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Fonología generativa contemporánea de la lengua española

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Fonología
generativa
contemporánea
de la lengua española
Segunda Edición

Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño,


Sonia Colina y
Travis G. Bradley, editores

Georgetown University Press | Washington, DC


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Esta segunda edición la dedicamos a
Jorge M. Guitart y John M. Lipski.

Hoy me sonríen Yulissa, Yakaira, Ysatris y Seihla


—Rafael Núñez Cedeño

A mis padres y hermanos


—Sonia Colina

Para Adam
—Travis G. Bradley
This page intentionally left blank
Índice

Prólogo a la segunda edición xiii


Agradecimientos xvii
Cuadro de los rasgos distintivos y los alófonos del español xviii

Introducción La fonología . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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1 De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Alfonso Morales-Front
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[ viii Índice

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2 Fonología autosegmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño
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3 Modelo autosegmental jerárquico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño
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[ ix Índice

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4 Teoría de la subespecificación . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


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5 La silabificación en español . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


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6 La fonología léxica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Pilar Prieto
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7 El acento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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8 La entonación . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 
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9 La teoría de la optimidad en la fonología del español . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Sonia Colina
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[ xii Índice

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10 Fonología de laboratorio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 


Travis G. Bradley
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Bibliografía 369
Colaboradores 387
Glosario 389
Índice de temas y lenguas 401
Prólogo a la segunda edición

(VWDVHJXQGDHGLFLyQGH¬Fonología generativa contemporánea de la lengua españolaHV


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[ xiv Prólogo a la segunda edición

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OHFWXUDV
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[ xv Prólogo a la segunda edición

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This page intentionally left blank
Agradecimientos

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+ Silábica – Anterior
+ Resonante – Retraída (+ redondeada,
+ Continua + retraída)

+ Alta [i] [u]


[e] [o]
+ Baja [a]

Deslizadas:
– silábicas

+ Anterior – Anterior ∗ = + ESTRIDENTE


Labial (+ o,u,w) Coronal Corono-dorsal Dorsal  = + ALTA
 = + DISTRIBUIDA
+ Sonora Velar 
Bilabial  Labio- Inter- Dental ◦ Alveolar  Alveo- Palatal  +Retraído Uvular Glotal ◦ = − DISTRIBUIDA
+ Sorda +redon dental ◦ dental ◦ palatal o, u

[p] [ ”t ] [k]
Oclusivas
[b] [ d” ] [é] [g]

[F] ∗ [f] [T] ∗[ „s ] [ s ] ∗ [S] [x] [X] [h]


Fricativas
∗ [z] ∗ [Z] [J] [H]
+ Obstruyente

∗ [Ù]
Africadas
∗ [Ã]

+ Continua
Aproximantes
[B] [j] [G][w]

(vocales y deslizadas)
[ ðfl ]
fl fl
[l] [ ”l ] [l] [í] [L]
Líquidas ¯
[R][r] [ö]
+ Resonante
(vocales y deslizadas)

Nasales [m] [M] [n] [ n” ] [n] [ ń ] [ñ] [N]


¯


c 2013 Joseph Vincent Casillas y Ryan Matthew Bessett
Introducción ]
La fonología
Pilar Prieto

Fonética y fonología

/RVWpUPLQRVfonética\fonologíaVHXVDURQLQGLVWLQWDPHQWHGXUDQWHHOVLJOR;,;SDUD
GHVLJQDUHQFRQVRQDQFLDFRQORVREMHWLYRVGHODOLQJtVWLFDGHDTXHOODpSRFDHOHVWXGLR
GHODHYROXFLyQKLVWyULFDGHORVVRQLGRV(OQDFLPLHQWRGHODIRQRORJtDFRPRGLVFLSOLQD
GLIHUHQFLDGDGHODIRQpWLFDHVUHODWLYDPHQWHPRGHUQR\VHGHELyDODLQWURGXFFLyQ
GHODVLQϩX\HQWHVLGHDVOLQJtVWLFDVGH¬)HUGLQDQGGH¬6DXVVXUHDSULQFLSLRVGHOVLJOR
SDVDGR/DFODUDGLVWLQFLyQFRQFHSWXDOHVWDEOHFLGDSRU6DXVVXUHHQWUHORVHMHVVLQFUy
QLFR\GLDFUyQLFRGHOHVWXGLROLQJtVWLFRSXVRϧQDOSUHGRPLQLRGHODQiOLVLVKLVWyULFR
FDUDFWHUtVWLFRGHOVLJOR;,;¬$GHPiVODGLFRWRPtDTXHHVWDEOHFLyHQWUHlangue\parole
¶OHQJXD·\¶KDEOD·HQHVSDxRODFWXDO PDUFyIXHUWHPHQWHODVSULRULGDGHV\REMHWLYRV
GHODOLQJtVWLFDPRGHUQD6DXVVXUHFRQFLEHODlenguaFRPRHOPRGHORJHQHUDO\DEV
WUDFWRGHWRGDVODVUHDOL]DFLRQHVOLQJtVWLFDVSDUWLFXODUHVGHXQDOHQJXD\HOhabla
FRPRHOIHQyPHQRFRQFUHWRHLQGLYLGXDOHVGHFLUHODFWRGHKDEODUHVDOHQJXD(QVX
Cours de linguistique générale,6DXVVXUHLOXVWUDHVWDGLYLVLyQFRQFHSWXDOFRQHOHMHPSOR
GHODMHGUH]ORVHOHPHQWRVSDUWLFXODUHVGHOMXHJRODIRUPDGHODVSLH]DVHOWDEOHUR
HWF(habla)QRFDPELDQORHVHQFLDOHLPSRUWDQWHORTXHHVFRP~QDWRGDVODVPDQL
IHVWDFLRQHVSRVLEOHVGHODMHGUH]TXHVRQODVUHJODVGHOMXHJR(lengua).$Vt6DXVVXUH
SURSRQHTXHHOHVWXGLRGHXQDOHQJXDGHWHUPLQDGDGHEHFRQVLVWLUHQODGHVFULSFLyQGH
VXlengua,RGHOFRQRFLPLHQWRDEVWUDFWRTXHFRPSDUWHQWRGRVVXVKDEODQWHVDWUDYpV
GHODVPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVDFFHVLEOHVDOREVHUYDGRU(habla).$VLPLVPRFRPRYHUHPRVPiV
DGHODQWH6DXVVXUHFRQFLEHODWDUHDGHOOLQJLVWDFRPRXQDWDUHDGHGHVFULSFLyQ\GH
[2 Pilar Prieto

VLVWHPDWL]DFLyQGHOVLVWHPDOLQJtVWLFRGHXQDOHQJXDGDGDHVGHFLUGHODVUHODFLRQHV
H[LVWHQWHVHQHOVLVWHPDDEVWUDFWRGHUHJODVTXHFDGDKDEODQWHSRVHHGHVXOHQJXD
 /DDSOLFDFLyQGHODGLYLVLyQFRQFHSWXDOHQWUHOHQJXD\KDEODHQHOWHUUHQRGHOR
IyQLFRVHWUDGXMRHQODGLIHUHQFLDFLyQHQWUHfonética y fonología,HVWDEOHFLGDSRU6DXV
VXUH\ORVSULPHURVHVWUXFWXUDOLVWDVGHOD(VFXHODGH¬3UDJD 5RPiQ-DNREVRQ\1LNRODL
7UXEHW]NR\HQWUHRWURV /DGLYLVLyQHQWUHODVGRVGLVFLSOLQDVSDUWHGHODREVHUYDFLyQ
GH TXH QR WRGD OD YDULDFLyQ IRQpWLFD GH ORV VRQLGRV GHO KDEOD HV OLQJtVWLFDPHQWH
UHOHYDQWHHVGHFLUHQXQDOHQJXDGDGDH[LVWHQRSRVLFLRQHVIyQLFDVTXHVRQXWLOL]DGDV
SDUDGLIHUHQFLDUODVVLJQLϧFDFLRQHVGHODVSDODEUDV\RWUDVTXHQRVRQXWLOL]DGDVFRQ
HVHϧQ(ODQiOLVLVDF~VWLFRRDUWLFXODWRULRGHODSURGXFFLyQGHOVRQLGR>V@QRVLQGLFD
SRUHMHPSORTXHHVHVRQLGRQRVHSURGXFHGHODPLVPDIRUPDDQWHODYRFDO>D@TXH
DQWH >L@ VLQ HPEDUJR ORV KDEODQWHV GH XQD OHQJXD FRPR HO HVSDxRO SHUFLEHQ HVH
VRQLGRFRPRXQDHQWLGDGLQYDULDEOH3DUWLHQGRGHGDWRVH[SHULPHQWDOHVODIRQpWLFD
VHRFXSDGHOHVWXGLRGHORVVRQLGRVGHXQDOHQJXDFRPRIHQyPHQRVSXUDPHQWHItVLFRV
GHSURGXFFLyQ\SHUFHSFLyQ/DIRQRORJtDHQFDPELRDQDOL]DORVVRQLGRVFRPRIHQy
PHQROLQJtVWLFR(VGHFLUVHRFXSDGHFyPRVHXVDQORVVRQLGRVHQHVDOHQJXDSDUD
GLVWLQJXLUVLJQLϧFDGRVDVtFRPRGHORVSULQFLSLRVTXHJRELHUQDQVXGLVWULEXFLyQ\GH
ODVUHODFLRQHVH[LVWHQWHVHQWUHHOORV(QVXPDODIRQpWLFDVHRFXSDUtDGHODGHVFULSFLyQ
ItVLFD\GHOIRFRGHYDULDFLyQHQFDGDUHDOL]DFLyQVRQRUD(el habla)\ODIRQRORJtDDQD
OL]DUtDORHVWDEOH\OLQJtVWLFDPHQWHUHOHYDQWHHQHOVLVWHPDGHVRQLGRVGHXQDOHQJXD
(la lengua).$XQTXHGHVGHSULQFLSLRVGHOHVWUXFWXUDOLVPRVHKDPDQWHQLGRXQDHVWULFWD
GLYLVLyQHQWUHODVGRVGLVFLSOLQDVODPD\RUtDGHORVIRQyORJRVDGPLWHQTXHXQHVWXGLR
DF~VWLFR\DUWLFXODWRULRGHORVVRQLGRVGHXQDOHQJXDGHEHUtDFRQVWLWXLUVHHQXQSDVR
SUHYLRDODQiOLVLVIRQROyJLFRHLQFOXVRDODFRQϧUPDFLyQGHKLSyWHVLVOLQJtVWLFDV

Fonología: fonemas y alófonos

*HQHUDOPHQWHel fonemaVHKDGHϧQLGRFRPRODXQLGDGPtQLPDGHGHVFULSFLyQIRQR
OyJLFDXQDHQWLGDGDEVWUDFWDFRQuna función distintivaDODTXHQRFRUUHVSRQGHXQD
UHDOLGDGIyQLFDSDUWLFXODU&RPR´IXQFLyQGLVWLQWLYDµVHHQWLHQGHODFDSDFLGDGGHXQ
VRQLGRSDUDSURGXFLUXQDGLIHUHQFLDIXQFLRQDO³RGHGLVWLQFLyQGHVLJQLϧFDGR³HQ¬XQD
OHQJXDGDGD/DIRQRORJtDSDUWHJHQHUDOPHQWHGHOH[DPHQGHORVVRQLGRVH[LVWHQWHVHQ
XQDOHQJXDSDUWLFXODUSDUDGHWHUPLQDUTXpXQLGDGHVIRQHPiWLFDVWLHQHQXQDIXQFLyQ
OLQJtVWLFD/Dprueba de la conmutación,SURSXHVWDSRUORVIRQyORJRVGHOD(VFXHOD
GH¬3UDJDFRQVLVWHHQSUREDUODGLIHUHQFLDIXQFLRQDOHQWUHIRQHPDVDSDUWLUGHVXFDSD
FLGDGGHJHQHUDUGLVWLQFLRQHVGHVLJQLϧFDGR3RUHMHPSORODH[LVWHQFLDGHWULSOHWHV
PtQLPRVFRPRcarro>ਥNDUR@sarro>ਥVDUR@\tarro>ਥW ૧DUR@HQHVSDxROGHPXHVWUDTXH
ORVVRQLGRV>NVW ૧@VRQIRQHPDVGLVWLQWRVNVW ૧\FDSDFHVGHJHQHUDUXQDRSRVLFLyQ
GLVWLQWLYD2WUDHVWUDWHJLDSDUDGHWHUPLQDUODIRQHPLFLGDGSRWHQFLDOGHXQVRQLGR
ODOODPDGDdistribución complementariaSURSXHVWDSRUORVGLVWULEXFLRQDOLVWDVDPHULFD
QRV HVSHFLDOPHQWH/HRQDUG%ORRPϧHOG FRQVLVWHHQXVDUXQPHFDQLVPRSXUDPHQWH
La fonología 3]

IRUPDOTXHQRUHFXUUHDODVGLIHUHQFLDVGHVLJQLϧFDGR6LGRVVRQLGRVGHXQDOHQJXD
DSDUHFHQVLHPSUHHQFRQWH[WRVGLVWLQWRVVHSXHGHGHGXFLUTXHHOUHQGLPLHQWRIXQFLR
QDOGHOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHORVGRVHVQXOR(QFDPELRVLXQVRQLGRDSDUHFHHQODPLVPD
SRVLFLyQTXHRWURHQXQDOHQJXDGHWHUPLQDGD HTXLYDOHQFLDGLVWULEXFLRQDO HOORLQGLFD
TXHH[LVWHXQFRQWUDVWHIXQFLRQDOHQWUHDPERV\TXHVRQIRQHPDVGLVWLQWRV
 3XHVWRTXHDEDVHGHORVIRQHPDVSXHGHQGLVWLQJXLUVHVLJQLϧFDGRVHVWRVQRVRQ
SUHGHFLEOHV\GHEHQYHQLUGDGRVSRUXQOp[LFRTXHFRQWHQJDODFRPSRVLFLyQIRQHPi
WLFDGHODVSDODEUDV/RTXHHVSUHGHFLEOHVHJ~QHOFRQWH[WRVRQODVYDULDQWHVIRQpWLFDV
GHORVIRQHPDVRalófonos.8QDSUXHEDXVDGDDPHQXGRFRQHOϧQGHLGHQWLϧFDUODV
SRVLEOHVPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVIRQpWLFDVGHXQIRQHPDHVHODQiOLVLVGHODYDULDFLyQGHPRU
IHPDV6XHOHRFXUULUTXHHOPLVPRPRUIHPDWHQJDXQDUHDOLGDGVRQRUDGLIHUHQWHVHJ~Q
HOFRQWH[WRSRUHMHPSORHQ  SRGHPRVREVHUYDUYDULDVUHDOL]DFLRQHVGHOPRUIHPD
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHDODUWtFXORLQGHWHUPLQDGRunHQHVSDxROSHQLQVXODUODQDVDOϧQDO
DGTXLHUHGLVWLQWRVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQVHJ~QFXiOVHDHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHOD
FRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWH$¬EDVHGHHVWRVGDWRVSRGHPRVGHGXFLUTXHQHVXQIRQHPDGHO
FDVWHOODQRTXHVHPDQLϧHVWDIRQpWLFDPHQWHHQORVQXHYHDOyIRQRV>QP؇‫د‬Q૧Q‫@غصئ‬

Ejemplo 0-1

1RDVLPLODGD u>Q@árbol
%LODELDO u>P@burro
/DELRGHQWDO u>؇@fuego
,QWHUGHQWDO u>‫@د‬zumo
'HQWDO u>Q૧@diente
$OYHRODU u>Q@lomo
$OYHRSDODWDO u>‫@ئ‬chico
3DODWDO u>‫@ص‬yeso
9HODU u>‫@غ‬cuento

3XHGHRFXUULUTXHXQVRQLGRVHFRPSRUWHFRPRIRQHPDHQXQDOHQJXD\FRPRDOy
IRQRHQRWUD3RUHMHPSORODIULFDWLYDVRQRUD>]@TXHIRUPDSDUWHGHOLQYHQWDULRGH
VRQLGRVGHOFDWDOiQ\GHOFDVWHOODQRVHFRPSRUWDGHIRUPDVGLVWLQWDVHQORVVLVWHPDV
IRQROyJLFRVGHDPEDV0LHQWUDVTXHHQFDWDOiQODSUXHEDGHODFRQPXWDFLyQGHPXHVWUD
TXH>]@WLHQHXQDIXQFLyQGLVWLQWLYD FI¬ORVSDUHVPtQLPRVcasa>ਥND]̸@¶FDVD·caça
>ਥNDV̸@¶FD]DSV· HQHVSDxROQRODWLHQH\DTXHHVWHVRQLGRDSDUHFH~QLFD\H[FOXVL
YDPHQWHDQWHFRQVRQDQWHVVRQRUDV(desdeVHVXHOHSURQXQFLDU>ਥG૧H]˓૊H@HQODPD\RUtD
GHGLDOHFWRV (QHOFDVRGHOHVSDxROVHGLFHTXHORVVRQLGRV>V@\>]@VRQYDULDQWHV
IRQpWLFDVRDOyIRQRVGHOIRQHPDVSXHVWRTXHODUHDOL]DFLyQIRQpWLFDGHV HQ>]@
R>V@ HVGHSHQGLHQWHGHOFRQWH[WR
 /D WDUHD SULQFLSDO GH OD IRQRORJtD JLUD HQ WRUQR D OD GHVFULSFLyQ GHO FRPSRU
WDPLHQWR GH ORV IRQHPDV \ OD IRUPDOL]DFLyQ GH ODV UHJXODULGDGHV H[LVWHQWHV HQ ORV
VLVWHPDVIRQHPiWLFRV&RPRYHUHPRVORVREMHWLYRVGHHVWDGLVFLSOLQDKDQYDULDGRD
[4 Pilar Prieto

ORODUJRGHORV~OWLPRVGRVVLJORVGHELGRHQSDUWHDODHYROXFLyQGHODVFRQFHSFLRQHV
VREUHODOLQJtVWLFD\ODFUHFLHQWHLQWHQFLyQGHPHMRUDUODVSUHGLFFLRQHVGHORVPRGHORV
IRQROyJLFRV(QODVVHFFLRQHVVLJXLHQWHVUHSDVDUHPRVEUHYHPHQWHODHYROXFLyQGHODV
SURSXHVWDVGHODIRQRORJtDGHVGHODVKLSyWHVLVHVWUXFWXUDOLVWDVKDVWDODVPiVUHFLHQWHV
SURSXHVWDVGHOJHQHUDWLYLVPR

Breve historia de la fonología

(VWUXFWXUDOLVPR

$GLIHUHQFLDGHRWUDVFRUULHQWHVHOHVWUXFWXUDOLVPRFRQFLEHODOLQJtVWLFDFRPRXQD
FLHQFLDHPLQHQWHPHQWHFODVLϧFDWRULDFX\RREMHWLYRHVGHVFULELU\HVWDEOHFHUXQDWD[R
QRPtDGHODVOHQJXDVKXPDQDV3DUWLHQGRGHODGLVWLQFLyQEiVLFDHQWUHlengua\habla,
HVDFRUULHQWHFRQVLGHUDTXHHOREMHWRGHHVWXGLRGHODOLQJtVWLFDGHEHVHUHOVLVWHPD
GHUHJODVFRP~QDWRGRVORVKDEODQWHVGHXQDOHQJXD'HDFXHUGRFRQVXRULHQWDFLyQ
PHWRGROyJLFDODIRQRORJtDHVWUXFWXUDOLVWDKDFHQWUDGRHODQiOLVLVGHORVIRQHPDVHQXQ
HVWXGLRPLQXFLRVRGHODVRSRVLFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV\VXVSURSLHGDGHV$VtOD¬GHWHUPL
QDFLyQGHODHVWUXFWXUDIRQROyJLFDGHXQDOHQJXDFRQVLVWHHQVLVWHPDWL]DU\GHVFULELU
WDQWRUHODFLRQHVRSRVLWLYDVHQWUHIRQHPDV(relaciones paradigmáticas)FRPRUHODFLR
QHVVHFXHQFLDOHVGHIRQHPDVHQHOGLVFXUVR(relaciones sintagmáticas).(PLOLR$ODUFRV
DSXQWDTXHODIRQRORJtDVHRFXSDGH´LQYHVWLJDUODVGLIHUHQFLDVIyQLFDVDVRFLDGDVFRQ
ODVGLIHUHQFLDVGHVLJQLϧFDFLyQHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRPXWXRGHORVHOHPHQWRVGLIHUHQFLD
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SDUWHVVHKDREVHUYDGRTXHJHQHUDOPHQWHORVUDVJRVVHFRPSRUWDQGHIRUPDELQDULDHQ
HOFRPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFR3RUHMHPSORQRVHVDEHGHQLQJXQDOHQJXDHQTXHHOUDVJR
>QDVDO@WHQJDPiVGHGRVGLVWLQFLRQHVDFWLYDVIRQROyJLFDPHQWHDXQTXHIRQpWLFDPHQWH
VHSXHGDQGLVWLQJXLUPiVGHGRVYDORUHVHQDOJXQDVOHQJXDV,QFOXVRHQOHQJXDVTXH
PXHVWUDQXQDGLYLVLyQWULSDUWLWDGHDOJ~QUDVJRDQLYHOIRQpWLFRQRVHWLHQHFRQVWDQFLD
GHTXHHVRVUDVJRVVHDQDFWLYRVHQUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV$OJXQRVWUDEDMRVSRVWHULRUHV
D63(KDQSODQWHDGRODSRVLELOLGDGGHHOLPLQDUXQDGHODVGRVGLVWLQFLRQHVELQDULDV
GHIRUPDTXHODRWUDVHSXHGD´GHGXFLUµDWUDYpVGHUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLD YHUFDSt
WXORVREUHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHUDVJRV DVLPLVPRWDPELpQVHKDFRQVLGHUDGR
ODSRVLELOLGDGGHWHQHUDOJXQRVUDVJRVP~OWLSOHVHQHOFDVRGHUDVJRVTXHVHUHVLVWHQ
DODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQELQDULDFRPRODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHDOWXUDYRFiOLFDRGHSXQWRGH
DUWLFXODFLyQFRQVRQiQWLFD
 (QORTXHVLJXHVHSUHVHQWDODSURSXHVWDGHFDUDFWHUL]DFLyQGHUDVJRVGH¬63(PDQ
WHQLGDHQJUDQSDUWHSRUHOPRGHORJHQHUDWLYRGHORVDxRVVHWHQWD1RFRPHQWDUHPRV
ODOLVWDH[KDXVWLYDGHORVUDVJRVSURSXHVWRVHQ63(VLQRORVPiVUHOHYDQWHVSDUDOD
GHVFULSFLyQGHORVVRQLGRVGHOHVSDxRO SDUDPiVGHWDOOHFRQV~OWHVH&KRPVN\\+DOOH
² (QSULPHUOXJDUORVOODPDGRVrasgos mayores “VLOiELFR“FRQVRQiQ
WLFR\“UHVRQDQWH SXHGHQGLVWLQJXLUODVFODVHVEiVLFDVGHVRQLGRV YRFDOHVGHVOL]DGDV
OtTXLGDVQDVDOHV\REVWUX\HQWHV FRPRVHYHHQOD7DEOD
 7UHV UDVJRV FDUDFWHUL]DQ OD SRVLFLyQ GHO GRUVR GH OD OHQJXD “DOWR “EDMR
“UHWUDtGR \VRQVXϧFLHQWHVSDUDGLVWLQJXLUORVIRQHPDVYRFiOLFRVHQPXFKDVOHQJXDV
/DVLJXLHQWHWDEOD 7DE PXHVWUDODmatriz clasi catoriaGHODVFLQFRYRFDOHVGHO
HVSDxRO
[ 10 Pilar Prieto

