glazing and to some rooflights: rooflights which have an upstand or skirt require an additional term to take account of inter-reflection and absorption (see CIBSE Applications Manual: Window Design). It is also useful to consider the uniformity of the daylight.0.1 0.5 0. The position of the Minimum Daylight Factor can usually be estimated from a study of the room plan relative to the window placing.5 0.

= Illuminance x (lux) x In determining the illuminance provided by daylight.55 1. there is a noticeable variation in luminance. ‘no-sky’ point 'no sky' point working plane Uniformity Ratio as part of the design criteria is to ensure that a daylit room does not have any areas which will appear dark.19. the variability of the exterior illuminance must be taken into consideration. and Figures 17 and 18 provide data on the availability of daylight for a typical year for both London and Edinburgh. This is the line.00 day): Orientation of Window North East South West For intermediate orientation.97 1. the illuminance provided by the daylight can be determined from: Interior Illuminance (lux) Exterior DF 100 Orientation Factor The Window Orientation Factor is introduced because even with overcast skies.00 9. on the floor or horizontal working plane.21 linear interpolation Table 4: Window orientation factors for calculation of interior illuminance.00 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 diffuse illuminance (klx) diffuse illuminance (lux x 1000) 17 .Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance Figure 16: No-sky line: locus of points beyond which there is no direct light from the sky.17. 100 % 80 Figure 17: Daylight availability for three different lengths of day in London.00 .1 Daylight Quantity By the definition of Daylight Factor (DF).17. Orientation Factor 0. percentage year percentage ofof year for which given for which aa given diffuse illuminance diffuse illuminance is exceeded is exceeded 40 60 9. beyond which no direct light from the sky will reach. The area beyond this line will usually receive very low levels of natural light and this will usually require supplementary electric lighting (Fig 16).00 9. Another way of considering this aspect of design is to take account of the ‘No-sky line’. can be used. Values of Orientation Factor are given in the following table (for a 09.1.16.00 .15 1. 4. with the southern sky having the greatest effect.00 .00 .

and can also cause visual discomfort. 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 diffuse diffuse illuminance1000) illuminance (lux x (klx) In order to achieve the daylight recommendations in rooms lit from one side. 100 % 80 60 percentage of year for which a given diffuse illuminance 40 is exceeded 9. These problems can be successfully overcome if all aspects of window performance are properly 18 . Figure 19: Queen's Inclosure Middle School. The estimation of the combined effect of the individual parts for the average daylight factor can be made using the method described above.00 9.00 . [Photo: R Brooks.00 Note: Figures 17 and 18 from BS8206: Part 2: 1992 are reproduced with the permission of BSI. (For further details see CIBSE Applications Manual: Window Design). Milton Keynes. recourse must be made to the integration of electric lighting with the daylighting (see 4.19. Large areas of glazing can result in considerable heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer. considerable energy savings can be made. showing use of rooflight in centre of building. MK14 6LE. but. as stated earlier. Hampshire County Council] However.16. Cowplain.00 9. it can be useful in single-storey buildings and the top floor of multistorey buildings to consider the additional use of rooflights or clerestory lights remote from the windows.00 .00 . Copies of complete standards can be obtained by post from BSI Publications. natural lighting is not ‘free’.17.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance Figure 18: Daylight availability for three different lengths of day in Edinburgh. when the daylight recommendations cannot be satisfactorily achieved. This can produce an improved distribution of light in the space (Fig 19). By providing good natural lighting. Linford Wood.3 below).

It is important to stress that the environmental performance of the building needs to be considered in an holistic way to ensure an acceptable performance at all times. It seemed that they had either an appropriate daylighting performance and an uncomfortable thermal environment or vice versa. Some of this is due to the variability of the daylight including sunlight: also. For example.6 because the effective wall reflectance will be reduced by the presence of furniture and pin-up material. the amount depending on the reflectance. if a window is large enough to provide sufficient light in winter together with acceptable view conditions. An example of disability glare can occur where there is a window in a wall on 19 .2 Daylight Quality In addition to providing the right quantity of light.1. some form of adjustable external sun-screening may be necessary as well as adequate natural ventilation.3 Glare One of the most important aspects of obtaining a satisfactory interior environment is to provide a balanced luminance distribution . The directional properties of light from side windows (the ‘flow of light’ across the room) are a significant attribute contributing to the modelling of the interior. daylight can give to an interior a particular unique character. If the luminance of the sky seen through a window is very high and close to the line of sight of a visual task of much lower luminance. and windows and rooflights need regular cleaning: it must be easy to reach them or maintenance is likely to be poor or expensive. Note: In the past many schools have suffered from poor environmental conditions. will increase the initial building cost. The reason for this condition was usually a lack of an overall design solution.1. (It should also be appreciated that children's work displayed on external glazing will reduce the daylight in the room). It is recommended that the reflectance of the wall surface finish should not be less than 0. It will also be necessary to ensure that the other elements of the building.some contrast but not excessive. Experience indicates that both surfaces of external glazing should be cleaned at least once a term. and at least 0. The build-up of dirt on glazing will gradually reduce the amount of daylight entering an interior. then it is possible it may provide over-heating and discomfort glare in summer. and providing brightness to vertical surfaces. Surfaces of rooms will also need regular cleaning and redecorating to maintain the level of reflected light. the roof and walls. minimise heat loss and heat gain. 4. To minimise heat loss in winter the window must have appropriate thermal insulation (U-value). this may well require double glazing or one of the new glasses which minimise heat loss through the use of special coatings. With regard to the ceiling.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance considered early in the design process. Whilst many provisions. and a balanced view needs to be taken.7. 4. the frequency being greater in districts which have a high level of airborne dirt. This may mean including double glazing or one of the new glasses which have a high effective thermal insulation (which can also reduce noise interference from the exterior). disability glare can occur due to a reduction in the task contrast making details impossible to see and thus reducing task performance. It is important to remember that in this country the daylighting and thermal conditions vary considerably throughout the year and the building design needs to be able to take account of these variations. in order to enhance the daylit appearance of a space. the reflectance of the ceiling surface finish should be as high as possible. including blinds and sunshading devices. the distribution of the light enhances the visual field. Some variability across room surfaces is also important (Fig 4). including objects within it and surface textures. they have the potential of considerably reducing running costs. As mentioned earlier. ie. To overcome this possible problem.

Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance

which there is a chalkboard: this should be avoided. Discomfort can be experienced when some parts of an interior have a much higher luminance than the general surroundings: it may take some time to become apparent. Discomfort glare from daylight can be a more common occurrence than disability glare, and under most circumstances its degree will depend not on the window size or shape, but on the luminance of the sky seen in the general direction of view. Data suggests that for the UK an unprotected window will be uncomfortably glaring over a significant period of the year. It has been predicted that skies with an
Figure 20: Examples of glare and sun control, blinds may be either opaque or translucent.

average luminance exceeding 8900cd/m2 (corresponding to a whole-sky illuminance of 28000 lux) will cause discomfort glare, and in the UK these are experienced for about 25% of the working year. Some reduction in the sky glare can be achieved by reducing the contrast between the window and its surroundings, for example, by the use of splayed light-coloured reveals or increasing the brightness of the window wall by increasing its reflectance, or lighting it from a window in an adjacent wall. Window frames should be as light in colour as possible, whether stained or painted timber, or painted or integrally coloured metal or plastic. However, the

DISCOMFORT GLARE AMELIORATED DISCOMFORT GLARE AMELIORATED BY LIGHT COLOURED FRAME AND WINDOW WALL LIGHT COLOURED FRAME AND WINDOW WALL

soffit should be light in colour

light coloured ceiling helps to lessen contrast with sky

overhang

'outrigger' louvre

FIXED EXTERNAL CONTROLS

retractable vertical retractable angular blind blind FLEXIBLE EXTERNAL CONTROLS

venetian blind

curtain

roller blind

concertina blind

FLEXIBLE INTERNAL CONTROLS

20

Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance

reduction of the sky luminance is the major consideration, and where this is likely to be a problem provision should be made for blinds (eg, horizontal or vertical louvre blinds) or curtains, which can be translucent or opaque and internal or external, or retractable screens, canopies or awnings. Permanent features such as roof overhangs may also assist in this matter. However, it has been shown that in the UK, overhangs of more than 300mm over windows serve little purpose in terms of shading or improved daylighting (see DfEE Building Bulletin 79, Passive Solar Schools, A Design Guide). If the underside of the overhang is light in colour, the penetration will be improved and excessive contrast with the sky can be avoided (Fig 20). Rooflights can cause discomfort glare for most of the working year if the glazing can be seen directly from normal viewing positions at angles of less than 35° above the horizontal (Fig 21). The glare can be ameliorated by using measures similar to those for vertical windows (Fig 22). Contrast between the glazing and its surroundings can be reduced by using coffers with high reflectance sides which also cut off the view of the direct sky and by setting the rooflight in a lightcoloured ceiling. The luminance of the sky seen can be reduced by adjustable blinds, shades or louvres. The use of a permanent diffusing panel to close in a coffer at ceiling level can provide unsatisfactory conditions: it may become difficult to appreciate that the source of light is natural and the feeling of ‘daylight contact’ may be lost, particularly if the exterior glazing material is also diffusing (see 4.1.5). Further, on dull days, there

Figure 21: Rooflight glazing should not be visible below a cut-off angle of 35°.

35° 35

will be a noticeable reduction in the amount of contributed light. 4.1.4 Sunlight Control While most of the time sunlight is considered to be an amenity in this country, there are occasions particularly in the summer months when it is necessary to provide some protection from its inconveniences such as excessive direct

Figure 22 Left: Victoria Infants’ School, Sandwell M.B.C. Motorised perforated metal louvre blinds fitted to rooflights over classrooms (see also Figure 13). [Photo: P. Locker, Photo Graphic Design] Right: Netley Abbey School showing use of translucent roller blinds. [Photo: J. Low]

21

Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance

heat and glare, and shading devices are required. These can usually be designed in conjunction with the devices considered for the reduction of sky glare (see section 4.1.3). It is not usual in the climate of this country to design permanently fixed features because they will reduce the amount of daylight entering the room at all times and this could be particularly undesirable in the winter months. The protection can be provided by adjustable screening devices such as curtains and blinds including louvre blinds (Fig 22). For optimum sun protection, the solar control devices should be placed outside the window: retractable screens, canopies or awnings can be used here (Fig 20). It is important in designing a sunlight control system that it takes into account the extent of the use of the school during the summer months. 4.1.5 Exterior Visual Contact In addition to providing natural light, one of the main properties of windows is the provision of visual contact with the outside. This avoids a feeling of enclosure and claustrophobia, and also provides visual relaxation and a ‘view’. Wherever possible, the shape, size and disposition of the windows should be related to the view, and avoid any deprivation

or curtailment of it by their position, height or width. A minimum glazed area of 20% of the internal elevation of the exterior wall is recommended. Any serious obstruction to the view can be annoying and appropriate sill and head heights are important (Fig 9). While the view out should preferably have close, middle and distant components, and contain some natural elements, frequently this is not possible, and a popular alternative is the use of courtyards. For these to be successful, they must be well maintained, preferably with suitable landscaping and some views of the sky, and have an adequate view dimension across the courtyard of not less than 10m. In some instances, a reasonable view of the exterior may not be feasible, and in these cases a long internal view is a useful addition - within a large space or possibly through glazed partitions. However, it is preferable to have a feeling of ‘daylight contact’ maybe from rooflights and including atria (Fig 19). On some occasions, a view out can be a disadvantage and cause distraction, and in these circumstances, blinds or curtains should be provided. In addition, there are situations where there is a need for privacy and here the view into a building needs to be considered.

Figure 23: Courtyard view.

22

Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance

4.2 Electric Lighting As with natural lighting, the main aims are concerned with: function - to enable tasks to be performed accurately and comfortably and to facilitate safe movement about the building, and amenity - to light the interior of the building in order to provide a pleasant and stimulating environment. The values of illuminance quoted in this document are given in terms of ‘Standard Maintained Illuminance’ which is the form of recommendation used by the national and international lighting institutions. This is the minimum illuminance which should be provided at all times through the life of the installation. The CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting, 1994, ‘Section 2.6.4.4 Public and education buildings’ provides figures for a wider range of specific interiors and activities. An illuminance of 500 lux for demanding tasks may be provided by using local lighting to supplement general

lighting: under these circumstances, the illuminance on the surround area should ideally not be less than one third of that of the working area to avoid excessive contrast and distraction. Because of the special characteristics of atria and in particular the spatial con-siderations, it is advised that an illuminance of not less than 400 lux with a high uniformity should be used for these areas and in addition, light vertical surfaces incorporating high reflectance values should be a feature of the design. The lighting of atria is discussed in more detail in the illustrative example in Appendix 8.3. Many rooms in educational buildings, and particularly spaces in primary schools, are used flexibly for a variety of purposes without very fixed work places. The lighting arrangements must reflect this requirement and provision made by controls and particularly switching facilities to satisfy this flexibility. Lamps and luminaires need to be regularly cleaned to minimise the deterioration of their light output performance. To ensure this can happen

Standard Maintained Illuminance lux 1. General Teaching Spaces Teaching Spaces with close and detailed work (eg, art and craft rooms) Circulation Spaces: corridors, stairs entrance halls, lobbies & waiting areas reception areas Atria 300 *

Uniformity Ratio

Limiting Glare Index 19

Table 6: Illuminance, Uniformity Ratio and Limiting Glare Index for schools.

0.8

2.

500 *

0.8

19

3.

80 - 120 175 - 250 250 - 350 400 *

-

19 19 19 19

4.

*Although particular illuminance values are quoted for the different areas, a small variation in
these values is unlikely to be a problem. 23

Direct glare from a ceiling mounted luminaire depends on a number of factors including the contrast between the luminaire and the ceiling surface. and can affect task performance due to a reduction in the task contrast and could cause discomfort or distraction: the term ‘reflected glare’ is sometimes used. all electric lighting equipment should be cleaned at least once a year. 4. The possibility of installing an incorrect lamp can be reduced by keeping the number of different lamp types used in a building to a minimum. These do not remove the oscillation but raise the rate to a very high level which is not perceived by humans.2.) There is a recent tendency to adopt luminaires with tightly controlled downward light distributions in the belief that this will minimise direct glare. which emits light directly on to the ceiling will reduce this contrast and be more generally acceptable. can frequently be seen to flicker. With the narrow downward distribution the only light reaching the ceiling may be that reflected from the work surfaces below and the contrast with the luminous area of the luminaire may be high. is likely to have some degree of specularity.1 Glare Disability glare does not usually occur from electric lighting in ordinary interior spaces. 4. (Many manufacturers publish tabular data for their luminaires which enables the Glare Index information to be obtained fairly quickly. This is true for distant views of the luminaire but the student is often left with a bright light source directly overhead which can be disconcerting and can make reading text printed on a glossy surface almost impossible. perhaps surface mounted or suspended. depending on the ceiling height. its position in the field of view and the visual adaptation given by the background luminance. and any high luminance source situated in the offending zone will be specularly . particularly in areas where VDUs are in use. As in the case of natural lighting. but discomfort glare caused by luminaires can be a problem.2 Flicker and High Frequency Operation Electric light sources. An additional advantage of using high frequency control gear is the improved efficacy that can be obtained from the lamps.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance with the minimum of fuss. the level of reflected light needs to be maintained by ensuring the room surfaces are kept clean and repainted regularly. This phenomenon can usually be overcome by the use of luminaires with high frequency control gear. In a typical school. 10 produce a Glare Index which should be below the specified Limiting Glare Index for freedom from discomfort glare. A luminaire 24 in which the lamps are not directly visible from below may be preferable to avoid high luminance reflections on the horizontal working plane. This is caused at the cathode of the lamp and by oscillation in light output which can also produce stroboscopic effects with moving objects: these can be dangerous .3 Veiling Reflections High luminance reflections in a task are referred to as veiling reflections. A luminaire.2. it is necessary to consider maintenance when selecting the lighting equipment: luminaires which require the use of special arrangements for cleaning and re-lamping should be avoided unless there is definite provision for this matter. These factors when combined in the Glare Evaluation System described in CIBSE Technical Memorandum No. or both.for example. a problem that can cause discomfort or even annoyance to some people. The cleaning should be more often in districts which are particularly dirty.2. rotating machinery in a workshop can appear to be stationary. 4. The task detail or its background. This particularly applies to fluorescent lamps where it is possible to use the wrong colour and with spot lamps where it is necessary to ensure the correct beam characteristics are used. This is controlled by the luminance and size of the glare source. Various types of luminaires are detailed in Appendix 5. particularly some discharge lamps.

a lower average wall reflectance value. 4. Figure 25: Veiling reflections on vertical and horizontal surfaces. it will be necessary to use relatively high surface reflectances. ie. and with windows or luminaires in the offending zone (Figs 24 and 25). glossy paper and shiny instruments. offending zone Figure 24: Veiling reflections. ideally both directly from the luminaires and by inter-reflection.3 0. wall finish reflectance not less than 0.6 with a ceiling finish reflectance not less than 0. by reducing the luminance in the offending zone or by altering the geometry of the situation so that the high luminance is not in the offending zone. Veiling reflections can be reduced by using matt materials in the task area.2. 25 . 0.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance reflected to the observer. and to ensure this happens the selection of luminaires is important (see Appendix 5). eg.4 Distribution of Light The appearance of a space is controlled to a large extent by the distribution of light within it.5 will need to be used for calculations. Glossy finishes to ceilings and walls should be avoided to minimise confusing reflections and glare. (Note: since it is common practice for teachers to use the wall surfaces for display. schematic diagram of ‘offending zone’. It is important that the walls and ceiling receive light. For a space to have an acceptable overall lightness. Common examples of the veiling reflection problem occur with VDU screens.7 and a floor reflectance as high as is practicable. Figure 26: Preferential lighting of wall and display surfaces.

