Management of Technology

Report on AIRCRAFT
3/19/2011

SUBMITTED BY: Ankita Makraria 318 Nitesh Khemchandani 315 Udit Khanijow 314 Angad Singh 325

..................................................... .. .... ...................... ..... ....................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................... ................................ 3 KITTYHAWK AND AFTER ................................... ............................. .......... .......................................... .............................. ..................... .... 13 General aviation............. .......................... 13 Commercial. .......................... .......... ........ ......... ... 9 Empennage.................. .................................................................................................................. ................... ....... . ...... ........... ....................................................................................................................... 11 Performance of aircraft............ ....................... ........................... .............. ......................................................................................... ....... ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 Experimental............... ... 3 The 19th Century ................ ........................................................................................................................... ......................... ........ .............................................. ..................... . ........................................................ 12 Areas of use ..................... ........................ .................. ...................... ........ 10 Cabin ................................. ......... 14 ............................................ ............ ............... 6 Heavier than air aerodynes ................................... . ............................................... ... ................. 8 Airframe .................................................................................. 8 Wing configuration ...................................................... ......... ....................................... ..... ......................... ................... 13 Civil ..... ......... . .............................. ..................................................Table of Contents Introduction............................ ........................................ 5 Method of lift ......................................................... 8 Fuselage. ................ 4 BEFORE WORLD WAR II....................................... ....... . 7 General construction ............... 9 Flight control surface ........................... ................................... 6 Lighter than air aerostats .. .............. ........................................ ......................................................................... ........................ ............. 13 Military ........ 3 Early aviation ......................... .................. ... ........................................................................................................................ 9 Flight deck ..................... ...... ....................... ... ................. ........ ................ .................................................. ....... ............ ................. .............. 7 Other methods to lift ... 11 Flight envelope ............ ........ ........................................................... ........................................... .......................................................... 9 Aircraft engine ......................... ...... 12 Aircraft flight dynamics ........................... . 11 Aircraft range............................................................................................. .... ..........................................................................................................

In the 16th century. designed in the 5th century BC. and Alexander Graham Bell developed a gigantic passenger-carrying tetrahedral-celled kite from 1895 to 1910. use. who created the first heavier-than-air. Lawrence Hargrave first created the box kite in 1893. Leonardo da Vinci studied birds' flight. A famous glider developer in the 19th century was Jean Marie Le Bris. Although Leonardo's designs were impractical. For centuries man has dreamed to soar with the birds. British Sir George Cayley designed a combined helicopter and horizontally propelled aircraft. He envisioned three different types of heavier-than-air craft: the helicopter. and ornithopter (a machine with mechanical wings which flap to mimic a bird). This model demonstrated lift but failed to actually climb. Some of the most important full-scale model flight attempts were made by Samuel Langley.in which the term aircraft refers to any vehicle capable of flight.Introduction Aviation is defined as the design. John Stringfellow. and Lawrence Hargrave have conjured up ideas of how to get some of the strangest machines to fly long before the Wright brothers' famous first flight at Kitty Hawk. a British-born Australian inventor. Later on in the 13th century. performed studies which later gave him the idea that air could support a craft just like water supports boats. Aircraft can either be heavier-than-air or lighter-than-air: lighter-than-air craft including balloons and airships. who designed a steam-engine powered aircraft which was launched from a wire. and later produced the airscrew and the parachute. and ornithopters. it flew 312 ft (95m) in 1891. an English monk. he was vital to aviation because he was the first to make scientific suggestions. seeing they required human muscular power which was insufficient to generate flight with the aircraft he envisioned. and the parachute were tremendously important contributions to aviation. a Frenchman who tested a glider with movable wings. was powered by a 53 horsepower 5- . The 'aerodrome'. and heavier-than-air craft including airplanes. helicopters. Lawrence Hargrave. The 19th Century Some of the more credible developments in actual flight and stability occurred in the 19th century. glider. autogiros. The airscrew. Roger Bacon. Famous inventors such as Leonardo da Vinci. Another famous inventor was John Stringfellow. gasoline-powered engine which actually flew. manufacture. which he called it. Kites also played an important role in the development of aviation: they could be used to test aerodynamics and flight stability. and British Francis Herbert Wenham used wind tunnels in his studies and predicted the application of multiple wings placed above each other. gliders. leading to the propeller later on. Early aviation The first form of an aircraft was the kite. created a rigid-wing aircraft with flapping blades operated by a compressed-air motor. or operation of aircraft .