Tabla 0-1 Los rasgos mayores

Silábico Consonántico Resonante

9RFDOHV  ਮ 
'HVOL]DGDV ਮ ਮ 
/tTXLGDV ਮ  
1DVDOHV ਮ  
2EVWUX\HQWHV ਮ  ਮ

Tabla 0-2 Los rasgos de punto de articulación vocálico

i e a o u

$OWR  ਮ ਮ ਮ 
%DMR ਮ ਮ  ਮ ਮ
5HWUDtGR ਮ ਮ   

/RVSULQFLSDOHVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHSXHGHQGLVWLQJXLUDWUDYpV
GHORVVLJXLHQWHVUDVJRV>“FRURQDO“DQWHULRU“DOWR“UHWUDtGR@\>“GLVWULEXLGR@
+DUULV 8QDFRQVRQDQWHHV>DQWHULRU@VLVHSURGXFHXQDREVWUXFFLyQdelante
GHODUHJLyQSDODWRDOYHRODUGHODFDYLGDGEXFDO ODELDOGHQWDODOYHRODU >FRURQDO@
VLVHDUWLFXODFRQHOSUHGRUVRGHODOHQJXDHOHYDGRGHVGHVXSRVLFLyQQHXWUD\>GLV
WULEXLGD@VLVHSURGXFHXQDFRQVWULFFLyQFRQVLGHUDEOHHQODGLUHFFLyQGHODVDOLGDGHO
DLUH ODPLQDO /DVLJXLHQWHPDWUL]FODVLϧFDWRULD 7DE GLVWLQJXHDOJXQDVGHODV
FRQVRQDQWHVGHOHVSDxROVHJ~QVXSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ ODOLVWDGHFRQVRQDQWHVQR
HVH[KDXVWLYD 
 /RV UDVJRV >“FRQWLQXR “HVWULGHQWH “VRQRUR@ FDUDFWHUL]DQ HO PRGR GH DUWL
FXODFLyQ GH ODV FRQVRQDQWHV IULFDWLYR DIULFDGR RFOXVLYR \ VRUGR \R VRQRUR  8Q
VRQLGRHVFRQWLQXRFXDQGRHOSDVRGHODLUHQRTXHGDREVWUXLGRHQHODSDUDWRIRQDGRU
HVWULGHQWHFXDQGRDF~VWLFDPHQWHHVPiVUXLGRVRTXHVXVFRQWUDSDUWLGDVQRHVWULGHQ
WHV\VRQRURFXDQGRODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVYLEUDQGXUDQWHODSURGXFFLyQGHOVRQLGRHQ
FXHVWLyQ/D¬VLJXLHQWHPDWUL]FODVLϧFDWRULD 7DE GHVFULEHDOJXQRVGHORVVRQLGRV
GHOHVSDxROVHJ~QVXPRGRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
 )LQDOPHQWHORVUDVJRV>“QDVDO“ODWHUDO@SHUPLWHQGLIHUHQFLDUHQWUHQDVDOHV\
OtTXLGDV(QWUHODVOtTXLGDVHOUDVJR>“ODWHUDO@GLVWLQJXHDODVODWHUDOHVGHODVUyWLFDV
<¬HQWUHODVUyWLFDVHOUDVJR>“WHQVR@VLUYHSDUDGLVWLQJXLUDODYLEUDQWHVLPSOHGHOD
P~OWLSOH +DUULV 
 (Q HO VLVWHPD OLQHDO ORV IRQHPDV TXH IRUPDQ HO PRUIHPD XQ GHO HVSDxRO VH
UHSUHVHQWDUtDQDWUDYpVGHORVVLJXLHQWHVUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV5DVJRVFRPR>“VRQRUR@
R >“FRQVRQDQWH@ QR VH LQFOX\HQ HQ OD PDWUL] SRUTXH VH FRQVLGHUDQ UHGXQGDQWHV
Tabla 0-3 Los rasgos de punto de articulación consonántico

Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Alveopalatal Palatal Velar


[m,p,b] [ ,] [t,d, ] [ ,n,s, ] [ ] [ ,, ] [k, , ]

&RURQDO ਮ ਮ    ਮ ਮ
$QWHULRU     ਮ ਮ ਮ
$OWR ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ   
5HWUDtGR ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ 
'LVWULEXLGR  ਮ ਮ    

Tabla 0-4 Los rasgos de modo de articulación consonántico

Oclusiva Oclusiva A ricada Fricativa Fricativa Apro imante


sorda sonora sorda sorda sonora sonora
[p,t,k] [b,d, ] [ ] [ ] [s] [ ] [ , , ]

&RQWLQXR ਮ ਮ ਮ   
6RQRUR ਮ  ਮ ਮ  
(VWULGHQWH ਮ ਮ    ਮ
La fonología
11 ]
[ 12 Pilar Prieto

HV¬GHFLUODVYRFDOHV\ODVFRQVRQDQWHVQDVDOHVWLHQHQVLHPSUHHODWULEXWR>VRQRUR@
\¬HQHVHVHQWLGRODVRQRULGDGHVXQUDVJRUHGXQGDQWH&DEHUHPDUFDUTXHODUHSUHVHQ
WDFLyQLOXVWUDWLYD  FRQWLHQHWRGDYtDDOJXQRVUDVJRVUHGXQGDQWHVFRPRHOFDVR
GH>ਮEDMR@SDUDOD>X@(OWHPDGHODUHGXQGDQFLDGHUDVJRVVHWUDWDHQODWHRUtDGH
ODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ

Ejemplo 0-3 Representación lineal del morfema /un/ como dos matrices de rasgos.

X Q¬
਑ DOWR ਔ ਑ FRURQDO ਔ
਒ ਮEDMR ਕ ਒ DQWHULRU ਕ
ਓ UHWUDtGR ਖ ਒ ਮDOWR ਕ
਒ ਮUHWUDtGR ਕ
ਓ GLVWULEXLGR ਖ

/DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHORVIRQHPDVDWUDYpVGHXQDPDWUL]GHUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRVWLHQH
YDULDVYHQWDMDV(QSULPHUOXJDUSHUPLWHVLVWHPDWL]DUODVSURSLHGDGHVIyQLFDVHPSOHD
GDVSDUDODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHIRQHPDV\SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHSRVLELOLWDTXHODH[SUHVLyQ
GHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVSXHGDIRUPDOL]DUVHGHIRUPDPiVQDWXUDO(QVHJXQGROXJDU
RIUHFHXQDPRWLYDFLyQGHOSRUTXpORVVRQLGRVWLHQGHQDDJUXSDUVHHQFODVHVQDWXUDOHV
RFRQMXQWRVTXHFRPSDUWHQFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVIRQpWLFDVRUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV \DSDUWLFLSDU
HQXQDPLVPDFODVHGHUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV
 $OJXQDVGHODVFUtWLFDVDOVLVWHPDUHSUHVHQWDFLRQDOSURSXHVWRSRU63(SURYRFDURQ
ODLQWURGXFFLyQGHQXHYRVVLVWHPDVGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ3RUXQODGRODWHRUtDDXWRVHJ
PHQWDOFULWLFyODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQOLQHDOGHORVIRQHPDVHQKDFHVGHUDVJRVGHVRUGHQDGRV
SURSXHVWDSRU63(HVHWLSRGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQQRGDEDFXHQWDGHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGH
FLHUWRVUDVJRVHQUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV SRUHMHPSORTXHORVUDVJRVGHSXQWRGHDUWLFXOD
FLyQVHFRPSRUWHQFRPRJUXSRVQDWXUDOHV 3RURWURODGRODVSURSXHVWDVGHODVWHRUtDV
PpWULFD\SURVyGLFDUHLYLQGLFDURQODSUHVHQFLDGHXQLGDGHVSURVyGLFDVFRPRODVtODED
RHOSLH\DTXHVXLQWURGXFFLyQHQHOVLVWHPDGHUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVVLPSOLϧFDEDVLJQL
ϧFDWLYDPHQWHHOFRPSRQHQWHGHUHJODV2EMHWRGHFUtWLFDVKDVLGRWDPELpQODVXSXHVWD
ELQDULHGDGGHORVUDVJRV JHQHUDOPHQWHXQRGHORVYDORUHVGHOUDVJRHVUHGXQGDQWH\
QRVHXVDHQUHJODVFRPRHQHOFDVRGHOUDVJR>ਮQDVDO@ \ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODFHQWR
TXHGLϧHUHEDVWDQWHGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVHJPHQWDO 

Reglas y procesos fonológicos

/DVUHJODVVRQRSHUDFLRQHVTXHDIHFWDQDOJ~QUDVJRRJUXSRGHUDVJRVGHXQIRQHPD
REWHQLHQGRRELHQXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQROyJLFDLQWHUPHGLDRXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQp
WLFDϧQDO/DVUHJODVGHOWLSR63(FRQVWDQGHXQDdescripción estructural R¬GHVFULSFLyQ
La fonología 13 ]

GHOFRQWH[WRHQODUHJOD \XQcambio estructural RHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHOWLSRGHFDPELR


TXHSURGXFHODUHJOD 7DQWRORVVHJPHQWRVTXHVHYHQDIHFWDGRVSRUHOSURFHVRFRPR
HOFRQWH[WRTXHORSURGXFHVHVXHOHQUHSUHVHQWDUXWLOL]DQGR~QLFDPHQWHHOUDVJRR
FRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVTXHSHUPLWHQLGHQWLϧFDUHOFRQMXQWRGHVRQLGRVHQFXHVWLyQ8WL
OLFHPRVODVLJXLHQWHUHJODIRQROyJLFDHQ  FRPRHMHPSOR

Ejemplo 0-4

>YRFDO@ ఩ >ODUJR@ ಣಣ ਑ FRQVRQiQWLFR ਔ


ਓ VRQRUR ਖ

/DUHJODDQWHULRUIRUPDOL]DXQSURFHVRIRQROyJLFRGHDODUJDPLHQWRYRFiOLFRTXHVH
SURGXFHFXDQGRODYRFDOSUHFHGHDXQDFRQVRQDQWHVRQRUD XQHMHPSORSRVLEOHVHUtD
ODVHFXHQFLDVXE\DFHQWHSDQTXHVHFRQYHUWLUtDHQ>SD৸Q@ (OFDPELRHVWUXFWXUDO
VLWXDGRHQWUHODϩHFKD\ODEDUUDREOLFXD  UHSUHVHQWDHOFDPELRGHUDVJRTXHSUR
GXFHODUHJOD ODϩHFKDVHSXHGHOHHUFRPR´VHOHDVLJQDµ\ODEDUUDREOLFXDFRPR´HQ¬HO
FRQWH[WRGHµ 'HVSXpVGHOVtPERORBBBDSDUHFHODGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOHVGHFLU
OD¬GHVFULSFLyQGHOFRQWH[WROLQJtVWLFRTXHSURGXFHHOFDPELRHVWUXFWXUDO
 (QDOJXQRVGLDOHFWRVGHOHVSDxROSURFHVRVFRPRODYHODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV\OD
DVSLUDFLyQGHVLELODQWHVDIHFWDQDQDVDOHV\VLELODQWHVHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGDVLOiELFD
HJLo e>‫@غ‬contró en la estació>‫@غ‬E>K@de¬Avilé>K@ /DIRUPDOL]DFLyQGHOSURFHVR
GHYHODUL]DFLyQHQHOPRGHORGH¬63(SRGUtDVHUXQDUHJODFRPRODGH  &RPR
63(QRUHFRQRFHH[SOtFLWDPHQWHODXQLGDGVLOiELFDODVUHJODVVHJPHQWDOHVGHHVRVGRV
SURFHVRVGHEHQHVSHFLϧFDUORVGRVSRVLEOHVFRQWH[WRVTXHFRQGXFHQDODDSOLFDFLyQGH
ODUHJODDQWHFRQVRQDQWH\RDQWHIURQWHUDGHSDODEUD ´&µ\´µUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH
YpDVHWDPELpQODSURSXHVWDGH¬*XLWDUW 

Ejemplo 0-5

>QDVDO@ ఩ ਑ ਮFRURQDO ਔ ಣಣ  & 


਒ ਮDQWHULRU ਕ 
ਓ DOWR ਖ

3DUD H[SUHVDU GH IRUPD PiV VLPSOH DOJXQRV SURFHVRV GH DVLPLODFLyQ VH HPSH]y D
H[WHQGHUHOXVRGHYDULDEOHVHQODIRUPDOL]DFLyQGHUHJODVGHOWLSR63(¬(Q  VH
PXHVWUDODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGHSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHQDVDOHVHQHVSDxROSUR
SXHVWDSRU+DUULV   YpDQVHORVHMHPSORVSHUWLQHQWHVHQ>@ &XDOTXLHU
QDVDODQWHFRQVRQDQWH>ਮUHVRQDQWH@FDPELDORVVLJXLHQWHVUDVJRVFRURQDODQWHULRU
UHWUDtGR\GLVWULEXLGR/DVYDULDEOHV DOIDEHWDGHOWDJDPPD DQWHORVUDVJRVGHSXQWR
GHDUWLFXODFLyQQRVLQGLFDQTXHORVYDORUHV ´µR´ਮµ TXHDGTXLULUiQHVRVUDVJRV
FRLQFLGLUiQFRQORVYDORUHVGHHVRVUDVJRVHQODFRQVRQDQWHREVWUX\HQWHTXHOHVLJXH
[ 14 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 0-6 Regla de asimilación de nasales en español peninsular (Harris 1969:12)

>QDVDO@ ఩ ਑ ǓFRURQDO ਔ ಣಣ ਑ ਮUHVRQDQWH ਔ


਒ ɕDQWHULRU ਕ ਒ ǓFRURQDO ਕ
਒ ˑUHWUDtGR ਕ ਒ ɕDQWHULRU ਕ
ਓ ࣤGLVWULEXLGR ਖ ਒ ˑUHWUDtGR ਕ
ਓ ࣤGLVWULEXLGR ਖ

&RPRPHQFLRQiUDPRVDQWHULRUPHQWHHOPRGHORJHQHUDWLYRFRQFLEHHOFRPSRQHQWH
IRQROyJLFRFRPRXQDVHULHGHUHJODVRUGHQDGDVTXHWUDQVIRUPDQXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
VXE\DFHQWH ODVDOLGDGHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFRR(6 HQXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQRIRUPD
IRQpWLFD ))  &KRPVN\ \ +DOOH   SURSRQHQ TXH ODV UHJODV IRQROyJLFDV VH
DSOLFDQGHXQDPLVPDIRUPD\TXHFRUUHVSRQGHDOOLQJLVWDGHVFXEULUHOIXQFLRQD
PLHQWR JHQHUDO GH OD DSOLFDFLyQ GH ODV UHJODV (VH IXQFLRQDPLHQWR D VX YH] GHEH
FRUUHVSRQGHUVHFRQFRQGLFLRQHVXQLYHUVDOHVGHODWHRUtDOLQJtVWLFD6HJ~Q63(ODV
UHJODVVHDSOLFDQRUGHQDGD\FtFOLFDPHQWHHQODGHULYDFLyQVLJXLHQGRHOOODPDGRciclo
transformacional.(QSULPHUOXJDUHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFRJHQHUDXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
VXSHUϧFLDOTXHLQFOX\HIURQWHUDVPRUIHPiWLFDV/DVHFXHQFLDGHUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV
VHDSOLFDFtFOLFDPHQWH\DIHFWDSULPHURDORVHOHPHQWRVLQFOXLGRVHQODVIURQWHUDV
PiVLQWHUQDVTXHVHHOLGHQGHVSXpVGHHVWHSURFHVR(VDaplicación cíclicaVHUHSLWH
VXFHVLYDPHQWHKDVWDTXHVHHQFXHQWUDHOGRPLQLRIRQROyJLFRPiVDOWR &KRPVN\\
+DOOH /DVFRQVHFXHQFLDVGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHODVUHJODVHQHOFLFORWUDQVIRU
PDFLRQDOVHSXHGHQREVHUYDUSRUHMHPSORFRQORVSDUHVGHOLQJOpVcomp≯@nsation\
cond>͑@nsation./DQRUHGXFFLyQGHOD>͑@HQODSDODEUDcondensationVHH[SOLFDSRUTXH
ODUHJODGHDVLJQDFLyQGHDFHQWRSULPDULRVHKDDSOLFDGRHQHOSULPHUFLFORGHODSDOD
EUD FI¬con dense),OR¬TXHQRSHUPLWHODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODGHUHGXFFLyQYRFiOLFD
HQFLFORVSRVWHULRUHVHQFDPELROD≯@GHODSDODEUDcompensationVXIUHUHGXFFLyQ
YRFiOLFDSRUTXHODDVLJQDFLyQGHDFHQWRSULPDULRTXHVHDSOLFDHQHOSULPHUFLFORKD
DFHQWXDGRODSULPHUDVtODEDGH compen sate.$VtHODFHQWRSURYHQLHQWHGHODDSOLFDFLyQ
FtFOLFDGHODUHJODGHDVLJQDFLyQGHDFHQWRSULPDULREORTXHDODUHGXFFLyQYRFiOLFDVyOR
HQHOFDVRGHcondensation &KRPVN\\+DOOH 
 $OJXQDVGHODVFUtWLFDVDOPRGHORVHJPHQWDOGH¬63(FRQGXMHURQDODLQWURGXFFLyQ
GHODWHRUtDDXWRVHJPHQWDO3RUXQDSDUWHHOH[FHVLYRSRGHUGHJHQHUDFLyQGHODV
UHJODVGHOWLSR63(KDFtDTXHVHFRQVLGHUDUDQWDQQDWXUDOHVODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOLGDG
SURFHVRPX\FRP~QHQPXFKDVOHQJXDV FRPRPHFDQLVPRVIRQROyJLFRVWDQLQYH
URVtPLOHVFRPRODWUDQVIRUPDFLyQGH>V@HQ>O@DQWHODFRQVRQDQWH>I@$PERVFDVRV
LPSOLFDQHOPLVPRPHFDQLVPRIRQROyJLFRHQ63(TXHHVXQDUHJODGHFDPELRGHXQ
UDVJRGLVWLQWLYR3RURWUDSDUWHWDPELpQVHFULWLFyODIDOWDGHQDWXUDOLGDGFRQTXHVH
La fonología 15 ]

H[SUHVDEDQSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVWDQFRPXQHVFRPRODDVLPLODFLyQGHSXQWRGHDUWLFX
ODFLyQGHQDVDOHV)LQDOPHQWHODHVSHFLϧFLGDGHQODRUGHQDFLyQGHUHJODVIXHRWUDGH
ODVFUtWLFDVDHVWHPRGHORHOPRGRGHDSOLFDFLyQGHODVUHJODV\VXLQWHUDFFLyQFRQOD
PRUIRORJtDKDQVLGRUHYLVDGRHQPRGHORVSRVWHULRUHVHVSHFLDOPHQWHHQODSURSXHVWD
GHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD 3DUDXQDH[SOLFDFLyQPiVGHWDOODGDGHHVWDHYROXFLyQYpDVH
HOFDStWXOR

La fonología autosegmental y la fonología métrica

5HSUHVHQWDFLRQHV\UHJODV

/Dfonología autosegmental\ODfonología métrica,WDPELpQOODPDGDVfonologías no linea-


les,FXHVWLRQDQHOWUDWDPLHQWRGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDVHQXQVRORQLYHO
FRPRHOSURSXHVWRSRU63( \DERJDQSRUODMHUDUTXL]DFLyQGHORVUDVJRVVHJPHQWDOHV
UDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV \XQLGDGHVVXSUDVHJPHQWDOHV VtODEDSLHPpWULFRHWF /D¬RUJDQL
]DFLyQMHUiUTXLFDGHORVUDVJRVWLHQHHOREMHWLYRGHH[SUHVDUODVDJUXSDFLRQHV\GHSHQ
GHQFLDVTXHHVWRVPDQLϧHVWDQHQRSHUDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV-RKQ*ROGVPLWK  
IXHXQRGHORVSULPHURVIRQyORJRVHQREVHUYDUTXHDOJXQRVUDVJRVVHFRPSRUWDEDQGH
IRUPDLQGHSHQGLHQWHHQFLHUWDVDVLPLODFLRQHVWRQDOHV\DUPRQtDVYRFiOLFDV3URSXVR
TXHHVWHFRPSRUWDPLHQWRVHSRGtDH[SOLFDUGHIRUPDVHQFLOODPHGLDQWHXQDMHUDUTXtD
GHORVUDVJRVTXHSHUPLWLHUDUHIHULUVHDHOORVSRUVHSDUDGR$VtSXHVSURFHVRVFRPR
ODDVLPLODFLyQSRGtDQLQWHUSUHWDUVHFRPRODH[WHQVLyQGHXQUDVJR RJUXSRGHUDVJRV 
GHXQVHJPHQWRKDVWDRWUR&RQODLQGHSHQGHQFLDIXQFLRQDOGHORVUDVJRV\GHODVXQL
GDGHVSURVyGLFDVVHFRQVHJXtDH[SOLFDUSRUTXpFLHUWRVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVVRQPiV
QDWXUDOHV\FRPXQHVTXHRWURVDVtFRPRODXQLIRUPL]DFLyQHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHORV
UDVJRVVHJPHQWDOHV\VXSUDVHJPHQWDOHV(QHVWDVHFFLyQUHYLVDUHPRVORVDUJXPHQWRV
TXHOOHYDURQDODSURSXHVWDGHODMHUDUTXtDGHORVUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV\DOJXQDVGHVXV
KLSyWHVLV5HIHULPRVDOOHFWRUDORVFDStWXORV\GRQGHVHH[SRQHQFRQPiVGHWDOOH
HVWRVPRGHORV IRQRORJtDDXWRVHJPHQWDO\IRQRORJtDPpWULFDUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH 
 3DUWLHQGRGHODLGHDGH¬*ROGVPLWK*HRUJH¬1&OHPHQWV  SURSXVRTXHHVRV
UDVJRVLQGHSHQGLHQWHVSRGtDQVHURUJDQL]DGRVHQORVJUXSRVTXHVHSUHVHQWDQHQ  
VHJ~Q VX FRPSRUWDPLHQWR WtSLFR HQ UHJODV IRQROyJLFDV 6X SURSXHVWD IXH OODPDGD
geometría de rasgos./DVDEUHYLDFLRQHVXVDGDVDFRQWLQXDFLyQVRQODVVLJXLHQWHV/ 
UDVJRVODUtQJHRV6/ UDVJRVVXSUDODUtQJHRV3$ SXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGLVWU 
GLVWULEXLGRDQW DQWHULRUFRQV FRQVRQiQWLFRUHVRQ UHVRQDQWHFRQW FRQWL
QXRFRQVW FXHUGDVYRFDOHVFRQVWUHxLGDVGLVW FXHUGDVYRFDOHVGLVWHQGLGDVSRVW¬ 
SRVWHULRUUHG UHGRQGHDGR
[ 16 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 0-7 (Clements 1985)

5Dt]

FRQVW

GLVW

VRQ 6/

5DVJRVGHPRGR 3$

FRQW

QDV FRU

HVWU DQW

UHVRQ GLVWU

FRQV ODE

ODW EDMR UHG SRVW DOWR

/RVDUJXPHQWRVSDUDODSRVWXODFLyQGHXQUDVJR\GHVXVGHSHQGHQFLDVHQODMHUDU
TXtD VH EDVDQ HQ VX IXQFLyQ IRQROyJLFD (VWR HV ORV UDVJRV TXH VH DJUXSDQ HQ XQ
QRGRIRUPDQXQJUXSRQDWXUDOTXHVHLGHQWLϧFDSRUPHGLRGHUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVTXH
H[WLHQGHQHOLGHQRGHVDVRFLDQUDVJRV3RUHMHPSORHQWUHORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVTXH
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Ejemplo 0-8 Desasociación del nodo SL en la variedad andaluza del español

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Ejemplo 0-9 Extensión del nodo PA

6/ 6/

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Ejemplo 0-12 Español

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Ejemplo 0-13 Quechua

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Ejemplo 0-14 Especificaciones de sonoridad para resonantes y obstruyentes en español

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Ejemplo 0-15 Especificaciones de sonoridad para resonantes y obstruyentes en quechua

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\SRUHOORVRQIiFLOHVGHLGHQWLϧFDU/RVODELRVGLHQWHV\DOYHRORVQRQHFHVLWDQVHU
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(OGRUVRGHODOHQJXDHPSLH]DGRQGHWHUPLQDODFRURQD\VHH[WLHQGHKDVWDODDOWXUD
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DUWLFXODWRULRPLHQWUDVTXHRWURVVRQSDVLYRV\VLPSOHPHQWHUHFLEHQHOFRQWDFWRGHO
DUWLFXODGRUDFWLYR(ODUWLFXODGRUDFWLYRSRUH[FHOHQFLDHVODOHQJXD HVSHFLDOPHQWHHO
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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 29 ]

Paladar
Velo

Alveolos
Cavidad Nasal

Úvula

Cavidad Oral

Dientes Lengua
Dorso Faringe
Corona
Labios Raíz
Ápice

Cuerdas Vocales

Laringe

Figura 1-1 Los órganos del habla.