) As with natural lighting. Figure 27: Examples of wall-washing luminaires which can be used for preferential lighting. It is suggested that the average supplementary illuminance on the wall surface is at least 200 lux when the horizontal reference plane illuminance is 300 lux. the most effective electric lighting designs are those comprising different elements which combine to make a successful lighting installation in terms of function and appearance . The preferential lighting of some wall surfaces. is useful for this purpose and. general lighting. character and interest can be given to the interior if some directional light is introduced to provide modelling and some variety is provided by controlled visual contrasts on the main surfaces. As stated earlier. task lighting and accent lighting. of course.for example. 26 . using spotlights which produce soft-edged pools of light or wall-washing by tubular fluorescent lamps. lighting for the display of particular items such as pupils’ work can assist this process (Fig 26 and 27). and this should be scaled up when the horizontal plane illuminance is 500 lux.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance depending on the wall finish and the amount of display material.

Two colour properties. the bare lamps should be screened from direct view. total light output (or wattage). much consideration has to be given in schools to the colour properties. This light distribution data will also provide information regarding the possibility of glare being a problem. CCT values and Ra values are grouped according to the descriptions given in the table in Appendix 3. wherever possible. for the same output. and greater detail can be obtained from the manufacturers. downward and upward) and the shape of the luminous intensity distribution (polar curve). Warmer coloured lamps with a CCT 2800K . For practical purposes.3000K should be used as accent lighting or in areas where a more domestic atmosphere is required. related to the spectral composition of the emitted light. and using luminaires which have high light outputs as well as controls to provide electric lighting which complements the natural lighting. It should be noted that all discharge lamps require the use of control gear for their operation and that high pressure discharge lamps have a time delay in reaching their full light output after being switched on and in re-striking after being switched off. are normally specified.5 Choice of Lamp and Luminaire Energy efficiency in electric lighting is a matter of selecting equipment which produces the lighting required in an energy effective way. The appearance of the luminaires.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance 4. of course. ie. The choice of lamp and luminaire are.this is quantified by the CIE General Colour Rendering Index (Ra). it is suggested that lamps of Intermediate CCT class of about 4000K should be used. it is suggested that lamps with an Ra of not less than 80 (Group 1B) be used. The use of high frequency control gear with fluorescent tubes will need consideration in situations where the avoidance of flicker is important. While some properties including efficacy and life are of paramount importance in selecting the most efficient and economically acceptable scheme.2. One is colour appearance concerned with the apparent colour of the light and is indicated by its Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) and the other is colour rendering concerned with the effect the light has on the colours of surfaces . life. (ii) appearance. This will require choosing lamps which have a high efficacy. These are characterised by the Light Output Ratio values (total. colour appearance. The choice of lamp will be dependent on a number of parameters. Some typical characteristics for the types of lamp most suitable for use in schools are given in Appendix 3. those lamps which provide high levels of light for the energy they consume. Due to the variations which occur in the colour appearance of daylight. For schools. it is suggested that lamps with a Warm to Intermediate colour appearance classification are used. starting characteristics and. will have a higher luminance and are potentially more glaring and therefore should be screened from normal directions of view. of course. interdependent and one cannot be considered without reference to the other. size. need for control gear. including luminous efficacy. colour rendering. cost. For installations where the electric lighting supplements the daylighting. 27 . Small light sources enable the optical control to be more accurate but. To enable accurate colour judgements to be made. The main items to be examined in the choice of luminaire are: (i) luminous efficiency and light distribution. (Detailed photometric information can be obtained from the luminaire manufacturers: some typical characteristics are given for guidance in Appendix 5). The nominal spacing/mounting height ratio will also have to be noted to achieve the recommended uniformity of illuminance.a prime component in determining the visual appearance of the space. These factors describe not only the amount of light falling on the working plane but also that on the ceiling and walls . and which is only used when it is actually needed.

Part 101 : 1990. Note: BS 4533 : Luminaires.cleaning and re-lamping – to be performed easily without the need for a special procedure. Note: All lighting equipment should generally comply with the relevant British Standards and Euronorms or equivalent.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance Figure 28: New Bradwell Priory Common First School. The contribution which the luminaires will make to the character of the space will have to be examined. but it is usual to require the space to appear predominantly daylit. wherever possible. suspended etc. a supplement of electric lighting can be provided. The other requirement is to achieve a satisfactory appearance by the balance of brightness throughout the space so that surfaces in parts remote from the windows do not seem dim and gloomy. wherever possible. The bare lamps should.4). It should also allow maintenance . when lit and unlit. An appearance which is more visually acceptable can be achieved by lighting preferentially the wall remote from the windows by ‘building lighting’ which is separate to that required for the task.3 Integrated daylight and electric light When the daylight recommendations cannot be achieved throughout the space.2. be screened from direct view because of the variation which can occur in the colour appearance of daylight. Part 102 : 1990. This wall lighting can be more effective when some variety is incorporated. Specification for general requirements and tests. 4. the supplementary electric light will have to be designed to operate separately from the night-time electric lighting (see Appendix 6). This can occur even when there is technically enough light due to the visual adaptation caused by a relatively bright window. surface mounted. avoid surfaces on which dust and dirt can be deposited. The first requirement is for the electric lighting to supplement the daylight so that the combined illuminance is suitable for the task or activities being undertaken. [Photo: Bucks County Council]. Suspended linear lighting system. Mounting position (ceiling recessed. As mentioned earlier. The luminaire design should. it is advised that the lamps used for electric lighting in this type of combined lighting should be of Intermediate CCT class of about 4000K. With regard to the possibility of discomfort glare for combined installations and to ensure the degree of glare from 28 . Particular requirements. The ceiling will also need to be well-lit. should complement the general design of the interior. as previously described (4. In many circumstances. Milton Keynes. (iii) ease of maintenance. The electrical distribution circuits and their switching arrangements should be suitably organised. and an effective use of controls is necessary.) is very important in this respect (Fig 28).

but it Figure 29: Use of model in artificial sky at the Building Research Establishment. in a three-dimensional way. The model can be used in three ways. sky value: which will enable the measurements to be quoted in terms of daylight factor. The measurements can be made under a real overcast sky. it is virtually impossible to quantify the lit appearance in the same way. guidance is given on daylighting. usually under an overcast sky condition. When the model is to be used for measuring the daylight distribution. particularly regarding visual performance and comfort. Garston. but it must be possible to seal these openings when the measurements are being made to avoid errors due to light leakage. it is advised that each installation should be designed to be independently within acceptable limits. and it is likely that computer visualisation programs will become more common in the near future. Architectural models are commonly used to explore daylighting designs. It is not essential to model precisely window details such as glazing bars or glazing materials. For this purpose it is advised that a scale of not less than 1:20 be used and that they are made from materials that are opaque and have the appropriate surface reflectance and colour. but these must be taken into account if the model is used for measurements. These need to be placed at a normal head position and can be used under real or artificial sky conditions. the lighting performance of a window/rooflight system. 4. For the appearance appraisal it will be necessary to provide viewing slots. Whilst numerical values have their place. It is of course important that no stray light enters the model through the viewing slot. 29 . These include shaded perspectives and architectural models.4 Aids to Lighting Design In this section. It is useful to measure not only the inside values but also an outside. They are also particularly useful as a way of communicating design ideas. it will be necessary to provide entry positions for small photocells. particularly for daylight and sunlight studies. to measure the daylight distribution and to examine the direct sunlight penetration. unobstructed. to appraise the appearance of the lit space. electric lighting and a combination of the two. these can be used to develop the required light pattern to identify the areas that need to be ‘high lit’ or to explore. As an aid to developing this aspect of design. It is often easier and more convenient to use a modelscope either directly or with a camera. it is helpful for the designer to use a number of techniques to enable design possibilities to be explored and ultimately tested. This includes numerical recommendations and techniques. With regard to shaded perspectives. It is obviously important that the models are dimensionally correct and that any external obstructions are included.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance the two installations operating together is acceptable. It is important to include any permanent shading devices including roof overhangs.

The artificial sky is a piece of equipment which typically models the CIE overcast sky condition using mirrors and electric lamps and therefore remains constant whilst the measurements are made. In this case the model can be used in conjunction with a spot lamp to represent the sun and a sundial to enable the correct relationship between the model and the spot light (artificial sun) to be established. Models can also be used to test sun penetration. a piece of equipment that enables the sun/site/ building relationship to be explored more easily (Fig 30). 30 . With this equipment a range of sun positions can be explored. these pieces of equipment are commonly available in Schools of Architecture. Whilst few design practices have their own artificial sky or heliodon. An alternative is to use the model in conjunction with a heliodon. Calculations for the determination of point daylight factor. illuminance and luminance. Figure 30: Use of model in conjunction with a heliodon. University Building Departments and Research Establishments. have not been included in this publication because they appear elsewhere and in particular the CIBSE Publications: Code for Interior Lighting 1994 and Applications Manual: Window Design 1987.Section 4: Lighting Design Guidance is more convenient to use an artificial sky to overcome the problem of light level variability (Fig 29).

Section 5: Lighting for particular applications The discussion in the earlier parts of this document applies to all areas of a school. 5. perhaps with an illuminated sign. Surrey. These routes also need to be visually stimulating. things will be different. but the luminance in the normal directions of view should be kept to a minimum. even when they are unfamiliar with it. staff and visitors from the main gate through to the various particular areas. they are also 31 . The circulation routes through a school are its main arteries taking pupils. the main entrance needs to be bright and welcoming. however.14).1. This is to avoid glare and to maximise the visual effectiveness of the lighting.1. However. Finally they need to provide means of escape and this may require emergency lighting (see Section 5. some of which are more commonly found in secondary schools. This area then needs to be linked visually to the main entrance of the school. if the front of the main entrance is glazed. Epsom. Locker] The corridors and stairs are the main elements of circulation and although their prime purpose is to get people from one place to another. They need to be functional in that people need to find their way easily and safely through the building.1 Exterior circulation and the main entrance During the daytime the route from the main gate to the main entrance will usually be obvious. 5. At nighttime. [Photo: P. This is because of the site organisation and the architectural treatment of the main entrance. These can also be used for student displays and the display of school trophies. The main gate may need to be identified. The interior light in the entrance area will also spill out into the area in front of the doorway making it inviting and helping to identify any steps. During daytime the entrance area should receive a good level of daylight particularly on vertical surfaces. by high-lighting the vertical surfaces within the entrance area. it can be done from a low height using bollard type fittings or higher post-top lanterns. main entrance. which will mean lighting the walkway and vehicle routes. 5. particular spaces may need additional attention due to their specialised requirements. if this is not possible then supplementary electric lighting may be necessary in display areas.1 Circulation Areas. however. To aid progress across the site. together with a high-lit area around the gate. The important thing is to light the pavement and road surfaces. This can be achieved.2 Corridors and stairs Figure 31: Blenheim High School.

It is recommended that an average illuminance of 80 . the positioning of Daylighting of staircase with contrasting treads and risers and avoidance of glare from windows. Locker] materials and particularly different textures. stimulating spaces. the brightness of individual luminaires should be limited and they can preferentially light walls and alcoves used for sitting and display. for single storey buildings. [Photo: P. Locker] 32 . both natural and electric. or into some internal spaces. Different surface Figure 32: Low energy corridor lighting with change of luminaire and daylighting in sitting area. View windows which look out. The electric lighting can be wall or ceiling mounted but it needs to be an integrated part of the building. The main consideration is to provide lighting which ensures that the staircase treads and risers are well defined with a contrast between the treads and the risers and that the luminance pattern is such that there are no problems from glare.1) Special attention must be given to the avoidance of glare and other visual problems. Stairs need to be well lit to avoid accidents. can be useful in this respect.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications an important facility in identifying the work and character of the school. Again. This means avoiding bright luminaires or windows in the normal field of view when using the staircase. can be valuable sources of orientation. The lighting. For example. [Photo: P. if possible. rooflights can make a major contribution. lobbies and waiting rooms require a higher illuminance of 175 . Cambridgeshire. Downlighters are not recommended over reception desks as the lack of a diffuse component of light makes lip-reading difficult (see 2. Reception areas should be lit to 250 . should aim to provide visual variety and an enhancement of some areas rather than others.250 lux. In this instance.120 lux be provided at floor level in corridors and stairs. Netherhall School. Entrance halls. They should be lit to provide safe movement around the building and also to produce interesting and.350 lux (Fig 33).

A side-lit corridor is preferable 33 . Surrey.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications Figure 33: Main foyer and reception area at Blenheim High School. Locker] a window at the end of a corridor can be annoying because of the silhouette vision it can cause and can be dangerous in producing disability glare (Fig 34). Figure 34: The benefit of a side-lit corridor. possibly in alcoves. If private study areas are provided off circulation routes. they should have suitable local electric lighting. Usually the more demanding task will take priority. Interest and variety can be supplied in circulation areas by display and exhibition spaces. This will require the designer to decide on the particular lighting needs of this type of space. Windows at the end of a corridor show objects in silhouette. [Photo: P. which are preferentially lit (Fig 35). In primary schools. Epsom. it is common for circulation to be part of general teaching spaces and vice versa. and ideally be near a window.

2 Areas with Display Screen Equipment Display Screen Equipment(DSE) is the name now given to Visual Display Units (VDUs) which have become increasingly important items of teaching equipment in both primary and secondary schools. changes in luminance must be gradual. As with corridors.3 Circulation/activity areas Figure 35: Circulation street with activity areas. To control this situation. Negative polarity screens (DOS based programmes or screens with a black or dark coloured background) will have relatively low brightness (2-8cd/m2) and reflections on the screen will be relatively brighter which can make it difficult to see the data displayed. Windows based programmes or screens with a white or light coloured background) will have relatively high brightness (70-100cd/m2) which will significantly reduce the effect of reflected images. 5. Locker] Where areas cater for other activities as well as circulation. One of the main problems encountered concerns the unwanted reflections which can occur in the screens of DSE. DSE is generally found in use throughout schools with small numbers of computers in all subject areas. [Photo: P. This can be achieved with a track lighting system equipped with very low glare. The visual conditions and correct lighting for their satisfactory use need care and attention. though part of an activity area. lighting will need to consider both functions.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications 5. Larger numbers of machines may be grouped in areas such as library resource areas and specialist computer studies rooms. One obvious demonstration of this effect is the student’s white shirt or blouse acting as a large luminous source. These can be bright enough to make it difficult to read the screen characters. adjustable luminaires. Positive polarity screens (eg. but also changes in surface colour can be used. The students could be encouraged to wear darker clothing such as pullovers or jackets where the problem 34 . on vertical surfaces or free-standing. can be separately identified. producing a reflection in the screen. Sandwell M. It will be helpful if the circulation route. reducing the contrast between them and the screen background. Another possibility is a change in ceiling height which can be combined with a change in lighting.C. Victoria Infants’ School. Some recent designs have daylit ‘streets’ which are used for a wide range of activities and also form an important focus for the school. With positive polarity screens there should be no problem but with negative polarity screens some action may be necessary. This may be achieved with changes in the lighting. which may be two or three dimensional. Whether this is critical or not will depend on the luminance of the screen.B. these areas often incorporate displays. and luminaires and windows having a high luminance in directions affecting the screen must be avoided (Fig 25).1. the lighting of the space in front of the screen must be such that the luminance of any surface is low enough not to interfere with the reading of the screen characters. These benefit from accent lighting and their changing nature requires a degree of flexibility in the display lighting.