and when World War I began. Pusher biplanes (two-winged airplanes with the engine and propeller behind the wing) were succeeded by tractor biplanes (two-winged airplanes with the engine and propeller in front of the wing). their aircraft crashed. at about 47mph (75. on December 31. Well-known in the aviation field by this time. Yet the show went on and Wilbur went to France in August 1908.days before the Wrights' historic flight. the Scientific American Trophy. He also became the first American to develop and fly a seaplane -. he completed a 2 hour 20 minute flight which demonstrated full control over his Flyer. airplane design greatly improved. it's remarkable how far aviation has come. Throughout this century. 1910.cylinder radial engine and later crashed into the Potomac river on December 1903 -. Selfridge later died of a concussion and was the first person to be killed in a powered airplane.6 km/h). Yet.5 sec on July 4. 1910. On December 17. although stability and control required for sustained flight had not been acquired. huge biplane bombers with two to four engines were developed. on September 17. powered flight required light gasoline engines instead of the cumbersome steam engines previously used. 1903.the first successful seaplane flight having been done by Henri Fabre of France on March 28. Selfridge). 1908. machine-powered flight which lasted 12 seconds and spanned 120 feet. Monoplane designs were rare. for an airplane flight when he flew the 'June Bug' 5090 ft (1552m) in 1 min 42. at 10:35 a. not all flights were victorious.. The first airmail . the Wright brothers (Orville at the controls) made the first heavier-than-air. Curtiss also went on to win the first international speed event. inventors noticed that successful. injuring Orville and his passenger (Lieutenant Thomas E. The Flyer was purchased on August 2 and became the first successful military airplane. KITTYHAWK AND AFTER From 1903 to today. Their first flight was 102 feet short of the wingspan of the C-5 Galaxy today. Glenn Hammond Curtiss won the first American award. 1908. on August 28. Airmail was also started. Before World War I. Most importantly. It remained in service for around two years and was retired to the Smithsonian Institution where it rests today. yet they did what every man and woman has dreamed for centuries « they flew.m. major developments would give inventors a sound basis in experimental aerodynamics. although it only lasted a week.

BEFORE WORLD WAR II Between 1919 and 1926.000. aircraft became a decisive factor in warfare. around 3. the first nonstop transatlantic flight was made by John William Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown on June 14 to June 15. after this.S. and 14 minutes. This flight was made from Roosevelt Field. AFTER WORLD WAR II After World War II and by 1947 all the basic technology needed for aviation had been developed: jet propulsion. Congress passed the Kelly Air Mail act which authorized the Post Office Department to contract with air-transport operators. etc. The largest operator of all international airlines in operation at this time was Pan American Airways. Before World War II only about 193.officially approved by the U.1170km) in 1919. faster. Civilian aircraft orders drastically increased from 6.S. Airmail and express cargo would also increase by around 30 percent.000. F. and power plants would result in high-speed turbojet airplanes. airlines at this time. and the pilot (Earle Ovington) would carry the mail on his legs and tossed the bag overboard when he reached his destination. metals. and Lieutenant Oakley Kelly and Lieutenant John A. It took a little over 16 hours to complete and they won the "London Daily Mail" prize of $50. . New aerodynamic designs. One of the minor military contractors was the Boeing Company who later became the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world.375. Small aircraft production increased significantly. Macready made the first nonstop transcontinental flight from May 2 to May 3. San Diego. was completed by Calbraith P. mail by air. His flight from New York to California took 3 days. and featured pressurized cabins.000 passengers were transported by 18 U. These planes would later be able to fly supersonically and make transoceanic flights regularly. also. Pan American served 46 countries and colonies linking all continents and nearly all oceans. 1924. Mail delivery also took a major turn during these years. DURING WORLD WAR II During World War II. This made it possible to transport U.S. Rodgers. radar. aerodynamics. and during 1941 the number increased to 450. Long Island to Rockwell Field. 10 hours. Also in 1911. a new frontier of flight would take shape. around 1 million more than in 1940. 14 domestic airmail companies were created in 1926. some amazing progress in record breaking for aviation took place. Also in 1919. White made a nonstop flight from Chicago to New York (727 mi . jet and rocket propelled aircraft. The first round-the-world flight was made from April 6 to September 28. But by the end of World War II. the first transcontinental flight across the U. With all the new technologies developed by this time. In 1925.S.000 people were employed in the aviation industry.000 by the end of 1945. Captain E. airliners were larger. 1923. and was by a Wright aircraft. 1911. Post Office Department began on September 23.844 in 1941 to 40.