DUWLFXODGRUHVSDVLYRVVRQHOODELR\GLHQWHVVXSHULRUHVORVDOYHRORVHOSDODGDUHOYHOR
\ODIDULQJH/RVDUWLFXODGRUHVDFWLYRVQRUPDOPHQWHEXVFDQHODUWLFXODGRUSDVLYRPiV
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RORVDOYHRORVODFRURQDKDFLDHOSDODGDUHOGRUVRKDFLDHOYHORROD~YXOD\ODUDt]
KDFLDODIDULQJH6LQHPEDUJRKD\FDVRVHQORVTXHXQDUWLFXODGRUDFWLYRVHGHVSOD]D
PiVDOOiGHVXGRPLQLRKDELWXDO(VWRSDVDSRUHMHPSORFRQODVFRQVRQDQWHVUHWUR
ϩHMDVTXHVHDUWLFXODQFRQHOiSLFHGHODOHQJXDPDUFDGDPHQWHFXUYDGRKDFLDDWUiV
GHIRUPDTXHDOFDQFHHOSDODGDU

1.2. Clasificación de los sonidos

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[ 30 Alfonso Morales-Front

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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 31 ]

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VXSUDJORWiOLFDV/DFRQϧJXUDFLyQGHHVDVFDYLGDGHVSXHGHPRGLϧFDUVHVHJ~QODSRVL
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[ 32 Alfonso Morales-Front

Frontal Central Posterior

Alto i u

Medio

e o
Medio-bajo

Bajo a

Figura 1 2 Las vocales del español sobre el triángulo de las vocales


cardinales.

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HVIXHU]RDUWLFXODWRULRTXHVXSRQHHOGHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHODPDQGtEXODSDUDFUHDUOD
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SXHGHYDULDUGHSHQGLHQGRGHODFRQVRQDQWHTXHVLJXH3RUHMHPSORHQLQJOpVODV
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 8QFDVRSDUDOHORORWHQHPRVHQHOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHYRFDOHVWHQVDV\OD[DV(OODWtQ
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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 33 ]

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PHGLDV YpDVH+DUULV\9LQFHQW 
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1.2.2.2.1 Grado de constricción


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[ 34 Alfonso Morales-Front

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XQDWXUEXOHQFLDHQHODLUHGHWUiVGHOSXQWRHQTXHHODUWLFXODGRUDFWLYR\SDVLYRVH
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DVSLUDQWHV
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VHUWDQWRVRQRUDVFRPRVRUGDV'HKHFKRODVIULFDWLYDVVRUGDVVRQPiVFRPXQHVTXH
ODVVRQRUDV(VWRVHGHEHDTXHODIULFFLyQTXHVHSURGXFHDODFHUFDUORVDUWLFXODGRUHVHV
SHUFHSWLEOHHQVtPLVPD(QHVWRVVRQLGRVODϧQDOLGDGGHODFRQVWULFFLyQHVPiVODGH
FUHDUXQDIULFFLyQTXHODGHFUHDUXQDFiPDUDGHUHVRQDQFLDGHXQWDPDxRHVSHFtϧFR
/DYLEUDFLyQJORWDOHVSHUFHSWLEOHFXDQGRVHFRPELQDFRQODIULFFLyQVXSUDJORWDOVLQ
HPEDUJRQRDxDGHQDGDDODSHUFHSWLELOLGDGLQKHUHQWHGHODFRQVRQDQWHIULFDWLYD8QD
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHOHVSDxROHVTXHQRWLHQHFRQVRQDQWHVIULFDWLYDVVRQRUDVHQHOLQYHQWDULR
FRQVRQiQWLFRVLQFUyQLFR/DVIULFDWLYDVVRQRUDVHUDQD~QSDUWHGHODOHQJXDHQHOVXEVLV
WHPDGHODVVLELODQWHVKDVWDORVVLVWHPDVPHGLHYDOHVWDUGtRVSHURDFDEDURQSHUGLpQGRVH
HQXQSURFHVRVLVWHPiWLFRGHHQVRUGHFLPLHQWR YpDQVH/OR\G%UDGOH\\'HOIRUJH
E (QODDFWXDOLGDGODV~QLFDVIULFDWLYDVVRQRUDVTXHDSDUHFHQVRQH[FOXVLYDPHQWH
DOyIRQRVFRQWH[WXDOHVGHODVRFOXVLYDVVRQRUDV(VRTXLHUHGHFLUTXHODVIULFDWLYDVVRQR
UDVVRQSRVLEOHVSHURQRWLHQHQYDORUFRQWUDVWLYR/DIULFDWLYDELODELDOVRUGD>‫@ݡ‬HVXQD
YDULDQWHGLDOHFWDORFRQWH[WXDOGH>ɕ૊@ YpDVH1DYDUUR7RPiV>@ 
 Oclusivas.಩6RQODVFRQVRQDQWHVFRQXQJUDGRPi[LPRGHFRQVWULFFLyQRUDO3XHVWR
TXHODDSUR[LPDFLyQGHORVDUWLFXODGRUHVHVWRWDO\TXHHOYHORVHPDQWLHQHVXELGR
FHUUDQGRHOSDVRGHODLUHDODFDYLGDGQDVDOVHSURGXFHXQEORTXHRWHPSRUDOHQOD
VDOLGDGHODLUH&RPRHOLPSXOVRGHORVSXOPRQHVQRVHGHWLHQHGXUDQWHHVWHEORTXHR
HOUHVXOWDGRHVXQDXPHQWRGHODSUHVLyQGHWUiVGHOSXQWRGRQGHORVDUWLFXODGRUHV
HQWUDQHQFRQWDFWR/RTXHVHSHUFLEHHQHVWRVVRQLGRVHVODDXVHQFLDPRPHQWiQHDGH
VRQLGR\ODV~ELWDH[SORVLyQTXHVHSURGXFHDOOLEHUDUHODLUHDWUDSDGR
 ,JXDO TXH FRQ ODV IULFDWLYDV HO REMHWLYR HQ HVWRV VRQLGRV QR HV HO GH SURGXFLU
UHVRQDQFLDVVREUHODEDVHGHXQDYLEUDFLyQRWXUEXOHQFLDSUHYLDHQHOiUHDGHODJOR
WLV6RQSHUFHSWLEOHVDXQTXHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVHVWpQFRPSOHWDPHQWHUHODMDGDV/DV
RFOXVLYDVWDPELpQSXHGHQVHUVRUGDVRVRQRUDVSHURKD\TXHVHxDODUTXHODSHUFHS
WLELOLGDGGHODYLEUDFLyQGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVVHYHDWHQXDGDFRPRUHVXOWDGRGHOD
RFOXVLyQPRPHQWiQHDHQODFDYLGDGRUDO(VDLQFRPSDWLELOLGDGGHODVRFOXVLYDVFRQOD
De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 35 ]

VRQRULGDGSXHGHYHUVHUHϩHMDGDHQSURFHVRVGHDODUJDPLHQWRIRQpWLFRFRPSHQVDWRULR
GHODVYRFDOHVDQWHRFOXVLYDVVRQRUDVFRPRHQLQJOpVRHQODHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQGHODV
RFOXVLYDVVRQRUDVFRPRHQHVSDxRO
 /DVFRQVRQDQWHVRFOXVLYDVGHOHVSDxROVRQSFRPRHQpatoW ૧HQtodo,NHQ
cada,EHQbala,G૧HQdama\СHQgamo.(QHOHVSDxROFRPRHQODJUDQPD\R
UtDGHODVOHQJXDVSXHGHRtUVHODRFOXVLYDJORWDO>প@DXQTXHQRHVFRQWUDVWLYD(VHO
VRQLGR R¬PiVELHQODDXVHQFLDGHVRQLGR TXHVHSHUFLEHHQWUHODVGRVYRFDOHVHQOD
QHJDFLyQ>DপD@RHQODH[SUHVLyQGHDGPLUDFLyQWtSLFDGHORVQLxRV>RপR@ FRQXQD
VHJXQGDYRFDOEDVWDQWHODUJD\HQWRQDFLyQWtSLFDPHQWHGHVFHQGHQWH /DVRFOXVLYDV
VRQRUDVWLHQHQORVDOyIRQRVDSUR[LPDQWHV>ɕ૊˓૊࣢૊@/RVDOyIRQRVRFOXVLYRVDSDUHFHQ
GHWUiVGHQDVDORSDXVD\ORVDSUR[LPDQWHVHQORVGHPiVFDVRV/DH[FHSFLyQDHVWD
JHQHUDOL]DFLyQDIHFWDDODG૧TXHGHWUiVGHOHVRFOXVLYD
 Nasales.಩$OLJXDOTXHHQODVRFOXVLYDVHQODVFRQVRQDQWHVQDVDOHVKD\XQDWRWDO
REVWUXFFLyQGHODFDYLGDGRUDO6LQHPEDUJRHQODVFRQVRQDQWHVQDVDOHVOD~YXODGHV
FLHQGHVHSDUiQGRVHGHODSDUHGIDUtQJHD\HVWRFUHDXQDDSHUWXUDTXHSHUPLWHTXHHO
DLUHHVFDSHSRUODFDYLGDGQDVDO/DFDYLGDGQDVDODOHVWDUOOHQDGHPHPEUDQDVDFW~D
FRPRXQDVRUGLQDTXHDPRUWLJXDHOVRQLGRGiQGROHDVtODFDOLGDGWtSLFDPHQWHQDVDO
TXHHVFXFKDPRVHQP mano,Q nana\‫ ص‬caña.6LOD~YXODVHEDMDSHURQRKD\
XQDRFOXVLyQHQODFDYLGDGRUDOVHSURGXFHXQDYRFDOQDVDOFRPRODVGHOSRUWXJXpV
RGHOIUDQFpV(QHVSDxROODVYRFDOHVTXHSUHFHGHQDODVFRQVRQDQWHVQDVDOHVSXHGHQ
SURQXQFLDUVHFRQFLHUWDQDVDOL]DFLyQ SHMn>m@na 
 Africadas.಩/DVDIULFDGDVSXHGHQYHUVHFRPRXQDFRPELQDFLyQGHXQDRFOXVLYD\
XQDIULFDWLYD6XDUWLFXODFLyQHPSLH]DFRQXQFLHUUHWRWDOGHOFRQGXFWRRUDOFRPR
HQODVRFOXVLYDVSHURODDSHUWXUDQRHVV~ELWDVLQRTXHODDUWLFXODFLyQVHGHVOL]DD
XQJUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQOLJHUDPHQWHLQIHULRUTXHDOPDQWHQHUVHSURGXFHXQDIULF
FLyQ 3DUD UHIHULUQRV D OD JHQHUDOLGDG GHO HVSDxRO PRGHUQR OD~QLFD DIULFDGD TXH
HPSOHDPRVDTXtHV>߿@FRPRHQnoche,PLHQWUDVXVDPRVODRFOXVLYDSDODWDO>թ@FRPR
YDULDQWHGHOIRQHPDթGHVSXpVGHSDXVD\GHQDVDOFRPRHQODVUHVSHFWLYDVyemaH
inyección.(Q¬ORVGHPiVFRQWH[WRVSDUDPXFKRVGLDOHFWRVDSDUHFHODYDULDQWHIULFD
WLYD>բ@(Q¬RWUDVOHQJXDVVLQHPEDUJRRLQFOXVRHQHWDSDVSUHYLDVGHOHVSDxROODV
SRVLELOLGDGHVGHODVDIULFDGDVVRQRHUDQPD\RUHV
 LaU múltiple.಩/DYLEUDQWHP~OWLSOHHVHVHQFLDOPHQWHVLPLODUDODYLEUDQWHVLPSOH
FRQODGLIHUHQFLDGHTXHVXHOHWHQHUPiVGHXQDYLEUDFLyQ(QODSURQXQFLDFLyQGH
HVWHVRQLGRODFRURQDVHDSUR[LPDDORVDOYHRORV\VHSRQHHQWHQVLyQ(OiSLFHVH
PDQWLHQHFRQXQDWHQVLyQPHQRUGHIRUPDTXHRIUH]FDXQDOHYHUHVLVWHQFLDDOSDVR
GHODLUH(VWDUHVLVWHQFLDKDFHTXHODSUHVLyQGHWUiVGHODOHQJXDDXPHQWH&XDQGR
ODSUHVLyQDXPHQWDORVXϧFLHQWHHOiSLFHVHGHVSOD]DKDFLDDEDMRSHURQRODFRURQD
GDGRTXHHVWDSDUWHGHODOHQJXDHVWiPiVWHQVD (ODLUHSXHGHHQWRQFHVHVFDSDU
\FRPRFRQVHFXHQFLDODSUHVLyQGHWUiVGHODOHQJXDVHUHGXFH&XDQGRODIXHU]DGHO
iSLFHHVGHQXHYRVXSHULRUDODSUHVLyQHOiSLFHYXHOYHDFHUUDUHOSDVRGHODLUH\VH
LQLFLDXQQXHYRFLFOR/DVXFHVLyQUiSLGDGHHVWRVFLFORVFUHDODYLEUDFLyQP~OWLSOH
FDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHOD>U@HQODVSDODEUDVRamón\carro.
[ 36 Alfonso Morales-Front

 /DGLVWULEXFLyQGHOD>‫\@ޞ‬OD>U@HQHVSDxROHVFRPSOHPHQWDULDHQWRGRVORVFRQ
WH[WRVH[FHSWRHQWUHYRFDOHVGRQGHHVWRVGRVVRQLGRVSDUHFHQFRQWUDVWDUFRPROR
GHPXHVWUDQSDUHVPtQLPRVGHOWLSRcorro/coro.(VWRKDFHTXHGHEDPRVSODQWHDUQRVVL
VHWUDWDGHGRVIRQHPDVFRQWUDVWLYRVRGHDOyIRQRVGHXQPLVPRIRQHPD3RUXQDSDUWH
HVWRVGRVVRQLGRVGDQOXJDUDSDUHVPtQLPRVFRPRORVIRQHPDVSHURSRURWUDHQOD
PD\RUtDGHORVFRQWH[WRVWLHQHQXQDGLVWULEXFLyQFRPSOHPHQWDULDFRPRORVDOyIRQRV
8QDSRVLFLyQPX\IUHFXHQWHHQHVWHPRPHQWRSHURQRDFHSWDGDSRUDOJXQRVIRQyORJRV
YpDVHHOFDStWXOR HVODGHGDUSRUVHQWDGRTXHKD\XQVyORIRQHPDVXE\DFHQWH\
TXHODVGLIHUHQWHVPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVFRQWH[WXDOHVVHGHULYDQDEDVHGHUHJODVPLHQWUDV
TXHHOFRQWUDVWHLQWHUYRFiOLFRUHVXOWDGHSUHHVSHFLϧFDUXQDXQLGDGH[WUDGHWLHPSR
+DUULV1~xH]&HGHxR*XLWDUW 

1.2.2.2.2 Punto de articulación


+DVWDDTXtKHPRVDQDOL]DGRGLVWLQWRVPRGRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQVHJ~QVXJUDGRGHFRQV
WULFFLyQ6LQHPEDUJRHOPLVPRJUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQVHSHUFLELUiFRPRXQVRQLGR
GLVWLQWRFXDQGRVHDUWLFXOHFRQHOiSLFHFRQWUDORVGLHQWHVRFRQHOGRUVRFRQWUDHO
YHOR3RUHMHPSORVLFRQVLGHUDPRVXQDRFOXVLyQHQHOSULPHUFDVRWHQGUHPRVW ૧\
HOVHJXQGRNRVLVHWUDWDGHXQDIULFDWLYD‫([\ۏ‬OFRQWUDVWHHQWUHHVWRVSDUHV
HVGHSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ(OSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQVHGHWHUPLQDFRQUHVSHFWRDO
DUWLFXODGRUSDVLYRDOTXHHODUWLFXODGRUDFWLYRWRFDRVHDSUR[LPD6HJ~QVXSXQWRGH
DUWLFXODFLyQODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHFODVLϧFDQGHOPRGRVLJXLHQWH
 Labiales.಩6RQVRQLGRVDUWLFXODGRVFRQWUDHOODELRVXSHULRUS Pedro,E ven\
P mamáWLHQHQHVWHSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ>ɕ૊@habaHVXQDYDULDQWHDORIyQLFDGH
E 'LDOHFWDOPHQWH SXHGH HQFRQWUDUVH >‫ @ݡ‬FRPR UHVXOWDGR GH DVLPLODFLyQ HQ YR]
SURJUHVLYDRUHJUHVLYD SHMresbalarHQYDULHGDGHVH[WUHPHxDVGHODQGDOX] 
 Labiodentales.಩6H DUWLFXODQ FRQ HO ODELR LQIHULRU FRQWUD ORV GLHQWHV VXSHULRUHV
/D¬ODELRGHQWDOSRUH[FHOHQFLDHQHVSDxROHVISHURSRUDVLPLODFLyQGHXQDQDVDOD
ISXHGHWDPELpQSURGXFLUVHXQDODELRGHQWDOQDVDO>؇@8QDDXVHQFLDGHVWDFDEOH
HVODGHODODELRGHQWDOIULFDWLYD\VRQRUDYSHURKD\TXHQRWDUTXHHVWRQRHVXQD
SDUWLFXODULGDGGHODVODELRGHQWDOHVVLQRTXHSXHGHH[WHQGHUVHDWRGDVODVIULFDWLYDV
VRQRUDVHQWRGRVORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQ(QHOHVSDxROGHODHGDGPHGLDKDEtDXQD
IULFDWLYDODELRGHQWDOVRQRUDTXHHQODDFWXDOLGDGVHR\HHQHOHVSDxROGHORV(VWDGRV
8QLGRV\HQFDVRVGHXOWUDFRUUHFFLyQPRWLYDGRVSRUHOFRQVHUYDGXULVPRRUWRJUiϧFR
 Interdentales.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRORFDQGRHOiSLFHHQWUHORVLQFLVLYRVVXSHULRUHVHLQIH
ULRUHV4XL]iVGHELGRDTXHORVGLHQWHVSXHGHQGLϧFXOWDUODRFOXVLyQHQFDVRGHXQ
DOLQHDPLHQWRPX\LPSHUIHFWRRSRUSRGHUSHUGHUVHFRQODHGDGRGHELGRDDFFLGHQWHV
ORFLHUWRHVTXHODVRFOXVLYDVLQWHUGHQWDOHVDOLJXDOTXHODVODELRGHQWDOHVQRVRQQDGD
FRPXQHV/RVVRQLGRVFRQVRQiQWLFRVTXHVHDUWLFXODQFRQWUDODSXQWDGHORVLQFLVLYRV
VRQH[FOXVLYDPHQWHIULFDWLYRV(OVRQLGRLQWHUGHQWDOPiVFRQRFLGRGHOHVSDxROHV>‫@ۏ‬
SHURKD\TXHQRWDUTXHHQODPD\RUtDGHORVGLDOHFWRVGHOHVSDxROHVWHVRQLGRVHKD
SHUGLGRDOFRQIXQGLUVHFRQ>V@HQXQDGHODVϧQDOHVHVWULEDFLRQHVHQODUHHVWUXFWXUDFLyQ
De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 37 ]

