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¿Cómo usar un diccionario bilingüe?

1. Buscar por orden alfabético


1.1. Los diccionarios bilingües tienen dos funciones:
 Una función DECODIFICADORA: Cuando se busca una palabra en inglés que se
desconoce. (Por ese motivo se buscará en la parte INGLÉS-ESPAÑOL).
 Una función CODIFICADORA: Cuando se busca cómo se dice en inglés una palabra
en castellano. (Por ese motivo se buscará en la parte ESPAÑOL- INGLÉS).
En el caso de Inglés II, utilizaremos la función descodificadora ya que los textos estarán
en Inglés y la comprensión lectora se realizará en español.
1.2. Toda la información aparecerá en orden alfabético, empezando por la letra A y
finalizando por la Z. Dentro de cada ENTRADA aparecerán las palabras
compuestas, los “phrasal verbs” (es decir, verbos con partícula), etc. Todo en
orden alfabético.
1.3. Las palabras guía son aquellas que aparecen en la parte superior de la hoja y
que corresponden a la primera o última palabra. El fin de éstas es ayudar a
encontrar más rápido.

2. ¿Cómo aparece?
2.1. Singular: Tanto los adjetivos como los sustantivos aparecen SIEMPRE en
singular, salvo que sean irregulares.
“Men” remite a “man”.
2.2. Verbos regulares: El verbo aparecerá en infinitivo. Lo mismo sucede con la
forma ING. Recuerde que algunos términos doblan la consonante como en el caso
de “starred” o cambian la “y” por la “i” como “studied”.
2.3. Verbos irregulares.
“Spoke” remite a la forma infinitiva “speak”.

3. Existe más de una entrada para la misma palabra


3.1. En cualquier idioma, la función gramatical de una palabra (sustantivo, verbo, etc.)
determina en gran medida qué papel va a desempeñar en una frase. Al momento
de buscar la palabra en el diccionario será de suma importancia identificar la
categoría gramatical que la palabra desempeña en la oración para poder
encontrar el significado correcto.
En los siguientes ejemplos la función gramatical de la palabra “park” es diferente y
también es diferente su significado.
It is difficult to park here.
It is the city’s oldest park.

4. Búsqueda de un grupo de palabras


4.1. Las palabras compuestas se forman de dos o más palabras y juntas tienen un
significado específico, a veces diferente del que tienen cuando van por separado.
olive oil: aceite de oliva (tres palabras) <oil: aceite; olive: aceituna>
taxi driver: taxista (una palabra) <driver: conductor; taxi: taxi>

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4.2. Frases idiomáticas y expresiones: en cada entrada aparecen estas frases o
expresiones relacionadas con la palabra.
To have butterflies in your stomach significa estar muy nervioso.

5. Búsqueda de un Phrasal Verb


5.1. Un “phrasal verb” es un verbo + partícula. Aparecen en forma alfabética seguidos
del título Phrasal verbs.
5.2. En algunos casos el significado del “phrasal verb” es muy obvio porque coincide
con su carga significativa. En otros casos es necesario buscar el significado.
5.3. Hay “phrasal verbs” que son transitivos (que llevan objeto directo) y hay otros
que son intransitivos (no llevan objeto directo).

6. Entender una entrada. ¿Qué es cada elemento?


La entrada está encabezada por: una palabra principal o lema; la pronunciación que está
expresada en símbolos fonéticos; la función gramatical; la traducción o acepción; y en
algunos casos las variaciones en que se puede presentar una palabra: género, número,
etc.
(1) man
(2) /mæn /
(3) noun Siempre se recomienda
revisar la lista de abreviaturas
(4) a) hombre, b) varón. para poder aprovechar al
(5) pl. men máximo la información.

7. Falsos amigos
Los falsos amigos (false friends) o falsos cognados (false cognates) son aquellas palabras
que parecen tener un significado pero en realidad tienen otro.
Inglés Español
sensible sensato, que razona
sensitive sensible

8. ¿Cómo se forman las palabras?


8.1. Prefijos y sufijos: Los prefijos son partículas que se añaden al comienzo de la
raíz de una palabra. Los sufijos son partículas que se añaden al final de la raíz
de una palabra. Ambos modifican el significado de la palabra.
8.2. Consonantes doble: Hay una serie de reglas en las que se dobla la consonante
o no al agregar un sufijo.
cutter (monosílabas que finalizan con consonante, doblan la última consonante)
proofer (monosílbas que contienen dos vocales, no doblan la última consonante)
8.3. El apóstrofo se utiliza para el caso posesivo o para indicar una contracción.
8.4. La forma ING: VERBO + ING se utiliza para transformar un verbo en:
ADJETIVO, ADVERBIO, SUSTANTIVO u OTRO VERBO EN LOS TIEMPOS
CONTINUOS.

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Al buscar esas palabras en el diccionario se debería buscar el verbo en infinitivo, es
decir, su raíz.

9. ¿Cómo buscar el significado de una palabra en el diccionario?


Signos y abreviaturas más utilizadas.

man: /mæn /:
sustantivo/sustantive/noun/: hombre
pl. men
manager: /'mænɪdʒə /:
s.1) de un negocio, una empresa: gerente
2) de un grupo musical o cantante: manager/representante
3) de un equipo de fútbol: director técnico
accidental: /əksi'dental/:
adj. 1) accidental
2) casual
work: /wə:k /:
verbo y sustantivo
verbo: 1)(intr) trabajar, 2) funcionar (un artefacto o máquina).
(tr) to work leather: trabajar el cuero
sustantivo: trabajo, empleo. ¿work o job?(ver trabajo)
could: /kəd/:
v. [modal] ver cuadro
permiso: Could I use the phone? ¿Podría usar el teléfono?
capacidad física: He couldn’t walk: No podía caminar.
posibilidad: You could be right: Quizá tengas razón.

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1. Read the following article.

How could we live without the Internet?

That is how most of us keep in touch with friends, find homework support, and research a
cool place to visit, work or find out the latest news. Of course, the Internet is home to
millions of places you can and should visit. Like an infinite library, the Web can take you
to the ends of the earth with the information it contains.
Millions of people now use computers regularly for many different reasons:
communication, study, entertainment and more. We often hear that computers changed
our lives for better. But do they really change our lives for better?
Computers can be the best machines. However, they can cause many problems, for
example: people who use computers a lot can get physical problems, their eyesight gets
worse, and there can be injuries in the users’ hands and arms. People who have
computers are spending more time sitting down and less time exercising; so they are
becoming overweight. Other problems are physiological; the worst is stress: people feel
under a lot of pressure to do everything more quickly, which is stressful and worrying.
Addiction is also a problem with young people: they spend hours and hours with their
computers. Some studies suggest that young children and teenagers who spend many
hours at computers may get lonely and depressed. We must change this! Computers can
be a positive part of children’s lives but parents and teachers need to help them use the
computer in responsible and creative ways. Lack of sleep is also a growing problem
among young people. It is OK to be connected, but how useful can one be if you are
exhausted? Below there is a list of tips to help young people:
1. Log off your instant messenger, Facebook, and email. Pings in the middle of
the night can interrupt your sleep — even if you do not get up to answer them. And,
more than likely, if your friends see that you are logged out, they will log out, too.
2. Get in the habit of powering off your computer — especially if it is in your
room. Sometimes just logging off your instant messenger or Facebook is not enough.
Blinking lights and glowing screens can make it harder to fall and stay asleep.
3. Make getting enough sleep your way to look and feel good. Getting sleep is a
great way to look and feel refreshed and focused in the morning. To get the sleep you
need, tell your friends you will receive your last text, email, or phone call an hour
before bedtime. This way, they will know their beeps or buzzes will have to wait.
Another aspect to be considered is online safety. The key is to protect you while online.
Experts recommend that people keep online friendships in the virtual world. Meeting
online friends face to face carries more risks than other types of friendships because it is
easy for people to pretend to be something they are not when you cannot see them or
talk in person.
If you ever get involved in a chat room conversation that makes you feel uncomfortable
or in danger for any reason, exit and tell a parent or other adult right away, so they can
report the incident. If we do not react now, will this situation improve?

2. What does the text say about the following concepts?

Computer
advantages

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Computer
problems

Safety online

Tips to stay
disconnected

Your experience

3. Complete the table with cognates from the text.

4. Complete the table with key words from the text.

GRAMMAR IN USE
5. Revision Task. Complete the following table with information
from the text.

Adjective

Comparative adjective

Superlative adjective
(two examples)

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Adverb

Definite article

Indefinite article

Existence

Connector

Imperative
(two examples)

Modal verb
(state its function)

Noun-noun

Possessive case

Simple Present
(state its use)

Present Continuous
(state its use)

Future Simple
(state its use)

Conditional sentence

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6. Now look at the following examples from the text and decide
whether the words in bold are verbs, adjectives or nouns.
Examples from the text Function of the ING word
People who have computers are spending more
time sitting down and less time exercising…
…people feel under a lot of pressure to do
everything more quickly, which is stressful and
worrying.

7. Why does the author use “logged” instead of “logging”?

logged

logging

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1. Write “yes” or “no” according to what you know about van
Leeuwenhoek.

He became interested in lenses at the age of 20.

He was recognized at the end of his career.

He was a bookkeeper.