Surface mounted luminaires can also provide some light onto the ceiling but recessed type luminaires generally do not. This includes reading. The 1996 edition of LG3 quantifies the changes to the luminance limiting value of a luminaire with respect to the type of software and the type of screen being used. the short periods for which computers are in use and the high brightness of Windows based programmes which are now in use almost everywhere. Allowance can be made for screen brightness when choosing luminaires (see CIBSE LG3 reference at end of section) but most teaching spaces will only require to be designed for the use of high brightness screens. may be considered desirable. This can be a problem when reading glossy books. This is not necessary considering the small number of computers in most spaces and the simplicity of moving the screens to avoid glare from luminaires. Reflections are a particular problem for the visually impaired. These techniques have been widely used in commercial premises where the spaces and rooms can be large.0m) the uplighting element will increase the background surface brightness. Dimmable high frequency fluorescent luminaires may be considered necessary in these circumstances. Fortunately the majority of software used in schools is of the Windows type which produces a positive polarity display on the screens. In schools where classrooms are generally small in comparison with open plan offices it is much more important to consider the geometry of spaces containing computers. Simple changes in layout of equipment might also be sufficient to reduce bright images. Another possibility is indirect lighting or uplighting. For example a Category 3 louvre. might be replaced with a non-Category louvre. as described in CIBSE publication LG3. Some control over the illuminance. In areas where DSE is used intensively. The combination of direct and indirect lighting offers a number of advantages over either direct or indirect only. as the luminaire mounting height may not cause any images in the screen. One element that should always be considered is the distribution of light to ensure that the vertical surfaces within the room are adequately lit. Louvre type fittings designed to reduce glare on vertical screens may still produce high luminance reflections on the horizontal plane which can make working on reflective materials very difficult. in rooms specially used for computing. electric lighting schemes which have been found suitable employ ceiling mounted luminaires which have a louvre type optical control system with low luminance above defined critical angles. ie. There is a tendency to specify louvre type fittings in all spaces because DSE is used to support teaching in any subject area. writing and practical activities. reducing the contrast between it and the direct lighting element. so that the excessive initial illuminances do not cause problems to the user. These are more expensive than normal luminaires but will provide 35 . Filters might prove useful in reducing the brightness and sharpness of the images and many screens are now being produced with a matt surface which will reduce the sharpness of any reflected images. a combination of both systems is preferable. Where suspended luminaires can be used (due to floor to ceiling heights greater than 3. In appearance terms. working on metal objects etc (Figures 24 and 25).5m) may not need any special treatment other than good classroom lighting.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications is greatest. this technique has the benefit of not normally creating high luminance within the offending zone. Relatively small rooms or those with high ceilings (more than 3. There is no substitute for good classroom lighting design. In most teaching spaces the number of computers in use is small and the main design consideration should be work on the horizontal plane. By reducing the contrast it is possible to consider a less onerous luminaire distribution. This may involve using two or three lighting installations in the same space in order that a satisfactory balance of light is achieved. computer rooms and library resource areas.

and with the background. Dr Challenor’s Boys Grammar School. A wide range of luminances in the general field of view when using DSE can cause visual adaptation problems. higher illuminance may be appropriate. especially where the users are in the classroom for a long time (eg. particularly the immediate background to the screen.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications better conditions. For the secondary school laboratory where intricate tasks are undertaken which need accurate readings and subtle observations. comfortable use. However. particularly where directional lighting is Figure 36: Science laboratory. 5. objects such as documents on the desk. double periods. the keyboard. the visual conditions become important for satisfactory. An unfortunate common example of the last item occurs when a display screen is seen against a window. [Photo: Bucks County Council] 36 . The consequences can be a reduction in task performance and visual distraction. Where fixed benching is used. to find one item of information). and the problems mentioned are tolerated. This can be provided by general lighting (Fig 36) or by local task lighting supplementing the general lighting. adjustable bench lights are suitable. Measures to restrict this luminance range must be taken by controlling the distribution of the light and the position and reflecting properties of the components. Detailed guidance is given in CIBSE Lighting Guide LG3 1996: The visual environment for display screen use.3 Science Work and Laboratories For primary schools this type of activity will usually take place in general teaching areas. for more extended work. room layout can usually avoid placing computers where windows are visible to computer users as high luminance glare sources. or longer). Windows are usually the biggest lighting problems encountered in areas containing DSE because of their relatively large size and high brightness. Amersham. However. and the recommendations for those areas will usually suffice but the designer should check that there are no unusual requirements. The contributing luminances are concerned with the display screen. discomfort or even disability. Windows can also be screened using one of the devices discussed earlier for the control of sun and sky glare. DSE is often used by an individual for a relatively short time (for example.

Specification for functional dimensions. This can be avoided by wiring alternate luminaires on different phases of the electrical supply (not usually recommended as it increases hazards during electrical maintenance). 5. but they must be controlled so that they do not cause distraction or glare to neighbouring work positions or become a physical encumbrance. Good rendering of colours is very important and lamps of CIE colour rendering group 1B should be used. lighting for vertical bookstacks. BS 5873: Part 1 1980. can be obtained from British Standard. Advice regarding the finishes of tables etc. especially where directionality of the light is important but provision must be made to avoid interference to the work positions and machines and those nearby. can occur with discharge lamps lighting machinery with rotating parts as it may be difficult to assess the speed of rotation due to the stroboscopic effect. these must be on an extra low voltage supply. 5. 37 . A particular hazard. Particular attention needs to be given to the avoidance of problems with veiling reflections. As with laboratory spaces.general ambient lighting. Many of the considerations for laboratories also apply to preparation rooms associated with the laboratories. Part 1 : 1980. In Design and Technology areas it is often desirable to have a display space for completed work. Visual conditions can be made more comfortable if the bench tops are made of a material which is light rather than dark in colour and has a reasonably matt surface to avoid awkward specular reflections. Educational Furniture. For lathes and other machine tools. They should be easily maintained and cleaned at least once a term because such spaces are often environmentally dirty. or by using high frequency control gear. Netherhall School. Good lighting is particularly important for the users of laboratory areas to avoid accidents and to ensure the safe handling of equipment. and this should be preferentially lit. Figure 37: Library with bookstacks and study area. lighting for study and lighting for browsing. mentioned earlier. with glare and with the use of VDUs (see previous sections). the lighting of areas for design and technology can most conveniently be achieved by supplementing the general lighting with local individual lighting which can be adjusted to suit the particular task. It is particularly important for people in these areas to have good lighting to avoid accidents and to enable tools and equipment to be used safely. For safety reasons. All luminaires should be robust and it may be necessary to protect the lamps with wire mesh guards. Ambient lighting from overhead luminaires can be used for general reading Reference: BS 5873 : Educational Furniture. some preferential lighting may be required for demonstration areas.4 Design and Technology Rooms and Workshops As with other situations where detailed work is done. identification and finish of chairs and tables for educational institutions. It is important that the lighting arrangements are designed so that there is no conflict between the appearance of the different parts of the installation or with the light distribution throughout the space (Fig 37). Demonstration benches may benefit from some preferential and directional lighting. local lights are often provided on the machines.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications appropriate. Cambridge.5 Libraries The lighting of library spaces must be co-ordinated to fulfil a number of functions .

It may also be necessary to provide accent lighting for special displays.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications tables and browsing. particularly for sculpture and work involving texture. directional lighting (Fig 39).6 Art Rooms The main requirement is good general lighting with artificial lighting at about the 500 lux level. particularly for the bottom shelves. The type of luminaire and its spacing will need to be selected to provide an even illuminance over the vertical spines of the books. More detailed information is given in CIBSE Lighting Guide: Libraries. allows bookstacks to be moved. it is suggested that luminaires with both upward and downward light should be utilised. The vertical spines of books on the stacks need to be lit by special means.7 Sports Halls and Gymnasia Although it is generally considered that daylight is beneficial in sports halls and gymnasia. If daylight apertures are provided. Individual luminaires attached to the bookstacks or overhead luminaires in continuous rows at right angles to bookstacks. To enhance the visual environment. and using luminaires with an asymmetric distribution. Reflected glare from shiny surfaces and particularly floors can also be a nuisance. There should be some control to keep glare to 38 . but. but windows associated with this entry must be fitted with adjustable sun-screening devices. 5. Good rendering of colours is very important and lamps of CIE colour rendering group 1B should be used. At times. If it is not possible to provide ceiling mounted lighting directly related to the Figure 38: Lighting of bookstacks. 5. due to its distribution characteristics. screening facilities for use when necessary should be available. this arrangement is generally not ideal for vertical bookstacks as the illuminance level will usually be low. Increased illuminance for the lower shelves can be obtained by the use of a light-coloured floor covering or by inclining them outwards. bookstacks due to the need for flexibility in bookstack position. Some additional flexible lighting for the display of work is desirable. There are frequent preferences for daylight from north-facing windows and for the availability of strong. the entry of sunlight can be an advantage. Supplementary lighting should be provided for study tables and carrels and for the issue control desk. it is suggested that a continuous line or lines of luminaires be used and positioned at right angles to the line of the bookstacks (Fig 38). windows and rooflights are frequently excluded because the sun and sky can cause both disability and discomfort glare to users who are moving quickly and often with an upward field of view.

The use of longlife lamps in these circumstances should be examined. Two case studies. See also BRE General Information Report 35: Daylighting for sports halls. Figure 39: Directional light in an art room. Lamps and luminaires should have wire guards or other impact-resistant protection. and therefore adequate consideration must be given to the lighting required for these events. Reference should be made to the CIBSE Lighting Guide LG4: Sports. Figure 40: Sports Hall at Oakmead School. Because of the high mounting of the luminaires. Sports halls and gymnasia in schools are often used for non-sporting events including examinations.8).Section 5: Lighting for particular applications a minimum and the light distribution should provide adequate light on vertical surfaces. [Photo: Ex-Or Limited] 39 . satisfactory maintenance of the lighting installation will be difficult unless special provision in the form of access facilities is made. fitted with occupancy controls to switch on lights only in parts of the hall which are in use. Bournemouth. some supplementary arrangement being installed if necessary (see section 5.

assembly. Lighting barrels will need to be placed above the stage and in front of it so that stage lights can be positioned to light the faces of people performing on all areas of the stage. lighting needs to come from about 45° above and 45° to either side of any position on stage. and for special effects lighting. floor-traps with stage lighting sockets should be located on either side for side-lighting dance. The installation should meet the most stringent requirements in terms of activity. Bernard Stilwell Architects. In halls likely to be used for concerts. Blackout will almost certainly be required as will a degree of flexibility in the lighting dependent on the range of uses envisaged and the budget. Where there is a fixed stage. For teaching of GCSE and A-level Drama and theatre studies courses a good standard of stage and drama studio lighting will be required (see typical plans on the following page). This may involve using wall mounted brackets and lighting sockets. [Photo: Peter Cook] Right: Drama Space at Cambridge Regional College: daylight with black out. performances and PE) and drama & dance studios Very often there will be a need for a large space within the school to cater for activities ranging from examination to drama (Fig 41). To achieve this.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications Figure 41: left: Hall at Winton School. If the budget is limited a general lighting installation of luminaires which provide both upward and downward light should be used. This may be of a stage lighting type which can be easily hired when required. wall mounted and stage sockets should all be wired back to a dimmer panel on one side of the stage. To complement this installation there should be a system of electric wiring which allows supplementary lighting equipment to be installed when needed. theatrical and dance productions it may be necessary to arrange for an adaptable stage lighting system to be installed so that each event can be appropriately lit. 40 . allowing the luminaires to be switched in groups to provide some flexibility. [Photo: Jeremy Cockayne] 5. The design will depend on the range of activities. Andover. High level.8 General Purpose Halls (Examination.

where general mood lighting across the whole studio is needed. Drama lessons are used to teach group skills. focusing on social and personal development. A blackboard need not be black. as well as performance and stage craft skills. to avoid reflections in the board to the nearest viewer 41 . To achieve this there needs to be a basic structure of lighting points across the space for locating lights in any part of the room. The lighting sockets should all be wired back to a dimmer panel and eighteen way control desk located in one corner of the room. where full theatre lighting is needed for performance use in any area of the room. Drama and dance studios are used primarily for the teaching of drama with some need for small dance class use. the problem can be appreciably alleviated by having the chalkboard surface as matt as possible. such as set and lighting design. Often the most convenient solution is to place a series of pre-wired lighting barrels at intervals across the width of the room. its surface reflectance should not be Left: Stage lighting of general purpose hall Right: Stage lighting of a drama studio Figure 42: Chalkboard lighting Chalkboard luminaire must be installed within the shaded triangle. Control sockets for a mobile control desk should be positioned near dimmer racks for setting-up the stage lighting and at the back of the hall for controlling the lighting during a production.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications FLOOR TRAP WITH SOCKETS ON STAGE (if fixed stage) DIMMER RACKS SOCKET FOR CONTROL DESK FOR SETTING UP LIGHTING POSSIBLE PROSCENIUM ARCH LOCATION WALL BRACKETS HIGH UP ON WALL [STAGE MAY BE WHOLE WIDTH OF HALL OR BE PLATFORM ONLY] REAR STAGE BARREL FOR BACK LIGHTING FRONT STAGE BARREL (Deep stages may need one or more intermediate barrels) FRONT OF HOUSE BARREL NEEDED TO LIGHT THOSE ON FORE STAGE PRE-WIRED LIGHTING BARRELS ACROSS WHOLE ROOM WINDOWS SHOULD HAVE FULL BLACKOUT FACILITIES SOUND AND LIGHT CONTROL DESK SOCKET FOR CONTROL BOARD DURING PERFORMANCE STORAGE FOR LIGHTING AND OTHER EQUIPMENT For larger halls there may be a need to provide a patch panel so that perhaps thirty individually wired sockets can be patched into eighteen or twenty-four dimmer ways.9 The Lighting of Chalkboards It is essential to light chalkboards so that the material on them can be seen easily and comfortably by all members of the class. but to retain a satisfactory contrast for the chalk writing. 5. (The term chalkboard here includes blackboards used with chalk and whiteboards used with marker pens.) One of the frequent problems which occurs is caused by bright veiling reflections in the chalkboard of luminaires or windows. during lessons full blackout facilities will be needed on all windows. While it may be difficult to reduce sufficiently the luminance of these sources. Whilst windows and daylight are of use.