GHOVLVWHPDGHODVVLELODQWHVPHGLHYDOHV$ORIyQLFDPHQWHSXHGHHQFRQWUDUVH>˓@FRPR
UHVXOWDGRGHODVRQRUL]DFLyQGH‫ۏ‬
 Dentales.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRQHOiSLFHFRQWUDODSDUWHSRVWHULRUGHORVGLHQWHV(Q¬HVSD
xROWLHQHQHVWHSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQW ૧ todo\G૧ dar.$ORIyQLFDPHQWHFRPRUHVXO
WDGRGHDVLPLODFLyQUHJUHVLYDHQFRQWUDPRV>O ૧@\>Q૧@
 Alveolares.಩/DVDOYHRODUHVVHSURGXFHQFRQHOiSLFHRODFRURQDFRQWUDORVDOYHRORV
7HQHPRVV sal,Q no,O lazo,‫ ޞ‬mar\U rosa.1RKD\RFOXVLYDVDOYHRODUHV\
HVWRGHEHDWULEXLUVHDOKHFKRGHTXHKD\RFOXVLYDVGHQWDOHV'HELGRDVXFHUFDQtDQRVH
VXHOHQFRQWUDVWDUFRQVRQDQWHVFRQXQPLVPRJUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQHQHVRVGRVSXQWRV
GHDUWLFXODFLyQ/DDXVHQFLDGHODIULFDWLYDVRQRUD]HVWiHQFRQVRQDQFLDFRQOD\D
REVHUYDGDDXVHQFLDGHIULFDWLYDVVRQRUDVHQJHQHUDOSHURFRPRHQFDVRVDQWHULRUHV
HVWHVRQLGRVHGDDORIyQLFDPHQWHFRPRUHVXOWDGRGHODVRQRUL]DFLyQGHV'LDOHF
WDOPHQWHKD\DOPHQRVGRVWLSRVGHV/DV૩DSLFDOVHSURQXQFLDFRQHOiSLFHGHOD
OHQJXD\WLHQHXQWtSLFRFDUiFWHUVLOEDQWH6HVXHOHLGHQWLϧFDUFRQXQDSURQXQFLDFLyQ
SHQLQVXODUSHURVHKDQHQFRQWUDGRPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVDSLFDOHVHQ&RORPELD3XHUWR¬5LFR
iUHDV DOWDV GH¬ %ROLYLD (FXDGRU \ HO QRUWH GH¬ $UJHQWLQD \ 0p[LFR YpDVH &DQϧHOG
 /D¬ODPLQDODFHUFDODFRURQDDORVDOYHRORV(Q(VSDxDHVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHOD
]RQDDQGDOX]D\GH¬&DQDULDVPLHQWUDVTXHHQ+LVSDQRDPpULFDHVODSURQXQFLDFLyQ
PiVH[WHQGLGD
 Retro ejas.಩6HDUWLFXODQDEDVHGHFXUYDUODOHQJXDKDFLDDWUiVKDVWDWRFDUFRQHO
iSLFHHOSDODGDUGXUR(OHVSDxROQRXVDFRQWUDVWLYDPHQWHFRQVRQDQWHVUHWURϩHMDV
SHURKD\GLDOHFWRV HVSHFLDOPHQWHHOKDEDQHURFRORTXLDO³YpDVH*XLWDUW HQORV
TXHDEXQGDQHVWRVVRQLGRV
 Alveopalatales.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRQODOiPLQD\HOSUHGRUVRGHODOHQJXDFRQWUDOD
UHJLyQHQWUHORVDOYHRORV\HOSDODGDU/DVDOYHRSDODWDOHVGHOHVSDxROVRQ߿ chico\
HQFLHUWRVGLDOHFWRVߑও llamarRˎ cónyuge.
 Palatales.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRQHOGRUVRGHODOHQJXDFRQWUDHOSDODGDUSHURWDPELpQ
VRQSDUFLDOPHQWHDOYHRSDODWDOHVSRUTXHLQWHUYLHQHODOiPLQDHQVXDUWLFXODFLyQ/DV
SDODWDOHVGHOHVSDxROVRQ‫ ص‬baño\թ yeso/DGLVWULEXFLyQGHODVSDODWDOHVWLHQH
OLPLWDFLRQHVSRVLFLRQDOHVTXHGHULYDQPD\RULWDULDPHQWHGHOKHFKRGHTXHGHVGHXQ
SXQWRGHYLVWDGLDFUyQLFRVRQGHLQFRUSRUDFLyQUHODWLYDPHQWHUHFLHQWHDOLQYHQWDULR
([LVWHODSDODWDOODWHUDOुHQORVGLDOHFWRVGHOHVSDxROTXHFRQWUDVWDQHVWHVRQLGRFRQ
թ(VWRVGLDOHFWRVGLVWLQJXHQHOVXVWDQWLYRvalla>ਥEDुD@GHvaya>ਥEDբD@/RVVRQLGRV
ߑওˎWDPELpQVHGDQGLDOHFWDOPHQWHFRPRYDULDQWHVGHթHQXQDWDTXHVLOiELFR
S¬HM¬llave>ਥߑDɕ૊H@>ਥওDɕ૊H@>ਥˎDɕ૊H@ 
 Velares.಩(QVXDUWLFXODFLyQLQWHUYLHQHQHOGRUVRGHODOHQJXD\HOYHORGHOSDODGDU
/DVRFOXVLYDVYHODUHVVRQN canasta\С goma./DIULFDWLYDYHODUHV[FRPRenjarro.
/DYDULDQWHHVSLUDQWL]DGDGHСHV>࣢@૊ DSUR[LPDQWH/DSURQXQFLDFLyQGHODIULFDWLYD
[DGPLWHPXFKDYDULDFLyQGLDOHFWDOHQSXQWR\PRGRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ(OGLDOHFWR
FDVWHOODQR VH FDUDFWHUL]D SRU OD SURQXQFLDFLyQ XYXODU >ट@ PLHQWUDV TXH XQD JUDQ
SDUWHGHORVGLDOHFWRVGH¬+LVSDQRDPpULFD HVSHFLDOPHQWHODVYDULHGDGHVFDULEHxDV 
[ 38 Alfonso Morales-Front

$QGDOXFtD&DQDULDV\SXQWRVGH¬([WUHPDGXUDVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUODSURQXQFLDFLyQ
VXDYH>K@8QIHQyPHQRORFDOL]DGRHQ&KLOHHVSURQXQFLDUODIULFDWLYDSDODWDO>ɪ@DQWH
ODVYRFDOHVDQWHULRUHV 2UR] 
 Uvulares.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRQHOGRUVRGHODOHQJXDFRQWUDOD~YXOD(OHVSDxROQRXVD
FRQWUDVWLYDPHQWHVRQLGRVSURGXFLGRVHQHVDiUHDSHURXQDYH]PiVWHQHPRVTXHQRWDU
ODSUHVHQFLDGHVRQLGRVXYXODUHVHQGLDOHFWRVHVSDxROHV$FDEDPRVGHPHQFLRQDUOD
SURQXQFLDFLyQXYXODUGH[HQHOFDVWHOODQR2WURFDVRORWHQHPRVHQODSURQXQFLD
FLyQWtSLFDPHQWHSXHUWRUULTXHxDGH>U@FRPR>ट@R>޶@
 Faríngeas.಩6HDUWLFXODQFRQODUDt]GHODOHQJXDFRQWUDODSDUHGIDUtQJHD1RVHXVDQ
FRQWUDVWLYDPHQWHHQHVSDxROSHURKD\SURQXQFLDFLRQHVGHOD>ट@FDVWHOODQDTXHVH
DSUR[LPDQDXQDSURQXQFLDFLyQIDUtQJHD HVSHFLDOPHQWHDQWHYRFDOEDMD $VLPLVPR
FRPR PHQFLRQDPRV DUULED HQ DOJXQRV GLDOHFWRV >K@ SXHGH WHQHU XQD DUWLFXODFLyQ
IDUtQJHD
 /D FODVLϧFDFLyQGH ODV FRQVRQDQWHV FRQWUDVWLYDVGHO HVSDxRO VHJ~Q HO SXQWR GH
DUWLFXODFLyQ\HOJUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQSXHGHVLQWHWL]DUVHHQXQDWDEODTXHRUGHQH
HVWDVGRVJUDGDFLRQHVODFXDOVHSUHVHQWDHQOD7DEOD(VWDWDEODSXHGHHQULTXH
FHUVHSDUDLQFOXLUQRVyORORVVRQLGRVFRQWUDVWLYRV IRQHPDV VLQRWDPELpQORVDOyIRQRV
FRQWH[WXDOHV\YDULDFLRQHVGLDOHFWDOHVPiVFRPXQHVWDOFRPRVHYHHQOD7DEOD

1.3 De la malla descriptiva a los rasgos mínimos

(OHVWXGLRGHODSDUDWRIRQDGRU\GHORVGLVWLQWRVDUWLFXODGRUHVQRVKDVHUYLGRSDUD
GHVFULELU\FODVLϧFDUORVVRQLGRVGHOKDEOD&RPRYHUHPRVVHJXLGDPHQWHHVRVPLVPRV
DUWLFXODGRUHVQRVVHUYLUiQSDUDLGHQWLϧFDU\QRPEUDUODVXQLGDGHVPtQLPDVGHOVLVWHPD
PHQWDO(QHOFDPSRGHODIRQpWLFDGHVFULSWLYDlabialHVSULPRUGLDOPHQWHXQWpUPLQR
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Tabla 1-1 Los fonemas consonánticos del español

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sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son

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Tabla 1-2 Los alófonos consonánticos más comunes del español

Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Dental Alveolar Alveopalatal Palatal Velar

sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son sor son

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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos
39 ]
[ 40 Alfonso Morales-Front

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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 41 ]

‡ 5HVSHFWRDOpunto de articulación vocálico,EDVWDFRQHOUDVJR[retraído].


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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 43 ]

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Ejercicios

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[ 44

Tabla 1-3 Los rasgos distintivos necesarios para contrastar los fonemas del español

p t k b d s m n l i e a o u
Alfonso Morales-Front

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De la fonética descriptiva a los rasgos distintivos 45 ]

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Notas

1. &RQHOWpUPLQRaparato fonadorQRVUHIHULPRVDOFRQMXQWRGHSDUWHVGHOFXHUSRTXH
LQWHUYLHQHQHQODDUWLFXODFLyQGHVRQLGRVGHOKDEOD
2. $OGHMDUHVFDSDUHODLUHSRUODFDYLGDGQDVDOVHQHFHVLWDPXFKRHVIXHU]RDUWLFXODWRULR
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3. (VWHIRQHPDTXHKHPRVDGRSWDGRHQHOWH[WRVHSXHGHUHIHULUDXQDVHULHGHUHDOL]D
FLRQHVGLDOHFWDOHVTXHYDUtDQVHJ~QHOJUDGRGHDSHUWXUDSRUORWDQWRELHQSXGLHUDVHUOD
RFOXVLYDSDODWDOPLVPDFRPRDIULFDGDIULFDWLYDDSUR[LPDQWHRGHVOL]DGD
4. &RPRTXHHOHVSDxROQRWLHQHFRQVRQDQWHVIDUtQJHDVQRKDFHPRVPHQFLyQGHHVWHQRGR
DUWLFXODWRULRDTXt
This page intentionally left blank
2 ]
Fonología autosegmental
Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

2.0 Introducción

+HPRVSRGLGRLQIHULUGHOFDStWXORLQWURGXFWRULRTXHODIRQRORJtDVHGHϧQHFRPROD
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQPHQWDOTXHHOKDEODQWHR\HQWHSRVHHGHODSURGXFFLyQ\SHUFHSFLyQ
GHODVVHxDOHVGHOKDEOD(QHVWHWLSRGHIRQRORJtDODUHODFLyQHQWUHORVIHQyPHQRV
PHQWDOHV\ORVKHFKRVItVLFRVUHDOHVVHGDPHGLDQWHXQVLVWHPDGHUHJODV6HKDSUHVX
PLGRTXHODIRQRORJtDDVtGHϧQLGDWLHQHXQGLFFLRQDULRROp[LFRTXHFRQWLHQHWRGDVODV
LQIRUPDFLRQHVQHFHVDULDVSDUDIRUPDUSDODEUDV$VtKHPRVYLVWRTXHFDGDPRUIHPD
VHFRPSRQHGHIRQHPDVLQGLYLGXDOHVTXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DQPHGLDQWHXQFRQMXQWRGH
UDVJRVIRQpWLFRVXQLYHUVDOHV(QWRQFHVODSDODEUDpanVHUHSUHVHQWDIRUPDOPHQWHGH
ODPDQHUDVLJXLHQWH

Ejemplo 2-1

S D Q
਑ FRQVRQDQWH ਔ ਑ ਮFRQVRQDQWH ਔ ਑ FRQVRQDQWH ਔ
਒ ਮUHVRQDQWH ਕ ਒ UHVRQDQWH ਕ ਒ UHVRQDQWH ਕ
਒ ਮVRQRUR ਕ ਒ VRQRUR ਕ ਒ VRQRUR ਕ
਒ ODELDO ਕ ਒ ਮODELDO ਕ ਒ ਮODELDO ਕ
਒ ਮFRURQDO ਕ ਒ ਮFRURQDO ਕ ਒ FRURQDO ਕ
ਓ    ਖ ਓ    ਖ ਓ    ਖ
[ 48 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

(QHOHMHPSORHOVHJPHQWRIRQROyJLFRVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUVHUXQFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVFRQ
VLJQRVSRVLWLYRV\QHJDWLYRVORVFXDOHVLQGLFDQVLHOVHJPHQWRHQFXHVWLyQSRVHHHVRV
UDVJRV/DVSDODEUDV\XQLGDGHVPD\RUHVVRQXQDVLPSOH\X[WDSRVLFLyQRSDUDVHU
PiVH[DFWRVXQDFRQFDWHQDFLyQOLQHDOGHGLFKRVUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV(VGHFLU\VHJ~Q
VHPXHVWUDHQ  ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQROyJLFDGHODSDODEUDpanHVODFRQFDWHQDFLyQ
GHOFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVGHORVVHJPHQWRV>S@>D@\>Q@VLQPiVHVWUXFWXUD6H¬SUHVXPH
TXHHOKDEODQWHGLYLGHYHUWLFDOPHQWHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ  \TXHOHDVLJQDVXVUDVJRV
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV
 (OSXQWRGHYLVWDTXHKHPRVSUHVHQWDGRKDVWDDKRUDUHVXPHODH[SRVLFLyQGHOD
WHRUtDIRQROyJLFDGH¬&KRPVN\\+DOOH  6LQHPEDUJRVHKDOOHJDGRDODFRQFOX
VLyQGHTXHODVFRVDVQROXFHQWDQVHQFLOODVVLQRTXHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV
WLHQHQXQDDUTXLWHFWXUDPXFKRPiVFRPSOHMDTXHODGHXQDVLPSOHFRQFDWHQDFLyQ
OLQHDOGHUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV(QHIHFWR*ROGVPLWK  WHRUL]DTXHORVHOHPHQWRV
FRQVWLWXWLYRVGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFDVHFRPSRQHQGHXQJUXSRGHDFWLYLGDGHV
DUWLFXODWRULDVVLPXOWiQHDVHMHFXWDGDVVHFXHQFLDOPHQWHHQSODQRVGLIHUHQWHV\TXHUHV
SRQGHQDFLHUWDVUHVWULFFLRQHVDOUHODFLRQDUVHHQWUHVteOSURSRQHVXVWLWXLUHOPRGHOR
 FRQHO  XQPRGHORSROLJHVWXDOGHRUTXHVWDFLyQGHDFWLYLGDGHVDUWLFXODWRULDV

Ejemplo 2-2

/DELRV   6HFLHUUDQ   VHDEUHQ                     


/HQJXD   3RVLFLyQEDMD         WRFDHOSDODGDU   
9HOR   6XEH                EDMD                     
/DULQJH   7RQREDMR      WRQRDOWR                  

(VWHPRGHORUHSUHVHQWDXQDWHRUtDGHODVHSDUDELOLGDGGHODSDUDWRDUWLFXODWRULR\GH
FyPRVHFRRUGLQDQHOYHORODOHQJXD\ORVODELRVSDUDSURGXFLUODSDODEUDpan.$TXt
LQWHUYLHQHQWUHVFODVHVGHJHVWRVORVRUDOHVTXHVHUHϧHUHQDODVDFWLYLGDGHVGHORV
ODELRVODOHQJXD\HOPD[LODULQIHULRUORVQDVDOHVFRQORVFXDOHVVHDFWLYDHOYHOR
\¬ORVODUtQJHRVHQGRQGHVHHMHFXWDODYLEUDFLyQGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVHLPSOHPHQ
WDFLyQGHOWRQR$OSURQXQFLDUODSDODEUDpanRFXUUHHIHFWLYDPHQWHXQDRUTXHVWDFLyQ
GHJHVWRVSURGXFLGRVSRUORVGLVWLQWRVyUJDQRVGHIRQDFLyQ$GHPiVHQ  VHKD
DxDGLGRODODULQJHFRQORTXHVHGDOXJDUDODSURGXFFLyQGHWRQRPDUFDGRDTXt
FRPR >WRQR EDMR@ SRUTXH FXDQGR VH SURQXQFLDpan HO WRQR GH OD YRFDO GHVFLHQGH
XQSRFR3XHVELHQGLFKRWRQRQRWLHQHYDORUFRQWUDVWLYRHQHVSDxRO\SRUWDQWRVH
SXHGHSUHVFLQGLUGHpO6LQHPEDUJR*ROGVPLWK  LQGLFDTXHHQORPRQJRXQD
OHQJXDEDQW~VHHPSOHDHOWRQRODUtQJHRFRQWUDVWLYDPHQWHVHJ~QYHUHPRVSURQWR
(V¬SRUHVRTXHODDXVHQFLDGHHVWHWRQRFRQWUDVWLYRSDUDHOHVSDxROSXHGHVHUPiVELHQ
XQDFFLGHQWH(O¬KHFKRGHTXHVHSURGXFHIRQpWLFDPHQWHHQHVSDxROVLQTXHRFXUUDQ
FRQWUDVWHVVXJLHUHTXHORVKDEODQWHVWLHQHQODFDSDFLGDGGHSURGXFLUOD/RTXHKD\
TXHGHFLGLUHVVLHVHUDVJRVHGHEHRQRLQFOXLUFRPRUHTXLVLWRXQLYHUVDOSDUDWRGDV
ODVOHQJXDVHV¬GHFLUVLGHEHIRUPDUSDUWHGHOPRGHOROLQHDO  /DVLQYHVWLJDFLRQHV
Fonología autosegmental 49 ]

GH¬*ROGVPLWK\RWUDVSRVWHULRUHVVXJLHUHQTXHHQLQJOpV \HQHOHVSDxRO HOWRQR


QRFRQWUDVWDSRUHOORHQHOQLYHOIRQROyJLFRKD\TXHH[FOXLUOR(OKHFKRGHTXHHQ
ORPRQJRVHSXHGDPDQLSXODULQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHORVGHPiVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRV
VXJLHUHTXHVHOHGHEHDWULEXLUXQSODQRDSDUWHVHJ~QYHUHPRVHQODVHFFLyQ&RQ
ODLQFOXVLyQUHGXQGDQWHGHODDFWLYLGDGODUtQJHDHQWUDQHQDFFLyQODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHV
TXHSURGXFHQRQRVRQRULGDGDVSLUDFLyQRGLIHUHQWHVWRQRVVHJ~QORUHTXLHUDHOFDVR
 /DWHVLVIXQGDPHQWDOGH¬*ROGVPLWKHVTXHORVJHVWRVGHFDGDXQRGHHVWRVQLYHOHV
QRWLHQHQTXHVHUVLPpWULFRVRVHDTXHSURGXFLUHOJHVWRHQXQSODQRQRKDFHTXHVH
UHDOLFHXQJHVWRLJXDOHQRWURSODQRDXQTXHORVSODQRVSHUPDQH]FDQUHODFLRQDGRV8QD
PHWiIRUDLQVWUXFWLYDVHUtDFRPSDUDUHVWDDFFLyQJHVWXDOFRQODDFWLYLGDGTXHHMHFXWDQ
ORVGLVWLQWRVLQVWUXPHQWRVGHXQDRUTXHVWDFDGDXQRQRWRFDODPLVPDPHORGtDVLQ
HPEDUJRWRGRVHOORVIRUPDQSDUWHGHORTXHVHSHUFLEHFRPRXQDWRWDOLGDG/DVOHQ
JXDVSRUVXSXHVWRQRVLHPSUHDFWLYDQFDGDJHVWR3RUHMHPSORODDFWLYLGDGGHOWRQR
TXHSXGLHUDQSURGXFLUODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVKDEUtDTXHH[FOXLUODGHODVHxDOOLQJtVWLFD
GHOOp[LFRGHORVKLVSDQRKDEODQWHVSXHVHOWRQRVyOROHHVGLVWLQWLYRDODRUDFLyQFRPR
FXDQGRVHGLVWLQJXHXQDIUDVHLQWHUURJDWLYDGHXQDGHFODUDWLYD(QFDPELRODVSDODEUDV
GHRWUDVOHQJXDVFX\DVFRQϧJXUDFLRQHVPRUIRIRQROyJLFDVVRQLGpQWLFDVVHGLVWLQJXHQ
HQWUHVtPHGLDQWHHOWRQR)XHSUHFLVDPHQWHFRQOHQJXDVWRQDOHVTXH*ROGVPLWKDYDOy
VXWHRUtDGHTXHORVVHJPHQWRVSRVHHQXQDDUTXLWHFWXUDJHRPpWULFD

2.1 Arquitectura de los segmentos

(QODWHRUtDFOiVLFDGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVOLQHDOHVVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ  HO¬WRQR


VHFRQVLGHUDEDVLPSOHPHQWHXQRPiVGHOFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DQDXQ
VHJPHQWRSDUWLFXODU6LQHPEDUJRHVDSUHVXQFLyQSODQWHDSUREOHPDVGLItFLOHVGHUHVRO
YHUFXDQGRVHDQDOL]DQFLHUWRVIHQyPHQRVIRQROyJLFRVGHDOJXQDVOHQJXDVWRQDOHV
(QORPRQJRVHGDODUHJOD  TXHHOLPLQDXQDYRFDOϧQDODQWHRWUDSDODEUDTXHVH
LQLFLDFRQYRFDO

Ejemplo 2-3

9఩‘ಣಣ9

(QHOPRGHORJHQHUDWLYRWUDGLFLRQDOFRPRHOWRQRIRUPDSDUWHGHOFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRV
GLVWLQWLYRVTXHSRVHHWDOYRFDODOHOLPLQDUVHODYRFDOPHGLDQWH  HOWRQRFRQVLJXLHQ
WHPHQWHWHQGUiTXHGHVDSDUHFHU3RUHMHPSORODSDODEUD¶VX·VHGLFH>EjOy‫غ‬Сy@HQGRQGH
HOVtPERORCVLJQLϧFDWRQREDMR\WRQRDOWR\ODSDODEUD¶OLEUR·VHGLFH>EĉNip@HQGRQGH
HOVtPERORáVLJQLϧFDWRQRTXHEDMD\VXEH6LSULPHURVHVXSRQHODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQD
UHJODLQGHSHQGLHQWHTXHHOLPLQDOD>E@GHHVWD~OWLPDSDODEUDVLQTXHVHDIHFWHQXHVWUR
DUJXPHQWRDOOLJDUVHDPEDVSDODEUDV\DSOLFiUVHOHVODUHJOD  HOUHVXOWDGRGHEHUtD
VHUORTXHVHPXHVWUDHQODGHULYDFLyQ  3HURORTXHUHVXOWDHVWRWDOPHQWHDQyPDOR
[ 50 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 2-4