2. Read this article.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

William Davidson appointed Van Leeuwenhoek in 1648 as his assistant. Van Leeuwenhoek
left after six years.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, Dutch Republic on October 24, 1632. On 4
November, he was baptized as Thonis. His father, Philips Antonisz van Leeuwenhoek, was
a basket maker who died when Antonie was only five years old. His mother, Margaretha
(Bel van den Berch), came from a well-to-do brewer's family, and remarried Jacob Jansz
Molijn, a painter. Antonie had four older sisters, Margriet, Geertruyt, Neeltje and
Catharina. When he was around ten years old, his step-father died. He attended school in
Warmond for a short time before being sent to live in Benthuizen with his uncle, an
attorney. At the age of 16, he became a bookkeeper's apprentice at a linen-draper's shop
in Amsterdam owned by the Scottish William Davidson.
Van Leeuwenhoek married Barbara de Mey in July 1654, with whom he would have one
surviving daughter, Maria (four other children died in infancy). That same year he quickly
returned to Delft, where he would live and study for the rest of his life. He opened a
draper's shop, which he ran throughout the 1650s. His wife suddenly died in 1666, and in
1671 Van Leeuwenhoek remarried to Cornelia Swalmius, with whom he had no children.
His status in Delft grew throughout the years. In 1660 he received a lucrative job as
chamberlain for the Delft sheriffs' assembly chamber in the City Hall, a position which he
would hold for almost 40 years. In 1669 he was appointed as a land surveyor by the
Court of Holland; at some time he combined it with another municipal job, being the
official "wine-gauger" of Delft and in charge of the city's wine imports and (wine)
taxation.

Microscopic study
While he was running his draper's shop,
Van Leeuwenhoek wanted to see the
quality of the thread, better than the
then-current magnifying lenses available.
Therefore, he began to develop an
interest in lensmaking although few
records exist of his early activity. Van
Leeuwenhoek's interest in microscopes
and a familiarity with glass processing led
to one of the most significant, and
simultaneously well-hidden, technical
insights in the history of science. By
placing the middle of a small rod of soda

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lime glass in a hot flame, Van Leeuwenhoek could pull the hot section apart to create two
long whiskers of glass. Then, by reinserting the end of one whisker into the flame, he
could create a very small, high-quality glass sphere. These spheres became the lenses of
his microscopes, with the smallest spheres providing the highest magnifications.

Recognition by the Royal Society


After developing his method for creating powerful lenses and applying them to the study
of the microscopic world, Van Leeuwenhoek introduced his work to his friend, the
prominent Dutch physician Reinier de Graaf. But the Royal Society in London published
the groundbreaking work of an Italian lensmaker in their journal Philosophical
Transactions of the Royal Society.

Scientific fame
By the end of the 17th century, Van Leeuwenhoek had a virtual monopoly on microscopic
study and discovery

3. Complete the chart in Spanish.


Early life Adult life

4. Answer.
a. When was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek born?

b. What information can you provide about his parents?

c. Did he have any children?

d. What did he do in 1660?

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e. How did he start caring about magnifying lenses?

GRAMMAR IN USE
5. Distribute some of the verbs from the text in the box.
Regular verbs Irregular verbs

married was

6. Analyse the selected verbs above.


Tense Conjugated form Person Use
Situación
Simple past was 3ª del singular
permanente

7. Are these gerunds nouns, adjectives or verbs? Find more


examples in the text.

seeing

using

printing

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8. Find adverbs in the text and translate them.
Adverb Translation

probably probablemente

ADVERBS
De modo How? Better, fast, slowly, carefully
De lugar Where? There, under, away
De tiempo When? Early, late, soon, tomorrow
De duración How long? Always, once a week
De frecuencia How often? Always, never, often
De orden In what order? Firstly, finally
De grado To what degree? Completely
De certeza How sure? Indeed, of course

Los adverbios de modo


Los adverbios de modo nos dicen cómo se realiza la acción. Los adverbios pueden
modificar verbos, adjetivos y otros adverbios. En cambio los adjetivos nos dicen algo de
una persona o una cosa.
Adjective Adverb
Mandy is a careful girl. (1)
Mandy drives carefully. (2)
Mandy is very careful.

(1) Mandy is a careful driver. La oración se refiere a Mandy, por eso usamos un adjetivo
(adjective).
(2) Mandy drives carefully. Esta oración se refiere a cómo Mandy realiza la acción, por lo
tanto usamos el adverbio (adverb).

Form

Adjective + -LY

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Adjective Adverb
dangerous dangerously
careful carefully
nice nicely
easy easily
horrible horribly
electronic electronically

Irregular forms
good well
fast fast
hard hard

Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs.


adjectives ending in -ly: friendly, silly, lonely, ugly
nouns, ending in -ly: ally, bully, Italy, melancholy
verbs, ending in -ly: apply, rely, supply

Adjetivos y adverbios que tienen la misma forma


Adjective Adverb
close close
daily daily
weekly weekly
monthly monthly
yearly yearly
early early
fair fair
far far
fast fast
free free
hard hard
high high
late late
lively lively
friendly friendly
long long

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Adjective Adverb
lovely lovely
low low
right right
wide wide
wrong wrong

Es muy importante fijarse en la función de la palabra para poder identificar si es un


adjetivo o adverbio.
The train goes fast.  Fast es adverbio porque explica cómo va el tren.
It is a fast train.  Fast está modificando a train. Es adjetivo.

9. Recognize adjectives and adverbs.


Adjective or adverb?

She turned quickly. It was a quick turn.

The president spoke well today.

This newspaper is published daily.

I will catch the train early.

Unfortunately, the sky quickly grew dark.

The cat ran incredibly quickly.

Why did she resign so mysteriously?

SIMPLE PAST
 I saw a movie yesterday. Ayer vi una película.
 I didn't see a play yesterday. No vi una obra de teatro ayer.
 Last year, I travelled to Japan. El año pasado viajé a Japón.

Se utiliza en una serie de acciones completas que sucedieron una detrás de la otra.

 I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim. Terminé de
trabajar, fui a la playa y encontré un lindo lugar para nadar.

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Se utiliza en hábitos que culminaron en el pasado.

 I studied French when I was a child. Estudiaba francés cuando era un niño.
 He played the violin. Tocaba el violín.

Los verbos en pasado pueden ser regulares o irregulares.


Regulares Irregulares
Los verbos irregulares cambian totalmente
Los verbos regulares llevan –ed.
o no cambian.
 go – went
 visit – visited
 write – wrote
 move – moved
 put – put

Pasado simple en negativo


En Simple Past utilizaremos el auxiliar to do, cuyo pasado negativo did not, se contrae en
didn't. Es el verbo auxiliar el que indica que es pasado, ya que el verbo principal está
siempre en infinitivo. La forma did not / didn't es la misma para todas las personas.
 I didn't (did not) smoke. Yo no fumé / fumaba.
 She didn't (did not) smoke. Ella no fumó / fumaba.
 I didn't like the film. No me gustó / gustaba la película.
 You didn't phone me. No me llamaste / llamabas.

Verbo “to be” en pasado


El afirmativo se forma así:

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El negativo se forma así:

El interrogativo se forma así:

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1. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. How often do you laugh?

b. Do you like movies like Patch Adams?

c. Do you think laughter can cure illnesses?

d. Do you think we are laughing less than when we were children?

2. Read the following article called “Why Is Laughter the Best


Medicine” and then complete the diagram that follows.

Why Is Laughter the Best Medicine

A group of adults were lying in a circle on the floor listening to a recording of “The Laughing
Policeman”. At first everyone felt ridiculous, and only the odd nervous ones giggled, but
suddenly the laughter became real and quickly spread around the room.
Doctors were starting to believe that laughter not only improved your state of mind, but
actually affected your entire physical well-being. The people lying in a circle were attending a
workshop to learn the art of laughter.
William Fry – a psychiatrist from California –
studied the effects of laughter on the body.
He got patients to watch Laurel and Hardy
films, and monitored their blood pressure,
heart rate and muscle tone. He found that
laughter had a similar effect to physical
exercise. It speeds up the heart rate,
increased blood pressure and quickens
breathing. Moreover, it makes our facial and
stomach muscles work. Fry thought that
laughter was a type of jogging on the spot.
Laughter can even provide a kind of pain
relief. Fry had proved that laughter
produced endorphins – chemicals in the
body that relieve pain.
Researchers from Texas divided forty
university students into four groups. The
first group listened to a funny cassette for

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twenty minutes, the second listened to a cassette intended to relax them, the third heard an
informative tape, while the fourth group listened to no tape at all. Researchers found that if
they produced pain in the students, those who had listened to the humorous tape could
tolerate the discomfort for much longer.
Patch Adams is both a doctor and a performing clown in Virginia, America. He was convinced
that humor was a part of medical consultation. “There’s evidence to suggest that laughter
stimulates the immune system”, said Adams, “yet hospitals and clinics are well-known for
their depressing atmospheres”. Adams practised what he preached. The real one was
wearing his waist-length hair in a ponytail all the time and also had a handlebar moustache
on his face -not like the one in the movie. He usually put on a red nose when he was seeing
his patients.

3. What does the text say about the following concepts?

“The Laughing
Policeman”

Workshop

William Fry

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Pain Relief

Researchers from
Texas

Patch Adams

GRAMMAR IN USE
4. Now look at the following examples from the text and decide
whether the words in bold are verbs, adjectives, nouns or
adverbs.
Examples from the text Function of the ING word
A group of adults were lying in a circle on the floor
listening to a recording of “The Laughing Policeman”.
A group of adults were lying in a circle on the floor
listening to a recording of “The Laughing
Policeman”.
A group of adults were lying in a circle on the floor
listening to a recording of “The Laughing
Policeman”.
The people lying in a circle were attending a
workshop to learn the forgotten art of laughter.
It speeds up the heart rate, increases blood pressure
and quickens breathing.
Fry thought that laughter was a type of jogging on
the spot.
Patch Adams is both a doctor and a performing
clown in Virginia, America.
“…yet hospitals and clinics are well-known for their
depressing atmospheres”.