the use of aural cues by the visually impaired and lip-reading by the hearing impaired. Therefore. For example. There is no single solution and what may assist one person may well not assist another. ideally black-out blinds which fit into slots surrounding the window reveals should be used. such as providing or facilitating the use of visual aids can be considered as necessary. £35 greater than 0. London NW6 6NS Tel: 0171 372 1551 19/3/97 revision (4) Building Sight. they will make the viewing of the presentation difficult.10 Lighting and Visual Aids Visual aids are commonly used for teaching. for the most part those with visual impairments are taught alongside their peers in ordinary classrooms. The move towards integration of pupils with special educational needs into mainstream schools means that there are some measures that should be considered in the initial design brief of all schools. slide and overhead projectors as well as television and video equipment. Sufficient light should be provided to enable notes to be taken during the presentation. 224 Great Portland Street. Jon Barrick. The reason for this is that if there are self-luminous elements within the field of view under these conditions. The design of specialist accommodation for the visually impaired is beyond the scope of this document and expert advice should be sought(2. DfEE. natural light must be excluded with suitable black-out facilities. For film and slide use. Whilst there is some special accommodation in mainstream schools. Types of visual impairment It is useful for the designer to have a general understanding of the problems with which the student may have to deal. RNIB. For the use of these teaching aids it is necessary to provide a lower level of lighting so that the presentation can be seen comfortably and clearly. Visual impairments can be put into two 42 . Also. The Stationery Office 1997 (2) RNIB/GBDA Joint Mobility Unit. The following notes are offered as a general guide and should help in the majority of cases. (See also Appendix 6 for details regarding lighting controls). A window in the same wall as a chalkboard should be avoided because there could be disability glare for the class producing severe difficulties in seeing the material on the chalkboard. Other measures. particularly film. light should not fall on to the projection screen and it should not be possible to see reflected images of luminaires or windows on the screen surface of television monitors.11 Lighting for pupils with visual and hearing impairments Lighting and acoustic criteria are very important both to the visually impaired and to the hearing impaired. 5. The luminaire should be positioned as much as possible above and in front of the chalkboard but such that veiling reflections to the front of the class are avoided (Fig 42). ISBN 0 11 271013 1. Although pupils with visual impairment are a minority they will be present in most sixth forms. London W1N 6AA Tel: 0171 388 1266 Fax 0171 388 3160 (3) The Partially Sighted Society. Curtains and normal window blinds are usually not adequate. all schools may have to cater for a continuum from pupils with quite minor visual impairments to those who are educationally blind. but this can be halved in the case of whiteboards. For a detailed description of possible measures see Building Sight published by the RNIB(4). Rod Wilson. Peter Barker. The recommended average illuminance over the surface is 500 lux.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications References: (1) Building Bulletin 87: Guidelines for Environmental Design in Schools. tactile surfaces and types of luminaires. If one sensory channel is impaired more reliance is placed on the other channel. The uniformity over the whole board surface should be as high as possible with little spill light around it. HMSO 1995. Many of the low cost or no cost measures can be applied to existing buildings such as the choice of decor (see Use of colour on page 43). ISBN 011 701 993 3. The chalkboard should be lit preferentially and a ceiling-mounted luminaire shielded from the direct view of the class is suitable (special luminaires are available commercially). 5. 62 Salusbury Road. It is important that this should be provided by luminaires which have no lit element within the normal field of view. (See Building Bulletin 87(1) for advice on acoustic criteria for the hearing impaired). and an illuminance over the seating areas within the range 15-30 lux is suitable.3).1.

and higher illuminance may.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications broad classifications resulting from a wide range of clinical conditions. either the right or left side. These may range from hand-held or stand mounted optical magnifiers to CCTV magnifiers. such as those with central cornea opacities. A ‘white’ board on a dark coloured wall can be a glare source whereas a traditional ‘blackboard’ would not. be of assistance depending upon the cause of the loss of acuity. the particular difficulties which people with visual impairment experience. Glare should be avoided (see section on acuity below). 2. not relieve. There may also be an associated loss of colour vision. which may change in size and position with time. The effects of low acuity can be aggravated by glare. immediately in front of the teacher or board. Many schools now have the facility to produce their own reading material and the use of a sans serif font of at least 14pt size can be a useful aid. by which is meant any source of light or its reflection which is much brighter than the level to which the individual is adapted. loss of central vision. Use of colour A carefully designed colour scheme can be of great help in recognising and identifying a location and often more can be done with coloured surfaces to aid the visually impaired than with elaborate lighting installations. even when causes are similar. Similarly. Positioning In the past. This may mean a position outside the normal arrangement. would mean that movement could be made in safety but the ability to perform detailed tasks such as reading or sewing would be extremely difficult if not impossible. many difficulties were caused by not realising the problems of the visually impaired. and their responses to light and other environmental features. Acuity The other main condition is a loss of acuity or a blurring of vision. It should not be necessary to say that students with visual impairment should be seated where they can best see the work in progress. and this should be avoided. the iris needs to be dilated so that the student sees ‘around’ the opacity. It is also important that any visual aids are readily available for use. producing a greater depth of field. however. a view of a daylit scene through a window can be a disabling glare source. can vary widely. In this case mobility would be impaired although reading and the ability to do fine work would be largely unaffected. Vision can be lost in ‘patches’. It may also be necessary to allow the student to change position within the teaching space to accommodate access to an electrical supply. There can also be the loss of one half of the visual field. The use of higher than normal task illuminances can be of help to those whose acuity can be improved by the contraction of the iris. In all types of field defect the quantity of task illumination is generally unimportant providing normal recommendations are followed. In some cases. the condition. It may be that only the central part of the field is seen (tunnel vision) which can result from advanced glaucoma or some forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The extent of the blurring varies widely from person to person and some may have to bring objects and print extremely close to their eyes to see best. which might result from juvenile macular degeneration. cope with excess daylight or use any other aid that is available. eg. Field defects Firstly. Both loss of field and loss of acuity can occur together and. or the upper or lower portion. often resulting from diabetes. there are conditions where what is seen is seen clearly but the visual field is restricted. Decor can help rapid orientation (see section on use of colour below). In such a case more light will aggravate. 1. While in some spaces orientation may be established by 43 . Large print will. The converse. Local lighting may also be used as an aid (see Local task lighting on page 45).

Box 219. 1997. 171-177 Great Portland Street.Design Guidance for Internal Built Environments. Traditionally this has been by means of blinds. P.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications References: (5) A design guide for the use of colour and contrast to improve the built environment for visually impaired people. ICI Paints. handrails. Reading. wall. Electronic ballasts also eliminate the 44 . depending on the type of visual impairment. are caused by low altitude sunlight at either end of the school day. ie. Special features such as stair nosings. Sunlight can be either a help or a hindrance. They are most important in schools for the blind. either horizontal or vertical. £15. the different wall is always to the same side of the main exit from the space. Coloured backplates to electrical socket outlets and light switches are available. Whiteknights. Some visual impairments involve a degree of colour blindness and it is important that contrast should be introduced in luminance and not just colour. Department of Construction Management and Engineering. both are successful but proper maintenance is necessary to ensure their continuing effectiveness. ICI. It is important that students should be allowed to position themselves to use daylight to their advantage rather than be constrained to a formal classroom positioning. pale green and pale cream may be clearly distinguished by the normally sighted but be seen as a single shade of grey even by some pupils where an impairment has not been identified. the vertical edges of doors. it is best adhered to throughout the building. For example. and they avoid the subliminal flicker that has been shown in scientific studies to increase headaches. SL2 5DS Tel: 01753 691690 (6) Colour. floor and doors (5. It should be remembered that in the UK the greatest problems.6). They should also be located at constant heights throughout the building and be within easy reach.O. Electric light The control of glare from overhead lighting is particularly important to students with a visual impairment. Any solar shading devices. The visually impaired primarily use sufficiently differentiated large surface areas to orientate themselves in a space particularly when it is unfamiliar. electrical switches and control buttons need to be highlighted by a bigger colour difference to differentiate them from the surrounding large surface areas. Contrast in the decor should be used to aid orientation within a space. Tel: 0118 931 6734 the furniture arrangement or by windows during daylight hours. Slough. Whatever method is used. door handles. obtainable from Dulux Technical Group. £14. High frequency electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps are to be preferred as they are more efficient. Adjustment of solar shading should preferably be at the discretion of the students and not the teaching staff who may not fully appreciate the visual difficulties of the students. eggshell finishes are to be preferred as some directional reflection is desirable rather than dead matt surfaces which may be difficult to place precisely. literature displays and coat and hat stands. RG6 6AW. Wexham Road. It may therefore be worth providing contrast between critical large surfaces such as ceiling. both visual and thermal. The window wall should be light in colour. For instance. be readily adjustable to cater for a range of conditions. Strong contrast is also needed for general obstacles particularly if they protrude at high level such as telephone booths. In general.95 from Wayne Collins Associates. W1N 6NY. including those for rooflights must. to reduce contrast with the outdoor scene. Daylight The fenestration will have been designed to facilitate the penetration of daylight which will be available for the majority of normal school hours. therefore. Rooflights allow the ingress of sunlight over long periods therefore their design and positioning requires careful consideration to prevent obstruction of the sunlight by neighbouring buildings and to eliminate glare (see page 21). Contrast and Perception . and some means of controlling the quantity should be provided. Finally. Tel: 0171 470 0202 Further information from: The University of Reading Research Group for Non-Handicapping Environments. and window reveals may be splayed to increase the apparent size of the glazing. Changes in the tactile qualities of surfaces can also be useful to reinforce visual contrasts. London. high gloss finishes should be used with care as they can appear as glare sources when they reflect bright lights such as sunlight. in others it can be aided by the colour scheme. using a darker colour for a handle which clearly contrasts with the surface of the door will indicate which way it swings.

• Provide facilities for the use of any visual aids. The first stage would be to provide a low level of background lighting. It is not normally economic to install more than the recommended illuminances on the off-chance that they will be useful some day to a hypothetical visually impaired student but additional illuminance can often be readily supplied when the need arises from local task lighting luminaires. If car parking is provided on the site this may also require a system of area lighting. A problem with local task lighting is the need for an electrical supply which. changes in floor level. It will be beneficial if the immediate surrounding areas also receive some light to define the general area. consideration should be given to using a regulated version which can be dimmed to allow the illuminance level to be adjusted to suit the individual as well as to save energy.13 Exterior Lighting The exterior lighting of a school can serve three main functions. changes in direction in corridors. eg. The illuminance chosen should reflect the location eg. telescopes. urban or rural environment. • Avoid glare from windows. • Provide additional illumination by adjustable local task lighting as needed. and the level of risk from vandalism. etc. It is important that the dimming circuit does not introduce additional flicker. and the heads should be adjustable in all planes so that they can be optimally positioned. The additional cost for this is usually modest. thus avoiding thermal discomfort when used close to the task and the student. if only wall or floor mounted supply socket outlets are available. door-handles. but also provide sufficient vertical illuminance so that people and cars can be seen. Luminaires should have a heavy base to aid stability or be clamped to the desk. If high frequency ballasts are used. If a modicum of floodlighting can be provided it will show the importance of the school within the community. the higher the illuminance and the larger the area that should be covered. may introduce the hazards of trailing leads. Battery powered reading lights are also a possibility. This is combined with second stage floodlighting of strategic areas such as 45 Summary • Provide contrast in the decor to aid orientation and the location of doors. just above the ambient level. rooflights and luminaires either distant or immediately overhead. stairs and steps. The higher the risk.12 Local task lighting Local task lighting is best provided from adjustable reading luminaires using compact fluorescent lamps. Note that it is possible for a local lighting unit to cause glare to adjacent students but this can usually be avoided by careful siting. can see sufficiently well to enable them to move safely from the street to the entrance of the school. to deter opportunist vandals and to enhance the night-time appearance of the school. This will require a system of roadway/pathway lighting which will not only light these surfaces. 5. These have the advantage of long life and low energy consumption leading to low operating temperatures. The school entrance will also need to be lit either internally or externally so that it can be clearly identified. magnifiers. The first is concerned with ensuring that pedestrians and those travelling by car or bicycle. Two stage security lighting can be very effective. .Section 5: Lighting for particular applications annoying visible flicker that conventionally ballasted lamps can demonstrate at the end of their life. If the student cannot be positioned close to a socket there is no simple solution to the problem. The second function is concerned with the appearance and security of the school buildings at night (Fig 31). 5. An overhead supply would enable leads to be dropped down to the desk position but it is hardly likely to be installed on a speculative basis. switches and socket outlets. Such luminaires can be positioned to provide the directional characteristics and illuminance best suited to the student.

Warwickshire.teachernet. In order to control glare from light it is often necessary to refer to an outer beam where the intensity of the light has fallen to 1/10th of the intensity of the main beam. CV21 2DZ. However an adequate picture may still be possible.uk/lighting) give further guidance on security lighting and CCTV systems. External lighting without automatic 46 . It is not possible to describe here in detail the techniques of designing exterior lighting. The most energy efficient light source.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications References: 7. 1994. which is light causing a nuisance to people and dwellings in neighbouring areas. Lennox House. Locker] needs to be justified. Aspects of exterior lighting which need special attention are: the avoidance of light trespass. low pressure sodium (SOX). available from ILE. These are called fullcut lanterns and usually require flat glasses. High intensity tungsten halogen floodlights can be used for this second stage lighting. luminaires must be chosen with a light distribution where all the light from this outer beam falls below an angle of 70° from the downward vertical. perhaps the school can obtain revenue by hiring out these facilities.gov. Rugby. 9 Lawford Road. Whilst there is no legislation concerning light pollution it has become a major planning issue with local authorities and some have adopted standards which define acceptable levels of light pollution8. 8. entrances and footpaths which is brought on by intruder detectors. The third function of exterior lighting is the lighting of sports facilities such as playing fields. Guidance notes for the reduction of light pollution. [Photo: P. Generally the intensity of a floodlight beam diminishes away from the centre. and light pollution which affects the local environment and atmosphere. It should be remembered that security lighting is only of benefit where the building is under surveillance from neighbours or passers-by or by a CCTV system. Obviously the provision of this kind of lighting Figure 43: Lighting of footpath with a luminaire which projects light in a downward direction. tennis courts etc. is not suited to colour CCTV installations as it is mono-chromatic with little or no colour rendering properties and the narrow spectrum of the light does not match the spectral response of the cameras available. Planning Departments often turn down proposals which would introduce major new light sources into areas without bright lights and would create substantial sky glow. The Department’s Building Bulletin 78 Security Lighting and the draft Security by Design bulletin (available from www. enabling some of the capital cost to be recovered. To prevent light pollution. To achieve the correct uniformity in car parks or playing fields higher columns or closer spacing may be required. The aim is to indicate possibilities which should be considered and if it is decided to include these forms of lighting then further information can be obtained from the CIBSE publications referring to outdoor lighting7 and sports lighting. CIBSE Lighting Guide LG6 Outdoor Environment. and if by installing sports floodlighting the facilities can be used more extensively. The choice of light source is most critical when designing for CCTV. The Institution of Lighting Engineers. (see Fig 43). Light trespass can be controlled by suitable selection of the light distribution of the luminaires to avoid ‘spill light’ and careful aiming of floodlights with the use of shields if necessary. particularly with a black and white camera.

It should always be provided in sleeping accommodation. This reduces the level of light necessary to see the escape route. results in visual ‘clutter’. The designer should be aware that any luminaire with a CE mark that is specifically modified must have the original mark removed and the luminaire retested and a new CE mark applied. Some form of automatic control should be provided. there will be considerable visual benefits from taking this system into account when the normal electric lighting is being planned. Some luminaires are available which can incorporate the emergency lighting as well as the normal lighting: alternatively luminaires can be specially modified to do this. fluorescent marker lines may be an effective means of way marking. because it may be possible to integrate the two installations. These include details regarding levels of illuminance. its daytime appearance should not be overlooked and it should complement the appearance of the building and its landscape. On designated escape routes and fire escape stairs the installation can be of the non-maintained type which will only operate when the normal electric lighting fails. • For escape route lighting and openarea (anti-panic) lighting the emergency lighting shall reach 50% of the required illuminance within five seconds and 100% within 60 seconds. Although the purpose of exterior lighting equipment is to provide illumination at night. If necessary check escape routes during the hours of darkness to assess whether emergency lighting is required. which without a proper integrated approach. pupils and the general public during the evenings. self contained tungsten or fluorescent luminaires. machinery. Examples of places where emergency lighting might be considered are escape corridors. The servicing of a building continues to require more and more equipment. gymnasia and other areas used by the public during the hours of darkness the emergency lighting should be of the maintained type which keeps the emergency lighting on at all material times. • The minimum value for the colour rendering index (Ra) of the light source shall be 40. In some cases. 5. The following points (in EN 1838) should be noted. Control can be by photocells and timeswitches or passive infra-red or other intruder detectors. 47 . Emergency lighting equipment is one possible cause of this if not properly considered early in the design process. escape stairways and corridors without any windows. escape signs and any permanent hazards along the escape routes such as changes of direction or stairs. These include halls and drama spaces used for performances. EN 50172 and the European Signs Directive which is already current. In schools.Section 5: Lighting for particular applications control is not energy efficient. emergency lighting is only usually provided in areas not lit by daylight and those accessible to parents. It is recommended that for halls. Further detailed guidance is given in the CIBSE Technical Memorandum TM12: Emergency Lighting 1986 and in the British Standard Code of Practice for Emergency Lighting. These criteria will generally be met by standard. The primary requirement of an emergency lighting system is that of safety. etc. BS 5266: Part 1: 1988. the fire fighting equipment.14 Emergency Lighting The purpose of emergency lighting is to provide sufficient illumination in the event of a failure of the electricity supply to the normal electric lighting to enable the building to be evacuated quickly and safely and to control securely processes. teachers. The latter is to be replaced by EN 1838. Where part of the premises is licensed it will be necessary to seek the advice and guidance of the Local Fire Authority. However. and will operate for not less than 1 hour’s duration. illuminance uniformity and specific details on escape signs. The installation should reveal safe passageways out of the building together with the fire alarm call points.