EjOy‫غ‬Сy E ĉNip
EjOy‫غ‬СĉNip 5HJOD 
>EjOy‫غ‬СĉNip@

/D GHULYDFLyQ   HVWi PDO IRUPDGD SRUTXH HO UHVXOWDGR FRUUHFWR GHEH VHU
>EjOy‫غ‬УĉNip@2VHDTXHHOWRQRGHODYRFDOHOLGLGDGHEHUHDSDUHFHUHQODYRFDOLQLFLDO
GHODSDODEUDVLJXLHQWH3RUVXSXHVWRTXHHQODOLWHUDWXUDVHVDEtDGHWDQVLJQLϧFDWLYR
IHQyPHQR\HQYLVWDGHTXHVHQHFHVLWDEDODUHJOD  KDEtDTXHLQJHQLiUVHODVSDUD
UHFXSHUDUHOWRQRLQKHUHQWHGHODYRFDOSHUGLGD
 $WDOϧQVHLQYRFDURQUHJODVGHFRSLDVGHWRQRV\UHVWULFFLRQHVHQODGHULYDFLyQ
HQWUH RWUDV YpDVH *ROGVPLWK   TXH SUHWHQGtDQ H[SOLFDU HO IHQyPHQR 6LQ
HPEDUJRQRVHORJUyp[LWRDOJXQR3RQJDPRVSRUHMHPSORODUHJODGHFRSLDGHWRQRV
(QHVWHWLSRGHUHJODDQWHVGHHIHFWXDUVHODHOLVLyQGHYRFDOVHFRSLDVXWRQRHQOD
YRFDOVLJXLHQWH(OUHVXOWDGRQRREVWDQWHHVTXHFDGDYH]TXHVHHOLGDXQDYRFDOHQ
FXDOTXLHURWUDOHQJXDWRQDO \VHPHMDQWHIHQyPHQRVHGDHQYDULDVOHQJXDVEDQW~HV 
KDEUiTXHDSOLFDUXQDUHJODGHFRSLDUWRQRVSDUDFDGDFDVRSDUWLFXODU¢'yQGHHVWi
ODIDOODGHHVWHSURFHGLPLHQWR"6HHQFXHQWUDHQHOKHFKRGHTXHVHSLHUGHHOSRGHUGH
JHQHUDOL]DU$ODJUXSDUWRGRVORVUDVJRVHQXQIRQHPDQRHVSRVLEOHGHVSOD]DUQLQJ~Q
UDVJRLQGLYLGXDOHQSRVLFLyQLQWUDPRUIpPLFDD~QPiVQLVLTXLHUDVHSXHGHQWUDQVIHULU
UDVJRVIXHUDGHOIRQHPDPLVPRDRWURiPELWRFRPRSRUHMHPSORDOGHRWUDVtODED
 (QFDVRGHTXHVHHOLGDXQWRQRRGHTXHODYRFDOVHDLQFDSD]GHPDQWHQHUVX
WRQRODVUHJODVGHUHVWULFFLyQGHULYDFLRQDOWLHQHQODFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHHVSHFLϧFDUOD
QHFHVLGDGGHWUDQVIHULUORDODYRFDOVLJXLHQWH(VREYLRTXHHVWHWLSRGHUHJODUHVXHOYH
HQSDUWHHOSRGHUGHJHQHUDOL]DFLyQTXHQRWLHQHQODVUHJODVGHFRSLD³SHURVRODPHQWH
HQSDUWH(VWRHVDVtSRUTXHVLELHQVHJHQHUDOL]DFXDQGRVHSLHUGHXQDYRFDOQRRFXUUH
ORPLVPRFXDQGRXQDYRFDOVHDVLPLODDRWUDSXHVKD\PXFKDVOHQJXDVSRUHMHPSOR
ODVOHQJXDVQLJHULDQDV\RUXEDHLJERTXHPXHVWUDQDVLPLODFLyQWRWDOGHUDVJRV\VLQ
HPEDUJRHOWRQRVHSLHUGH1XHYDPHQWHVXUJHHOSUREOHPDGHODLPSRVLELOLGDGGH
JHQHUDOL]DUSRUTXHVLELHQODUHVWULFFLyQGHULYDFLRQDOGDFXHQWDGHORVWRQRVFXDQGR
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WRWDORSDUFLDO
 /DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQOLQHDOPLVPDHUDHQUHDOLGDGORTXHUHWDEDDOOLQJLVWDJHQHUD
WLYRSRUTXHOHREOLJDEDQR\DDUHVWULQJLUHOSRGHUGHODWHRUtDVLQRDSHJDUOHSDUFKHV
*ROGVPLWKSHQVyHQUHVROYHUHOSUREOHPDGHRWUDPDQHUDPDQLSXODUORVWRQRV\ODV
XQLGDGHVSRUWDGRUDVGHWRQRV ODVYRFDOHV LQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHWHRUtDTXH\DWHQtD
GLVWLQJXLGRVSUHGHFHVRUHVFRPR=¬+DUULV  +RFNHWW  \)LUWK  HVWH
~OWLPRDUTXLWHFWRGHODWHRUtDGHODQiOLVLVSURVyGLFRTXHVHSURSDJyHQ,QJODWHUUD
6HJ~QDTXpOOD\DQRVHWUDWDGHXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQXQLOLQHDOFRPRVHRIUHFHHQ  
VLQRPXOWLOLQHDOFRPRODTXHVHEULQGDHQ  HQODTXHVHH[WUDHXQVHJPHQWRGH
XQIRQHPD\VHFRORFDHQXQSODQRDSDUWH
Fonología autosegmental 51 ]

Ejemplo 2-5

਑ ਮDOWD ਔ
਒ ਮEDMD ਕ
਒ WRQRDOWR ਕ
ਓ    ਖ

Ejemplo 2-6

਑ ਮDOWD ਔ
਒ ਮEDMD ਕ
ਓ    ਖ

਑ WRQR ਔ
਒ DOWR ਕ
਒ ਮEDMR ਕ
ਓ    ਖ

(Q  ORVUDVJRVGHODYRFDOVHGLVWULEX\HQHQGLIHUHQWHVSODQRVRHVWUDWRV3DUDPiV


SUHFLVLyQORVHOHPHQWRVTXHFRPSRQHQFDGDHVWUDWRIXQFLRQDQGHPDQHUDLQGHSHQ
GLHQWHRDXWyQRPDGHDKtTXHVHOHVOODPHautosegmentos.3RUWDQWR  UHSURGXFHOR
TXHOODPDUHPRVXQDrepresentaciónautosegmental.$OIXQFLRQDUORVUDVJRVHQGLIHUHQWHV
HVWUDWRVGHPDQHUDDXWyQRPDVHH[SOLFDHOSRUTXpHQORPRQJRGHVDSDUHFHODYRFDO\VH
SUHVHUYDVXWRQRODUD]yQHVTXHVHSLHUGHQORVUDVJRVIRQROyJLFRVGHODYRFDO\VXWRQR
TXHGDϩRWDQGR KHFKRTXHVHFDSWDPHGLDQWHODVGRVOtQHDVWUXQFDGDVTXHVLJQLϧFDQ
GHVXQLyQRGHVDVRFLDFLyQGHHVWUDWRV SDVDQGROXHJRSRUUHJODDDVRFLDUVHFRQHO~QLFR
HOHPHQWRGRQGHSXHGHKDFHUORRVHDFRQODYRFDOVLJXLHQWHVHJ~QVHREVHUYDHQ  

Ejemplo 2-7

 & 9  E 9 & 

5HJOD  ‘

WRQR WRQR EjOy‫غ‬УĉNip

/DV¬&\9UHVXPHQDTXtORVUDVJRVWtSLFRVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHV\YRFDOHV
 (QPDUJLOHQJXDTXHVHKDEODHQ1LJHULDRULHQWDOVHUHJLVWUDQGRVWLSRVGHSURFHVRV
TXHVHSXHGHQDQDOL]DUGHPDQHUDVLPLODUDORVGHORPRQJR/DYRFDOGHOYHUER>WOj@
¶FRUWDU·VHSLHUGHPHGLDQWHHOLVLyQDODJUHJiUVHOHHOVXϧMR>Zi@FRQORTXHVHOHRWRUJD
HOVLJQLϧFDGR¶FRUWDUHQGRV· 5RFD $KRUDELHQVHHVSHUDUtDTXHHOWRQR
EDMRGHGLFKDYRFDOGHVDSDUHFLHUDWDPELpQ3HURQRRFXUUHDVt(OWRQREDMRUHDSDUHFH
[ 52 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

DxDGLGRDOVXϧMRGHPDQHUDTXHHQYH]GH >WOZi@VHSURGXFH>WOZĉ@/D¬FRPELQDFLyQ
GHXQDYRFDOGHXQWRQRDOWRFRQXQREDMRVHFRQRFHFRPRcontorno tonal.3RURWUR
ODGRQRVLHPSUHGHVDSDUHFHODYRFDO(QHOPLVPRFRQWH[WRFXDQGRODEDVHWLHQHXQD
YRFDODOWDFRPR>K@¶VHSXOWXUD·TXHHQWUDHQFRQWDFWRFRQXQDYRFDOGHOVXϧMRSRU
HMHPSOR>iUL@ODYRFDODOWDVHFRQYLHUWHHQGHVOL]DGD\VXWRQRLQKHUHQWHVHGHVSOD]D
KDFLDODYRFDOYHFLQDGHODGHUHFKDUHDOL]iQGRVH>KZĉUL@\QR >KࣸiUL@
 (QHVWRVHMHPSORVVDOWDDODYLVWDDOJRIXQGDPHQWDOGHODIRQRORJtDWUDGLFLRQDOTXH
VHUHVXHOYHVLQSUREOHPDHQODIRQRORJtDDXWRVHJPHQWDO<HVTXHVLSDUDDTXpOODFRPR
HQHVWRVFDVRVHOWRQRIRUPDSDUWHtQWHJUDGHOVHJPHQWRVHSURGXFHXQDFRQWUDGLFFLyQ
IRQROyJLFDSXHVXQVHJPHQWRQRVHSXHGHFDUDFWHUL]DUSRUWHQHUYDORUHVRSXHVWRVSDUD
XQPLVPRUDVJR1RVHSHUPLWHXQDYRFDOFRQORVUDVJRVVLPXOWiQHRV >²WRQREDMR
WRQRDOWR@(QFDPELRDODSOLFDUXQDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOVHVHSDUDHOWRQRGHO
VHJPHQWR\HOSURFHVRVHSXHGHLQWHUSUHWDUFRPRODFRPELQDFLyQHQXQVHJPHQWRGH
WRQRVTXHVHRSRQHQHQYDORUHV

2.2 Asociación de rasgos

/DOtQHDGLVFRQWLQXDTXHVHYHHQ  HVVLJQLϧFDWLYDSRUTXHUHSUHVHQWDHQVtXQD


UHJODODTXHDVRFLDHOWRQRGHVXQLGRFRQHOHOHPHQWRVLJXLHQWH/DVOtQHDVVyOLGDV
UHSUHVHQWDQDVRFLDFLyQHQWUHDXWRVHJPHQWRV6LQHPEDUJRHVWDVOtQHDVVyOLGDVHVWiQ
VXMHWDV D FRQGLFLRQHV HVWULFWDV GH DVRFLDFLyQ TXH VH VXSRQH IXQFLRQDQ GH PDQHUD
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FLDFLyQQRHVWiQSUHVHQWHVHQODVIRUPDVVXE\DFHQWHVVLQRTXHVHLQWURGXFHQPHGLDQWH
UHJODV TXH HPSDUHMDQ ORV DXWRVHJPHQWRV GH XQ PLVPR IRQHPD *ROGVPLWK  
SURSXVRRULJLQDOPHQWHOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬%XHQD)RUPDFLyQ  

Ejemplo 2-8 Condición de Buena Formación

a. &DGDYRFDOGHEHDVRFLDUVHSRUORPHQRVFRQXQWRQR
b. &DGDWRQRGHEHDVRFLDUVHSRUORPHQRVFRQXQDYRFDO
c. /DVOtQHDVGHDVRFLDFLyQQRGHEHQFUX]DUVH

7DQWR D FRPR E VHOHFFLRQDQVHJPHQWRVYRFiOLFRVFRQORFXDOVHGDOXJDU


DORTXHVHFRQRFHFRPRunidades portadoras de tonos./DVYRFDOHVHQWRQFHVVHUiQ
VLHPSUHORVQ~FOHRV\SRUWDQWRODVSRUWDGRUDVGHWRQRVWDOFRPRORHMHPSOLϧFD>প~@
¶IXHJR·GHOPDUJL

Ejemplo 2-9

 প ú

WRQREDMR WRQRDOWR
Fonología autosegmental 53 ]

/DVGRVSULPHUDVSDUWHVVHUtDQPRGLϧFDGDVPiVWDUGH YpDVHODVHFFLyQ HQSULPHU


OXJDUSRUTXHODDVRFLDFLyQGHYRFDOHV\WRQRVSDUHFHSURFHGHUHQXQDGLUHFFLyQ\HQ
VHJXQGROXJDUSRUTXHVHJ~QVHDxDGHQYRFDOHVpVWDVWLHQGHQDFRSLDUHOWRQRGHOD
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ULUDQWHULRUPHQWHHQHVWDOHQJXDKD\XQWRQREDMRXQRDOWR\XQDFRPELQDFLyQGH
DPERV$GHPiVGHHVWRVWRQRVKD\VXϧMRVTXHSDUHFHQLQGLFDUTXHFDUHFHQGHWRQR
FRQORTXHVHHVFDSDQSRUWDQWRDORVHIHFWRVGH  3RUHMHPSOR>ED@HVXQVXϧMR
YHUEDOFX\RWRQRWLHQGHDFDPELDU +RϱPDQQ GHPRGRTXHGHVSXpVGHFt\
KpDSDUHFHFRQWRQRDOWRVHJ~QVHHYLGHQFLDHQORVUHVSHFWLYRV>FtEi@¶KDEODU·\
>KpEi@¶OOHYDU·3HURVREUHXQDEDVHTXHFRQWLHQHXQWRQREDMRVHWUDQVIRUPDHQEDMR
SRUHMHPSOR>СKjEj@¶DOFDQ]DU·(OKHFKRGHTXH>ED@SXHGHVXUJLUFRQWRQRDOWRR
EDMRVHJ~QODFDUDFWHUtVWLFDWRQDOGHODEDVHVXJLHUHTXHQRWLHQHWRQRDOJXQR$QWH
HVWDVLWXDFLyQ3XOOH\EODQN  HQWUHRWURVSURSRQHTXH  GHEHUHIRUPXODUVH
GHPDQHUDTXHSXHGDEUHJDUFRQFDVRVHQTXHHOWRQRVXE\DFHQWHQRHVWpDVRFLDGRFRQ
WRGDVODVYRFDOHV&RPRHOVXϧMRGXSOLFDHOWRQRGHODEDVHSDUDGDUFXHQWDGHORTXH
RFXUUHHQPDUJLVHQHFHVLWDTXHHOWRQRGHODEDVHVHSURSDJXHRVHH[WLHQGDKDFLDOD
YRFDOGHODGHUHFKDPHGLDQWHODUHJODGHH[WHQVLyQ  'HKDEHUPiVVXϧMRVDOD
GHUHFKDHVWRVWDPELpQUHFLELUtDQUHFXUUHQWHPHQWHHOWRQRGHODEDVH

Ejemplo 2-10 Regla de extensión de tono

9 9

WRQR

 6L  VHDSOLFDDODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHFtEDVHFRQVLJXHHOUHVXOWDGR  

Ejemplo 2-11

Ft ED ఩ Ft Ei
5HJOD 
WRQR DOWR WRQR DOWR

(VREYLRTXHOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬%XHQD)RUPDFLyQVHDSOLFDVyORDODEDVHSRUTXHGHOR
FRQWUDULRHOVXϧMREDWHQGUtDTXHYHQLUPDUFDGRLQKHUHQWHPHQWHFRQWRQRϧMR\
\DYLPRVTXHHVWRQRRFXUUH3RUORYLVWR  QRHVPiVTXHXQDUHJODGHFRSLD
GHWRQRVRGLFKRGHRWURPRGRXQDUHJODGHDUPRQtDPHOyGLFD&RQHOODVHFUHDXQ
VHJPHQWRTXHVXUJHFRQXQDDVRFLDFLyQP~OWLSOHGHWRQRV

಩$UPRQtDVQRWRQDOHV

&XDQGR*ROGVPLWK ² LQWHQWyH[SOLFDUHOFDVRGHQDVDOL]DFLyQTXHVHGD


HQJXDUDQtOHQJXDLQGtJHQDKDEODGDHQ3DUDJXD\LQWX\yODVREVHUYDFLRQHVTXHPiV
[ 54 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

WDUGHSURSRQGUtD3XOOH\EODQN'HKHFKR*ROGVPLWKQRWyHOSDUDOHORTXHKDEtDHQWUH
HOWUDWDPLHQWRDXWRVHJPHQWDOGHORVWRQRVTXHSURSRQtD\ODQDVDOL]DFLyQ$VtDQWHOD
SUHVHQFLDGHDϧMRVGHLGpQWLFDFRQϧJXUDFLyQVHJPHQWDOSHURTXHVHGLVWLQJXtDQSRUOD
RUDOLGDGRQDVDOL]DFLyQTXHSRGtDQUHFLELUGHVXVEDVHVOOHJyDODFRQFOXVLyQGHTXH
KDEtDTXHWUDWDUODQDVDOL]DFLyQFRPRVLIXHUDXQDXWRVHJPHQWRTXHVHSURSDJDEDD
FRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHV\YRFDOHV(OKHFKRGHTXHORVSUHϧMRV>UR@\>QR@SXGLHUDQ
DSDUHFHULQGLVWLQWDPHQWHFRPRRUDOHVRQDVDOHVFRQWDOTXHODEDVHIXHUDRUDORQDVDO
FRQϧUPDEDTXHODQDVDOLGDGWHQtDTXHVHUXQDXWRVHJPHQWR8QSDUGHHMHPSORVHQ
GRQGHODVQHJULWDVLGHQWLϧFDQDODEDVHQRVVLUYHQGHPRGHOR

Ejemplo 2-12
Q
GRURhaihúL QR\RਮW~DPR ¶QRWHDPR·
Q}U੻}h nduL QR\RਮW~RLJR ¶QRWHRLJR·

 /DUHJOD  TXHVHHQFDUJDUtDGHH[WHQGHUODQDVDOLGDGVHUtDFDVLLJXDODOD


 H[FHSWRTXHFDPELDHODXWRVHJPHQWRGHWRQRSRUHOGHQDVDOLGDG(QYH]GH
DVRFLDUKDFLDODGHUHFKDVHSURFHGHKDFLDODL]TXLHUGD&RPRHQODVOHQJXDVWRQDOHV
ODUHJODVHDSOLFDFDGDYH]TXHUH~QDORVUHTXLVLWRVHVWUXFWXUDOHVGHDSOLFDFLyQVHJ~Q
VHHMHPSOLϧFDHQ  

Ejemplo 2-13 Regla de extensión de nasalidad

&9 9

QDVDO

Ejemplo 2-14

QRURhenduL ఩ Q}U੻}h nduL


5HJOD 
QDVDO QDVDO

(QUHDOLGDG  HVXQFDVRWtSLFRGHDUPRQtDSHURHVWDYH]GHQDVDOL]DFLyQ


 (VWHWLSRGHDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOWDPELpQULQGHIUXWRFXDQGRVHDSOLFDDORV
VHJPHQWRVPLVPRV/DDUPRQtDGHUDVJRVYRFiOLFRVTXHVHUHJLVWUDHQYDULDVOHQJXDV
SXHGHH[SOLFDUVHQtWLGDPHQWHGHVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDDXWRVHJPHQWDO'HϧQLPRVarmonía
vocálicaFRPRHOSURFHVRHQTXHXQDRYDULDVYRFDOHVFRPSDUWHQORVPLVPRVUDVJRVGH
RWUDYRFDOXELFDGDHQFLHUWRVOXJDUHVGHODSDODEUD/RVFDVRVTXHVHUHJLVWUDQGHDUPR
QtDWLHQHQTXHYHUFRQYRFDOHVTXHFRPSDUWHQORVUDVJRVDOWREDMRSRVWHULRUOD[RR
WHQVR(VWH~OWLPRUDVJRKDVLGRFXLGDGRVDPHQWHHVWXGLDGRHQYDULDVOHQJXDVDIULFDQDV
3DUDDUWLFXODUORODUDt]OLQJXDODYDQ]DKDFLDDGHODQWH\VHKDFHWHQVDFRPRVHVLHQWH
Fonología autosegmental 55 ]

HQODYRFDO>H@GHtope,RVLPSOHPHQWHQRDYDQ]D\SRUWDQWRSHUPDQHFHOD[DFRPROD
>͑@GHperla.6HKDHPSOHDGRHOUDVJR>UDt]OLQJXDODYDQ]DGD@ 5/$ SDUDGHVFULELUHVWD
DFWLYLGDGDUWLFXODWRULD(OHVSDxROGH¬$QGDOXFtD HQSDUWLFXODUHQ*UDQDGDRULHQWDO QRV
VLUYHGHPRGHORSDUDLOXVWUDUHOWLSRGHDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOTXHVHXVyRULJLQDOPHQWH
SDUDH[SOLFDUODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDGHODVOHQJXDVPHQFLRQDGDV .D 
 (OJUDQDGLQRSUHVHQWDYRFDOHVWHQVDV\OD[DV³HVWDV~OWLPDVFDUDFWHUL]DGDVFRQHO
UDVJR>ਮWHQVR@³TXHVLUYHQSDUDHVWDEOHFHUGLVWLQFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV =DPRUD9LFHQWH
 /RVKDEODQWHVHPSOHDQODVYRFDOHVOD[DVSDUDGHQRWDUODYR]SOXUDOPLHQWUDV
TXHODVWHQVDVVHxDODQODVLQJXODU3RUWDQWRHOORVGLVWLQJXHQD>ਥO͑߿͑@GH>ਥOH߿H@SRU
HO RVWHQVLEOH WLPEUH DELHUWR GH OD SULPHUD FRQ HO TXH VH VDEH LQWXLWLYDPHQWH TXH
ODSDODEUDHVSOXUDO/DDEHUWXUDGHODYRFDOSDUHFHUHVXOWDUGHODDVSLUDFLyQGHOD
VPDUFDGRUDGHSOXUDOSXHVVHJ~QVHDϧUPDORVKDEODQWHVDOQRSRVHHUODϩH[LyQ
SOXUDOUHFXUUHQHQWRQFHVD´GHVGREODUµODVYRFDOHV(Q  UHSURGXFLPRVHMHPSORV
DGLFLRQDOHV

Ejemplo 2-15

6LQJXODU 3OXUDO

PRਥQRW ૧RQR PɬਥQɬW ૧ɬQɬ K


ਥSHVR ਥS͑Vɬ K
PRਥPHQW ૧R PɬਥP͑Q૧W ૧ɬ K
NODਥɕ૊HO NOD૊ਥɕ૊͑O͑ K
ਥPɬKW ૧R ਥPɬKW ૧ɬ K

7DOSDUHFHTXHKD\DOJRHQODPDUFDGHSOXUDOV\QRHQODDVSLUDFLyQGHOVHJPHQWR
VϧQDOTXHFDXVDODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD1yWHVHSRUHMHPSOROD~OWLPDSDODEUDFX\D
SULPHUDYRFDOVHDEUHDQWHODVDVSLUDGDVLQTXHFRQHOORVHDEUDOD~OWLPDYRFDO
TXHVtVHDEUHFXDQGRH[LVWHODSUHVHQFLDGHODDVSLUDGDGHOSOXUDO'HHOORVHGHGXFH
TXHODSDODEUDentoncesDSDUHFHUtDSURQXQFLDGD>HQ૧ਥW ૧RQV͑ K @VLQTXHODVGRVSULPHUDV
YRFDOHVVHDEUDQ FI¬=DPRUD9LFHQWH 
 (QYLVWDGHORDQWHULRUGHEHPRVSUHVXPLUTXHDOPRUIHPDLQGLFDGRUGHSOXUDOVH
OHRWRUJDHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@HOFXDOWUDQVPLWHVXFXDOLGDGGHPRGRUHFXUUHQWHDWRGDV
ODVGHPiVYRFDOHVGHDTXtTXHDSDUH]FDQFRPROD[DV(VWDKLSyWHVLVQRHVHUUyQHD
SXHVHQODOHQJXDZRORIGH¬6HQHJDOVHKDFHXQDGLVWLQFLyQSDUHFLGDDQLYHOOp[LFR
.HQVWRZLF] DXQTXHVHXWLOL]DDOOtHOUDVJR>UDt]OLQJXDODYDQ]DGD@FX\R
YDORUQHJDWLYRSXGLHUDFRPSDUDUVHFRQODOD[DGHOJUDQDGLQR/RPLVPRRFXUUHHQ
HOHVSDxROSDVLHJRTXH0F&DUWK\  DQDOL]D\TXHVHGLVFXWHHQHOFDStWXOR
3HURDGHPiVHVHYLGHQWHTXHODVYRFDOHVJUDQDGLQDVQRSRVHHQHOUDVJR>WHQVR@SXHV
HOKHFKRGHTXHFDPELDQHQORTXHUHVSHFWDDHVWHUDVJRFXDQGRVHDxDGHHOSOXUDO
MXVWLϧFDVXDXVHQFLDDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH6HPHMDQWHHVWDGRGHFRVDVORUHSUHVHQWDPRV
FRQODUHJOD  HQODTXHHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@DSDUHFHFRPRDXWRVHJPHQWR
[ 56 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 2-16