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Remember!
“ING” WORDS
Estas palabras tienen distintas funciones dependiendo de su ubicación dentro de la oración:
Función sustantivo: Cuando la palabra ocupa lugar de sujeto, objeto directo o
complemento de preposición.
 Sujeto: Swimming is healthy for you.
 Objeto directo: I like swimming.
 Complemento de preposición: I am interested in swimming.
Función adjetivo: Cuando la palabra con ing se encuentra adelante de un sustantivo o
detrás calificando al mismo.
 The boy sitting next to me is a very good person.
 The managing director is a good person.
Atención: Existen casos en que estas palabras con ing funcionan como sustantivos aún
cuando se encuentran delante de otro sustantivo.
 This is a walking stick.
En este caso estamos en presencia de la estructura sustantivo-sustantivo.
Función verbo: Cuando está precedida del verbo to-be (am, is, are, was, were…).
 I am sitting here.
Function adverbial: Cuando el ing responde a “cómo”.
 He entered the classroom saying hello to all his students.

CONNECTORS
5. Now look at the following sentences from the text. Underline
the connectors and state their functions.
Example from the text Function

At first everyone felt ridiculous, and only the


odd nervous ones giggled…

…but suddenly the laughter became real.

It quickly spread around the room until


everyone was infected by it.

Moreover, it makes our facial and stomach


muscles work…

Researchers found that if they produced pain


in the students, those who had listened to
the humorous tape could tolerate the
discomfort for much longer.

…”yet hospitals and clinics are well-known


for their depressing atmospheres”.

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Remember!
Los conectores (en inglés denominados: “connectors” o “linking words”) son aquellas
palabras empleadas a fin de mostrar la relación entre las ideas de un texto. Se pueden
emplear por ejemplo para unir dos o más cláusulas u oraciones. Indican adición, condición,
contraste, propósito, entre otros. En otras palabras, nos permiten organizar las ideas en el
texto en cuanto a la cohesión gramatical. Son herramientas empleadas por los autores con el
objetivo de conectar las ideas para que el lector pueda seguirlas en forma clara. En el
proceso de lectura, nos permiten anticipar el significado de una frase u oración.

Algunos conectores
 Mary plays not only the piano but also the guitar. Mary no sólo toca el piano sino
también la guitarra.
 I don't know her phone number, therefore I can't call her. No sé su número de
teléfono, por lo tanto, no puedo llamarla.
 It was very rainy; nevertheless, we went to the beach. Estaba muy lluvioso; sin
embargo, fuimos a la playa.
 Jack is a solitary boy. On the contrary, Peter has many friends. Jack es un niño
solitario. Por el contrario, Peter tiene muchos amigos.
 Although John is not very slim, he is a very fast runner. Aunque John no es muy
delgado, es un corredor rápido.

6. For more info on connectors, visit:


http://www.bossmeyer.gidw-online.de/Textarbeit202/List20of20Connectors.htm
http://mbonillo.xavierre.com/gramatica/markers.html

PAST CONTINUOUS
7. Recognize three examples of Past Continuous from the text and
state their function.
Examps from the text Function

Remember!
Este es un tiempo que empleamos para indicar que estábamos en el medio de una actividad
en un momento en particular en el pasado.

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 I was singing at the party at 10 pm.
 I was not singing at the party at 10 pm.
 Was I singing at the party at 10 pm?
 She was playing the piano.
 She was not playing the piano.
 Was she playing the piano?
 They were reading a book.
 They were not reading a book.
 Were they reading a book?

Funciones de este tiempo


1) Para expresar una acción en un momento particular en el pasado, la acción comenzó
antes de ese momento y no ha finalizado en ese momento.
 Josh was playing tennis at the club yesterday morning.
2) Para expresar interrupciones de acciones en pasado. (usando when + pasado simple)
 Mary and Josh were cooking dinner for their children when the lights went off.
3) Para expresar simultaneidad o acciones paralelas. (usando while + pasado continuo)
 I was studying while he was making dinner.
4) Para expresar irritación cuando la oración contiene el adverbio de frecuencia always.
 She was always coming to class late.

8. Read this article about “Handling Everyday Pressure”. Choose a,


b or c according to your own personal experience.

Handling Everyday Pressure

Psychologists say that day-to-day problems are what “take a lot out
of you”. Moreover, they can even affect the length of your life.
Everybody faces everyday problems, but some can handle them
better than others.
Would you like to know how well you can cope? In this quiz, circle
the answer closest to the way you actually react in the situation
described. If the situation is unfamiliar, circle the answer closest to
the way you think you would handle it.
1) The pressures of modern day living makes you and your
spouse irritable.
a) You decide to calm down and do not fight with your spouse.

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b) You try to discuss irritating matters with a third person so that you can show your feelings
without an argument.
c) You insist on discussing the problems with your spouse to see how you can take off some
of the pressure.
2) A close friend is going to get married. In your opinion, it will be a disaster.
a) You convince yourself that your early fears are incorrect, and hope for the best.
b) You decide not to worry because there’s still time for a change of plans.
c) You decide to present your point of view; you explain your reasoning seriously to your
friend.
3) You are worried about rising food prices.
a) Despite rising prices, you refuse to change your eating habits.
b) Your anger level rises every time you see an increase in price from the week before, but
you buy anyway.
c) You try to spend less and plan good menus anyway.
4) Every holiday there is a fight in the family about whether to visit your parents or
those of your spouse.
a) You make a rigid 5-year plan, which will require you to spend each holiday with different
members of the family.
b) You decide that you’ll spend important holidays with the members of the family you like
best, and ask others to join you for the lesser holidays.
c) You decide the fairest thing is not to celebrate with the family at all – and it’s less trouble.
5) You’re not feeling well.
a) You diagnose your own illness, then read about it.
b) You gather up your courage, talk about it at home and go to see your doctor.
c) You delay going to the doctor thinking that you will someday feel better.
6) Your youngest child is leaving home and going into the word.
a) You discuss the development with friends to see how they’re handling it.
b) You give all the help you can and plan new interests for yourself.
c) You try to talk the young person into staying home a bit longer.

GRAMMAR IN USE
9. Underline as many connectors as you can in the text.

10. Now look at the following examples from the text and decide
whether the words in bold are verbs, adjectives, nouns or
adverbs.
Examples from the text Function of the ING word
The pressures of modern day living have made
you and your spouse irritable.
You try to discuss irritating matters with a third
person...
You insist on discussing the problems with your
spouse...
You explain your reasoning seriously to your
friend.
You are worried about rising food prices.

You refuse to change your eating habits.

27
28
1. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. Have you ever heard about the K.I.P.P.E.R.S?

b. Do you live alone or with your parents? Why?

c. How do you get on with them?

1. Now read the introduction to the article and work on the


exercises.

Meet the Keepers

Who are they? They are children who just


won’t leave their home.
KIPPERS is an acronym for Kids in Parents’
Pockets Eroding Retirements Service. Or to
put it in another way, it refers to all those
grown up children who stay at home into their
20s or 30s unable to fly the nest.

The children
FULL HOUSE:
Daniel and Adam, 25 and 29, live with their
Daniel Blackhall, 25, second left, with his parents Linda
parents Linda and Colin. If we weren’t living at
and Colin and his brother Adam, 29.
home, we wouldn’t be able to live in such a
beautiful house. We could only rent a room in
a flat. This way we have our parents for company and money for social life. We get on so
well. We usually have dinner together and if we don’t go out, we stay at home having
fun.
My friends don’t agree at all. They say we are living in a bubble away from the real world.
They also think we should buy some food from time to time and we could contribute with
the electricity bill at least. Apart from three months when we went travelling in our
twenties, we never had the opportunity to live alone. Perhaps we might try it. We must
admit we got spoiled at home, but we can’t imagine moving out.

The parents
Linda and Colin explain why his children could stay at home as long as they like.

29
Colin, 53. Actually we don’t want an empty nest. What puzzles me is why parents should
want their children to leave home when they turn 18. Of course we are spending extra
money, but money isn’t everything. Family is.
Linda, 48. I believe they can stay at home as long as they wish. Although the fridge is the
main issue, I never get angry with my kids. They are always serving themselves some
chocolate milk and usually put the empty cartons back in the fridge. The phone is another
cause for complaint: Daniel says that I should get a mobile phone!!! He also drives my car
without asking, so I suddenly find myself unable to go out. Well! I go crazy when that
happens, I must admit. I can’t charge them a rent, there’s no point. They couldn’t pay it.
I was always planning to go on a dream cruise with my husband as soon as they leave
home. Now that’s all it can be: a dream. But we are a family and must stay together
forever.

2. Answer the following questions in Spanish.


a. Who are the KIPPERS? What do they refuse to do?

b. What do the letters stand for?

c. Why do they still live at home?

d. What’s Linda’s dream?

e. Do they want to fly the nest?

TENSES
3. Find a verb in the following tenses. Why are these tenses
used?
Examples from the text Reason for their uses
Tenses
(In English) (In Spanish)

Present Simple

Present
Continuous

30
Examples from the text Reason for their uses
Tenses
(In English) (In Spanish)
Simple Past
(irregular verb)

Past Continuous

Modal verb of
obligation
Modal verb of
possibility

Remember!
Un verbo modal es un verbo que modifica otro verbo. Usamos verbos
modales en el idioma inglés para expresar habilidad, posibilidad, certeza,
permiso, prohibición, obligación, opinión, especulación. Dependiendo del
modal que usemos, será la función que expresemos. Normalmente, estos
modales no se usan en diferentes tiempos.