Consider the following: Light pattern .4. consider the following: Task illuminance (lux or daylight factor) . 4.2 Discomfort glare (sun. it is important that the designer considers the implications of each element both individually and holistically.2.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity .2.2.4.6 6.4.2.2. 4.4.5 6.3.2.3.5 Disability glare . sky & electric lighting) . 3.2.1.3.4.4 Exterior/Interior view . For this.2.1. Consider the following: Windows/rooflights . 4.1 & 3.3. 3.1 & 4.3 48 .1 Lamp flicker .1.1 Natural light design/pattern .2.2.3 Discomfort glare . 4. Since this requires the consideration of a number of interlocking elements of building design.1.2 Electric lighting installation .5 Reflected glare (sun.3 Lamp flicker .3.1 & 4.1 & Appendix. 4.1.3.5.1 Luminaire/s .4 & 4.Appendix. 4.2 Task illuminance distribution/uniformity .Section 6: Check-list for lighting design The purpose of this publication is to help the architect and the lighting designer to create a successfully lit school environment.3. 4.3.4.3.3.4.3.1 Task/Activity Lighting . 6.5 & Appendix.2 Lamp colour appearance .3.2 Determine the appearance of the lighting.4.5 & Appendix. together with its performance.1.2. utilises energy effectively.3. both natural and electric.2. 4.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency .2.2.4.2 & 4.2.4 Subjective lightness .2.1.3 Lighting controls .1 & 4.1 Examine how the space will be used and in particular the tasks and activities that will be undertaken.2 & 5.2 Integration of natural and electric lighting .1.5 & Appendix.1. an environment that is successful in terms of operation and appearance.1 & Appendix.3 Lighting and Architectural Integration .11 6.4 Check that the lighting installation. sky & electric lighting) .3.2. Because of this complexity it is stressed that the designer should pay attention to all aspects of the information provided in the body of this publication and that the following checklist is used towards the end of the design process to ensure that nothing has been overlooked. colour and contrast for visually and hearing impaired pupils .3 Ensure that the lighting equipment. sky & electric lighting) . Consider the following: Natural lighting design (windows/rooflights) .3 Disability glare (sun.1 & 4.1.4.1 Lamp type/s (efficacy lm/w) .1.2 Glare. The numbers associated with each element of the check-list refer to the sections of the publication where further information can be obtained.1 Lamp colour rendering (CIE colour rendering index) . forms an integrated part of the whole design.

6 Integrating electric light with daylight .2 Lamp life and lamp replacement .6 Lighting Costs .5 6.Section 6: Check-list for lighting design Luminaire type/s . Consider the following: Degree of environmental cleanliness/dirtiness Cleaning and redecoration programme .3.5 Lighting Maintenance .3 & 4.3 6.2.3 Disposal of used lamps .2.13 & 5. Consider the following: Capital cost of the lighting installation Running costs of lighting equipment 6. it is an important element of design.Appendix. but none-theless.14 49 .2.2.5 Electric lighting controls . both natural and electric.5 & Appendix.3.5 & Appendix. will reduce visual quality as well as waste money and energy. 4.Appendix.7 Luminaire type/s .4.4.6 Lighting constitutes a relatively small part of the capital cost of a school.2.7 Exterior and Emergency Lighting These two special topics may not apply to all schools but a positive decision needs to be made regarding their use -5.5 Poor maintenance of the lighting installation.Appendix.1 & 4.

They make it the responsibility of the designer to inform the client that he is required to appoint a Planning Supervisor to oversee the Health and Safety aspects of both the design and the construction. 1996. Building Bulletin 87(2) is the recommended environmental standard quoted in the DfEE Constructional Standards for School Buildings in England. rather than the 50 lumens/watt as set out in the Building Regulations. 6-12 Tothill Street. gymnasia. ISBN O 11 7529338. For lighting installations. Arrangements can be made for central control. Conservation of Fuel & Power(4) are summarised for information. circuit luminous efficacy of 65 lumens/ watt as an average. The Regulations which apply to both new and existing school buildings are the Education (School Premises) Regulations. Guidance is given on how to achieve both these criteria. Statutory Instrument 1996 No. this means that it is the responsibility of the designer to ensure that the luminaires can be operated and maintained in safety. 1997. available from The Stationery Office. Tel: 0171 273 6237 Fax: 0171 273 6762 4. Means for relamping areas such as staircases. The following points from the Building Regulations Part L (July 1995). SW1H 9NF. The designer must consider the Health and Safety implications of his design and input into the Health and Safety Plan and the Health and Safety File.Appendix 1: School Premises Regulations and DfEE Constructional Standards for new school buildings. It should be noted that both the CIBSE and DfEE have opted for a higher Construction Design and Management Regulations 1994 (CDM Regulations) The CDM regulations apply to most new school building projects except for minor refurbishment work. £11. but the Constructional Standards quote the Approved Documents to the Building Regulations in many cases. but with the higher efficacy of 65 lumens/ watt. in the case of fire the Constructional Standards quote Aproved Document B Fire Safety plus the DfEE vaiations given in the Constructional Standards. However the method of calculating the value remains the same. with alternative methods for calculation. References: 1. Building Bulletin 87: Guidelines for Environmental Design in Schools (Revision of Design Note 17). The Stationery Office. halls. should be allowed for and where necessary agreed. Caxton House. compact fluorescent lamps or high pressure discharge lamps. To satisfy the energy efficiency criteria requires that either 95% of the electric lighting load uses sources such as fluorescent tubes. It is recommended that the Building Regulations requirements for lighting control are followed as being a sensible approach to Energy Conservation. and • the lighting installations must be controlled. To satisfy the criteria of control requires switches to be placed locally.(1) For new school buildings. HMSO 1995. Approved Document L (Conservation of fuel and power) in support of the Building Regulations. DfEE. Part L requires lighting installations to satisfy two basic criteria: • the light sources and their circuits should be of the energy efficient type. 2. the average circuit efficiency should be greater than 50 lumens/watt. provided the central control point is manned or under the control of a responsible person. or alternatively. Schools that are subject to the DfEE Constructional Standards(3) are exempt from the procedures of the Building Regulations. external lighting etc. London. ISBN 0 11 271013 1. For example. DfEE Constructional Standards available from Architects and Building Branch. such as display areas or areas where a less efficient source would be more appropriate. Department of the Environment and Welsh Office. Exceptions are permitted. 50 .360. Education (School Premises) Regulations 1996. 3.

Slater A. 1990. These studies found it extremely difficult to determine the exact cause of a particular problem. but the amounts involved are very small. Until 1976 this material was used in capacitors as part of some fluorescent lamp control circuits. but if people prefer it. These topics have been considered elsewhere in this publication and here the importance of avoiding problems by good lighting design is stressed. It is felt that if the guidance presented in this publication is adhered to. Wilkins A.J. then it is likely that a well-lit environment will be produced with risks to health avoided. After a period of use. It has been known for some time that these conditions can be the cause of visual discomfort which can impair vision.. It is not appropriate to describe here in detail the results of the various studies but to explain the general understanding at present. It is suggested therefore that daylighting and natural ventilation should be a positive feature in school design. CIBSE. Some recent research(1.assuming they are in a serviceable state. Lighting Research and Technology 22 (2) 103-109. In the past. or more generally with discharge lamps at the end of their life. Lighting Research and Technology 21 (1) 11-18. Nimmo-Smith I. & Bedocs L. The remaining subject to be considered here is that of the use of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). headaches and eyestrain. There have been in recent times a number of studies related to ‘sick building syndrome’. and in particular ultraviolet radiation: these produce considerably less than that produced by the sun. Since that time manufacturers have moved to other materials. Other studies have shown that people prefer lighting which creates a ‘light’ interior with a non-uniform light pattern. References: 1. C. but it is interesting to note that problems rarely occurred in buildings with windows which provided people with both views out and natural ventilation. 1989. These temporary afflictions can be avoided by the use of high frequency ballasts. 2. some PCBs may leak from the capacitor.I.. However contact with the body should be avoided and for handling leaky equipment it is essential to use suitable gloves. Not surprisingly the lighting profession takes these reports very seriously and endeavours to investigate the claims to ensure that the lighting it recommends is perfectly safe. 51 . It is considered by those who have studied this topic that the risk from radiation is extremely small indeed and is thought unlikely to be a hazard. Fluorescent lighting. Appropriate measures for disposal should also be taken. these have ranged from a cause of headaches and eye strain to a possible cause of skin cancer. but in existing installations they may continue in use . the feeling of ‘well being’ which is created can only be beneficial. reduce visual performance and in some people cause headaches and eye strain. Epilepsy is sometimes triggered by low frequency flashes of light by which can occur with strobe lights.Appendix 2: Lighting and Health From time to time reports emerge which suggest that lighting may be a possible cause for concern within the working environment. Flicker at less than 4 flashes per second is unlikely to be a problem. with some compact fluorescent lamps at ignition. In 1986 Government Regulations prohibited the sale of PCBs in small capacitors for lighting equipment.2) has shown that approximately 14% of the population are susceptible to eyestrain and headaches caused by 50Hz fluorescent lighting and that this reduces to about 7% with high frequency fluorescent lighting.. Wilkins A. There seems to be little doubt that windows are a considerable benefit to an environment. Modulation of light from fluorescent lamps. 50Hz fluorescent lighting has not been shown to be a trigger for epilepsy.. Another potential problem is that of glare and flicker.. CIBSE. One common area of concern is that of unseen radiation from fluorescent lamps.J. In this Appendix an attempt has been made to indicate the present understanding of lighting and health as it affects the school designer. & Clark. There is currently no evidence that this form of lighting improves health.

High frequency gear available for higher wattage lamps (greater than 2x13w). Requires control gear. Reflector and PAR lamps are relatively expensive). Disadvantages: Short Life. Excellent colour rendering. Disadvantages: Low efficacy. Appendix 3a: Lamp Types General lighting service (GLS). Generally better colour rendering than T12. High efficacy. The data on pages 54 and 55 includes information on lamp efficacy. Cheap. standard lengths. Reflector (R) and (PAR). lamp life and colour performance together with the run-up and re-strike characteristics. sizes. highest efficacy. All run off High Frequency Control gear. and dimming capabilities. most circuits run at low power factor. T12 .26mm lamps Triphosphor. Disadvantages: Diffuse source. Long life. The information is presented mainly to help the designer make a first selection and it is assumed that manufacturers’ data will be used for design purposes. Control gear required.Appendix 3: Lamps This appendix has been included to provide designers with an overview of the performance of a range of lamp types which could be used in schools. Long life.T8 . can cause glare. tungsten filament lamps Advantages: Point sources: Excellent colour rendering. Warm colour appearance. Dimmable (Hard fired dimmer required). Sensitive to voltage variations and vibrations (any structural borne vibrations which shake the filament will reduce life. tube wall very bright. Cheap (GLS only. range of wattages. 222 Balham High Road. T12 & T8 will also run off Standard and low loss wire wound ballasts. Dimmable circuits are available for most types of fluorescent lamps. Relatively Cheap. Sensitive to voltage variations and vibrations (any structural borne vibrations which shake the filament will reduce life. Low Pressure Mercury Discharge Tubular Fluorescent Lamps (MCF) Advantages: Linear lamp. U shape not widely used – old technology). Lamp illustrations reproduced from CIBSE Code for interior lighting (1994) with the permission of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. T5 only works on HF gear which is expensive. Low Power Compact Fluorescent Lamps (SL. SW12 9BS 52 . London. T5 . Relatively expensive (compared to GLS).) Low and Mains Voltage Tungsten Halogen Lamps Linear and Capsule TH (K). consider Rough Service lamps. High Efficacy. Instant start.Triphosphor smaller lamp diameter 16mm tube. Various colour appearances. Disadvantages: Diffuse source. Dimmable. Reflector TH (M) Advantages: Point source. 2D. and beam angles. Low efficacy. Some lamps dimmable. Warm colour appearance. new generation have low mercury content and low output depreciation. 2L) Advantages: Smaller size than linear fluorescent. PL. No Control gear required. consider Rough Service Lamps). some sizes can be used as direct tungsten lamp replacements (complete with control gear). less efficient than .Halophosphate old technology 38mm tube. with some exceptions (circular. Iow voltage 12 volt lamps require a transformer. Instant start.

High Pressure Mercury Vapour (MBF) Advantages: Long life. low pressure lamp. Disadvantages: Effect of light source can be oppressive when used in an interior. requires run-up time. 222 Balham High Road. long Life. diffuse source. Requires control gear.more expensive. Induction Lamp Advantages: Very long life (except reflector lamp which is long life). small lumen packages. requires control gear. high UV output-source needs glass cover. poor to average colour rendering except "white" SON which is good. no colour rendering. requires run-up time. Disadvantages: Some lamps change colour through life. colour appearance is warm (golden white). longer life. Run-up time required to reach full output. De luxe versions average to good colour rendering. virtually maintenance free. Ceramic arc versions . MBIF) Advantages: High efficacy. failure unpredictable. High Pressure Sodium (SONDL) Advantages: High efficacy. warm/intermediate/cold colour appearance versions available. Disadvantages: Limited range. requiring careful use. average to long life depending on wattage. relatively cheap. no flicker. London. Blue-green white light.Appendix 3: Lamps Appendix 3b: Lamp Types Low Pressure Sodium Lamp (SOX) Advantages: Very High efficacy. requires control gear. except "white" SON. Long life except "white" SON. SW12 9BS 53 . various wattages. good colour rendering. Ceramic arc versions . Requires control gear. Disadvantages: Generally poor to average colour rendering. No British Standard. High Pressure Metal Halide Lamps (MBI. Lamp illustrations reproduced from CIBSE Code for interior lighting (1994) with the permission of the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. high electromagnetic radiation generated. various wattages. relatively cheap. good colour rendering.good colour stability. poor efficacy. Disadvantages: Mono-chromatic (yellow) light. requires run-up time.