9 3OXUDO

>ਮWHQVR@

'HELGRDODUHFXUUHQFLDGH  WRGDVODVYRFDOHVUHFLELUiQHOWLPEUHYRFiOLFRTXH


OHLPSULPHHOUDVJR>WHQVR@VHJ~QERVTXHMDPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 2-17

PRPHQWR3OXUDO ఩ PɬP͑QWɬ3OXUDO
5HJOD 
>ਮWHQVR@ >ਮWHQVR@

&RQ   VH GRFXPHQWD XQ DXWRVHJPHQWR DQFODGR D XQD DVRFLDFLyQ P~OWLSOH GH
YRFDOHV/RGHVHDEOHGHHVWHDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOHVTXHHOUDVJR>WHQVR@HVSURSLH
GDGGHOPRUIHPDGHSOXUDOLGDG\QRGHWRGDVODVYRFDOHV(VHVWHHOWLSRGHYHQWDMD
TXHODKLSyWHVLVPXOWLOLQHDOOHOOHYDDODQiOLVLVXQLOLQHDO6LVHVXSRQHTXH>WHQVR@HV
SURSLHGDGH[FOXVLYDGHODVYRFDOHVDOGHVSOD]DUVHHQWUDHQFRQWUDGLFFLyQFRQHOUDVJR
>WHQVR@GHODEDVHVLQJXODU\SRUWDQWRVHFUHDXQVHJPHQWR>“WHQVR@$GHPiV
VHJ~QHOPRGHORWUDGLFLRQDOORVUDVJRVGHODYRFDOVHH[WHQGHUtDQ DOSRUPD\RU FRQ
ORTXHVHFDXVDXQDDUPRQtDWRWDOGHUDVJRV$VtVXFHGHUtDFRQORVUDVJRVGHRHQ
OD SDODEUD momento, ORV FXDOHV VH FRSLDUtDQ VREUH ODV GHPiV YRFDOHV \ DO ϧQDO VH
SURGXFLUtDODDQRPDOtD >PRਥPRQ૧W ૧R@6LODYRFDOϧQDOIXHUDHXRWUDFXDOTXLHUDVH
SURGXFLUtDQHUURUHVSDUHFLGRV
 3RUORTXHVHGHGXFHGHORVSiUUDIRVDQWHULRUHVKDKDELGRXQDSURJUHVLyQVLVWH
PiWLFDDOFRQVLGHUDUORVWRQRVFRPRDXWRVHJPHQWRVOXHJRSRULPSOLFDFLyQVHSDVDD
ODQDVDOL]DFLyQ\GHDKtDFRQVLGHUDUORVUDVJRVSURSLDPHQWHVHJPHQWDOHV6HPHMDQWH
LGHDOHKDVLGRIUXFWtIHUDDODWHRUtDDXWRVHJPHQWDO

2.3 Análisis autosegmental de la aspiración

'HKHFKRIXHHOSURSLR*ROGVPLWK  TXLHQQRVRIUHFLyXQHMHPSORDOHFFLRQDGRU


GHFyPRIXQFLRQDUtDODIRQRORJtDDXWRVHJPHQWDODOWUDWDUIHQyPHQRVVHJPHQWDOHV
6H¬LQWHUHVyHQSDUWLFXODUSRUODDVSLUDFLyQGHODVϧQDOTXHVHUHJLVWUDHQODPD\RUtD
GHORVGLDOHFWRVKLVSiQLFRVFX\DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQLQIRUPDOϧJXUDHQ  

Ejemplo 2-18

V఩K; ; FLHUWRFRQWH[WR
Fonología autosegmental 57 ]

3RU HOOR QR VH SUHWHQGH LJQRUDU GHWDOOHV UHODFLRQDGRV FRQ HO FRQWH[WR IRQROyJLFR
YDULDELOLGDGGLVWULEXFLyQJHRJUiϧFDDVtFRPRDVSHFWRVH[WUDOLQJtVWLFRVTXHKDQVLGR
\¬VLJXHQVLHQGRREMHWRGHQXPHURVRVHVWXGLRVLQGHSHQGLHQWHV
 /DUHJOD  FRQYLHUWHODVVGHHVW ૧R\PHVHQODVUHVSHFWLYDV>HKW ૧R@\
>PHK@(OSUREOHPDGH  HVTXHQRH[SUHVDODQDWXUDOLGDGGHOSURFHVRGHDVSLUD
FLyQ¢4XpVHTXLHUHGHFLUFRQHVWDDϧUPDFLyQ"6HQFLOODPHQWHHOKHFKRGHTXHVHFRQ
YLHUWDVHQ>K@\QRHQ>W ૧@>S@>‫@ޞ‬XRWURVHJPHQWRFXDOTXLHUDTXHGDVLQH[SOLFDFLyQ
 6HJ~Q*ROGVPLWKFXDQGRHOQLxRDGTXLHUHVXIRQRORJtDORVUDVJRVIRQROyJLFRV
DO¬ LJXDO TXH ODV OHQJXDV WRQDOHV WDO YH] IXQFLRQHQ LQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWH HQWUH Vt³
HV¬GHFLUVRQDXWRVHJPHQWDOHV3UXHEDSDUFLDOGHHVWRORGHPXHVWUDODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD
TXHVHGDHQHOKDEODLQFLSLHQWHGHORVQLxRVVHJ~QUHSRUWD*ROGVPLWK  
6LVHUHJLVWUDHOIHQyPHQRGHODXWLOL]DFLyQGHFLHUWRVUDVJRVIRQROyJLFRVHQHOKDEOD
LQIDQWLOORPLVPRSXGLHUDSUHVXPLUVHTXHRFXUUHHQHOKDEODDGXOWD
 (OSURFHVRGHDVSLUDFLyQGHVϧQDOQRVSURYHHSUXHEDVIHKDFLHQWHVGHTXHORVVHJ
PHQWRVVHSXHGHQ´DXWRVHJPHQWDOL]DUµ6HSURSRQHDVtTXHORVUDVJRVRUDOHVGHVVH
VHSDUDQGHORVTXHVHSURGXFHQDQLYHOODUtQJHR&RQϧJXUDGDODVFRPRHQ  
ORTXHRFXUUHHQWRQFHVHVTXHVHWUXQFDQORVRUDOHVGHVRVHD>DQWHULRUFRUR
QDOHVWULGHQWH@TXHGDQGRWDQVyORORVODUtQJHRVRVHDODDVSLUDFLyQSHUFLELGDSRU
HOR\HQWHDOHVWDUODJORWLVGLODWDGD(Q  VHLOXVWUDHOIHQyPHQRGHVXSUHVLyQGH
UDVJRV

Ejemplo 2-19

਑ DQWHULRU ਔ
਒ FRURQDO ਕ
ਓ HVWULGHQWH ਖ

>JORWLVGLODWDGD@5 5 ULPDVLOiELFD

Ejemplo 2-20

਑ DQWHULRU ਔ
਒ FRURQDO ਕ ఩ ‘
ਓ HVWULGHQWH ਖ

>JORWLVGLODWDGD@5

&XDQGR VH HOLGHQ ORV UDVJRV RUDOHV HQ OD GHULYDFLyQ TXHGD ~QLFDPHQWH OD DVSLUD
FLyQORFXDOQRVGHPXHVWUDTXHHQHIHFWRORVUDVJRVIXQFLRQDQLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWH
/D¬DFFLyQIRQpWLFDYLHQHDVHUODRUTXHVWDFLyQGHJHVWRVUHDOL]DGRVSRUORVGLVWLQWRV
yUJDQRVGHODIRQDFLyQ(QRWUDVSDODEUDVHQHOFDVRTXHYHPRVHQ  VHKDQ
HOLPLQDGRORVJHVWRVGHOQLYHORUDOTXHVRQODVDFFLRQHVFRPELQDGDVGHORVODELRV
[ 58 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

OD¬OHQJXD\HOPD[LODULQIHULRU\SHUPDQHFHHOUHϩHMRGHOQLYHOODUtQJHRHOFXDOLPSOLFD
ODVDFFLRQHVGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVTXHHQHVWHIHQyPHQRTXHGDQGLODWDGDV/DGLYLVLyQ
KHFKDWLHQHXQDVyOLGDPRWLYDFLyQIRQpWLFD
 5HFXpUGHVHQRREVWDQWHTXHHQORPRQJRHOWRQRQRVHSHUGLyDOVHSDUDUVHGHOD
YRFDOWRGRORFRQWUDULRSDVyDXQLUVHFRQODYRFDOVLJXLHQWH1RVHUHSLWHORPLVPR
HQ  \QRVGHEHPRVSUHJXQWDUSRUTXpORVUDVJRVVXSUDJORWDOHVGHVQRSDVDQD
OLJDUVHFRQORVGHODYRFDOSUHFHGHQWHIRUPiQGRVHTXL]iVXQDH[WUDxDYRFDOFRQVRQDQ
WL]DGD/DH[SOLFDFLyQHVTXHDOQRHVSHFLϧFDUVHPHGLDQWHUHJODORTXHGHEHVXFHGHUOH
DORVUDVJRVϩRWDQWHVGHV\DOQRKDOODUXQVRSRUWHGRQGHDGKHULUVHQR¬SXHGHQ
LQWHUSUHWDUVHIRQpWLFDPHQWH\SRUWDQWRVHSLHUGHQGHPRGRDXWRPiWLFRHQHOFXUVR
GHODGHULYDFLyQ

಩$VSLUDFLyQGHI\‫ޞ‬

,JXDOWUDWDPLHQWRGHODQiOLVLVGHVVHSXHGHDSOLFDUDRWURVIHQyPHQRVGHODGLDOHF
WRORJtDKLVSiQLFD(QHOGRPLQLRKLVSDQRDPHULFDQRORVKDEODQWHVWLHQGHQDUHDOL]DU
ODVDOWHUQDQFLDVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVTXHϧJXUDQHQ  

Ejemplo 2-21

di>I@teria ³ di>K@teria
a>I@tosa ³ a>K@tosa
a>I@gano ³ a>K@gano
ca>‫@ޞ‬ne ³ ca>K@ne
O>‫@ޞ‬lando ³ O>K@lando

(OIHQyPHQRHVLGpQWLFR\VHSXHGHH[SOLFDUPHGLDQWHODFRQϧJXUDFLyQ  HQ


HOPLVPRFRQWH[WRIRQROyJLFRVHVXSULPHQORVJHVWRVRUDOHVTXHFRPSRQHQWDQWRD
IFRPRD‫\ޞ‬WDQVyORTXHGDODVRUGH]JORWDOGHOQLYHOODUtQJHR3UHVXPLPRVTXH
HVWD‫ޞ‬HVXQDUHVRQDQWHVRUGDFRPRRFXUUHHQDOJXQRVGLDOHFWRV

಩$QiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOGHODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHV

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WLYDPHQWHDOSULQFLSLRGHSDODEUD\HQSRVLFLyQLQWHUYRFiOLFDVHJ~QORYHPRVHQODV
UHVSHFWLYDV>P@ata ca>P@a,>Q@ata ca>Q@a\>‫@ص‬ata ca>‫@ص‬a.7DPELpQVHVDEHTXH
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KRPRUJiQLFRVGHQDVDOREVWUX\HQWHWDOFRPRORPXHVWUDQODVUHVSHFWLYDVca>PS@o,
Fonología autosegmental 59 ]

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 /DVGHVFULSFLRQHVWUDGLFLRQDOHVGDEDQFXHQWDGHODDVLPLODFLyQPHGLDQWHUHJODV
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VHUtDODFRQVRQDQWHDVLPLODGD+DUULV DE SURSRQHTXHVHPHMDQWHRSHUDFLyQVH
UHDOL]DIRUPDOPHQWHVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ  DXQTXHDGHODQWDPRVTXHORVUDVJRV
DUWLFXODWRULRVGHQQRHVWiQSUHVHQWHVHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpPLFDVLQRTXHVH
LQVHUWDQPHGLDQWHUHJODSRUGHIHFWRLGHDTXHDPSOLDUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR

Ejemplo 2-22

>QDV@ >ਮQDV@

‘ థ ਑ FRU ਔ ਑ ǓFRU ਔ
ਓ DQW ਖ ਓ ɕDQW ਖ

>  @‫۝‬ >  @

(OVtPEROR‫۝‬GHQRWDVtODEDLQGLFDQGRTXHHOSULPHUVHJPHQWRHVWiHQSRVLFLyQϧQDOGH
VtODEDRFRGDVLOiELFD
[ 60 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

(MHPSOR  GLFHDVtGHVDVyFLHVHORVUDVJRVRUDOHVGHODFRQVRQDQWHQDVDO\UHD


VyFLHVHHOUDVJRQDVDOϩRWDQWHFRQORVUDVJRVRUDOHVGHODXWRVHJPHQWRQRQDVDOGHO
VHJPHQWRGHODGHUHFKDORTXHFRUUHVSRQGHDODDFWLYLGDGIRQpWLFDTXHDFDEDPRVGH
H[SOLFDUDQWHULRUPHQWH
 (QORVHVWXGLRVGLDOHFWROyJLFRVWDPELpQVHPHQFLRQDIUHFXHQWHPHQWHODSUHVHQFLD
GHODQDVDOYHODU>‫@غ‬TXHRFXUUHFDVLVLHPSUHDOϧQDOGHSDODEUD S¬HM¬carbó>‫ @غ‬R
HQSRVLFLyQLQWHUQDDOϧQDOGHVtODED S¬HM¬fre>‫@غ‬te FRQWH[WRGRQGHSRUORUHJXODU
VHHVSHUDODDVLPLODFLyQDODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWH(VWHIHQyPHQRWDPELpQVHSXHGH
DQDOL]DUGHPDQHUDDXWRVHJPHQWDOSHURVLQODH[WHQVLyQGHUDVJRVSURSLDGHODDVL
PLODFLyQTXHVHLOXVWUDDUULED +DUULVDE 
 3DUDUHVXPLUORTXHKHPRVSUHVHQWDGRKDVWDDKRUDHVXQDYLVLyQSDQRUiPLFDGH
ODLPSRUWDQWHFRQWULEXFLyQTXHODIRQRORJtDDXWRVHJPHQWDOOHKDEULQGDGRDODWHRUtD
IRQROyJLFD,QYHVWLJDFLRQHVKHFKDVGHVSXpVGHOWUDEDMRSLRQHURGH¬*ROGVPLWK  VH
KDQDOHMDGRD~QPiVGHOPRGHORWUDGLFLRQDO\GHOPLVPR*ROGVPLWKDOLQFOXLUH[WHQVDV
LQQRYDFLRQHVDODPXOWLOLQHDOLGDGGHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV

2.4 Arquitectura geométrica autosegmental

(ODQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOGHORVIRQHPDVFRQVRQiQWLFRV\YRFiOLFRVGHOHVSDxROWDP
ELpQVHSXHGHH[WHQGHUDORVPRUIHPDV\DODVVtODEDVTXHIRUPDQODVSDODEUDV +DUULV
DE 8QHMHPSORLQVWUXFWLYRQRVSURYLHQHGHOiUDEHFOiVLFR(OiUDEHFRPSDUWH
LQWHUHVDQWHV SURSLHGDGHV FRQ OHQJXDV VHPtWLFDV \ QR VHPtWLFDV FRPR OD KDXVD GHO
ÉIULFD\OD\RNXWVGHODIDPLOLDLQGRDPHULFDQD8QDGHHVWDVSURSLHGDGHVHVTXHOD
VLODELϧFDFLyQQRODGHWHUPLQDHOFRPSRQHQWHGHYRFDOHV\FRQVRQDQWHVVLQRODHVWUXF
WXUDGHODSDODEUD8QRVFXDQWRVGDWRVVDFDGRVGH¬0F&DUWK\  LOXVWUDQ
HVWHSXQWR

Ejemplo 2-23

6LQJXODU 3OXUDO *ORVDV

a. MXQGDE MDQDDGLE ¶FLJDUUD·


VXOWDDQ VDODDWLLQ ¶VXOWiQ·
GXNWDU GDNDDWLU ¶GRFWRU·
PDNWDE PDNDDWLE ¶RϧFLQD·
QXZZDU QDZDDZLU ¶ϩRUEODQFD·
b. VDIDUMDO VDIDDULM ¶PHPEULOOR·
঱DQGDOLLE ঱DQDDGLO ¶UXLVHxRU·
PLIWDDED PDϱDDWLLK ¶OODYH·
Fonología autosegmental 61 ]

(QSULPHUOXJDUKD\TXHREVHUYDUTXHPLHQWUDVODVIRUPDVVLQJXODUHVSXHGHQVHUELVLOi
ELFDV D RWULVLOiELFDV E ODVSOXUDOHVVRQWULVLOiELFDV$GHPiVODHVWUXFWXUD
VLOiELFDGHpVWDVVHDMXVWDDXQSDWUyQREOLJDWRULRTXHQRRFXUUHHQORVVLQJXODUHV
OD¬SULPHUDVtODEDGHOSOXUDOVyOROOHYDXQDYRFDOEUHYHPLHQWUDVTXHODVHJXQGDVLHPSUH
SUHVHQWDXQDYRFDOODUJD3RURWUDSDUWHODFDQWLGDGYRFiOLFDGHODWHUFHUDVtODEDGHO
SOXUDOHVLGpQWLFDDODGHODVHJXQGDVtODEDGHVXFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVLQJXODU(VWRHVXQ
HMHPSORWtSLFRGHORTXHVHSRGUtDGHQRPLQDUsilabi cación por inducción morfológica,
ORFXDOTXLHUHGHFLUTXHVHLPSRQHODHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFDPHGLDQWHXQDFDWHJRUtDJUD
PDWLFDOSDUWLFXODUODGHORVOODPDGRVplurales separados
 6L VH SURVLJXH FRQ ODV SURSLHGDGHV PRUIROyJLFDV GH ODV SDODEUDV HQ  
VH¬ REVHUYD TXH HO SDWUyQ YRFiOLFR HQ WRGRV ORV SOXUDOHV QR HV HO PLVPR D ODV GRV
SULPHUDVVtODEDVOHVFRUUHVSRQGHODYRFDO>D@\DODWHUFHUD>L@3RUORYLVWRHOSDWUyQ
YRFiOLFRGHORVSOXUDOHVHVϧMRFRVDTXHQRVXFHGHFRQHOGHORVVLQJXODUHVTXHHVOLEUH
'HKHFKRODVHOHFFLyQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVHVHO~QLFRDVSHFWRGHORVSOXUDOHVTXHQR
ORGLFWDODPRUIRORJtD/DVFRQVRQDQWHVWUDQVPLWHQHOVLJQLϧFDGROp[LFRGHODIRUPD
,QFOXVRODVFRQVRQDQWHVPLVPDVHVWiQUHVWULQJLGDVJUDPDWLFDOPHQWHHQVXGLVWULEXFLyQ
VyORVHGDQHQSRVLFLRQHVPX\HVSHFtϧFDVGHODSDODEUD\GHEHKDEHUVRODPHQWHFXDWUR
FRQVRQDQWHVHQHOSOXUDO6LUHVXOWDTXHHOVLQJXODUWLHQHPiVGHFXDWURFRQVRQDQWHV
VHRPLWHQODVFRQVRQDQWHVVREUDQWHVHQHOSOXUDOVHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQORVFDVRVGH
E HQGRQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVϧQDOHVO\EQRDSDUHFHQHQORVSOXUDOHV
 3RUFRQVLJXLHQWHKD\TXHFRQFOXLUTXHHOSOXUDOSRVHHXQDSODQWLOODGHQRPLQDGD
esqueleto prosódico\TXHLQLFLDOPHQWHUHSUHVHQWDPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 2-24

9 9 9 9 9

& D & D D & L L &

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

/DV &HV \ 9HV UHSUHVHQWDQ OXJDUHV GH VRSRUWH VRQ SRVLFLRQHVTXH HQ FDGD FDVR VH
KDEUiQ GH LGHQWLϧFDU FRQ ODV FRQVRQDQWHV R YRFDOHV TXH VH UHϧHUHQ DO VLJQLϧFDGR
Op[LFRGHOVXVWDQWLYR&RPRGLMLPRVHQ  HOVtPEROR‫۝‬UHSUHVHQWDODVtODED\ODV
OtQHDVTXHYDQGHVGHHVWRVVtPERORVDOHVTXHOHWRLQGLFDQODHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFDGHOD
SDODEUDTXHHVWXGLDUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR

಩/RVHVTXHOHWRVSURVyGLFRV

/DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ  VHDFHUFDEDVWDQWHDODDUTXLWHFWXUDTXHLQWURGXMR0F&DUWK\


HQDXQTXHUHVXOWDXQSRFRPiVULFD\DTXHFRQWLHQHHOSODQRVLOiELFRTXHQR
[ 62 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

H[LVWtDHQWRQFHV(Q0F&DUWK\ODVHFXHQFLDGH¬&HV\9HVIXQFLRQDFRPRSURSLHGDGHV
PRUIROyJLFDV/DHVWUXFWXUDHVTXHOpWLFD  WDPELpQVHUHJLVWUDHQRWUDViUHDVGH
ODPRUIRORJtDDUiELJD3RUHMHPSORHQHOFRPSOHMRVLVWHPDϩH[LRQDOGHORVYHUERV
KD\YDULRVSDUDGLJPDVTXHFRQWLHQHQODPLVPDFRQϧJXUDFLyQTXH  SHURFRQXQ
JUXSRGHYRFDOHVGLIHUHQWHV'HPRGRTXHOD>D@VHUHVHUYDSDUDWRGDVODVVtODEDVGHO
DFWLYRSHUIHFWLYRPLHQWUDVTXHHQHOSDVLYRSHUIHFWLYROD>X@VHGDHQODVSULPHUDVGRV
VtODEDV\OD>L@HQODWHUFHUD(QYLVWDGHHVWRV\RWURVGDWRV0F&DUWK\SURSXVRTXHD
HVWDV´PHORGtDVµYRFiOLFDVVHOHVGHEHQRWRUJDUXQSODQRGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVHSDUDGR
\TXHHOHVTXHOHWRSRUWDQWRVHGHEHFRQVLGHUDUFRPRODOtQHDGHLQWHUVHFFLyQGHORV
YDULRVSODQRVGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ(OHVTXHOHWRSXHVFRQVLVWHHQXQDVHFXHQFLDGH¬&HV
\9HV)XHHVWDQRFLyQODTXH+DUULV  HPSOHySDUDSODQWHDUXQDVROXFLyQDODV
GHEDWLGDV KLSyWHVLV GH ORV SOXUDOHV ¢GHEtDQ DQDOL]DUVH FRPR XQ SURFHVR GRQGH VH
LQVHUWDXQDYRFDODQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHRFRPRXQRTXHODHOLPLQD"(QODVHFFLyQ
SDVDPRVUHYLVWDDODVROXFLyQHPSOHDQGRHOPRGHORGH¬0F&DUWK\
 &RQYLHQHVHJXLUDQRWDQGRTXHODKLSyWHVLVGH¬0F&DUWK\IXHUHϧQDGDSRU&OHPHQWV
\.H\VHU  TXLHQHVSUHVHQWDQRWUDFRQFHSFLyQWHyULFDGHOSDSHOTXHGHVHPSH
xDQODV&HV\9HV3DUDHVWRVGRVDXWRUHVODVHFXHQFLDGH¬&HV\9HVIRUPDSDUWHGHOD
HVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFD&RLQFLGHQFRQ0F&DUWK\HQTXHGLFKDVHFXHQFLDRFXSDXQSODQR
DSDUWH1RREVWDQWHGLϧHUHQGHpODODVRFLDUD&\9HQIXQFLyQGHODSRVLFLyQTXH
RFXSDQHQODVtODED'HHVWHPRGRSRUODSRVLFLyQTXH&RFXSDVHLGHQWLϧFDFRQOD
FDWHJRUtD>ਮVLOiELFD@TXHSXHGHVHUWDQWRFRQVRQDQWHFRPRGHVOL]DGDPLHQWUDVTXH
9VHUHVHUYDHVWULFWDPHQWHSDUDODFUHVWDVLOiELFDUHSUHVHQWDGDSRUODVYRFDOHV6HPH
MDQWHDVRFLDFLyQUHSURGXFHHQSDUWHODFDWHJRUtD>VLOiELFD@GH¬The Sound Pattern of
English.3HURDGHPiVGHSRVHHUHVWDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVIRQROyJLFDVODV&HV\9HVWDPELpQ
IXQFLRQDQFRPRXQLGDGHVGHWLHPSR&RQHVWRVHTXLHUHGHFLUTXH\DQRHVQHFHVDULR
XWLOL]DUHOUDVJR>ODUJR@SDUDUHSUHVHQWDUYRFDOHVRFRQVRQDQWHVGREOHVRJHPLQD
GDVVLQRTXHVHSXHGHQLQWHUSUHWDUFRPRXQDVHFXHQFLDGREOHGH¬9R&¬/DGLIHUHQFLD
IRQROyJLFDHQWUHXQDFRQVRQDQWHVHQFLOOD\XQDJHPLQDGDUHVSRQGHDOKHFKRGHTXH
HQHOQLYHO&9ODFRQVRQDQWHVHQFLOODSUHVHQWDXQDVROD&PLHQWUDVTXHODJHPLQDGD
SUHVHQWDGRV&HVXQLGDVDPEDVDXQDPHORGtDVHJPHQWDO/DGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHXQDX
RWUDVHLOXVWUDHQ  FRQODVSDODEUDVcana\perenne.