Las siguientes características se aplican a la mayoría de los verbos modales.


 Misma conjugación para todas las personas.
 No es posible usar dos modales juntos.
 Verbo modal + infinitivo sin TO. (con algunas excepciones)
 Modifican al verbo principal.
 No es necesario el uso de auxiliares para interrogativo y negativo.

MODAL VERBS (PAST)

31
4. Now read the following texts, circle all modal verbs and state
their function.

Atlantis

Around 350BC Plato described


Atlantis as a place that must have
been very beautiful. There were
palaces, harbours, temples and
docks. There were spectacular
buildings, fountains that had both
hot and cold water, stone walls
covered with precious metals and
huge statues made of gold. The
capital city was built on a hill and
surrounded by rings of water, which
were joined by tunnels large enough for a ship to sail through. A huge canal connected
the outer rings of water to the ocean. On the outskirts of the capital city there were vast
fields where farmers grew the city's food. The people had no warning and the city
disappeared in a day and a night!

32
5. Now answer the following questions.
a. What do you think could have caused Atlantis to disappear?

b. What do you think might have happened to Atlantis?

An Unwelcome Neighbour

After many centuries of quiet, the


Vesuvius awoke at around noon on
24th August AD 79. At different times
during the previous months there
were usual signs of the forthcoming
eruption and so the locals must have
known that something terrible was
going to happen. It is a scientific
assumption that the first eruption
must have happened around 1 o'clock
as the marketplace was full of dead
bodies. Others think that the town's
inhabitants may have been expecting
the danger but hadn't realised it
would happen so quickly. From excavations of Pompeii and evidence found, it is obvious
that the people can't have made any preparations to protect themselves from the flowing
lava and burning ash. With some planning, many people could have escaped the inferno.
The local authorities should have had plans ready for the evacuation of the town but they
didn't pay attention to the danger. What is certain is that it all must have happened so
quickly that 2,000 people couldn't have predicted that day would turn into night in a
matter of seconds.

6. Now answer the following questions.


a. Why might the inhabitants of Pompeii have felt the danger some moments
before?

b. What plans should the local authorities have prepared in case of emergencies
like these?

33
7. Now look at the text again. What kind of verbs are the ones in
bold?

8. What is the writer’s intention when he uses them?

9. How do you translate them into Spanish?

INCHOATIVE VERBS
Los inchoative verbs son verbos especiales que indican un “cambio de estado” cuando se
les agrega un adjetivo a continuación.

BECOME – GET – TURN – COME – GO


+ ADJECTIVE

Become and get


Become and get pueden ser utilizados con la gran mayoría de los adjetivos para
describir cambios de estado en personas y cosas. Ambos verbos son muy similares:
become se utiliza más cuando se escribe y get cuando se habla.

BECOME + ADJECTIVE
(ripe, old, cloudy, clear, etc.)
(

 The apples became ripe. (The apples ripened.)


 Las manzanas se volvieron maduras. (Las manzanas maduraron.)
 He has become old. (He has aged a lot.)
 Él se volvió viejo. (Él envejeció.)

34
GET + ADJECTIVE
(angry, cold, upset, lost, trapped, hot, warm,
etc.)

 Eat your dinner before it gets cold. Come tu comida antes de que se enfríe.
 Be careful or you’ll get lost. Ten cuidado o te perderás.

Turn and go
Se puede utilizar el verbo TURN, o en un contexto más informal el verbo GO, se produce
un cambio de color en las cosas o las personas.

TURN/GO + ADJECTIVE

 Sam turned pale when he heard the news. Sam se puso blanco cuando escuchó
la noticia.
 Sam went pale when he heard the news.

Se puede utilizar el verbo GO cuando se produce un cambio negativo en el cuerpo o en la


mente de alguna persona.
 Go crazy. Volverse loco.
 Go blind. Volverse ciego.
 Go deaf. Volverse sordo.
 Go bald. Quedarse pelado.
 Go bad. Ponerse mal.

Come
El verbo COME se utiliza en algunas expresiones con un significado positivo (de mejora):
come right, come true, etc.

COME + ADJECTIVE

 All my dreams have come true. Todos mis sueños se hicieron realidad.

35
36
1. Rearrange the words in the table. Are they positive, negative
or neutral?

POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL

37
2. Read the following article about Ebola Virus.

Ebola Virus

News about Ebola disease has triggered since 2014. Studies about Ebola started in
approximately 1976. But in 2013 Ebola cases began to increase. Many people have
studied about it, for example, Thomas Geisbert, a professor at the University of Texas
Medical Branch has studied and tested drugs against Ebola for many years. There are no
approved drugs or vaccines on the market, so several Ebola patients have received
experimental medications. It is a dangerous virus that can cause people to get very sick
and even die. It has killed 961 people. The virus has caused the biggest problems in
western Africa, where an outbreak of Ebola has spread quickly. Medical experts all over
the world are taking steps to stop Ebola and to treat the people who are sick.
Ebola was also called Ebola hemorrhagic fever because it can cause the body to
hemorrhage. Ebola is very contagious and it is often life threatening. When people with
Ebola are properly diagnosed, isolated, and cared for, the risk of passing the disease to
others is low.

What Happens When Someone Has Ebola?


Ebola often starts with fever and headache, like the flu. People who have suffered from
Ebola need to be cared for in a special way so that the disease doesn't spread to doctors,
nurses, or others in their families and communities. The first child with Ebola died in a
village in Guinea on December 6, 2013.

How Do People Get It?


Doctors aren't sure but they think that people have picked up the virus from contact with
infected animals. Moreover, some tropical animals in Africa can carry the virus. Ebola
spreads through direct contact with body fluids. People can get the virus by handling or
touching an infected person's drops of blood, urine, saliva, or other body fluids. They also
can get it through contact with objects that have been contaminated with infected blood
or fluids.
Ebola can spread quickly within families and in treatment centers if caregivers don't wear
the right protective equipment, like gloves and masks. Ebola doesn't spread through food
or water like some viruses do. It doesn't travel through the air like cold or flu viruses do.

How Contagious Is It?


With Ebola, a person is contagious after he or she starts to feel sick from the virus. Many
people have consulted about it. The virus can stay in the body for weeks after a person
feels better. That's why it's so important for people who have had the virus to stay in
medical care and away from other people.

How Do People Know They Have It?


The first signs of Ebola can appear from 2 to 21 days after someone has been exposed to
the virus. Early signs of Ebola include: fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, weakness
and tiredness, sore throat and chills.

38
What Do Doctors Do?
Doctors might do tests, like liver function tests or blood tests. Most people who get Ebola
need intensive care in an isolation unit at a hospital or other well-equipped medical
center. Here's what hospital medical teams do for people with Ebola: give them lots of
fluids to keep them well hydrated, keep their oxygen and blood pressure levels steady,
give patients blood transfusions to replace lost blood and treat problems as they happen.
Some experimental treatments were completed for Ebola in recent years; and they have
been effective when tested on animals, but are not officially approved for use in people.

How Do People Protect Themselves?


There is no vaccine to prevent Ebola, although scientists have worked hard to develop
one. The best way to guard against Ebola infection is to avoid places that have had
outbreaks.

If you are in a place where there's Ebola, you should:


 avoid contact with people who are sick
 wash your hands often
 not touch or eat wild animals.
Ebola is one of the deadliest diseases known. But doctors are learning more about it all
the time. Do you think this situation will change?
For more information, visit:
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/situation-reports/en/
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/10/14/more-ebola-vaccine-
studies/17254175/

39
3. Complete the table with key words from the text.
Palabra clave
Aquella palabra
que resume la
idea principal.

4. Complete the table with cognates from the text.

Palabra transparente o cognado


Es el término que se utiliza para denominar a una palabra de una
lengua X que guarda cierto parecido y comparte significado con una
palabra de una lengua Y.

5. Complete the table with information related to the text in


Spanish.

What?

When?

Where?

Why?

Who?

How?

GRAMMAR IN USE
6. Match the following as shown in the example.

40
Connector visit: http://www.who.int/csr/disease

Imperative might

Modal verb person's drops

Possessive case biggest

Suffix if

Modal verb tiredness

Superlative adjective should

7. In the following example, what does the word “since” mean?


Point in time or period of time? Circle the correct answer.
POINT IN TIME
News about Ebola disease has triggered
or
since 2014.
PERIOD OF TIME
Thomas Geisbert, a professor at the POINT IN TIME
University of Texas Medical Branch has
or
studied and tested drugs against Ebola for
many years. PERIOD OF TIME

8. Match the following examples with the tenses like the


example and then complete their uses in Spanish.
Example from the text Uses (in Spanish)
Simple …Ebola disease has triggered
Present since 2014

Present
There is no vaccine.
Continuous

Present …died in a village in Guinea on


Perfect December 6, 2013.

Simple Past …are taking steps…

Future Simple …will this situation change?

9. Indicate the function of the Present Perfect Simple in the


following examples.
Example Function
Many people have consulted about these
feelings.

41
Example Function
News about Ebola disease has triggered
since 2014.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


El tiempo verbal Present Perfect Simple se forma de la siguiente manera:

Verbo auxiliar Verbo principal


Sujeto + +
HAVE o HAS participio pasado

 We have studied English since we were young. Hemos estudiado inglés desde que
éramos jóvenes.
 She has already played tennis. Ella ya ha jugado al tenis.
Las formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa de este tiempo verbal se realizan de la
siguiente manera:
English

Afirmativa We have visited that museum.

Negativa We have not visited that museum.

Interrogativa Have we visited that museum?