developed by Burt Rutan. steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies. 3 minutes. whilst an "airship" is a powered one. while the term airship was used for large. Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. The aircraft held 1.858 lb (840kg) upon landing. Huge powered aerostats. powered aircraft designs ± usually fixed-wing± though none had yet been built. The flight. the first being kites. maintaining an average speed of 115. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat. The advent of powered balloons.3 km/h). which is less dense than the surrounding air.750 lb (4420 kg) at takeoff and only 1. and were only the second type of aircraft to fly. called dirigible balloons. lasted 9 days. During the Second World War. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons. Then several accidents. characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags.One of the more famous record-breaking flights around this time was the Voyager. a balloon was any aerostat. Method of lift Lighter than air aerostats Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. filled with a relatively low density gas such as helium. led to the demise of these airships. and later of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size. and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship (which may then be rigid or non-rigid). hydrogen or hot air. The nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937. 44 seconds and covered 25. It weighed about 9.200 gallons (4500 liters) of fuel in its 17 fuel tanks. A powered. this shape was widely adopted for tethered balloons. Originally. . so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Small hot air balloons called sky lanterns date back to the 3rd century BC. were produced. the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. in windy weather. this both reduces the strain on the tether and stabilizes the balloon. These soon became known as blimps. it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. In modern times any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure. began to change the way these words were used.012 miles (40254 km) and was completed in December 1986.8 mph (186. though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered.

and some supersonic missiles obtain lift from the airflow over a tubular body. . The FanWing is (2010) in development in the United Kingdom. however. such as the Martin-Marietta X-24.With powered lift. A pure rocket is not usually regarded as an aerodyne. which may be flexible or rigid.Heavier than air aerodynes Heavier-than-air aircraft must find some way to push air or gas downwards. such as the Hawker Siddeley Harrier and F-35B. so that a reaction occurs (by Newton's laws of motion) to push the aircraft upwards. and powered lift in the form of engine thrust. among others. Similarly. If there are any wings. Many of the research prototypes. There are few practical applications. STOL stands for short take off and landing. and must also travel at high speed to generate enough lift to fly. The FanWing is a recent innovation with some similarities to the Flettner rotor design. The initialize VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) is applied to aircraft that can take off and land vertically. relying on the Magnus effect to create lift. fixed or rotary. Experimental designs have been built for personal fan-lift hover platforms and jetpacks or for VTOL research (for example the flying bedstead). Some VTOL aircraft often operate in a short take off/vertical landing mode known as STOVL. usually shaped in crosssection as an aerofoil. It uses a fixed wing with a cylindrical fan mounted spanwise just above. Most are rotorcraft. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common. horizontal surface. Most types transition to fixed-wing lift for horizontal flight. Rocket-powered missiles which obtain aerodynamic lift at very high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case. The Flettner airplane has a spinning cylinder in place of a wing. Other methods to lift y y y y A lifting body is the opposite of a flying wing. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings. with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings. creating lift. and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. often stretched over a rigid frame. Others. as in the F-14 Tomcat's "pancake". take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in s teady flight. A few examples rely entirely on engine thrust to provide lift throughout the whole flight. the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downwards. many aerodynamic lift vehicles have been powered or assisted by rocket motors. Lifting bodies are not efficient: they suffer from high drag. because it does not depend on the air for its lift (and can even fly into space). which led up to the Space Shuttle were lifting bodies (though the shuttle itself is not). This dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material. Classes of powered lift types include VTOL jet aircraft (such as the Harrier jump-jet) and tiltrotors (such as the V-22 Osprey). it creates an airflow backwards over the upper surface of the wing. air must flow over the wing and generate lift. they are too small to provide significant lift and are used only for stability and control. As the fan spins. Powered lift types rely on engine-derived lift for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). To fly. There are two ways to produce dynamic up thrust: aerodynamic lift. The flat bodies of recent jet fighters also produce lift. A wing is a flat. In this configuration the aircraft body is shaped to produce lift.

reliability and cost. The undercarriage or landing gear in aviation. required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.[5] which is typically considered to exclude the propulsion system. Fuselage The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine. Typically wheels are used. . The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces. depending on the surface. materials technology and manufacturing methods to achieve balances of performance. takeoff and land. floats or a combination of these and other elements can be deployed. Airframe design is a field of engineering that combines aerodynamics. is the structure that supports an aircraft on the ground and allows it to taxi. but skids. although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull.General construction Airframe The airframe of an aircraft is its mechanical structure.