000 5.000–16.000–15.000 50–1000 150–400 35–100 Yes Yes Yes 1.000–10.1B/3000–6000K 1B/3000–4000K 2/3000–5000K 1B/3000–6000K None 60–80 60–95 95–110 30–50 43–83 100–190 7500 7500–15.000-29.000 55–85 23 Yes Built in Prompt Prompt Prompt Prompt 54 .000 50–1000 50–400 Yes Yes 2–5 mins 2–5 mins 4–7 mins 4–7 mins 1B.2/3000–4200 1B.000–16.000 10.2/3000–4200 1A.Appendix 3: Lamps Appendix 3c: Lamp data Lamp type Tungsten Mains (230V) GLS and reflector PAR Tungsten halogen Linear tungsten halogen Low voltage (12V) tungsten halogen Fluorescent T12 (Halophosphate) T8 (Triphosphor) T5 Circular Compact Low pressure Sodium (SOX) High pressure Sodium (SON) Standard De luxe White Mercury Vapour (MBF) Standard De Luxe Metal halide (MBI) Single ended Double ended Tubular/elliptical Ceramic arc tube Induction Standard Reflector Colour Rendering group/Colour Temperature.000–10.5-6 mins 5–6 mins 5–6 mins >1 min >1 min >30 secs 3/4000 2/3400 40–60 40–60 24.000 12.000-29.000–20.000 10.000 12.000 24.000 7500 7. K (see Note 3) 1A/2700K 1A/2700K 1A/2900K 1A/2900K 1A/3000K Efficacy Typical lamp life Typical range Control gear Lamp start-up Lamp re-strike (approximate) (hours) of lamp power time time required Lumens/Lamp Watt rating (Approx) (see Note 4) (see Note 2) (wattage) 8–12 10–12 10–18 14–22 12–25 1000 2000 2000 2000 3000–5000 15–1000 80–500 50–100 60–2000 5–100 No No No No Transformer Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant Instant 2/3000–5000K 1A.2/4000–6000 1B/3000 60–68 68–75 70–80 70–75 6000 6000 6000–15000 6000–8000 70–150 70–250 70–1000 35–150 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3–6 3–6 3–6 3–6 mins mins mins mins 6–10 6–10 6–20 6–10 mins mins mins mins 1B/3000–4000 1B/3000 70 47 60.000 20–125 18–70 14–50 22–60 5–55 18–180 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 8-12 mins 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 1–3 secs 1–2 secs 1–3 secs Prompt <55w 10 mins >90w 4/2000 2/2200 1B/2500 65–140 75–90 35–50 16.

colour printing inspection Wherever accurate colour judgements are necessary and/or good colour rendering is required for reasons of appearance. 'Prompt' re-strike is not instantaneous but barely noticeable. There are various types of control gear which effect the overall performance of a lamp. It is lighter and has the lowest electrical losses of all the conventional types of gear. Note 4: The re-strike time after an interruption to the electrical supply.Appendix 3: Lamps Notes to Appendix 3: Lamps Note 1: The tabular data provide an indication of lamp performance: for exact data. eg. Unless specified otherwise most luminaires will be supplied with this gear. but they are too expensive for general use and do not affect the lamp start-up time. eg. CCT Class Warm Intermediate* Cold 1B 80 Ra < 90 2 3 60 40 Ra< 80 Ra< 60 4 20 Ra< 40 Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT) CCT 3300 K 5300K 3300 K < CCT 5300 K < CCT * This class covers a large range of correlated colour temperatures. Wherever colour rendering is of no importance at all and marked distortion of colour is acceptable. The physical size allows it to be installed in most luminaires. shops and other commercial premises. For . It can be supplied in dimming form (more expensive still). Low loss gear is slightly more expensive but generally the losses are half those of standard gear. Experience in the UK suggests that light sources with correlated colour temperatures approaching the 5300 K end of the range will usually be considered to have a 'cool' colour appearance. energy efficiency this is the minimum standard which should be adopted. Instant re-strike is available for all double ended high intensity discharge lamps using special high voltage ignitors. Wherever moderate colour rendering is required. Note 3: See tables on the right for colour rendering groups and correlated colour temperature classes as defined by CIE. High frequency gear is electronic gear. Super low loss gear is more expensive than low loss gear with roughly half the losses but the physical size is larger making it difficult to use in most luminaires. Note 2: The power consumption of the control gear associated with discharge lamps should be included in estimating the efficacy of the installation: values vary and should be obtained from the manufacturer. There is no simple payback advantage for this type of gear. It is much more expensive than conventional (wire wound) gear. Colour rendering CIE general colour groups rendering index (Ra) 1A Ra 90 Typical application Wherever accurate colour matching is required. The life of the gear (not yet proven) is thought to be 55 Control gear for Fluorescent lamps Standard control gear consists of a basic unit with relatively high losses and harmonic components. at present. Wherever colour rendering is of little significance but marked distortion of colour is unacceptable. Appendix 4: Control gear All discharge lamps require control gear to limit the current taken by the lamp it controls. information from manufacturers should be consulted.

Other advantages apart from low power losses are: it is flicker free. These are special lamps designed to be used as replacement sources for mercury lamps. It is advisable to specify the use of timed ignitors which will shut the circuit down before any damage can be done.Appendix 4: Control gear less than conventional gear and it is more susceptible to high temperatures (50-60°C). The likely distribution of light within a space is also included. There are a number of canister type electronic starters available which provide a ‘soft’ start. it reduces risks of epileptic fits. Sodium lamps. utilisation factors and glare indices. These are slightly more expensive than a standard glow switch starter but when these electronic starters are combined with low loss gear many of the features of the high frequency circuit are provided but at a much lower capital cost. This could be useful for areas where lighting is required during unoccupied times. The first data sheet is concerned with luminaires used in a regular array. Mercury Vapour lamps. unless special high voltage cable is used when the ignitor can be remotely mounted. Control gear for high pressure discharge lamps. Digital is more expensive but provides smoother dimming whilst analogue circuits provide step dimming. The choice will depend on the degree of control required. Most metal halide lamps require an ignitor which produces a 5kV pulse to start the lamp. The information is intended to help the designer make a first selection and that manufacturers’ data will be used for design purposes. Most lamps require their own dedicated control gear for efficient operation. These conditions can be annoying and dangerous. some general information is provided and a variety of data is available from manufacturers. light output and distribution. The second sheet is concerned with luminaires used individually: in addition to lamp types. However. there are some high pressure sodium lamps which will operate on mercury vapour lamp control gear. Power switches are available for some circuits which allows the lamp to run at reduced output and reduced power. There are two types of high frequency circuits. Appendix 5: Luminaires This appendix provides designers with an overview of the performance of a range of luminaire types so that simple comparisons can be made. and it has a ‘soft’ start (increases lamp life). Electronic starters. Metal Halide lamps. A similar power switch is available for some high pressure sodium lamp circuits. 56 . Information is included on suitable lamp types. luminaire mounting and spacing. At the end of their life metal halide lamps can cycle and eventually may rectify. or for security lighting when the lamps could be run all night at reduced consumption. It is essential to keep the ignitor close to the lamp. analogue and digital.

Appendix 5: Luminaires generally used in regular arrays: Typical characteristics 57 .

Appendix 5: Luminaires generally used in regular arrays: Typical characteristics Figure Caption 58 .

Occasionally used in regular arrays. GLS TH(K) MCF SL PL 2D 2L MBI MBIF SONDL WALL-WASHING LUMINAIRES Used to emphasise vertical surfaces. ceiling or track-mounted in either mains or lowvoltage versions. GLS PAR TH(K) TH(M) SL PL 2D 2L MBI UPLIGHT LUMINAIRES Available in free-standing and wall-mounted versions and a variety of light distributions. Some luminaires which are generally used in regular arrays (pages 57– 58) can also be used individually for localised lighting. narrow (10-25°). Often used in regular arrays. medium (25-40°).APPENDIX 5 (CONTINUED): LUMINAIRES USED INDIVIDUALLY TASK/LOCAL LUMINAIRES Often fitted with an integral dimmer and transformer. GLS R TH(K) TH(M) MCF SL PL 2D 2L ACCENT & DISPLAY LUMINAIRES (SPOTLIGHTS & FLOODLIGHTS) Generally wall. Total beam widths are as follows: pencil(<10°). GLS TH(K) MCF PL 2L MBI DOWNLIGHT LUMINAIRES Available in recessed or surface-mounted versions. wide (>40°). GLS PAR R TH(K) TH(M) SL PL 2D 2L MBF MBI MBIF SONDL 59 .

and in assembly halls and sports halls where energy savings of 25-30% and payback periods of 3 years or less are possible (Fig 40). or lighting regulators. Using high frequency gear or electronic soft starts for fluorescent circuits can help to prolong lamp life. These will switch off luminaires as the daylight reaches a required level. the mid-morning or lunch-time break. natural light would be sufficient to light the space and is a waste of energy and money. Often the lighting is switched on first thing in the morning. Photocell controls The next level of automatic lighting control is to use light responding switches or photocell controlled switches. There should also be switches which the user can operate to switch on the luminaires at any time that they are required. The designer should assess the performance and cost effectiveness of these automatic control systems. In many schools. It should be noted that frequent switching of light sources can have a detrimental effect on the lamp life. etc. can be used to adjust light levels between . some of which are complex. The automatic switch-off time will depend on the particular daylight design. If after the break there is sufficient daylight. then the electric lighting will remain off until the daylight level falls below an acceptable minimum. whilst keeping the lights on at the back of the room. the electric lighting is usually on longer than is necessary. Time-switch controls One system which is relatively inexpensive and which is likely to produce considerable energy savings. perhaps by the cleaners or the first person to arrive. This is a device that responds to the occupancy of a room. eg. Occupancy Controls Another type of lighting control is the occupancy sensor controlled switch. There are a wide range of automatic lighting control systems available. but the switches need to operate the luminaires relative to the distribution of daylight. It must however be possible to over-ride the time-switch at any time that the users feel it necessary to switch on all. are an important part of a lighting design and need careful attention if the installation is to be convenient to operate and energy efficient. The lighting can then be switched on again by the user as required. If the light switches are placed near the entry/exit point from general circulation. These types of controllers are appropriate in intermittently occupied rooms. it should be possible to switch off the luminaires which are near the window. even though for a considerable part of the day. is a time-operated switch which will switch off all or some of the luminaires at a time in the day when it is likely that there will be sufficient daylight present. the switches. In the first instance the switching of the lighting installation should be planned both to accommodate the convenience of the users and to allow the electric lighting to be switched to complement the daylight distribution. The arrangement of the switches on the switch plate also needs to be considered if the users are to operate the lighting with the minimum of inconvenience. and because it is then overlooked it is left on all day until the last person leaves in the evening. to allow them to be switched off by a momentary break in the electricity supply which is activated by the timeswitch. For this type of control it is necessary to have special devices in individual luminaires. this is convenient. They have been used to good effect in toilets and changing rooms. ie. but it would be convenient if it could occur at a natural 60 Dimmers Dimmers.Appendix 6: Lighting Controls The lighting controls of an installation. ie. break in the day. or some of the lights. It can be used to switch lights on as people enter the space or switch them off when a room is not being used. or groups of luminaires. dimmers. This occurs. and therefore too expensive for the typical school situation.

through to more sophisticated units which can be set to provide a maintained illuminance. overhead. The systems are relatively simple to use.APPENDIX 6: Lighting Controls full light output and off or in the case of some fluorescent lamp circuits to approximately 10 or 20% of full light output. eg. Here the lighting can be dimmed to reduce the lighting level so that the overhead. For schools it would be inappropriate to use high pressure discharge lamps in places where dimming is required. daylight linked to allow for daylight by dimming. These can simply be attached to any luminaire with an analogue dimmable ballast. film and slide projectors. Individual ‘clip-on’ light sensors can be used to help maintain a set illuminance. If a dimming circuit is to be included. Stage lighting is of a specialist nature and the choice will depend on the sophistication required and it is suggested that the manufacturers are consulted. presence or absence detectors. In-Luminaire Controls Luminaires are available which contain elements of automatic control which can be beneficial to the end user. it is important to use lamps which can be dimmed satisfactorily. film or slides can be seen comfortably but with sufficient light to enable notes to be taken. It is unlikely that the more sophisticated type of control will produce a short payback period.8). These controls vary from a simple on/ off device. but developments in electronics are such that these devices should be kept under close scrutiny. 61 . This method of control is probably only going to be worthwhile where daylight linking and the maintenance of a set illuminance are going to be adopted as a means of reducing the operating costs of the building. Drama studios and halls which are to be used for theatrical presentations also require stage lighting control equipment (see section 5. These include incandescent. Other situations which probably require dimming circuits are drama studios and general purpose halls if these are to be used for drama or other events. are cheaper to install (as no switch is required at the door) but the luminaires are more expensive. These controllers are useful in rooms where visual aids are to be used. tungsten halogen and some fluorescent lamps including cold cathode types. up to individual control by means of a hand held override unit.

Appendix 7: Disposal of used lamps Fluorescent tubes. Sweden. Lamps from schools are not classified as Special Waste under the 1990 Environmental Protection Act. Mercury presents a long term threat in the environment.£0. It fulfils essential physical functions within the gas discharge and there is no substitute. 62 This shows that compact fluorescent lamps have the most mercury in the waste lamp per KWh of electricity produced. The charge for recycling is currently between £0. The CIBSE Interior lighting guide appendix 5. Questions on disposal are usually directed to the Local Office of the Environment Agency which has responsibility for implementing the 1990 Environmental Protection Act and the 1996 Special Waste Regulations. However the main concern is mercury.11 Environmental aspects of lighting gives an analysis of the total amount of mercury released to the environment both by the production of the electricity used by the lamp and by the disposal of the waste lamp at the end of its life. metal halide lamps and high pressure sodium lamps all contain mercury.3% of the mercury entering the environment comes from lamps. There are safety implications of storing used lamps on site and a school doing this has a duty of care to do it safely. The EC permissible limit for mercury is only one part per billion in drinking water. therefore it may be desirable to store used lamps until there are a sufficient number to benefit from a reduced rate. This needs to be considered during disposal.25 . ordinary filament lamps lead to a greater release of mercury to the environment.35 High Pressure mercury 20 Metal Halide 30 . Alternatively schools can consult their waste disposal company about the method of disposal used and what facilities are available for recycling lamps. However. high pressure mercury lamps. Waste from schools is classified as household waste and under .45 High Low Pressure pressure Sodium sodium 10 . some is present in the phosphor layer and some is present as free mercury. Nevertheless the total amount of mercury contained in the world's annual production of lamps has been estimated at 75 tonnes. It is worth remembering that mercury contained in fluorescent lamps is only a small part of the mercury released to the environment.35 20 . although the waste lamp does not contain any mercury. The amount of mercury varies between about 5mg and 35mg depending on the manufacturer and the age of the lamp. Fluorescent Compact tubes Fluorescent lamps Mercury milligrammes per lamp(mg) Sodium milligrammes per lamp(mg) Average weight of lamp (g) 20 . than any other type of lamp. Many older lamps also contain cadmium which is a known carcinogen. compact fluorescent lamps. The price reduces with increasing quantities of lamps.20 0 0 0 0 3 5 400 200 200 100 150 300 300 Some of the mercury is absorbed into the glass. Free mercury may be safely absorbed at first but in time can react to form mercury metal compounds which can be more dangerous. It is best from an environmental point of view to arrange for used lamps to be recycled by a specialist company.50 per tube. This gives an indication of its toxicity. for the different types of lamp. Some of the big waste disposal companies are now linked to the specialists who recycle lamps. Fluorescent tubes also contain rare earth metals such as antimony. Some relamping contractors will arrange to recycle lamps as part of their contract. If lamps are stored for more than one school a license to do this will be required from the local waste regulation authority. Lamps currently manufactured in Europe do not contain any cadmium. Sites that recycle lamps containing mercury need a license to do so. due to their inefficient use of electricity. Austria and America have been recycling used lamps to recover the mercury for many years and this facility is now available in the UK. The UK Lighting Industry Federation states that only 0.