Contracciones
I have I've
You have You've
He has He's
She has She's
It has It's
We have We've
They have They've

El tiempo Presente Perfecto Simple se utiliza en los


siguientes casos
Para transmitir experiencia: A menudo, se emplea para expresar experiencias del
pasado. No nos interesa cuándo se realizó la acción. Sólo queremos saber si se realizó.

42
 I've seen that film. No quiero volver a ver esa película. (Tampoco importa el
momento en que la vi.)

Para cambios o información nueva: Utilizamos este tiempo para hablar sobre un
cambio o información nueva.
 I have bought a car. He comprador un auto.
 John has broken his leg. John se ha quebrado su pierna.
 Has the price gone up? ¿Ha aumentado el precio?
 The police have arrested the killer. La policía ha arrestado al asesino.

Para acciones que comenzaron en el pasado pero todavía continúan: Empleamos


este tiempo para referirnos a una situación que continua. Comenzó en el pasado y
continúa en el presente y probablemente en el futuro. Por lo general, utilizamos for y
since con esta estructura.

Pasado Presente Futuro

Las acciones comenzaron en Probablemente continuarán


Continúan hasta ahora.
el pasado. en el futuro.

 He has lived in Canada for five years. Él comenzó a vivir en Canadá hace cinco
años. (Y todavía sigue viviendo allí.)
 We have worked at the University since 2010. Ella comenzó a trabajar en la
Universidad desde el año 2010. (Y todavía continúa trabajando allí.)

Para una acción no finalizada que uno está esperando: Empleamos el presente
perfecto para decir que una acción que esperábamos no ha tenido lugar. Se sugiere que
todavía estamos esperando que suceda.
 James has not finished his homework yet. James no ha finalizado su tarea todavía.
 Bill has still not arrived. Bill no ha llegado todavía.
 The rain hasn't stopped. No ha parado la lluvia.
 Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate. Susan no ha
dominado el idioma japonés pero puede comunicarse.

43
Usos de FOR y SINCE con el Presente Perfecto Simple
FOR SINCE
a point in past
a period of time
time
|---------------| ■→
Empleamos 10 minutes 6.00 pm Empleamos
for para since para
Two days Friday
referirnos a referirnos a
un período nine months February un punto del
de tiempo: pasado: 9
5 minutes, 2 100 years 1963 o'clock, 1st
weeks, 6 centuries 1810 January,
years, etc. Monday, etc.
a long time I got married
the beginning of
ever
time

I have been here … since 9 o'clock.


for 20 minutes… (It’s 9:20.)

Diferencias del pretérito perfecto simple con el pasado


simple
 Énfasis en la acción o en el resultado
Present Perfect
Simple Past
Simple
I have bought a new
Emphasis on I bought a new bike Emphasis on
bike so I can ride
action yesterday. result
with you.

 Si el período de tiempo ha finalizado o no


Present Perfect
Simple Past
Simple
The time period I painted my house I have painted my The time period
has finished last week. room this week. has not finished

 Si es información nueva o anterior


Present Perfect
Simple Past
Simple
You give older He broke his leg last He has broken her You give recent
information year. leg again. news

44
 Si es un momento específico o no
Present Perfect
Simple Past
Simple
I saw the movie last I have seen that The time is not
The time is clear
Friday. movie twice. specific

 Si la acción ha finalizado o no (Uso de FOR and SINCE)


Present Perfect
Simple Past
Simple
For /since: the
For: the action is I lived there for two I have lived there
action isn’t
finished years. for ten years.
finished

Referencias de tiempo
Simple Past Present Perfect Simple
yesterday Just (recién)
last… Already (ya)
…ago Since (desde)
when she got married (past events) Ever (alguna vez)
during the war… so far (hasta ahora)
lately / recently (últimamente,
in 1980, on tuesday, etc. (past dates)
recientemente)

Para finalizar…
Empleamos el Pasado simple para eventos o acciones pasadas SIN relación con el
presente.
Empleamos el Presente perfecto para las acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y
continúan en el presente, o para acciones finalizadas con relación con el presente.
No se puede emplear el Presente perfecto con una referencia de tiempo que implique
tiempo finalizado.
En el Presente perfecto siempre hay una relación entre el presente y el pasado o
viceversa, una idea pasada pero con resultados en el presente. El tiempo de la acción es
anterior al ahora sin especificar y generalmente estamos más interesados en el resultado
que en la acción en sí.

45
46
1. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. What do you know about the eye?

b. Do you have any visual problems?

c. What do you do to protect your eyes?

2. Read the following text and make a map of it (use a sheet of


paper).

The secret of your eyes

The black centre of the eye is called the pupil. When we see something that we like our
pupils expand or dilate; but when we see something we don't like, they get smaller or shrink.
So when lovers gaze into each other's eyes, their pupils are usually dilated. If they see small
pupils in the other's eyes something is wrong, and they may start to worry.
Eye movement can be used to show certain emotions like anger, boredom or displeasure.
When people's eyes move upwards, they are often angry or displeased. Eyes which move
quickly from side to side suggest nervousness or guilt, and eyes which look down suggest
sadness or shyness.
People have always been affected by poor eyesight, but for thousands of years there was
nothing they could do about it. In the first century AD, the Roman writer Seneca looked at
words through water to make them appear larger. In the thirteenth century, Roger Bacon
discovered that looking through glass made words and details bigger. And in the fourteenth
century, an interesting fact about the Chinese was reported by Marco Polo: glasses for
reading were being used by old men. Nowadays, with all the different styles, a person's
glasses tell you a lot about their personality. Some people, however, don't like glasses and
wear contact lenses instead.
How can you help your eyes? The food on your plate can protect your eyes. Age-related
vision problems such as macular degeneration and cataracts might be avoided by the
consumption of nutrients such as omega-3, fatty acids, lutein, zinc, and vitamins C and E.
This has been proved by recent studies. Regularly eating these foods can help you have
good eye health:
 Green, leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and collards.
 Salmon, tuna, and other oily fish.
 Eggs, nuts, beans, and other non-meat protein sources.
 Oranges and other citrus fruits or juices.

47
A healthy weight can be maintained by a well balanced diet, which makes you less likely to
get diseases related to obesity such as type 2 diabetes. Blindness in adults is mainly caused
by diabetes.
What can we do to protect our eyesight? The risk of vision loss from eye diseases can be
lowered if adults:
 Control blood pressure and cholesterol.
 Stay active and exercise regularly.
 Get a complete eye exam from an eye care professional.
“We all know the steps we should take to take better care of ourselves,” said Sherry
Williams, President & CEO of Prevent Blindness Ohio. “What we want to stress is how leading
a healthy life can help lead to healthy vision.” So the future of your eyesight depends on
you.

3. Complete the table with key words from the text.


The main idea is
the most
important part of
a story.

4. Write the main idea of the text IN SPANISH.

48
5. TRUE or FALSE? Justify the false statements.
True False Justification

Marco Polo invented glasses.

Lovers usually have small pupils.

People in the past did not have


eyesight problems.

Type 2 diabetes is a disease which


is related to obesity.

The control of blood pressure and


cholesterol can improve your
eyesight.

GRAMMAR IN USE
6. Revision Task. Complete the following table with information
from the text.

Adverb of manner

Cognate and meaning

Connector and
function

Imperative and
function

49
Modal verb and
function

Noun-noun and
meaning

Ing as a verb

Ing as an adjective

Ing as a noun

PASSIVE VOICE

Active Voice
Passive Voice:
Felipe Pigna wrote
books about Argentine Some books about Argentine
myths. myths were written by Felipe
Pigna.

¿Cuál es la diferencia entre la Voz Activa y la Voz Pasiva?


La voz pasiva se utiliza para poner el foco en la acción. No es importante o conocido quién o
qué realiza la acción sino lo que sucedió.
 My car was stolen. Mi auto fue robado.
En el ejemplo anterior el foco de atención está en el hecho que mi auto fue robado, no sé
quién lo hizo.
La voz pasiva es más formal que la voz activa, como lo muestra el siguiente ejemplo:
 A mistake was made. Un error fue cometido / Se cometió un error.
En este caso, ponemos el foco de atención en el hecho de que se cometió un error, pero sin
culpar a nadie (ej.: You have made a mistake / Vos has cometido un error; Vos te has
equivocado).
Verbal Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Simple Present Paul writes a poem A poem is written by Paul
Present
Paul is writing a poem A poem is being written by Paul.
Continuous
Present Perfect Paul has written a poem. A poem has been written by Paul.
Simple Past Paul wrote a poem. A poem was written by Paul.
Past Continuous Paul was writing a poem. A poem was being written by Paul.
Future Simple Paul will write a poem A poem will be written by Paul.

50
Verbal Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Paul can write a poem. A poem can be written by Paul.
Paul may write a poem. A poem may be written by Paul.
Modal verbs Paul must write a poem. A poem must be written by Paul.
Paul should /ought to write a A poem should/ ought to be written
poem. by Paul.

El agente en las oraciones en voz pasiva


La mayoría de las oraciones en voz pasiva en inglés no incluyen el agente, construcción que
indica quién o qué realiza la acción. Sin embargo, el agente existe y se señala a través de
una frase preposicional que comienza con by.

A poem is written by Paul.


agente

Más ejemplos:
a. My car was stolen by someone.
b. A decision has been made by the group.
c. Much tobacco is grown in Eastern Europe by farmers.
d. A new president has been elected by the voters.
e. Both French and English are spoken in Canada by the populace.
Si bien en estos ejemplos figura un agente, éste es innecesario porque no aporta ninguna
información relevante.