Empennage Empennage The empennage of a Boeing 747-200 Empennage. Wings can be swept backwards or be delta wings and can have many other shapes. Aircraft engines are almost always either lightweight piston engines or gas turbines. but may have additional fuel tanks elsewhere. the aircraft proved uncontrollable. often with disastrous results. all three terms may be used interchangeably. Development of an effective set of flight controls was a critical advance in the development of aircraft. is usually a fuel and is kept in tanks around the vehicle. Propellant (a chemical carried on board that is used to power the aircraft's flight). Wings also vary greatly in planform which is their shape viewed from above. and some lighter than air aircraft also have wings. The development of effective flight controls is what allowed stable flight.Wing configuration Many different styles and arrangements of wings have and are used on heavier-than-air aircraft. Most aircraft store the fuel predominantly in the wings. The common wing configuration types have included monoplanes which has one wing each side. Flight control surface Aircraft flight control surfaces allow a pilot to adjust and control the aircraft's flight attitude. Powered aircraft have one or more engines. but once aloft.The empennage is also known as the tail or tail assembly. Aircraft engine An aircraft engine is a power source for an aircraft. biplane which have 4 wings. Early efforts at fixed-wing aircraft design succeeded in generating sufficient lift to get the aircraft off the ground. .

Flight deck Airbus A380 cockpit. The control column has been replaced with an electronic sidestick. Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000 cockpit Robin DR400/500 .The empennage gives stability to the aircraft and controls the flight dynamics of pitch and yaw. Most Airbus cockpits are computerised glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.

and later the location of the ship's rudder controls. for instance by diving it at high speeds. often just called the cabin. Cabin An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which any passengers travel. especially a high performance one. From about 1935 cockpit also came to be used informally to refer to the driver's seat of a car. The term is most likely related to the sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship. When a plane is pushed. Most modern cockpits are enclosed.1936 De Havilland Hornet Moth cockpit A cockpit or flight deck is the area. from which a pilot controls the aircraft. cabin pressurization adapts the cabin to atmospheric pressures. usually near the front of an aircraft. On an airliner.[citation needed ] The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel. all major airlines fortified the cockpit against access by hijackers. and can also refer to other measurements such as maneuverability. if the surrounding atmosphere is too thin to breathe without an oxygen mask. After the September 11. The term is somewhat loosely applied. At cruising altitudes. the flight envelope or performance envelope of an aircraft refers to the capabilities of a design in terms of airspeed and load factor or altitude. Performance of aircraft Flight envelope In aerodynamics. From the cockpit an aircraft is controlled on the ground and in the air. Cockpit as a term for the pilot's compartment in an aircraft first appeared in 1914. something considered rather dangerous. . and cockpits on large airliners are also physically separated from the cabin. In most airliners. This term derives from its use by the RAF for the separate. upper platform where the pilot and co-pilot sat in large flying boats. and the controls which enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. 2001 terrorist attacks. and this is official terminology in Formula One. a door separates the cockpit from the passenger compartment. the cockpit is usually referred to as the flight deck. except on some small aircraft. it is said to be flown "outside the envelope".

Flight envelope is one of a number of related terms that are all used in a similar fashion. Combat range is the maximum range the aircraft can fly when carrying ordnance. Pitch is about an axis perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of symmetry. When all fuel is consumed. this usually refers to angle of attack. The equilibrium pitch angle in submarine and airship parlance is known as "trim". known as pitch. This usually means maximum fuel load. The range equation will derived in this article for propeller and jet aircraft. Aircraft flight dynamics Flight dynamics is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. Aerospace engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude) about its center of mass. It is perhaps the most common term because it is the oldest. and generate rotational forces or moments about the aerodynamic center of the aircraft. first being used in the early days of test flying. which exert forces in various directions. a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the aerodynamic center of the aircraft. the maximum flight time is variable. limited by available daylight hours. For example. roll and yaw (quite different from their use as Tait-Bryan angles). and return to its original airfield with minimal reserves. For unpowered aircraft. optionally with extra fuel tanks and minimum equipment. accomplish some objective. the engines stop and the aircraft will lose its propulsion. The yaw is about the vertical body axis. The equilibrium roll angle is known as wings level or zero bank angle. causing the aircraft to pitch up or down. It refers to transport of aircraft for use on remote location. common usage ignores this distinction between equilibrium and dynamic cases. or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. The most common aeronautical convention defines the roll as acting about the longitudinal axis. However. . Aircraft range The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing. The control systems include actuators. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass. and pilot endurance. positive nose up. and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch. or yaw. positive with the starboard (right) wing down. It is closely related to more modern terms known as extra power and a doghouse plot which are different ways of describing a flight envelope. positive with the nose to starboard. The range can be seen as the cross-country ground speed multiplied by the maximum time in the air. Combat radius is a related measure based on the maximum distance a warplane can travel from its base of operations. Yaw is known as "heading". The fuel time limit for powered aircraft is fixed by the fuel load and rate of consumption. roll. as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft. equivalent to a level heeling angle on a ship. rather than orientation. weather conditions. but in aircraft. Roll. pitch and yaw refer to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined equilibrium state. Ferry range means the maximum range the aircraft can fly.