Ejemplo 2-25

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

& 9 & 9 & 9 & 9 & & 9

N D Q D S H ‫ޞ‬ H Q H

(OQLYHO&9SDVDDLQFRUSRUDUVHDOQRGRVLOiELFR‫۝‬
Fonología autosegmental 63 ]

 $ODWHRUtDTXHQDFHFRQFHELGDFRQXQQ~FOHRFX\DHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFDFRQWLHQH
XQDVHFXHQFLDGH¬&HV\9HVVHOHGHQRPLQDUiFonología CV,ODFXDOHQFRQWUDUiVXV
VLPSDWL]DQWHV\GHWUDFWRUHV9ROYDPRVDOGLDJUDPD  1XHYDPHQWHVHPXHVWUD
TXHODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHVHJPHQWRVHQFLOOR\ODUJRVHGHWHUPLQDSRUHOQ~PHURGH¬&HV
\9HVTXHKD\DHQHOQLYHO&9¬(VWRQRVSHUPLWHDSUHFLDUODGLVWLQFLyQTXHH[LVWHHQ
OHQJXDVTXHFRQWUDVWDQVtODEDVOLJHUDVFRQSHVDGDVFRPRVHYHULϧFDHQODWtQ$GHPiV
QRV D\XGD D GLOXFLGDU LPSRUWDQWHV SURFHVRV VHJ~Q VH GLVFXWH HQ OD VHFFLyQ 
H¬LQFOXVLYHD\XGDDOLQYHVWLJDGRUDGLVFHUQLUODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHFRQVRQDQWHVTXHVH
SURQXQFLDQGHPDQHUDVLGpQWLFDVSHURFX\RVKDEODQWHVODVGLIHUHQFLDQ7DOHVHOFDVR
GHOSRODFR
 (QSRODFRODVSULPHUDVFRQVRQDQWHV HQQHJULWDV GHODVSDODEUDVczysta¶OLPSLD·\
trzysta¶WUHVFLHQWRV·VHSURQXQFLDQFRQXQDFRPELQDFLyQGHRFOXVLYD\IULFDWLYDR¬VHD
>Wߋ@ 6LQ HPEDUJR ORV KDEODQWHV ODV VLHQWHQ GLVWLQWDV DF~VWLFD \ SHUFHSWXDOPHQWH
/D¬ )RQRORJtD¬ &9 SHUPLWH FDSWDU OD SHUFHSFLyQ TXH ORV KDEODQWHV SRVHHQ GH HVWDV
SDODEUDV\ODVGLVWLQJXHQPHGLDQWHHOWLHPSRTXHOHVWRPDSURGXFLUODVKHFKRTXHVH
PXHVWUDHQ  

Ejemplo 2-26

1LYHOVLOiELFR ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

1LYHOHVTXHOpWLFR & 9 & 9 & & 9 & 9

1LYHOPHOyGLFR W ߋ L W D W ߋ L W D
¶OLPSLD· ¶WUHVFLHQWRV·

2VHDTXHHQ  XQDVROD&VHLQWHUSUHWDFRPRXQDXQLGDGGHWLHPSRORFXDO


VHUtDHOFDVRGHczysta,PLHQWUDVTXHXQDVHFXHQFLDGH¬&&UHSUHVHQWDGRVXQLGDGHVGH
WLHPSRTXHVHUtDHOFDVRGHtrzysta.
 &RPSDUDEOHDOSRODFRODIRQRORJtDKLVSiQLFDRIUHFHXQDULFDYDULHGDGGHIHQy
PHQRV FX\D H[SOLFDFLyQ \ GHVFULSFLyQ VH DMXVWDQ SHUIHFWDPHQWH D OD SUHVHQFLD GH
XQ QLYHO &9¬ 7RPHPRV SRU SULPHU FDVR HO HVSDxRO TXH VH KDEOD HQ HO VXURHVWH GH
ORV(VWDGRV8QLGRV(QHOKDEODUiSLGDORVKDEODQWHVWLHQGHQDPRGLϧFDUODVYRFDOHV
FXDQGRHQWUDQHQFRQWDFWRHQWUHVt/DVYRFDOHVVHPRGLϧFDQGHODVLJXLHQWHPDQHUD
 ¬ODYRFDOVHUHGXFHRVHFRQYLHUWHHQGHVOL]DGDDQWHRWUDYRFDOSRUHMHPSORmL
XltimoSURGXFHm>MX@ltimo; ¬XQDYRFDOTXHQRVHDEDMDVHKDFHGHVOL]DGDDOWDSRU
HMHPSORtengRLpoGDteng>ZL@po; ¬XQDYRFDOEDMDVHHOLPLQDSRUHMHPSOR
estDLjaVHFRQYLHUWHHQest>L@ja;\ ¬GRVYRFDOHVLGpQWLFDVVHFRQYLHUWHQHQXQD
SRUHMHPSORlRRdioGHYLHQHHQl>R@dio.
 8Q DQiOLVLV XQLOLQHDO UHTXLHUH FXDWUR UHJODV GLIHUHQWHV SDUD GDU FXHQWD GH ORV
KHFKRV )LJ¬ 
[ 64 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 9఩>EUHYH@BBB9

 ਑ EUHYH ਔ ఩>DOWD@
ਓ ਮEDMD ਖ

 ਑ EUHYH ਔ ఩‘
ਓ EDMD ਖ

   
>YRFDO@>YRFDO@఩‘ HQGRQGH 
Figura 2-1 Análisis unilineal de las secuencias vocálicas del
español del suroeste de los Estados Unidos.

6HSURGXFHQFLHUWDVSDUDGRMDVDODSOLFDUHVWDVUHJODV(QSULPHUOXJDUODVSUXHEDV
HVSHFWURJUiϧFDV +XWFKLQVRQ PXHVWUDQTXHODVYRFDOHVQRLGpQWLFDVGHOKDEOD
UiSLGDWLHQHQODPLVPDGXUDFLyQTXHXQDYRFDOVHQFLOODWyQLFDRiWRQD(VWRTXLHUH
GHFLUTXHGHDSOLFDUVHODUHJOD  ¬VHSURGXFLUiXQDVHFXHQFLDGHGRVVHJPHQWRVTXH
VRQItVLFDPHQWHPiVODUJRVTXHXQVHJPHQWRVHQFLOORORFXDOFRQWUDGLFHORVKHFKRV
6L¬DGHPiVVHVXSRQHTXHKD\XQRUGHQGHDSOLFDFLyQVHSURGXFHXQDFRPSOLFDFLyQ
(Q¬XQDVHFXHQFLDHH\HLSRUHMHPSORSDUDTXHVHGpHOUHVXOWDGR>H@HQODSULPHUD
VHFXHQFLDODUHJOD  ¬GHEHSUHFHGHUDOD  VLQHPEDUJRHVWD~OWLPDUHJODGHEH
DSOLFDUVHFDGDYH]TXHVHHQFXHQWUHFRQODGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDODGHFXDGD3XHV
ELHQSDUDODVHJXQGDVHFXHQFLDKD\TXHLQYHUWLUHORUGHQGHDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD
/DGHULYDFLyQVLJXLHQWHPXHVWUDODLQFRQJUXHQFLDTXHVXUJH

Ejemplo 2-27

a. HH b. HL c. HL


H 5HJOD  L 5HJOD  ³ 5HJOD 
³ 5HJOD  L 5HJOD  LL 5HJOD 
>H@ >L@ >LL@

/DSDUDGRMDTXHVHH[SRQHGHELOLWDHODQiOLVLVXQLOLQHDOSXHVWRTXH\DQRHVSRVLEOH
H[SOLFDUSRUTXpODVUHJODVLQWHUDFW~DQVHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQ  SDUWLFXODUPHQWH
FXDQGRODUHJOD  ¬HVGHDSOLFDFLyQREOLJDWRULD
 &RQXQDQiOLVLVGH¬&9VHUHVXHOYHQWRGRVORVSUREOHPDVGLVFXWLGRV(OGLSWRQJR
TXHVHVLHQWHFRPRVHJPHQWRVHQFLOORVHDQDOL]DUtDVLPSOLϧFDQGRXQDVHFXHQFLDGH¬99
GHPDQHUDTXHXQDYH]VHSLHUGDODSULPHUD9HOVHJPHQWRϩRWDQWHSDVDUtDDIRUPDU
SDUWHGHODRWUD9¬(VGHFLUTXHODUHJOD  VHDSOLFDUtDDXQDVHFXHQFLDQRLGpQWLFD
GH¬99SDUDFUHDUXQD9TXHGRPLQHGRVVHJPHQWRV(Q  VHSURYHHQORVUHVXOWDGRV
GHODDSOLFDFLyQGH  DODVHFXHQFLDRL
Fonología autosegmental 65 ]

Ejemplo 2-28

9 9

UDVJRV UDVJRV

Ejemplo 2-29

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ఩ ‫۝‬ ఩ ‫۝‬


5HJOD  5HJOD 

9 9 9 9

R L R L X L

/DSUHVHQFLDGHGRV9HVLGpQWLFDVTXHVHUHGXFHQDXQDTXHGDUiVXMHWDDO3ULQFLSLR
GH¬&RQWRUQR2EOLJDWRULRFX\DPHWDHVHQFLDOHVLPSHGLUODSUHVHQFLDLQWUDPRUIpPLFD
GHHOHPHQWRVDG\DFHQWHVFRQUDVJRVLGpQWLFRV GLOXFLGDUHPRVIRUPDOPHQWHHVWHSULQ
FLSLRHQHOFDStWXOR /DFRQϧJXUDFLyQLQLFLDOGHHVWDVYRFDOHVHVLJXDODODTXHVH
PXHVWUDHQ  H[FHSWRTXHHQYH]GHSURGXFLUVHODHQWUDGDRLVHREWLHQHHH
0DUWtQH]*LO  SUHVHQWDXQDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOSDUHFLGRDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
TXHVHLOXVWUDHQ  SHURFRQHOHPSOHRGHODPRUDTXHHVXQDXQLGDGGHSHVR
VLOiELFRHOFXDOVXVWLWX\HHOQLYHOLQWHUPHGLRGHODV9HV/DPRUDVHDERUGDUiHQHO
FDStWXORTXHWUDWDODVtODED

಩$QiOLVLV¬&9GHORVSOXUDOHV

6LELHQHQODVHFFLyQDQWHULRUHQFRQWUDPRVSUXHEDVTXHMXVWLϧFDQODSUHVHQFLDGHOQLYHO
&9RWURVGLDOHFWRVORFRUURERUDQD~QPiV3DVHPRVDKRUDDFRQVLGHUDUHODQiOLVLV
MHUiUTXLFRGHORVSOXUDOHVFRQVRSRUWH&9 +DUULVF (QHIHFWRHQODPD\RUtDGH
ODVJUDPiWLFDVVHGLFHTXHSDUDIRUPDUHOSOXUDOGHVXVWDQWLYRV\DGMHWLYRVWDQVyORKD\
TXHDJUHJDUOHVsVLWHUPLQDQHQYRFDOiWRQD\-esDORVTXHWHUPLQDQHQFRQVRQDQWH
RHQYRFDOHVDFHQWXDGDV6LWHUPLQDQHQ-s,SUHFHGLGDGHYRFDOiWRQDHQWRQFHVQRVH
OHVDJUHJDQDGD(VWRHQVtHVORVDELGRVHJ~QϧJXUDHQ  GRQGHHOGLDFUtWLFRGHO
DFHQWRਥVHPDUFDFRQϧQHVLOXVWUDWLYRV

Ejemplo 2-30

6LQJXODU 3OXUDO

libr>R@ libr>R@s
clas>H@ clas>H@s
ho te>O@ ho te>O@es
[ 66 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 2-30 (continued)

6LQJXODU 3OXUDO

lapi>V@ lapi>V@es
vu d>X@ vu d>X@es
crisi>V@ crisi>V@
dosi>V@ dosi>V@

 $KRUDELHQHQ  VHSHUϧODXQDVROXFLyQSRWHQFLDOTXHQRVHKDEtDFRQWHP


SODGRHQODOLWHUDWXUDJHQHUDWLYDGHOSDVDGR6HWUDWDGHTXHHVWDVSDODEUDVUHVSRQGHQ
D XQD HVWUXFWXUDFLyQ PRUIROyJLFD GLIHUHQWH +DUULV F  8Q DQiOLVLV FXLGDGRVR
GHODVGRV~OWLPDVIRUPDVQRVVXJLHUHHQSULPHUOXJDUTXHOD-isϧQDOQRHVODPLVPD
VHFXHQFLDϧQDOTXHDSDUHFHHQlápiz SDUDHOKDEODKLVSDQRDPHULFDQDHQODTXHODOHWUD
zFRUUHVSRQGHDODIULFDWLYDV (QVHJXQGROXJDUOD-isYLHQHDVHUHOPLVPRHOHPHQWR
PRUIROyJLFRTXHOD-oϧQDOGHlibro\OD-eϧQDOGHclase,HOHPHQWRTXHGHQRPLQDUHPRV
marcador de palabra,ORFXDOTXHGDFRQϧUPDGRHQ  

Ejemplo 2-31

NODVH vs. OLE‫ޞ‬R


NODVLϧND‫ޞ‬ OLE‫ޞ‬H‫ޞ‬R
G૧RVLV ODSLVH‫ޞ‬R
G૧RVLϧND‫ޞ‬

6HQRWDTXHODVYRFDOHVGHODVSDODEUDVQRGHULYDGDVQRDSDUHFHQHQODVGHULYDGDV
OR¬FXDOVXJLHUHTXHQRSHUWHQHFHQDVXEDVH\TXHSRUWDQWRWDPSRFRGHEHQDSDUHFHUHQ
ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH/RPLVPRRFXUUHFRQOD-isGHdosis.$GHPiVVHREVHUYD
TXHOD>V@GHlápizDSDUHFHHQVXUDt]ORFXDOODGLVWLQJXHGHOD-isGHdosis,TXHQRHVWi
SUHVHQWH$¬PDQHUDGHHMHPSORRIUHFHPRVODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQDXWRVHJPHQWDOMHUiUTXLFD
GHdosis\libro

Ejemplo 2-32

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

& 9 & & 9 & &

G૧ R V O L E ‫ޞ‬

 3DUDH[SOLFDUHOSOXUDOGHPDQHUDXQLIRUPH\VHQFLOODSRGHPRVXWLOL]DUODUHSUH
VHQWDFLyQJHRPpWULFDGH  (VWHDQiOLVLVVHSXHGHFRQVLGHUDUH[SOLFDWLYRSRUTXH
VHGHGXFHGHSULQFLSLRVSULPRUGLDOHV\JHQHUDOHVGHODJUDPiWLFDXQLYHUVDO\QRGH
UHJODVSDUWLFXODUHVGHOLGLRPD9HDPRVORVGHWDOOHV
Fonología autosegmental 67 ]

 3ULPHURVHSODQWHDFRPRSRVWXODGRGHODJUDPiWLFDSDUWLFXODUGHOHVSDxROTXHHO
HVTXHOHWRSURVyGLFRGHORVSOXUDOHVVHDMXVWDDOSDWUyQ  HQGRQGHORVFRUFKHWHV
LQGLFDQODFRPSRVLFLyQPRUIROyJLFD

Ejemplo 2-33

>>  @9&@Ǔ Ǔ QRPEUHDGMHWLYR

6HSURSRQHDGHPiVTXHODSODQWLOODSURVyGLFDVHIRUPXOHFRPRODUHJOD  HQOD


TXHVHSURSRUFLRQDPDWHULDOIRQROyJLFRDWDOHVSOXUDOHV

Ejemplo 2-34

$VyFLHVHsDOD&SHULIpULFDGH  

 /D¬9VHDVRFLDUtDFRQa, oRe,VLVHSUHVXPHTXHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHWRGDSDODEUD
FRQWLHQHXQGLDFUtWLFRTXHSURYHHLQIRUPDFLyQSUHGHFLEOH\DVHDGHJpQHURIHPHQLQR
RPDVFXOLQR'HRWURPRGRODVSDODEUDVGHOOp[LFRHVSDxROVHLGHQWLϧFDQGHGRVPDQH
UDV ¬PHGLDQWHHOJpQHUR\ ¬PHGLDQWHHOPDUFDGRUGHSDODEUDTXHDGRSWDHOJpQHUR
+DUULVD $¬ODVSDODEUDVGHJpQHURIHPHQLQR\ODVDPELJXDVTXHWHUPLQDQFRQ-a
FRPROD-aϧQDOGHplaneta VHOHVVXSOHHOPDUFDGRU@a;\SRUGHIHFWRODVSDODEUDV
GHJpQHURPDVFXOLQR \ODVTXHWHUPLQDQHQ-o,FRPRmano UHFLEHQHOPDUFDGRU@o.
/DVGHPiVYLHQHQPDUFDGDVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHFRQHOGLDFUtWLFR@e.(VWR~OWLPRTXLHUH
GHFLUTXHXQDSDODEUDSXHGHOOHYDUHOJpQHURIHPHQLQRVLQTXHSRUHOORODUHDOL]DFLyQ
IRQROyJLFDWHQJDTXHVHUDVLQRRWUDYRFDO3XHGHVHUHSRUHMHPSORclase(Q
 VHLOXVWUDORDQWHGLFKR

Ejemplo 2-35

libro libra clase


OLE‫ޞ‬ OLE‫ޞ‬ NODV
I @e 5HSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH
@a ³ 5HJODGHPDUFDGRUGHUDVJRIHPHQLQR

 8QD YH] LGHQWLϧFDGDV ODV SDODEUDV VH OHV VXSOHQ UHGXQGDQWHPHQWH VXV UDVJRV
IRQROyJLFRVPHGLDQWHODUHJOD  SDUDODVTXHWHUPLQDQHQa\o,\SRUGHIHFWR
SDUDODVTXHOOHYDQe.

Ejemplo 2-36 Regla de realización de marcador de palabra

‘ ఩ D>>   @a@1$BBB@;R
RRWUD

1 QRPEUH$¬ DGMHWLYR;R XQDFDWHJRUtDFXDOTXLHUD


[ 68 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

5HFRQVLGpUHVH  \  9HPRVHQWRQFHVTXHODUHJOD  VHDSOLFDUtDGHO


VLJXLHQWHPRGR

Ejemplo 2-37

libro libra clase


OLE‫ޞ‬ OLE‫ޞ‬ NODV
I @e 5HSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH
@a 5HJODGHPDUFDGRUGHUDVJRIHPHQLQR
OLE‫ޞ‬R OLE‫ޞ‬D ³ 5HJOD 
NODVH 5HJODGHUHGXQGDQFLD

(Q  ODSUHVHQFLDGH@eHQclaseLPSLGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD  TXHGH


ORFRQWUDULROOHQDUtDHOHVTXHOHWRYDFtRFRQaXo.8QDUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLDWDUGtD
HVSHFLϧFDORVUDVJRVGHXQDeSRUGHIHFWR
 5HWRUQHPRVDODSOXUDOL]DFLyQ$KRUDUHVXOWDFODURORTXHRFXUUHFRQOD&\9GHO
HVTXHOHWRSURVyGLFROD~OWLPD&UHFLEHs\OD9XQDGHODVYRFDOHV,OXVWUHPRVFRQ
libro:

Ejemplo 2-38

(VWUDWRVHJPHQWDO O L E ‫ޞ‬
఩ 5HJODV  
  
(VWUDWRSURVyGLFR >> & 9 & & @ 9 & @Ǔ

O L E ‫ޞ‬ R V

>> & 9 & & @ 9 & @Ǔ

¢4Xp RFXUUH HQWRQFHV FRQ HO SOXUDO GHO VXVWDQWLYRdosis \ RWURV SDUHFLGRV" 6L QRV
UHPLWLPRVDVXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQYHUHPRVTXHOD>L@YDDRFXSDUOD9SHQ~OWLPD\D&OH
FRUUHVSRQGHUis VHSUHVXPHTXHODVYRFDOHVLXSRUVHUGHFDUiFWHULPSUHGHFLEOH
FXHQWDQFRQUDVJRVHVSHFLϧFDGRVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH\SRUWDQWRFRQVXVHVTXHOHWRV
UHOOHQRV  1RV TXHGD HQWRQFHV OD-s SURSLD GHO SOXUDO $O DEUHYLDU SDVRV VXFHGH OR
VLJXLHQWH

Ejemplo 2-39

G૧ R V L V ఩ G૧ R V L V V
5HJOD 
>> & 9 & @ 9 & @Ǔ >> & 9 & @ 9 & @Ǔ
Fonología autosegmental 69 ]

 3RUORYLVWRHQFRQWUDPRVXQD-sGHPiV\DQLYHOGHIRQpWLFDORTXHDSDUHFHHVXQD
>V@EUHYH/DH[SOLFDFLyQQXHYDPHQWHVHSURGXFHGHPDQHUDDXWRPiWLFD\XQLYHUVDO
VLQWHQHUTXHUHFXUULUDORHVSHFtϧFRGHOHVSDxROPHGLDQWHOD&RQYHQFLyQGH¬$VRFLD
FLyQ8QLYHUVDOTXHHVWXGLDUHPRVHQODVHFFLyQ