Utilizamos el agente cuando:


1. Es un nombre propio que indica un artista, un pintor, un descubridor, etc.
a. The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.
b. The Americas were discovered by Christopher Columbus.
c. The first computer was built by Charles Babbage.
d. Rubber was first vulcanized by Charles Goodyear.
2. Es una frase nominal que expresa nueva información importante de señalar.
a. These works of art were all produced by a woman.
b. The corner store was robbed by a masked gunman.
3. Es un sustantivo inanimado de actuación/aparición inesperada:
a. Thirteen people were injured by a tornado in Florida.
b. All the lights in this building are controlled by computers.

51
GRAMMAR IN USE
7. Read the article “The Secret of your Eyes” again and identify
examples of Passive Voice, complete the following chart.
Verbal
Example
Tense

Simple
Present

Simple Past

Present
Perfect

Past
Continuous

Modal Verb

8. Read the article once more and identify examples of Passive


Voice in which an agent if present. Explain its use.
Example Use

52
53
1. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. Which do you think are the main stereotypes associated to nurses?

b. How can you become a nurse in your country?

2. Read the article carefully and write a sentence in Spanish to


describe the following concepts.

The profession

Training and
education

Female or male
predominance

Nursing as a profession

The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates
professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In
almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the
profession is regulated at the national or state level.
The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care
for all, while they maintain their credentials, code of ethics, standards, and competencies,
and they continue their education. There are a number of educational paths to becoming
a professional nurse, which vary greatly worldwide; all involve extensive study of nursing
theory and practice as well as training in clinical skills.
Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in
a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual,
social, and spiritual needs. The profession combines physical science, social science,
nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals.
To work in the nursing profession, all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on
their scope of practice and education. A Licensed practical nurse (LPN) works
independently or with a Registered nurse (RN). The most significant differentiation
between an LPN and RN is found in the requirements for the entry to practice, which
determines entitlement for their scope of practice. For example, Canada requires a
bachelor’s degree for the RN and a two-year diploma for the LPN. A Registered nurse
(RN) provides scientific, psychological, and technological knowledge in the care of
patients and families in many health care settings.

54
In the USA, multiple educational paths will qualify a candidate to sit for the licensure
examination as a registered nurse. The Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) is awarded to
the nurse who has completed a two-year undergraduate academic degree. The Bachelor
of Science in Nursing (BSN) is awarded to the nurse who has earned an American four-
year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary
education university or similarly accredited school. After completing either the LPN or
either RN education programs in the USA, graduates are eligible to sit for the licensing
examination to become a nurse, which they have to pass to obtain the nursing license.
Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of
people, in any setting, at any time. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a
hospital setting.
Around the world, nurses have been traditionally female. Despite equal opportunity
legislation, nursing has continued to be a female-dominated profession. For instance, the
male-to-female ratio of nurses was approximately 1:19 in Canada and America in 1999.
Now, the ratio is 1:25. This ratio is represented around the world. Notable exceptions
include Francophone Africa, where there are more male than female nurses. In Europe, in
countries such as Spain, Portugal, Czechoslovakia, and Italy, more and more male
students are following a nursing course at university, and over 20% of nurses are male.

3. Read the article again and answer the following questions.


a. What is the aim of the nursing community worldwide?

b. What do nurses do?

c. What is the difference between a Licensed practical nurse and a Registered


nurse?

55
d. How can you become a nurse in the USA?

e. According to the text, are there more male or female nurses in the world?

RELATIVE CLAUSES
4. Now look at the following example from the text.
 Recognize the relative clause.
 Underline the relative pronoun.
 Translate the sentence into Spanish.
Example Spanish

… the practice of
nursing is based
upon a social
contract that
delineates
professional rights
and responsibilities…

Usamos cláusulas o proposiciones relativas para brindar información adicional acerca de


algo sin usar otra oración. Al combinar oraciones con una clausula relativa, el texto suena
más fluido y se evita la repetición.
Relative
Meaning Example
Pronoun

WHO QUIÉN The historians who (that) date the end of Ancient Times in
the year 476 AD consider the fall of the Western Roman
THAT QUIENES Empire.
WHICH QUÉ Sumerian Cuneiform, which (that) is the oldest form of
THAT CÚAL writing, developed in the Middle East.

Felipe Pigna is a historian whose books have become best-


WHOSE CUYO
sellers.

Relative
Meaning Example
Adverb
WHERE DÓNDE The place where the Homo Sapiens evolves is Africa.

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Relative
Meaning Example
Adverb
WHEN CUANDO The year when I was born was very cold
POR el/la
WHY That is the reason why we met him
CUAL

5. Recognize three examples of relative clauses from the text


and underline the relative pronoun.
1.

2.

3.

COGNATES AND FALSE COGNATES


6. Recognize as many examples of cognates as you can. Then,
say what they mean in Spanish.
Cognate Spanish

El cognado es el término que se utiliza para denominar a una palabra de una lengua “X”
que guarda cierto parecido y comparte significado con una palabra de una lengua “Y”. Por
ejemplo, encyclopaedia (en inglés) es un cognado de enciclopedia (en español).
Palabra en inglés Significado en español
music música
problem problema

57
Palabra en inglés Significado en español
dollar dólar

Se denomina false cognate o false friend (falso cognado) a dos palabras en distintos
idiomas, que por la forma en que se escribe o se pronuncia, se parece mucho a otra
palabra en el otro idioma, pero con otro significado.
Falsos cognados Significado en inglés Significado en español
Carpeta: folder, file,
Carpet vs Carpeta Carpet: alfombra. portfolio, briefcase, table
cloth.
Exit vs Éxito Exit: salida. Éxito: success.

7. Look at the following words in bold from the text. What do


you think they mean? Check with a dictionary.
individual:

care:

pass:

instance:

8. Are they cognates or false cognates?

9. Can you identify examples of infinitive of purpose?

Utilizamos el infinitivo de un verbo para hablar acerca del propósito de


hacer algo.
- I went out to mail a letter. (Salí para enviar una carta).
- She called me to invite me to a party. (Me llamó para invitarme a una fiesta)
Por lo tanto, se concluye que no se debe utilizar FOR en estos casos.
- I'm going to Argentina to learn Spanish (not, I'm going to Argentina FOR TO
LEARN Spanish)

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59
1. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. Are you going on a diet? Why?

b. Was it planned by a doctor?

c. What do you know about bulimia and anorexia?

2. Read the following article carefully and do the exercises that


follow.

Dying to be thin

Kathy’s problem began when she was sixteen years old. She had always been conscious of
her figure, but had never thought of dieting until one summer’s day at school. As she was
enjoying an ice cream from the school canteen, a teacher jokingly told her that she would
get fat if she ate too many sweets. She quickly lost a lot of weight and began to look too
thin. She had taken the teacher´s words to heart and had begun a diet which would last for
the next twenty years of her life.
When Kathy left school later that year, she began a modelling course. “Modelling was
possibly the worst career I could have chosen”, she admitted. “Whoever surrounded me was
even thinner than me, and it made me feel terrible.” At the age of eighteen she joined the
police force. She continued to lose even more weight and soon her friends asked her if she
was ill. “I thought that they were jealous of me for being so thin, but actually I looked
awful.” She smiled sadly.
One day, Kathy read a magazine article which changed her life. It was about a young
woman who had died of cancer. She suddenly realized that she had everything she could ask
for and she had been throwing it all away. At that very moment, Kathy made up her mind to
get over her illness. She gave up exercising, stopped making her sick and started writing a
book about her experiences. Wherever she was invited, she gave a talk on eating disorders.
She had a very good response from her talks, although it surprised her that many teenagers
seemed to believe that it was attractive to be dangerously thin. “I want children to
understand that their health is more important than trying to conform to a certain image,”
said Cathy.
Kathy and her family were relieved and happy that she had managed to overcome her
problem and now her main ambition was to prevent others from going through the same
nightmare. “A lot of people never recover from anorexia. Now, if I can save just one person
from the horror of eating disorders, it will make my experience seem worthwhile.”

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3. Read the article again and answer the following questions.
a. Why did Kathy go on a diet?

b. What made her do it?

c. How long did she go through a nightmare?

d. When did she get conscious about her problem?

e. What did she do to make her experience worthwhile?

REVISION
4. Find examples in the text and complete the chart.

Relative clause

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Passive voice

Conditional
Sentence

Comparative:

Anticipatory it:

Pronoun it:

5. Classify the word “modeling” in the following examples:

She began a modelling course.

Modelling was possibly the worst career I could have


chosen.

6. Analyse the meaning of prefixes and suffixes in the following


words:

Sadly

Illness

Overcome

GRAMMAR IN USE
7. Complete the following tables with examples from the text.
Example Functions / Uses
Tense
(in English) (in Spanish)

Simple Past

Past Continuous

Past Perfect

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PAST PERFECT
El tiempo verbal Past Perfect se forma de la siguiente manera:

Verbo auxiliar Verbo principal


Sujeto + +
HAD participio pasado

Las formas afirmativa, negativa e interrogativa de este tiempo verbal se realizan de la


siguiente manera:
English Spanish

Afirmativa We had eaten chocolate. Habíamos comido chocolate.

Negativa We had not eaten chocolate. No habíamos comido chocolate.

Interrogativa Had we eaten chocolate? ¿Habíamos comido chocolate?