and military gliders were used during World War II to land troops. Even the small fabric-covered two-seater Piper J3 Cub had a military version. Areas of use Military A military aircraft is any fixed-wing or rotary-wing aircraft that is operated by a legal or insurrectionary armed service of any type. military and the "Dakota" in the UK and the Commonwealth. gliders. for example. Some of the smaller types are also used in general aviation. such as the civil Douglas DC-3 airliner. medical transports. reconnaissance. and cargo transports. Mainly operating in support roles. aerobatic types. . which became the military C-47/C53/R4D transport in the U. Combat aircraft divide broadly into fighters and bombers. however there are some overlaps. the largest of which are wide-body aircraft. racers. with several in-between types such as fighter-bombers and ground-attack aircraft (including attack helicopters).S. trainers. The larger passenger-carrying types are often referred to as airliners. transport.A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA). homebuilt. Other supporting roles are carried out by specialist patrol. General aviation General aviation is a catch-all covering other kinds of private and commercial use. Commercial Commercial aircraft include types designed for scheduled and charter airline flights. observation and trainer aircraft. search and rescue. Military aircraft can be either combat or noncombat: y y Combat aircraft are aircraft designed to destroy enemy equipment using its own armament. training and Tanker aircraft among others. Non-Combat aircraft are aircraft not designed for combat as their primary function. warbirds. The roll angle is also known as bank angle on a fixed wing aircraft. which usually "banks" to change the horizontal direction of flight. carrying both passengers and cargo. have been produced in separate models for military use. and some of the larger types are used as VIP aircraft. observation. firefighters. balloons were used for observation during the American Civil War and World War I. though there are instances when an aircraft may be deliberately "sideslipped" for example a slip in a fixed wing aircraft. to name a few. Civil Civil aircraft divide into commercial and general types. but may carry weapons for self-defense. The vast majority of aircraft today are general aviation types. An aircraft is usually streamlined from nose to tail to reduce drag making it typically advantageous to keep the sideslip angle near zero. Gliders and balloons have also been used as military aircraft. and involving a wide range of aircraft types such as business jets (bizjets). the L-4 liaison. Many civil aircraft. both fixed-wing and rotary.

and are usually owned or rented by the pilot. The Bell X-1 rocket plane. piston-powered propeller aircraft (single-engine or twin-engine) are common for both private and commercial general aviation. built to explore some aspect of aircraft design and with no other useful purpose. including one-off modifications of existing aircraft such as the modified Boeing 747 which NASA uses to ferry the space shuttle from landing site to launch site. Experimental Experimental aircraft are one-off specials. The same types may also be used for a wide range of commercial tasks. such as flight training. Conventional business jets are most often flown by paid pilots. passenger and freight transport. but for aircraft such as turboprops like the Beechcraft King Air and helicopters like the Bell JetRanger. The aircraft used in private aviation are usually light passenger. . pipeline surveying. The formal designation of "experimental aircraft" also includes other types which are "not certified for commercial applications". is a famous example: Boeing B-17E in flight. whereas the new generation of smaller jets are being produced for private pilots. more complex aircraft are more likely to be found in the commercial sector. crop dusting.700 planes during the air war over Europe. However the larger. which first broke the sound barrier in level flight.000 airmen and 33.Within general aviation. there are fewer private owners than commercial owners. and medical evacuations. The Allies of World War II lost 160. and aircraft homebuilt by amateurs for their own personal use. policing. For example. or recreational types. there is a further distinction between private aviation (where the pilot is not paid for time or expenses) and commercial aviation (where the pilot is paid by a client or employer). business.

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