Although it is permitted to dispose of used lamps to normal land fill sites they are becoming increasingly wary of taking waste containing mercury. The breaking of fluorescent tubes is a hazardous operation. The liquid can then be put down the drain and the glass fragments treated as ordinary waste. small quantities of mercury. Placing them in the packaging provided with the new lamps is one way of protecting them from accidental mechanical breakage or scratching. Whenever glass is broken it is a requirement of the Protection of the Eyes Regulations 1974 that eye protection must be worn. small quantities of unbroken fluorescent tubes can be put into the normal domestic refuse.1156. Water. ie. or they contained sodium as well as mercury. Where recycling is not possible and it is necessary to break lamps to reduce bulk. good housekeeping practice should be followed. unless it is asbestos or comes from a laboratory. If there are large numbers of lamps to be broken. The advice of the local water supply company should be sought regarding the safe disposal of this water (Statutory Instrument SI 1156 must be observed). Where lamps are replaced in large quantities the used lamps must be treated as difficult waste and taken to a site licensed to handle them. 1989 No. machines are available which break the glass while at the same time spraying the debris with water to prevent powder flying and to react any sodium if this type of lamp is being crushed. and disposal via a specialist recycling company is preferable. Special storage bins are available from lamp recycling companies. Many lamps are filled to pressures above or below atmospheric pressure and therefore care must be exercised in fracturing the lamp envelope. protective clothing including gloves should be worn. They can be broken in accordance with the manufacturers guidelines and doused with water to react with the sodium. England and Wales. However. as defined by the EPA. However. which could lead to glass fracture and possibly flying fragments. eg. The Trade Effluents (Prescribed Processes and Substances) Regulations 1989 Lamp Breakage When lamps have been removed from service the principal hazard is broken glass. In any event lamps containing mercury would not be classed as Special Waste unless they contained over 3% by weight of mercury. low pressure sodium lamps which have not been broken would be classed as Special Waste(unless they are present in household waste) due to the risk of the sodium igniting. 63 . The inner arc tubes are strong and should be left intact as a container of the lamp constituents.Appendix 7: Disposal of used lamps the 1996 Special Waste Regulations household waste. Reference: Statutory Instrument. and preferably the operation should be in a well ventilated area or outdoors. cannot be Special Waste. Only the outer envelopes of high pressure discharge lamps should be broken. The manufacturers instructions with each lamp contain the recommended safe method of storage and disposal.

and it is presumed that there is only one external wall. The examples are not related specifically to either primary or secondary schools but are considered to be appropriate for either with some modifications to suit the particular case. they are illustrative examples 64 to demonstrate strategic and other more detailed considerations concerned with lighting design for schools.1 SITE ANALYSIS The orientation and position of a building on a site can affect the quantity and quality of light entering spaces. . maintenance of the component items is considered. It is emphasised that these examples do not provide solutions to be followed in practice.7m height (floor to ceiling).Appendix 8: Examples of lighting design strategies The purpose of this appendix is to show the development of lighting design decisions based on the criteria described in the body of the document. The electric lighting is then explored. It does not give completed designs but shows the considerations and processes involved by means of illustrative examples. Three electric lighting schemes are examined and. although these two factors also affect siting. and to other factors including visual contact with the outside. Every situation is different and the designer has to respond to the actual circumstances including the user requirements and to the interpretation of the constraints. The second example (Appendix 8.2) considers a typical basic classroom unit of 2. APPENDIX 8. It examines the various factors which can influence the actual position of the building on the site and also the exact location of classrooms and other areas. for both function and appearance.3) considers a fairly typical two-storey atrium space.1) explores the interaction between the building and its site. A number of glazing arrangements are investigated with regard to their daylighting performance both within the atrium and in adjoining rooms. and should not be used for an actual project without checking that they are satisfactory for the particular situation. The first example (Appendix 8. The solutions are not meant to be ‘ideal’. The following diagrams show some of the influences on this positioning and indicate advantages and disadvantages in relation to a notional site. This bulletin is not concerned with the additional problems of access and noise intrusion. in terms of supplementing the daylight when necessary and at night-time. The basic daylighting performance is evaluated and it is then extended to consider how this might change by the addition of a rooflight or clerestory window at the back of the room. in addition to taking advantage of any pleasant view. as with the daylighting. The third example (Appendix 8.

1: Site analysis ORIENTATION equinox N W 0.97 summer solstice winter solstice S N W 1.1. ‘Spill light’ and glare from floodlights should be minimised (See section 5.21 1.4) OVERSHADOWING Tall buildings and dense trees can screen from low angle sun Tall buildings and dense trees can overshadow. The luminance of the southern sky is greater than that of the northern sky (see section 4.15 E 1.1.1) SOLAR GAIN Heat generating activity should not be planned on that side of a building where solar heat gain is likely to be a problem unless protective measures are employed (see section 4.13).Appendix 8.5) LIGHT TRESPASS Night time lighting of playing areas can cause annoyance to neighbours. reducing the amount and penetration of daylight VIEW Views provide considerable benefit (see section 4.55 S E Diagram showing sun’s path for summer & winter solstices and the equinoxes for approximately a latitude of 52°N (London) Diagram showing daylight orientation factors. 65 .1.

2) considers a typical basic classroom unit of 2. The basic daylighting performance is evaluated and it is then extended to consider how this might change by the addition of a rooflight or clerestory window at the back of the room. HOUSING TALL BUILDINGS AND TREES BUSY ROAD The following diagrams indicate some advantages and disadvantages of placing a school in various positions on the site: for clarity the plan is over-simplified. It will be seen that the best result must be a compromise after the various components have been considered. For the purpose of the example. and should not be used for an actual project without checking that they are satisfactory for the particular situation. for both function and appearance. as with the daylighting. SUN'S PAT H MS DIAGRAM ‘A’ BUILDING ON NORTH OF SITE NORTH FACING CLASSROOMS ORIENTATION SOLAR GAIN OVERSHADOWING VIEW LIGHT TRESPASS low sky luminance none none very pleasant a possibility SOUTH FACING CLASSROOMS high sky luminance risk of gain in summer none less pleasant a possibility DIAGRAM ‘B’ BUILDING ON EAST OF SITE EAST FACING CLASSROOMS ORIENTATION SOLAR GAIN OVERSHADOWING VIEW LIGHT TRESPASS medium sky luminance little risk In early morning from tall buildings less pleasant a probability pleasant a probability WEST FACING CLASSROOMS medium sky luminance little risk none SRO OMS CLAS play area CLAS play area SROO MS DIAGRAM ‘C’ BUILDING ON WEST OF SITE EAST FACING CLASSROOMS ORIENTATION SOLAR GAIN OVERSHADOWING VIEW LIGHT TRESPASS medium sky luminance little risk none pleasant low possibility due to screening by school WEST FACING CLASSROOMS medium sky luminance little risk none less pleasant low possibility due to screening by school DIAGRAM ‘D’ BUILDING ON SOUTH OF SITE NORTH FACING CLASSROOMS ORIENTATION SOLAR GAIN OVERSHADOWING VIEW LIGHT TRESPASS low sky luminance none none very pleasant a possibility SOUTH FACING CLASSROOMS high sky luminance risk of gain in summer none least pleasant a possibility CLAS play area SRO play area OMS CLAS SROO . Every situation is different and the designer has to respond to the actual circumstances including the user requirements and to the interpretation of the constraints. It examines the various factors which can influence the actual position of the building on the site and also the exact location of classrooms and other areas. maintenance of the component items is considered. in terms of supplementing the daylight when necessary and at night-time.Appendix 8: Site analysis Appendix 8 Examples of lighting design strategies The purpose of this appendix is to show the development of lighting design decisions based on the criteria described in the body of the document. the north point has been placed to the top of the site. neighbouring housing. It does not give completed designs but shows the considerations and processes involved by means of illustrative examples. and it is presumed that there is only one external wall. The electric lighting is then explored.1) explores the interaction between the building and its site. Three electric lighting schemes are examined and. The third example (8. The first example (8. A number of glazing arrangements are investigated with regard to their daylighting performance both within the atrium and in adjoining rooms. The examples are not related specifically to either primary or secondary schools but are considered to be appropriate for either with some modifications to suit the particular case. pleasant view.7m height (floor to ceiling). The solutions are not meant to be ‘ideal’.3) considers a fairly typical two-storey atrium space. PLEASANT VIEW This figure represents a notional site with commonly occurring features: neighbouring tall building and trees. busy road and view to industrial estate. The plan is not to scale. The second example (8. and to other factors including visual contact with the outside.

page 17) required to provide various levels of daylight illuminance. It can be seen that.59) then DF = 3.2: A typical classroom APPENDIX 8.6m Section A 10 5 2 1 Consider a typical window (6 x 2m).9 = 0.000 % of year for which illuminance is exceeded in UK 84 68 50 Orientation weighted daylight factors to achieve given lighting levels 100 lux 200 lux 300 lux 500 lux 2% 4% 6% 10% 1% 2% 3% 5% 0.R2) where SCHEME A Figure 1 T = glass transmittance. DF = 3.5m) with a minimum height of 2. Alternatively. it may be used informally. Note: orientation-weighted Daylight Factor = DF (CIE overcast sky) x orientation factor.7m (Scheme A).3m2) R = area-weighted reflectance (0.67% 1.25% DF = 4. The following schematic exploration shows the development of possible lighting solutions together with the expected performance. INITIAL DAYLIGHTING STRATEGY Average Daylight Factor DF = 0. a DF of 5% (the minimum design objective for a ‘well’ daylit room) can only be achieved with single glazing which will encounter thermal problems.1% Minimum DF = 0. The room is expected to be used for general teaching activities including reading. writing and craftwork.2% (single glazing) Minimum DF = 1.9% Minimum DF = 1% If double glazed (ie.65 x 0. The aim is for the classroom to be mainly daylit for most of the time and to have electric lighting to complement the natural light when necessary.2: A TYPICAL CLASSROOM This worked example considers a typical classroom (8 x 6.000 10. The classroom may have a formal teaching position together with pin-up boards to display student work. including maintenance factor (0. W = 16m2). For approximately half the time electric lighting will be required .72) W = glass area (12m2) = window sky acceptance angle (65°) A = total room surface area (182.9 = 0.33% SCHEME B Figure 3 ANALYSIS The typical window investigated (12m2) will not provide sufficient daylight for the whole year.34% 2% 3. SCHEME A*.Appendix 8. Unobstructed Illuminance lux 5. and its daylighting performance : TW A(1. then DF = 5. Two extended daylighting solutions have been investigated (Schemes B and C) and the likely performances are shown in the illustrations (Figures 3 and 4).2% (double glazed) Minimum DF = 1% (Figure 2) (Minimum Daylight Factor values found from point calculation method using the standard CIE overcast sky).7m and an external wall 6. 10 5 2 1 SCHEME A* Figure 2 10 5 2 2 5 10 DAYLIGHT ILLUMINANCE The following table indicates the orientation-weighted Daylight Factors (see Table 4.5 x 2. At night-time the electric lighting will provide good seeing conditions for all but the most difficult tasks when supplementary task lighting can be employed.at least at the back of the room. There are two possible solutions: a) increase daylighting by the addition of a rooflight or clerestory if possible and b) provide electric lighting to supplement daylight when required.8% (Figure 1) If most of external wall is glazed (ie. even with a fully glazed wall. T = 0.000 15. 10 5 2 1 SCHEME C Figure 4 .45) Values in brackets are those used for initial calculation. SCHEME A.8 x 0.

7m 8m 0.2 Wall reflectance = 0.7 2m 2.6m high cill) Rooflight improves daylight distribution to back of classroom 1m SCHEME B High level clerestory window improves daylight distribution to back of classroom 0.6m Scheme A*( full height glazing) 6.5 Typical classroom SCHEME A (glazed above 0.Ceiling reflectance = 0.8m SCHEME C 68 .5m Floor reflectance = 0.

a1 a2 a3 b a SEMI-DIRECT b Typical classroom SCHEME A a1 a2 a3 b a DIRECT b SEMI-DIRECT SCHEME B a DIRECT-INDIRECT a1 a2 a3 b b SCHEME C 69 .

• The two proposals with the addition of either a rooflight or clerestory window provide a higher level of daylight and hence a potential reduction in the use of electric lighting. Implement regular lighting maintenance programmes. Consider using high frequency control gear to improve visual comfort and energy efficiency.Appendix 8. the maximum spacing = 6. • The accent lighting aims to provide an additional visual focus. Maintenance Factor at end of one year = 0.95 = 1.3. of luminaires = Utilisation Factor x Maintenance Factor x Lamp Light Output With a 2x3 array. CONCLUSIONS • The basic design with side windows only (window area 12m2) is likely to provide adequate natural light conditions for approximately half the year depending on window orientation (Scheme A). Typical Utilisation Factor = 0. • The regular array of luminaires will provide good working conditions over the whole horizontal plane with an acceptable comfort level.5/2 = 3.5.25/1.2). Room Index = 1.5m 58w tri-phosphor lamp (Average Lamp Light Output = 5100lm) (Appendix 3). NOTE: FOR ACTUAL DESIGNS USE MANUFACTURERS’ PHOTOMETRIC DATA = 6 luminaires ENERGY EFFICIENCY To ensure maximum energy efficiency without compromising the quality or visual effectiveness of the installation. In addition to the regular array. • The windows will provide acceptable view out but window blinds may be necessary to obscure direct sunlight depending on the window orientation and external obstructions. it is important that this equipment integrates with the design of the classroom. .2: A typical classroom ELECTRIC LIGHTING Assume a basic requirement for a Task Illuminance of 300lx with a horizontal plane uniformity of not less than 0.25 Maximum Spacing to Mounting Height ratio = 3. The luminaires which provide wall lighting at the back of the room will accent the wall display and enhance the visual appeal of the room (Scheme A).8 (A measure of the proportions of a room. Suggest using a regular array of ‘Semi-Direct’ distribution luminaires equipped with a single 1.7 (acceptable) Glare Index = not greater than 19 (Appendix 5) Luminaire layout as shown in illustration individually switched in rows a1.6 (Appendix 5). Also provide manual over-ride in classroom. They will also produce a better visual environment (Schemes B and C).86 Illuminance x Area No. a2 and a3 parallel to the window. See CIBSE Code for Interior Lighting Section 4. Variations on the basic proposal are shown for the schemes which utilise rooflights and clerestories (Schemes B and C). However. This also applies to the regular array of luminaires for the general lighting.8 and a Limiting Glare Index of 19. Install lighting controls (switches) in a logical way to ensure only the luminaires required will be switched on. a line of luminaires should be included to illuminate the back wall (Scheme A). consider the following: • • • • To optimise use of daylight install photocells or time-switches to turn electric lighting off when not required (possibly during mid-morning break). • When the natural light is insufficient this can be supplemented by luminaires at the back of the room.

Clear glass is recommended in order to give a view out and to cut out sunlight diffusion which occurs with translucent materials. The orientation of the atrium glazing will be influential in relation to sun and sky glare. . and solar gain. although these factors will have to be considered in atrium design.1. and by increasing daylight availability to the rear of teaching rooms which might otherwise be lit from one side only on their window wall.3: An atrium APPENDIX 8. This should also include the floor and furniture.1). It may be landscaped. by providing a change of view. and can form a focal centre. There are some general factors to be taken into account when considering atrium design from the lighting point of view.Appendix 8. in particular those on the vertical plane. Atria will be predominantly lit by daylight when available and they can contribute to the enhancement of the visual environment of surrounding areas.the level of light should neither be so high that adjoining spaces appear dim by comparison nor so low that the atrium itself appears under-lit when viewed from these spaces. In order to achieve a satisfactory distribution of light particularly in the lower areas of the space. Spaces of this type are often two storeys or more in height and provision for cleaning and maintenance of the glazing and luminaires is necessary. dining. The following diagrams show some of the main factors to be considered. using suitable plants.3: AN ATRIUM zone of possible roof glazing possible clerestory Access gallery to upper rooms first floor teaching room open or glazed possible clerestory open access gallery glazing first floor teaching room ATRIUM ground floor teaching room glazing ground floor teaching room DIAGRAM SHOWING POSSIBLE SECTION THROUGH TYPICAL 2-STOREY SCHOOL ATRIUM The space could to be used for school assembly. general socialising and private or group study. Sky luminance is another factor (see section 4. consideration should be given to the possibility of colour distortion and the creation of an ‘under-lit’ effect. For example . in addition to circulation and display. have a higher reflectance value. it is important that the majority of surfaces. The additional problems of acoustic and thermal environments are not specifically dealt with here. If solar control glass is used.

S N SUNLIGHT GLARE AND SOLAR GAIN Sun glare and solar gain can be a problem which can be controlled by the use of adjustable louvres or blinds. For the two basic forms an atrium of 15m x 10m in plan. a minimum average daylight factor of 7% should be provided. sky glare is likely to be more of a problem than in side glazing.SKY GLARE In top glazing. DAYLIGHTING The advantages and disadvantages of the following glazing arrangements are examined with respect to the factors discussed earlier. whereas in winter it can contribute to the thermal environment. solar gain will cause overheating unless controlled. with a height of 7.5m to the top of the wall and 10m to the ridge is considered.4. This can be ameliorated by ensuring that areas surrounding glazing are light in colour. In summer. SUPPLEMENTATION of DAYLIGHT to ADJOINING SPACES The atrium can be used to make a contribution to the lighting of the part of an adjoining room furthest away from the window wall. Double glazing is assumed. The admission of some sunlight however will enliven the visual scene. because the luminance of the upper part of an overcast sky is greater than that of the lower. It is considered that to achieve appropriate daylighting for a school atrium. and by the use of adjustable louvres or blinds. and by appropriate orientation. and the area-weighted reflectance of the interior surfaces is taken to be 0. VISUAL CONTACT WITH EXTERIOR Visual contact with the exterior through the glazing is desirable and diffusing glass is not recommended. 72 . by supplementing the daylight.