El Pasado Perfecto se usa:


para acciones que ocurrieron antes de otro hecho del pasado
 When I got home yesterday, my father had already cooked dinner. Cuando llegué a
casa ayer, mi padre ya había preparado la cena.
 I didn't want to go to the movies with my friends because I had seen the film
already. No quise ir al cine con mis amigos porque yo ya había visto la película.
 I arrived very late at the party. All my friends had already gone home. Llegué tarde a
la fiesta. Mis amigos ya se habían ido.
 I was very tired as I hadn't slept well for several days. Estaba muy cansado porque
no había dormido bien por varios días.
Notice how often words like already, just, never etc. are used with the past perfect
en el discurso indirecto
El pasado perfecto se utiliza para decir las palabras o pensamientos de otros.
 John said that he had never eaten sushi before. John dijo que no había comido sushi
antes.
 He told me he hadn't done his homework. Él me dijo que no había terminado la
tarea.
en el Condicional 3 para expresar algo que pudiera haber ocurrido pero no ocurrió
(Lesson 9)
 If I hadn´t overslept, I would have been on time. Si no me hubiera quedado
dormido, habría llegado en horario.

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GRAMMAR IN USE
8. Translate the following sentences taken from the text.
Wherever she was invited, she gave a talk on eating disorders.
Translation:

Whoever surrounded me was even thinner than me, and it made me feel terrible.
Translation:

Palabras relativas con el sufijo EVER


El sufijo -EVER se adjunta a ciertas palabras relativas WHO / WHOSE / WHOM / WHICH /
WHERE / WHAT con el fin de expresar el sentido de 'no importa qué', 'todo':
 Whichever decision you make, I'm sure it will be the right one. Cual sea la decisión
que tomes, estoy seguro que será la mejor.
 Whoever stole my mug should bring it back immediately. Cualquiera que haya robado
mi taza debe traerla inmediatamente.
 The director will cast whomever he finds suitable. El director de la película, dará el
papel a quién le convenga.
 Whatever he asks for, you should give it to him. Pida lo que pida, deberás dárselo.
 Whenever she speaks in public she makes a fool of herself. Siempre que ella hable en
público sentirá que hace el ridículo.
 Wherever she goes, she meets him. Donde sea que ella vaya, se lo encuentra.

Podemos encontrar el sufijo -SOEVER después de las palabras relativas, sin embargo, esta
construcción es raramente utilizada con who, when y whom:
 He won't say anything whatsoever. Él se niega a decir algo.
 He didn't expect any presents whatsoever. Él no espera recibir ningún regalo.
 He doesn't want to see his friends whomsoever. Él no quiere ver a sus amigos.

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65
1. Answer the following questions in Spanish:
a. Do you like yogurt? Is it part of your daily diet?

b. Yogurt is said to be one of the best dairy products for its excellent nutrients. A
dairy product is food produced from the milk of mammals. What other dairy
products do you know?

2. Kristen Paisley is doing a survey on yogurt for an MBA class


project. Read the questions carefully and answer them
according to your preferences. Choose the answer that suits
you best.

Yogurt Survey

1) Who eats yogurt in your household? Please specify.


a) Female head of household
b) Male head of household
c) Children under 13
d) Teenagers 13-19
2) How often does your family consume yogurt?
a) Everyday
b) A few times a week
c) Occasionally
d) Never
3) How much yogurt do you consume per week?
a) 1-2 serving
b) 3-4 serving
c) 4-5 serving
d) More than 5
4) When do you have yogurt?

66
a) Breakfast
b) Afternoon snack
c) After dinner
d) Other
5) What are the most common flavours you choose when picking yogurt?
Check all that apply.
a) Vanilla
b) Strawberry
c) Plain
d) Plum
e) Mango
f) Other
6) Do you use yogurt in cooking or baking? Please specify.
a) Yes
b) No
7) What is your favorite recipe containing yogurt?

3. Now read the following article:

What do you know about yogurt?

You may notice that these days


supermarkets are flooded with different
kinds of yogurt in different flavours.
Yogurt helps balance the healthy bacteria
in the body, and it is also a good source
of calcium. Women´s magazines claim
that it even has qualities that improve the
skin. Your body needs to have a healthy
amount of ''good'' bacteria in the
digestive tract, and many yogurts are
made using active, good bacteria. One of
the words you will be hearing more of in
relation to yogurt is ''probiotics.''
Probiotic, which literally means ''for life,''
refers to living organisms that can result
in a health benefit if you eat them in
adequate amounts. Probiotics are specific
to certain strains of these "good" bacteria. Many provide their benefits by adjusting the
microflora (the natural balance of organisms) in the intestines, or by acting directly on
body functions, such as digestion or immune function. (Keep in mind that the only yogurts
that contain probiotics are those that say "live and active cultures" on the label.) So, if

67
you were under any antibiotic treatment, you should have a yogurt a day. Antibiotics are
known to eliminate some of the intestine's good bacteria. If you consume yogurt, with its
live, active cultures, your body will have a healthy and balanced intestinal tract.
If it is applied directly on the skin, it can also heal burns. But yogurt is not a new fad.
It has been around for thousands and thousands of years, although no one really knows
where it is originated.
Yogurt is a main food in many cultures that are known for people who live long lives. The
word “yoğurt” is Turkish in origin. Most historical accounts attribute yogurt to the
Neolithic peoples of Central Asia around 6000 B.C. Herdsmen began the practice of
milking their animals, and the natural enzymes in the carrying containers (animal
stomachs) curdled the milk, essentially making yogurt. Not only did the milk then keep
longer, but also it is thought that people preferred the taste so continued the practice,
which then evolved over centuries into commercial yogurt making. Legend has it that
Methuselah, who was famous in the Bible for living over 900 years, ate yogurt. If
he had not eaten such amounts of yogurt, he would not have lived for so long.
Yogurt is not only made from cow´s milk. Supposedly, goat´s milk yogurt was eaten by
the biblical patriarch Abraham. It is also believed that Genghis Kahn, the great Mongol
warrior, ate a lot of yak´s milk yogurt. His armies lived on yogurt. It is rumoured that if
his soldiers had not eaten some yogurt before a battle, he would not let them fight. It is
also said that King Salomon, the biblical character known for his wisdom, also enjoyed it.
It was not long that yogurt travelled through to other peoples, and the consumption
spread throughout the East.
The first industrialized production of yogurt is attributed to Isaac Carasso in 1919 in
Barcelona – his company “Danone” was named for his son, “Little Daniel”.
Turkish immigrants brought yogurt to North America in the 1700s but it really did not
catch on until the 1940s when Daniel Carasso, the son of Danone´s founder Isaac, and
Juan Metzger took over a small yogurt factory in the Bronx, New York. Daniel´s company,
whose name is Dannon, has branches throughout the United States and other foreign
countries.
Yogurt with fruit on the bottom was first introduced in 1947 by Dannon.
As yogurt comes from cow or goat´s milk, yogurt eaters will also get a dose of animal
protein (about 9 grams per 6-ounce serving), plus several other nutrients found in dairy
foods, like calcium, vitamin B-2, B-12, potassium, and magnesium.
You do not have to be Ghengis Kahn to eat yogurt. If you enjoy cooking, yogurt can
be easily made at home. This is how:
Yogurt is fermented from milk and from live cultures. To make it, a spoonful of existing
yogurt is put into a cup of milk. The culture in the existing yogurt reacts with the milk and
in a few days yogurt is made. Flavours are then added to improve the taste.
If the Neolithic people had not discovered this creative way of using the milk, we would
not be enjoying yogurt today!

Some nutrition facts

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4. Here are five possible health benefits of having a yogurt a
day. Label each paragraph according to the benefits and
translate them into Spanish.
Yogurt may help prevent osteoporosis.
Yogurt with active cultures may discourage vaginal infections.
Yogurt may help you feel fuller.
Yogurt with active cultures helps the gut.
Yogurt may reduce the risk of high blood pressure.

1.
Micronutrients of greatest importance are calcium and vitamin D. The combination of
calcium and vitamin D in yogurts has a clear skeletal benefit.

2.
A recent study has found a link between dairy intake and risk of high blood pressure.
It was observed a 50% reduction in the risk of developing high blood pressure among
people eating 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy a day (or more), compared with those without
any intake.

3.
Yogurt with active cultures may help certain gastrointestinal conditions, including:
 Lactose intolerance
 Constipation
 Diarrhea
 Colon cancer
 Inflammatory bowel disease
 H. pylori infection
It also contributes to:
 Changes in the microflora of the gut
 The time food takes to go through the bowel
 Enhancement of the body's immune system

4.
Candida or "yeast" vaginal infections are a common problem for women. Studies have
shown that women with chronic Candidal vaginitis who consume 6 ounces of frozen
aspartame-sweetened yogurt per day have decreased Candida infections.

5.
Studies have shown that consuming a yogurt snack reduces hunger and makes you feel
full.

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5. What does the text say about the following concepts?

YOGURT
BENEFITS

YOGURT IN THE
PAST

YOGURT
NUTRIENTS

HOMEMADE
YOGURT

REVISION
6. Language analysis. Find the words or expressions in bold and
tick the correct answer.
1-In the expression “by adjusting the microflora”, adjusting is used as:

a) a verb.
b) a noun.
c) an adjective.

2- In “…you should have a yogurt a day.”, the modal verb should expresses:

a) an obligation.
b) a recommendation
c) a need.

3- “…it is applied directly on the skin.” shows:

a) a sentence in the passive voice.


b) a relative clause.
c) a conditional sentence.

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4- In “…,who was famous in the Bible for living over 900 years.”, what does the
relative pronoun who introduce?

a) a relative clause.
b) an adverbial clause.
c) a nominal clause.

5-In the relative clause “ … whose name is Dannon … ”, whose functions as:

a) a relative pronoun.
b) a relative adverb.
c) a relative adjective.

6-"… If you enjoy cooking, yogurt can be easily made at home.”, If introduces:

a) a condition.
b) a contrast.
c) a purpose.