DAYLIGHTING The advantages and disadvantages of the following glazing arrangements are examined with respect to the factors discussed earlier. 7. For the two basic forms an atrium of 15m x 10m in plan.8 is applied for dirt on the glass.precautions need to be taken good for upper levels of adjoining rooms good CLERESTORY The area of clerestory required to obtain the same daylight level can be determined by a similar calculation to that used above. In these circumstances the calculated area of glazing is approximately 55m2 which could be obtained by a width of 2.precautions need to be taken could be troublesome .2 for the classroom window glazing. a minimum average daylight factor of 7% should be provided.4.5m 10m SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT could be troublesome . and the area-weighted reflectance of the interior surfaces is taken to be 0.precautions need to be taken could be troublesome .5m to the top of the wall and 10m to the ridge is considered. with a height of 7.1m either side of the ridge for the length of the atrium. In these circumstances the area of glazing is approximately 100m2 which would require a clerestory height of 2m for the full perimeter which may be difficult to achieve in practical terms. SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT could be troublesome . Double glazing is assumed.9 is applied for dirt on the glass.precautions need to be taken good good 73 . ROOF GLAZING The area of roof glazing required to obtain an average daylight factor of 7% at the bottom of the atrium can be determined by adapting the calculation formula and method used in Appendix 8. It is considered that to achieve appropriate daylighting for a school atrium. A correction factor of 0. A correction factor of 0.

3: An atrium COMBINED ROOF & CLERESTORY ‘SAW-TOOTH’ PROFILE N S SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT less troublesome .precautions need to be taken good for upper levels of adjoining rooms less good SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT no problem no problem good for rooms on south side less good LAY LIGHTS ASYMMETRIC PROFILE N S SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT not troublesome not troublesome poor limited SKY GLARE SUN SUPPLEMENTATION VISUAL CONTACT less troublesome not a serious problem good for rooms on south side good for rooms on south side .Appendix 8.precautions need to be taken less troublesome .

etc. For this arrangement to be satisfactory. with some calculation details for scheme A being given. an optical system providing an asymmetric downward light distribution. Using 400 watt MBIF lamps (average light output = 26. and the Glare Index restricted to be less than 19. of 0.8: Number of luminaires = Illuminance x Area Lamp light output x U. The dimensions of the atrium space are as used for the daylighting study. Accent lighting would be formed by display screens employing low wattage tungsten halogen reflector lamps (TH(M)) which would be mounted on the screens. Scheme A. Additional general lighting (A2) would be provided by wall.35 and a one year maintenance factor M. so that its performance remains high. including access to it for this purpose. it is proposed to use high pressure metal halide lamps (MBIF): these have good colour rendering properties with a white colour appearance. In selecting the equipment.F. have a high reflectance value. They would be housed in luminaires providing a ‘Direct/Indirect’ light distribution. x M. it is necessary to consider its ease of maintenance.000 lumens).F. the underside of the roof. an estimated utilisation factor U. (SL. and this would be complemented by some form of accent lighting which could include highlighting displays. Three schemes for the electric lighting installation are outlined below. to ensure that the majority of surfaces. a suitable arrangement would be to have a general installation with a direct/indirect light distribution providing an illuminance level of approximately 400 lux at the atrium floor. it is important. at a mounting height of 5m above the floor. = 8 A suitable arrangement would be to suspend the luminaires in pairs (A1) on the long axis of the atrium. surfacemounted diffuser luminaires equipped with compact fluorescent lamps. and in particular for the electric lighting.F. high efficacy and long life. as for the daylighting situation. 2L) with some light on to the wall surface behind: these luminaires should be installed in circulation spaces. of 0. plants. A ‘rise and fall’ suspension system would facilitate maintenance. Suspended luminaires For the main lighting. . 2D. PL.Appendix 8.3: An atrium ELECTRIC LIGHTING C2 A2/B2 C3 A1 B1 DIRECT-INDIRECT C2 A2/B2 C1 C1 C1 A1/B1 C3 C2 A2/B2 DIRECT A2/B2 C3 It is considered that for the electric lighting to achieve the desired visual characteristics discussed earlier for a school atrium.F.

but the lower part of the columns could now form the basis for the display lighting. their light falling on the adjacent part of the underside of the roof. Actual photometric data provided by manufacturers for their luminaires should. Scheme C. be used in any practical design. The display lighting would be the same as that mentioned in Scheme A for the screens.Scheme B. and if necessary be hinged at the base so that the luminaires could be lowered for maintenance. of course. Perimeter-mounted luminaires The direct component of the main lighting is provided by wall-mounted prismatic refractor luminaires incorporating a reflector (C1) and equipped with 250 watt high pressure mercury discharge tubular metal halide lamps (MBI). is used where there is no soffit. daylight and electric light are taken into account. It is important in the selection of all items of lighting equipment to ensure that there is good integration with the atrium design as a whole. Wall mounted general lighting (A2) as in Scheme A. The indirect component utilises the same type of lamp installed in asymmetric reflector floodlights (C2). Column-mounted luminaires This arrangement is similar to that for Scheme A but with the pairs of luminaires for the metal halide lamps mounted on centrally installed columns at the same 5m height (B1). a well-lit atrium space can contribute appreciably to the environment of a school. GENERAL When the various factors described in relation to sunlight. The additional general lighting and the accent lighting would follow the pattern in Scheme A. Recessed downlights (C3) using compact fluorescent lamps are used in this scheme to illuminate circulation spaces where there is a soffit. 76 . both by providing a visual centre and by complementing the view from surrounding areas. These columns at floor level would be within planting or seating areas.

disability glare Glare which impairs the ability to see detail without necessarily causing visual discomfort. daylight factor The illuminance received at a point indoors. CIE standard overcast sky Completely overcast sky for which the ratio of its luminance L at an angle of elevation above the horizon to the luminance Lz at the zenith is assumed to be given by L = Lz (1 + 2 sin )/3 colour appearance A term used of a light source. Subjectively. from a sky of known or assumed luminance distribution. correlated colour temperature The temperature of a full radiator that emits radiation having a chromaticity nearest to that of the light source being considered. it is the average over a horizontal working plane). average daylight factor The spatial average of daylight factors over a reference plane or planes. Direct sunlight is excluded from both values of illuminance. These documents should be consulted if more precise definitions are needed. with their appearance under light from some reference source. discomfort glare Glare which causes visual discomfort without necessarily impairing the ability to see detail. (For design purposes in this document. 77 .4:1987) issued jointly by the Commission Internationale de L'Éclairage and the International Electrotechnical Commission. The difference may be one of brightness or colour or both. lamps which are inadequately shielded. The unit is the kelvin. colour rendering index A measure of the degree to which the colours of surfaces illuminated by a given light source conform to those of the same surfaces under a reference illuminant. eg. directional lighting Lighting designed to illuminate an object or surface predominantly from some preferred direction. (see Appendix 3). contrast Subjectively this term describes the difference in appearance of two parts of a visual field seen simultaneously or successively. direct glare Glare caused when excessively bright parts of the visual field are seen directly. ballast Current limiting device found in a luminaire. expressed as a percentage of the horizontal illuminance outdoors from an unobstructed hemisphere of the same sky. and on the fourth edition of the International Lighting Vocabulary (CIE 17. Objectively the colour of a truly white surface illuminated by the source. the degree of warmth or coolness associated with the source colour. adaptation The process which takes place as the human visual system adjusts itself to the brightness or the colour of the visual field. K. suitable allowance having been made for the state of chromatic adaptation (see Appendix 3). (daylight factor = sky component + externally reflected component + internally reflected component). consciously or unconsciously.Glossary The definitions and explanations given in this glossary are based on British Standard 4727: Part 4: Glossary of terms particular to lighting and colour. colour rendering A general expression for the appearance of surface colours when illuminated by light from a given source compared.

flicker Impression of regular fluctuations of brightness or colour. luminous efficacy The ratio of the luminous flux emitted by a lamp to the power consumed by the lamp (lm/W).] illumination The process of lighting an object or surface. expressed as a percentage of the horizontal illuminance outdoors from an unobstructed hemisphere of the same sky. externally reflected component of daylight factor The illuminance received directly at a point indoors from a sky of known or assumed luminance distribution after reflection from external reflecting surfaces. Direct sunlight is excluded from both illuminances. The SI unit of luminous flux is the lumen (lm). luminance The physical measure of the stimulus which produces the sensation of brightness measured by the luminous intensity of the light emitted or reflected in a given direction from a surface element. this term is sometimes known as lamp circuit luminous efficacy and is expressed in lumens/circuit watt. ie. Luminaire has superseded the term lighting fitting. the luminous flux incident per unit area (lumens per square metre (lm/m2) or lux). It enables the discomfort glare from lighting installations to be ranked in order of severity and the permissible limit of discomfort glare from an installation to be prescribed quantitively (Limiting Glare Index). It is the luminous flux emitted in a very narrow cone . When the power consumed by control gear is taken into account. [This quantity was formerly known as the illumination value or illumination level. divided by the area of the element in the same direction. expressed as a percentage of the horizontal illuminance outdoors from an unobstructed hemisphere of the same sky. luminous flux Quantity of light emitted by a source. this term is known as lumens/lamp watt. glare The discomfort or impairment of vision experienced when parts of the visual field are excessively bright in relation to the general surroundings. or received by a surface. luminous intensity A quantity which describes the power of a source or illuminated surface to emit light in a given direction. glare index A numerical index calculated according to CIBSE Technical Memorandum TM 10. light output ratio The ratio of the total light output of a luminaire under stated practical conditions to that of the lamp or lamps under reference conditions. Direct sunlight is excluded from both illuminances.Glossary downward light output ratio The ratio of the total light output of a luminaire below the horizontal under stated practical conditions to that of the lamp or lamps under reference conditions. internally reflected component of daylight factor The illuminance received at a point indoors from a sky of known or assumed 78 luminance distribution after reflection within the interior. The SI unit of luminance is the candela per square metre (cd/m2). luminaire An apparatus which controls the distribution of light given by a lamp or lamps and which includes all the components necessary for fixing and protecting the lamps and for connecting them to the supply circuit. illuminance The luminous flux density at a surface.

Glossary containing the given direction divided by the solid angle of the cone. produced by the reflection of light sources or other bright areas in glossy or smooth surfaces. no-sky line The locus of points in the reference plane delineating the area from which no sky can be seen. The SI unit of luminous intensity is the candela (cd) equal to one lumen per steradian. standard maintained illuminance The maintained illuminance recommended for the assumed standard conditions of the application. uniformity ratio The ratio of the minimum illuminance to the average illuminance over a given area. maintained illuminance The minimum illuminance which should be provided at all times through the life of an installation: it takes into account cleaning schedules for room surfaces and luminaires. usually a horizontal working plane. including reduction of contrast. reflected glare A term used to describe various visual effects. sky component of daylight factor Ratio of that part of the daylight illuminance at a point on a given plane which is received directly through glazing from a sky of assumed or known luminance distribution to the illuminance on a horizontal plane due to an unobstructed hemisphere of this sky. 79 . utilisation factor The proportion of the luminous flux emitted by the lamps which reaches the working plane both directly and by reflection. discomfort and distraction. usually a horizontal working plane. reflectance The ratio of the luminous flux reflected from a surface to the luminous flux incident on it. upward light output ratio The ratio of the total light output of a luminaire above the horizontal under stated practical conditions to that of the lamp or lamps under reference conditions. and lamp output depreciation with time. as opposed to a diffuse reflection from a matt surface in which the luminous flux comes from many directions none of which predominates. Direct sunlight is excluded from both illuminances. specularity The specular quality of a reflection as in a mirror. transmittance The ratio of luminous flux transmitted by a material to the incident luminous flux. OR The ratio of the minimum daylight factor to the average daylight factor over a given area. spacing/height ratio This ratio describes the distance between luminaire centres in relation to their height above the working plane. Usually expressed as a percentage.

Notes 80 .

Two case studies. Chauvel. BR209. SW12 9BS. London. Fluorescent lighting and health: P. Tel: 0181 675 5211. Code of Practice for daylighting. 1985. Code of Practice for artificial lighting.C. Code of practice for the emergency lighting of premises other than cinemas and certain other specified premises used for entertainment. Estimating daylight in buildings. HMSO.C.H. 1996. Electric lighting controls .Bibliography The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) Code for Interior Lighting.a guide for designers. 1990. 1991. Teaching and Conference Rooms: Lighting Guide LG5. British Standards Institution The energy management of artificial lighting use. Part 2. ISBN 0 11 270822 6. 193-206 (1982) Information Paper IP6/96: People and Lighting Controls. Fax: 01923 664010. James Bell and William Burt. McKennan.J. Lighting Research and Technology.Rowlands. Milton Keynes. 1987. (1992). Printed in the United Kingdom for The Stationery Office J58549 C20 1/99 81 . from BRECSU. Longmore. LG4. Glare from windows: current views of the problem: P. ISBN 1 86081 026 8. The visual environment for display screen use: Lighting Guide. 1988. The Stationery Office 1997 Other sources. Part 1: 1985.Loe and E. 1997. The art and science of lighting: A strategy for lighting design: D. 1994. 1969. 1992.a guide to good practice. 1998 from BRECSU. (1982). V.J. Cooper and G. £35. Window Design: Applications Manual AM2. 1996. Introduction to Energy Efficiency.Littlefair. Lighting Research and Technology 28(4). P. 1982. BRE Digest 272: 1985. from BRECSU. 24(2). Building Sight. BS 8206: Lighting for Buildings. P. Stone. Crisp and G. 222 Balham High Road. Site layout planning for daylight and sunlight . Part 1: 1988. Emergency Lighting: Technical Memorandum TM12. BRE Digest 309: 1986. The Outdoor Environment: Lighting Guide LG6. ISBN 0 85125 506 X. A guide to the Whole School Approach.L. BRE Digest 310: 1986. General Information Report 25. Daylighting as a passive solar energy option : an assessment of its potential in non-domestic buildings. Designing buildings for daylight.T.H. LG3. 1995. R Dogniaux and J. MK14 6LE Building Research Establishment Building Bulletin 9: Colour in School Buildings (4th Edition). Delta House. ISBN 011 701 9933.153-164.B. Linford Wood. Building Bulletin 78: Security Lighting. ISBN 0 11 271013 1. BSI publications are available from BSI Publications. Calculation of Glare Indices: Technical Memorandum TM10. HMSO 1991. Daylighting for sports halls. Littlefair. 14(4). Peter Barker. Jon Barrick. Good Practice Guide 245. Energy conservation in artificial lighting.1991. Sports: Lighting Guide. 31-46. Libraries: Lighting Guide. Building Bulletin 73: A Guide to Energy Efficient Maintenance and Renewal in Educational Buildings. CIBSE publications are available from CIBSE. ISBN 0 11 270772 6. Building Energy Efficiency in Schools. Henderson. 14(1). Estimating daylight in buildings. 1995. BRECSU 1996 BRE publications: Tel: 01923 664444. Desktop guide to daylighting – for architects. HMSO 1993 Building Bulletin 87: Guidelines for Environmental Design in Schools. p. RNIB. I. 1997. Collins. BRE Digest 232: 1979. Rod Wilson. BRE Report (BR129). V. The Visual Environment in Lecture. J. Lighting Research and Technology. installers and users. Crisp. Lighting Research and Technology. Part 1. Fax: 0181 675 6554. 1986. Lighting controls and daylight use. 55-61. Out of print (Photocopy available from The Stationery Office). BR288. Good Practice Guide 160. BRECSU Publications: Tel: 01923 664258 Department for Education and Employment BS 5266: Emergency Lighting. Part 2: 1992.

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