7. The word microflora appears in the text above. Can you


identify the prefix? What effect does it have on the meaning
of the word? Can you think of other examples?

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
En el nivel 1 hemos visto los condicionales de tipo 0 y 1. Hagamos un breve repaso:
El uso del condicional significa que una acción depende de otra. Las oraciones
condicionales se utilizan para hablar sobre situaciones reales o irreales. En general,
llevan la palabra "if" (si).
No existe un tiempo verbal para el condicional en inglés como existe en español. A la vez,
se usa el verbo auxiliar "would" para formar el condicional en inglés.
Hay cuatro tipos de oraciones condicionales y el uso de uno u otro refleja la probabilidad
de la acción.

Zero Conditional (Tipo 0)


Se usa este tipo de condicional cuando la condición y el resultado siempre es verdad,
como por ejemplo los hechos científicos, o leyes de las naturaleza.

IF CONDITION RESULT
IF present simple present simple

71
 If you stop and start the camera during the shot, you make a small change in the
scene each time. Si apagas y enciendes la cámara durante el rodaje, realizas
pequeños cambios cada vez que lo haces.
Nota: Podemos cambiar el orden de las subordinadas sin cambiar el significado.
También, en general con este tipo de condicional, podemos sustituir "if" por "when" sin
alterar el significado.

First Conditional (Tipo 1)


En este tipo de oraciones condicionales existe una posibilidad real de que suceda lo que
en ellas se expresa.

IF CONDITION RESULT
IF present simple Future simple ("will")

 If you use the computer, you will make amazing effects. Si usas la computadora,
crearás efectos sorprendentes.
Nota: Se pueden usar algunos verbos modales en vez de "will" para cambiar la
probabilidad o expresar una opinión. Para más información, ver la unidad sobre los verbos
modales.
 If you use the computer, you may make amazing effects. Si usas la computadora,
es posible que crees efectos sorprendentes.
Con el uso de "may", el significado de esta frase cambia. Ahora, el hablante reconoce que
existe la posibilidad de crear efectos sorprendentes.

Second Conditional (Tipo 2)


Se utiliza el tipo 2 para expresar una situación hipotética, o imaginaria como un deseo o
un sueño. Utilizamos un pasado simple para indicar el modo subjuntivo.

IF CONDITION RESULT
IF Past simple "Would" + infinitivo

 If we had to make a similar movie, it would be a piece of cake. Si tuviéramos que


realizar una película similar, sería una pavada.
Nota: Como en el tipo 1, se pueden usar otros verbos modales (could, should) en vez de
"would" para cambiar el significado y la posibilidad.
 These sound effects could be completely different if we had to create them today.
Estos efectos de sonido podrían ser completamente diferentes si tuvieramos que
crearlos hoy.
Con el uso de "could", el significado de esta frase cambia. Ahora, el hablante hace una
expresa una posibilidad.

72
Third Conditional (Tipo 3)
A diferencia a los tipos 1 y 2, se utiliza el tercer tipo de condicional cuando hablamos de
una condición en el pasado que no ha sucedido.

IF CONDITION RESULT
IF Past perfect "Would have" + past participle

 If we had had high technology in the past, the movie would have had
extraordinary effects. Si hubiéramos tenido esta tecnología de punta en el pasado,
habríamos creado efectos extraordinarios.
Nota: Como en los tipos 1 y 2, se pueden usar otros verbos modales en vez de "would"
para cambiar el significado y la probabilidad.
 If we had had high technology in the past, the movie could have had
extraordinary effects. Si hubiéramos tenido esta tecnología de punta en el pasado,
podríamos haber creado efectos extraordinarios.

8. Identify the use of each conditional sentence.Match the


sentences 1-5 with the most appropiate description A-E.
1- If you were under antibiotic treatment, A-Something is quite likely to happen in the
you should take a yogurt a day. future.
2- If you do not consume dairy products,
B-An unreal situation completely in the
you will have bones and joints problems in
past.
older age.
3- If Methuselah had not eaten such
amounts of yogurt, he could not have lived C-An established fact.
for so long.
4- If you consume a yogurt a day, you keep
D-Something possible in the future.
your intestinal flora balanced.
5- If yogurt is applied directly on the skin, it
E-Something hypothetical or imaginary.
can also heal burns.

9. Identify which conditional construction is used in each


sentence.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCE Zero First Second Third

If Methuselah had not eaten such amounts of yogurt,


he could not have lived for so long.
If you consume yogurt, with its live active cultures,
your body will have a healthy and balanced intestinal
tract.
If you consume a yogurt a day, you keep your
intestinal flora balanced.
If you had constipation, doctors should recommend
you yogurt.

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10. Choose a conditional sentence from the texts that
describes a real situation and translate it into Spanish. Justify
its use.
Conditional Sentence:

Translation:

11. Which conditional in the texts expresses a possibility?


Translate it into Spanish.
Conditional Sentence:

Translation:

12. Which conditional in the texts expresses a hypothetical


situation? Translate it into Spanish and justify its use.
Conditional Sentence:

Translation:

13. Which conditional in the texts expresses a


recommendation? Translate it into Spanish and justify its
use.
Conditional Sentence:

Translation:

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75
1. Look at the picture and answer the following questions in
Spanish.
a. Have you ever seen this symbol?

b. Can you understand it?

2. Now read the introduction to the article and work on the


exercises.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established
on December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly. The agency is
mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees and
INTRODUCTION

resolve refugee problems worldwide. Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights
and well-being of refugees. It strives to ensure that everyone can exercise the right
to seek asylum and find safe refuge in another State, with the option to return
home voluntarily, integrate locally or to resettle in a third country. It also has a
mandate to help stateless people.
In more than six decades, the agency has helped tens of millions of people restart
their lives. Today, a staff of some 8,600 people in more than 125 countries
continues to help some 33.9 million persons.

3. Answer the following questions in Spanish.


a. When did The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees start
to operate?

b. What was its purpose?

c. Is it important? What has it done?

76
d. Do you understand the following figures? Can you explain them in Spanish?
Figures in English Translation into Spanish

8,600

33.9 million

GRAMMAR CHECK
4. Can you identify three tenses in the introduction? Provide
examples.
Tenses in the Examples from the text Reason for their uses
Introduction (In English) (In Spanish)

Simple Present

Simple Past

Present Perfect

5. Why is the following modal verb used in the text?

It strives to
ensure that
everyone can
exercise the
right to…

6. Can you identify an expression with an “infinitive of purpose”


in the following sentence?
The agency is mandated to lead and co-ordinate international action to protect refugees
and resolve refugee problems worldwide.

7. Why is the passive voice used in the following example? What


is the tense of the passive voice sentence? Can you identify
the agent?
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees was established on
December 14, 1950 by the United Nations General Assembly.

77
8. Read the following sentence and identify the “ing word”. Is it
a verb, a noun or an adjective?
Its primary purpose is to safeguard the rights and well-being of refugees.

A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life

Ensuring that people have access to adequate nutrient-rich food and safe water is
essential for protecting the safety, health and well-being of refugees and other
populations of concern. For this reason, UNHCR (the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees) strives to improve the nutritional status of all the
people it serves - mostly women and children.
The right to freedom from hunger and malnutrition is also backed by international
conventions, as is the right to the highest standards of health and health care.
Moreover, the goals of ensuring that forcibly displaced people have access to
adequate health services, food security, water and improved nutrition are included
in UNHCR's Global Strategic Objectives for 2008-2012.
The UN refugee agency works to achieve these targets, as well as the goal of
ensuring international nutrition standards for all people of concern, through
strategic funding and by working in partnership with the World Food Programme
(WFP) and other governmental and non-governmental partners. UNHCR
implements the most up-to-date nutritional and food security approaches and
technologies in programmes and policies.
MAIN TEXT

UNHCR, which is the lead agency in coordinating refugee nutrition, has also
identified essential packages to improve services for populations in need in the
areas of nutrition and micronutrients as well as related areas such as reproductive
health, malaria and child survival.
In addition, greater emphasis and resources are being put into building the capacity
of UNHCR and its partners through training, standard guidelines, strategic plans
and additional staffing, coordination and appropriate programme practices.
There is a clear link between nutrition and public health. Communicable diseases
brought on in part by malnutrition are responsible for millions of preventable deaths
each year. Mass population movements can result in high rates of malnutrition,
sickness and death. Shortage of food also makes people more vulnerable to sexual
abuse and exploitation. Poor quality diets contribute to delayed childhood
development, causing irreparable damage due to vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
For those UNHCR serves who are living with chronic illnesses, in particular
HIV/AIDS, adequate nutrition is vital in maintaining an individual's immune system.
UNHCR monitors the nutrition of people of concern through the Health Information
System, regular surveys and nutrition-related databases.

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9. Answer the following questions in Spanish.
a. Why is it considered that “access to adequate nutrient-rich food and safe water”
is vital?

b. What is the aim of UNHCR?

c. Does it work alone?

d. Are there any consequences for those people who suffer from poor quality diets
and shortage of food?

GRAMMAR CHECK

10. Can you identify three tenses in the main text? Provide
examples.
Tenses in the Examples from the text Reason for their uses
Introduction (In English) (In Spanish)

Simple Past

Present Perfect

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11. There are two examples of adjectives in the text. Can you
identify their degree?

Greater

Highest

more
vulnerable

12. Passive voice: can you identify the doer of the action if
any?

The right to freedom from hunger and


malnutrition is also backed by international
conventions…

…water and improved nutrition are included


in UNHCR's Global Strategic Objectives for
2008-2012.

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