Ejemplo 2-40

G૧ R V L V V

>> & 9 & @ 9 & @Ǔ

(OWLSRGHDVRFLDFLyQTXHVHLOXVWUDHQ  HVORTXHVHFRQRFHFRPRasociación simple


D FRQORFXDOVHTXLHUHGHFLUTXHYDOHORPLVPRDVRFLDUDGRV>V@FRQXQD&TXH
DVRFLDUODVGRV>V@FRQGRV&HV
 7DPELpQKD\asociación propagada,FRQODFXDOVHHVWDEOHFHTXHODVOtQHDVGHDVRFLD
FLyQHQWUHHVWUDWRVDXWRVHJPHQWDOHVVHSURSDJDQDXWRPiWLFDPHQWHDWRGDVODVSRVLFLR
QHVTXHQRHVWiQWRGDYtDDVRFLDGDVFRQXQHOHPHQWRGHRWURHVWUDWRVHJ~QVHPXHVWUD
HQ E (VWD~OWLPDHVJHQHUDOPHQWHSURSLDGHORVIHQyPHQRVGHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD
FRPRRFXUUHHQHOJUDQDGLQRGRQGHODYRFDODELHUWDϧQDOTXHVHxDODHOSOXUDOOHHQYtD
VXVUDVJRVDODVGHPiVYRFDOHVSUHFHGHQWHVSRUHMHPSORPRQRW ૧RQɬ఩>PɬਥQɬW ૧ɬQɬ@

Ejemplo 2-41

a. $VRFLDFLyQVLPSOH b. $VRFLDFLyQSURSDJDGD


; Y = = ; Y = = ఩ =

3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5

 /DDVRFLDFLyQSURSDJDGDWDPELpQVHSXHGHDSOLFDUDRWURVSURFHVRVSRUHMHPSOR
HOFRQRFLGRSOXUDOGREOHají఩ajises.$TXtVHSUHVXPHTXHODHGHOSOXUDOGREOHQR
LPSLGHODDVRFLDFLyQGREOHGHODsSRUTXHDTXpOODQRSRVHHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHUDVJRV
DQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH(VSRUHVRTXHORVUDVJRVGHVVHSXHGHQSURSDJDUDWUDYpVGH
HSURFHVRPX\WtSLFRHQRWUDVOHQJXDVTXHHVWXGLDUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR
 &ODURHVWiTXHODSODQWLOOD  QRGDFXHQWDGHWRGRVORVSOXUDOHV+DEUtDTXH
FRQVLGHUDUDTXpOORVTXHWHUPLQDQHQFRQVRQDQWHVRYRFDOHVDFHQWXDGDVSHURTXHQR
UHFLEHQ-eHSHQWpWLFDWDOHVFRPRvermutavermuts, yenayens, PerúaPerús;RORV
TXHYDUtDQHQWUHXQR\RWURFRPRclub ~ clubsaclubes; bajáabajásabajáes.(VWRV
UHTXHULUtDQRWURWLSRGHSDWUyQ,JXDOUD]yQVHGDUtDGHORVSOXUDOHVGREOHVTXHVH
LGHQWLϧFDQSRUSRVHHUGREOHVPDUFDVGHODVHxDGHSOXUDOVFRPRHQmanisesR
cafesesGHYDULRVGLDOHFWRVKLVSDQRDPHULFDQRV(VWHWLSRGHSOXUDOOOHYDODSODQWLOOD
SURVyGLFD>¬>   @9&9&¬@HQGRQGHHVWDVHFXHQFLDGH¬&HV\9HVVHDMXVWDDORVFXDWUR
~OWLPRVVHJPHQWRVGHDPEDVSDODEUDV+DUULV F SURSXVRHVWHWLSRGHDQiOLVLV
[ 70 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

SDUDH[SOLFDUORVSOXUDOHVGREOHVHQGRPLQLFDQRGHgallina\mujerTXHVHSOXUDOL]DQ
gallínase\mujérese,H[FHSWRTXHODSODQWLOODGHHVWHGLDOHFWRUHVXOWDVHU>¬>   @9&9@
SXHVJHQHUDOPHQWHORVKDEODQWHVQRDUWLFXODQXQD>V@ϧQDO

಩/RVKLSRFRUtVWLFRV\HOQLYHO&9

/RV DGXOWRV \ QLxRV HQ VX KDEOD DIHFWLYD VXHOHQ VLPSOLϧFDU ORV QRPEUHV SURSLRV
\DDFRUWiQGRORV\DFRQYLUWLpQGRORVHQDSRGRVVHJ~QHOGLDOHFWR$VtGH¬ Gregorio,
Anselmo, Graciela\HumbertoVHUHJLVWUDQGoyo, Chemo, Chela\Beto.(Q/LSVNL
VHHVWXGLDHVWHSURFHVRHQHOFXDOVHQRWDQXQDVHULHGHUHJXODULGDGHVTXHVHSXHGHQ
H[SOLFDUSDUFLDOPHQWHFRQXQQLYHO&9¬(QODPD\RUtDGHHVWDVUHGXFFLRQHVVHREVHUYD
TXHORTXHUHVXOWDHVXQDSDODEUDGHGRVVtODEDV\pVWDVVRQVLHPSUHGHOSURWRWLSRVLOi
ELFRXQLYHUVDOFRQVRQDQWHYRFDOVDOYRFXDQGRHOQRPEUHSURSLRFRQWLHQHXQDVtODED
ϧQDOWUDEDGDSRUFRQVRQDQWHQDVDOFRPRHQArminda,TXHGDMinda.$GHPiVHVWRV
DFRUWDPLHQWRVVXUJHQFRQDFHQWXDFLyQOODQDD~QVLHOQRPEUHRULJLQDOFRQWLHQHDFHQ
WXDFLyQDJXGDRHVGU~MXODSRUHMHPSORValentínGD Tino\GH¬CándidaVHWLHQH Canda.
 $OLJXDOTXHHOSOXUDOVHSXHGHGHGXFLUODIRUPDGHODPD\RUtDGHORVKLSRFRUtVWLFRV
FRQXQHVTXHOHWR&9&9TXHVHFRQVWUX\HVREUHHOQRPEUHSULPLWLYRGHVGHODGHUHFKD
KDFLDODL]TXLHUGD/DGLUHFFLyQHVLPSRUWDQWHSRUTXHHOKLSRFRUtVWLFRFRQWLHQHXVXDO
PHQWHORVVHJPHQWRVGHODVGRV~OWLPDVVtODEDV

Ejemplo 2-42

+ X P E H U W R E U Q H V W R

>> @ & 9 & 9 @ >> @ & 9 & 9 @

1yWHVH TXH FRPR UHVXOWDGR GH DSOLFDU OD SODQWLOOD KD\ FRQVRQDQWHV \ YRFDOHV TXH
TXHGDQVLQVRSRUWHDOJXQR(QDXVHQFLDGHVRSRUWHORVHOHPHQWRVGHVDVRFLDGRVVH
SLHUGHQRGLFKRGHRWURPRGRQRHQFXHQWUDQLQWHUSUHWDFLyQIRQpWLFD(OUHVXOWDGR
GH  VRQORVUHVSHFWLYRVBeto\Neto.
 /DUHGXFFLyQTXHVHHMHPSOLϧFDSRUORJHQHUDOYLHQHDSDUHMDGDGHXQDVHULHGH
FDPELRV3RUORSURQWRODVFRQVRQDQWHVWLHQGHQDFDPELDUGHUDVJRVSRUHMHPSOR
ODVVHFRQYLHUWHHQ>߿@IgnacioFDPELDDNacho.(VWHHMHPSORPXHVWUDDGHPiVOD
WHQGHQFLDDTXHGHVDSDUH]FDQODVGHVOL]DGDV/DIVHWUDQVIRUPDHQ>S@SRUHMHPSOR
AlfonsoSURGXFHPoncho.
 /RVQRPEUHVFederico, Lázaro\TránsitoVXHOHQDEUHYLDUVHFico, Lacho,\Tacho.
'H¬HOORVVHGHGXFHTXHSDUDIRUPDUKLSRFRUtVWLFRVVHWRPDQSUHVWDGRVORVGRVSULPHURV
VHJPHQWRVGHOQRPEUHSURSLR\ORVGRV~OWLPRVKHFKRTXHVHFRQWUDSRQHDODSODQWL
OOD&9¬7DOSDUHFHTXHHVWDUHGXFFLyQSRVLEOHPHQWHUHTXLHUDGHDQiOLVLVPiVJHQHUDO
FRPRHOTXHVXJLHUH/LSVNL  TXLHQHPSOHDODPRUDSURVyGLFDTXHVHHVWXGLDUi
HQHOFDStWXOR/RVLJQLϧFDWLYRGHXQDQiOLVLV&9HVTXHFDSWDXQEXHQQ~PHURGH
Fonología autosegmental 71 ]

GHULYDFLRQHVKLSRFRUtVWLFDVFRQORFXDOVHQRVGDDHQWHQGHUTXHHOKDEODQWHWLHQGH
QRVyORDEXVFDUVLPSOLFLGDGVLQRTXHVHUHPLWHWDPELpQDLQQRYDU(VSRUHOORTXHGH
HQWUDUHQODOHQJXDHOQRPEUHProtanasio,SUREDEOHPHQWHSURGX]FDNacho FI¬/LSVNL
3ULHWR (OWHPDGHODHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFD&9DSDUHFHUiFXELHUWRPiV
DPSOLDPHQWHHQHOFDStWXORTXHWUDWDODWHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDG

಩(OHVTXHOHWR;\UHJODVJOREDOHV

$GHPiVGHORVUHSDURVTXHOHKLFLHUD/LSVNLDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ&9HQHOFLWDGRHQVD\R
pVWDHQFRQWUyRWURVUHWRVTXHOOHYDURQDSURSRQHUXQDQXHYDFRQFHSFLyQWHyULFDGH
UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ(OPD\RUGHVDItRORDUWLFXOy/HYLQ  \DQWHVTXHHOOD.D\H\
/RZHQVWDPP  VXJLULHURQTXHHQOXJDUGH¬&HV\9HVGHEHKDEHUUDQXUDVYDFtDV
ODVTXHVXHOHQUHSUHVHQWDUVHPHGLDQWHXQD;¬8QRGHORVDUJXPHQWRVPiVVyOLGRVDIDYRU
GHHVWDKLSyWHVLVHVTXHODSUHVHQFLDGH¬&9SHUPLWHFRPELQDFLRQHVH[WUDxDVHQWUHHVTXH
OHWR\VHJPHQWRV(VHVWHHOSUREOHPDHVSLQRVRTXHFRQIURQWDUD1~xH]&HGHxR D 
DODQDOL]DUHOIHQyPHQRGHDODUJDPLHQWRYRFiOLFRFRPSHQVDWRULRHQHVSDxROFXEDQR

಩&RPSHQVDFLyQYRFiOLFD

(QWLpQGDVHSRUalargamiento vocálico compensatorioHOSURFHVRTXHKDFHTXHORVUDVJRV


GHXQVHJPHQWRFRQWLJXRSDVHQDUHOOHQDUHOHVSDFLRYDFtRGHORVUDVJRVGHXQVHJPHQWR
TXHVHKDHOLPLQDGR(OFDVRTXHPiVVHFRQRFHHQODOLWHUDWXUDOLQJtVWLFDHVHOTXHVH
UHJLVWUDHQHOGLDOHFWRGHOHVSDxROKDEDQHUR +DPPRQG DXQTXHRWURVIHQyPH
QRVSDUHFLGRVVHUHSRUWDQSDUDHOHVSDxROGRPLQLFDQR -LPpQH]6DEDWHU \RWUDV
OHQJXDV³HOJULHJRSRUHMHPSOR ,QJULD 7RPHPRVHOFXEDQRFRPRPRGHOR
 &RPRVHVDEHHOFXEDQRDOLJXDOTXHODJUDQPD\RUtDGHORVGLDOHFWRVKLVSiQLFRV
SRVHHXQDUHJODTXHWLHQGHDDVSLUDURHOLPLQDUODVVXE\DFHQWHDOϧQDOGHVtODED
HQSRVLFLyQLQWUDPRUIpPLFD&RQWUDULRDRWURVGLDOHFWRVHOFXEDQRSDUHFHSRVHHUOD
VLQJXODUFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHTXHXQDYH]HOLPLQDGDODVODYRFDOSUHFHGHQWHWLHQGH
DDODUJDUVH(QORVHVWXGLRVJHQHUDWLYRVWUDGLFLRQDOHVVHWUDWyVHPHMDQWHFDVRFRQODV
GHQRPLQDGDVreglas globales³RVHDSDUDTXHXQDYRFDOSXGLHUDDODUJDUVHWHQtDTXH
VDEHUVHSUHYLDPHQWHTXHXQDFRQVRQDQWHVHKDEtDHOLPLQDGR(UDQHFHVDULRSRUWDQWR
FRQRFHUODKLVWRULDGHULYDFLRQDOGHXQDSDODEUDXQDVSHFWRGHODVUHVWULFFLRQHVGHUL
YDFLRQDOHVTXHPHQFLRQDPRVHQUHQJORQHVDQWHULRUHV)RUPDOPHQWHH[SXHVWDOD¬UHJOD
GHDODUJDPLHQWRYRFiOLFROXFHGHHVWDPDQHUD

Ejemplo 2-43

9఩9৸ಣಣ V &

ಣಣ@‫۝‬

&RQGLFLyQ(VWDUHJODVHFXPSOHVL\DVHKDDSOLFDGRODUHJODGHHOLVLyQGHV
[ 72 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

'HPDQHUDLQIRUPDOODUHJOD  GLFHTXHXQDYRFDOVHDODUJDVyORVLODVLJXHXQD


FRQVRQDQWHTXHVHDV&RQODVHJXQGD&VHFDSWDHOKHFKRGHTXHVyORVHDODUJDUiQ
ODVYRFDOHVHQSRVLFLyQLQWHUQDGHSDODEUD&RQVHPHMDQWHFRQGLFLyQHVWLSXODGDVH
SXHGHQGHULYDUFRUUHFWDPHQWHODVSDODEUDVTXHGDPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 2-44

W ૧DOEHV EXNH EXVNH SDVW ૧LթD SHVNDG૧R


಩W ૧DOਥEHV ಩ਥEXNH ಩ਥEXVNH ಩SDVਥW ૧LթD ಩SHVਥNDG૧R $FHQWXDFLyQ
಩W ૧DOਥEH ³ ಩ਥEXNH ಩SDਥW ૧LթD ಩SHਥNDG૧R (OLVLyQGHV
³ ³ ಩ਥEX৸NH ಩SD৸ਥW ૧LթD ಩SH৸ਥNDG૧R 5HJOD 
>ಭಭW ૧DOਥɕ૊H@ >ಭಭਥEXNH@ >ಭಭਥEX৸NH@ >ಭಭSD৸ਥW ૧LբD@ >ಭಭSH৸ਥND˓૊R@

 (OSUREOHPDGHVHPHMDQWHVROXFLyQHUDHOWHQHUTXHUHIHULUVHDOVHJPHQWRHOLGLGR
OR¬TXHLPSOLFDUtDH[WHQGHUHOSRGHUJHQHUDWLYRGHODVUHJODV6LIXHUDSRVLEOHKDFHU
HQWUDUHQMXHJRWDOHVWLSRVGHUHJODVFDEUtDSUHJXQWDUVHSRUTXpQRKDFHUORPLVPR
FRQODVGHPiVUHJODVGHFXDOTXLHUJUDPiWLFD/DVUHJODVJOREDOHVUHVXOWDUtDQSRUHQGH
GHPDVLDGRSRGHURVDV\DTXHHODQDOLVWDSRGUtDDSOLFDUODVDVXDQWRMR\SRUFRQVL
JXLHQWHVHKDUtDGLItFLOUHVWULQJLUODV6LQHPEDUJRQRKDEtDRWUDPDQHUDGHGDUFXHQWD
GHORTXHVXFHGtD\HOOLQJLVWDVHVHJXtDYDOLHQGRGHWDQVRVSHFKRVDVROXFLyQ
 (ODQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOFRQXQSULPHUDFHUFDPLHQWREDVDGRHQXQHVTXHOHWR&9
RIUHFHXQDVDOLGDSDUFLDOPHQWHH[LWRVDDODGLϧFXOWDGWHyULFDTXHSURGXFHHOHPSOHR
GHODVUHJODVJOREDOHV 1~xH]&HGHxRD 9DPRVDHMHPSOLϧFDUFRQODSDODEUD
pescado,OLPLWiQGRQRVH[FOXVLYDPHQWHDODVHFXHQFLDSHVN6LSUHVXPLPRVTXHVH
KDQHOLPLQDGRWRGRVORVUDVJRVGHVOR~QLFRTXHUHVWDHVVXHVTXHOHWR&VLQUDVJRV
2FXUULUtD HQWRQFHV TXH ORV UDVJRV GH OD YRFDO SUHFHGHQWH VH H[WHQGHUtDQ OR FXDO
TXHGDLQGLFDGRFRQODOtQHDGLVFRQWLQXDHQ  \TXHRFXSDUtDQHOOXJDUYDFtRGH¬&
SUHYLDGHVDVRFLDFLyQGHWRGRVVXVUDVJRV,OXVWUHPRV SUHV~PDVHTXH\DODVHFXHQFLD
&9GHODHQWUDGDVHKDDVRFLDGRFRQOD&TXHTXHGDϩRWDQGRVHJ~QORUHTXLHUHXQ
SULQFLSLRXQLYHUVDOTXHHVWXGLDUHPRVPiVDGHODQWHORVVtPERORVIRQpWLFRVUHVXPHQ
UDVJRVIRQROyJLFRV 

Ejemplo 2-45 Alargamiento vocálico compensatorio con un esqueleto CV

& 9 & & ఩ & 9 & &

S H V N S H >ಣ@ N

6L ELHQ FRQ HVWH DQiOLVLV VH HOLPLQDQ ODV UHJODV JOREDOHV SRUTXH \D QR KDEUtD TXH
UHIHULUVHDODKLVWRULDGHULYDFLRQDOGHXQVHJPHQWRHODVXQWRVHQRVFRPSOLFDSRU
RWUDSDUWH2EVpUYHVHHQ  TXHORVUDVJRVGHHVLHQGRYRFDOSDVDQDRFXSDU
ODUDQXUDYDFtDGH¬&FX\RHVTXHOHWRVHVXSRQHTXHVHD>ਮVLOiELFR@HVGHFLUXQD
Fonología autosegmental 73 ]

FRQVRQDQWH1RVHQFRQWUDPRVFRQXQDHYLGHQWHFRQWUDGLFFLyQTXH\DKDVLGRDQRWDGD
HQHODQiOLVLVGHRWUDVOHQJXDV 5RFD 
 6LHQFDPELRQRVUHPLWLPRVDXQHVTXHOHWRGH¬;FX\DIXQFLyQHVWDPELpQVHUYLU
GHVRSRUWH\FRPRXQLGDGGHWLHPSRDOLJXDOTXHHOQLYHO&9ODFRQWUDGLFFLyQVH
GHVYDQHFH5HWRPHPRV  \FDPELpPRVODSRU  

Ejemplo 2-46 Alargamiento vocálico compensatorio con un esqueleto X

N ఩ N

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;

S H V N S H >ಣ@ N

/RVUDVJRVGHHHQWRQFHVSDVDQDH[WHQGHUVHGHPDQHUDTXHHQFXHQWUDQXQOXJDU
YDFtRTXHQRSRVHHUDVJRVQLQJXQRV3RUHVRHQWRQFHVVHVLHQWHHQHVHGLDOHFWRXQD
YRFDOODUJD
 (QHOHMHPSOR  KHPRVLQFOXLGRXQQLYHODGLFLRQDOHOGH¬1 ~FOHR TXHVHOH
DJUHJDD;\TXHVLHPSUHYLHQHSUHDVLJQDGRDVXYRFDO(VWHWLSRGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
HVPXFKRPiVULFDXQDYH]VHFRQVLGHUDODHVWUXFWXUDGHODVtODEDODFXDOSUR\HFWD
QLYHOHVDGLFLRQDOHVSXQWRTXHVHGLVFXWLUiHQHOFDStWXOR
 $OLJXDOTXHHQFXEDQRHQGRPLQLFDQRVHGDHOFDVRGHSpUGLGDLQWUDPRUIpPLFDGH
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GHODODUJDPLHQWRGHODVYRFDOHVTXHODSUHFHGHQSRUHMHPSORmuerto\cortoVXUJHQ
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[ 74 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

2.5. Niveles de representación y la Convención de Asociación Universal

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Ejemplo 2-47

a i

s f r j l /DV&HV\9HVGH
OD)RQRORJtD¬&9
VHSXHGHQVXV
WLWXLUSRUHTXLV
VLQPD\RUHV
X X X X X X X X FRQVHFXHQFLDV

s s s

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VXSHUDUHLQWHUSUHWDGDSRUYDULRVDXWRUHV $UFKDQJHOL3XOOH\EODQN 

Ejemplo 2-48 Convención de Asociación Universal

$VyFLHQVHORVHOHPHQWRVOLEUHVGHXQRDXQRGHL]TXLHUGDDGHUHFKD

(Q  VHWRPDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHFRQVXHVTXHOHWRGH¬&9\VHOLJDQD


VXVPHORGtDVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV,OXVWUDPRVVHPHMDQWHXQLyQVyORFRQODVFRQVRQDQWHV
ORPLVPRRFXUULUtDFRQODVYRFDOHV
Fonología autosegmental 75 ]

Ejemplo 2-49

& & & & ఩ & & & &

V I U j O V I U j O

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PDFLyQ  TXHHVHOWHUFHUSULQFLSLR\DSUHVHQWDGRHQ  

Ejemplo 2-50 Condición de Buena Formación

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/DV TXH KHPRV LOXVWUDGR HQ   YDPRV D GHQRPLQDUODV representaciones


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GHODVYLEUDQWHV

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Ejemplo 2-51

a. & 9 & 9 & 9 vs. b. & 9 & & 9 & 9

N D ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D N D ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D


[ 76 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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Ejemplo 2-52

a. ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ఩ b. ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬


3&2
& 9 & & 9 & 9 & 9 & & 9 & 9

N D ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D N D ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D

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Fonología autosegmental 77 ]

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[ 78 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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Fonología autosegmental 79 ]

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Ejemplo 2-53

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

& 9 & & & 9 & 9

N D V ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D

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EDVWDQWHJHQpULFDTXHWLHQGHDLQVHUWDUXQDYRFDOHQWUHORVGRVSULPHURVPLHPEURVGH
XQQ~FOHRWULFRQVRQiQWLFR6LQHPEDUJRFXDQGRVHWUDWDGHFRQVRQDQWHVJHPLQDGDV
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YRFDOHSHQWpWLFD6WHULDGH  LQGLFDTXHHQNRODPLXQDOHQJXDGUDYLGLDQRSXHGH
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FRQVRQiQWLFRFRQVLVWHHQGRVHOHPHQWRVLGpQWLFRVODHSpQWHVLV YRFiOLFDGHMDUtDGH
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perenne, pinnípedo\moho3RUWDQWRSDUHFHUtDH[WUDxR\FRQWUDLQWXLWLYRTXHVyOROD
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HVSRUTXHHOKDEODQWHORSHUFLEHSRVLEOHPHQWHEDViQGRVHHQODGXUDFLyQGHODVGRV
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ODSHUFHSFLyQODSURSXHVWDHVEDVWDQWHDWUDFWLYD1RREVWDQWHWHQGUtDTXHYHUVHFyPR
SXGLHUDGDUFXHQWDGHWRGRVORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVTXHVHPHQFLRQDURQPiVDUULED
[ 80 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejercicios

1. &RQVLGHUHORVGDWRVVLJXLHQWHVSURYHQLHQWHVGHOHVSDxROFLEDHxRGLDOHFWR
FHQWURQRUWHxRGHOD5HS~EOLFD'RPLQLFDQD 1~xH]&HGHxR1~xH]
&HGHxR\$FRVWD 

Formas subyacentes Formas fonéticas Glosas


ND‫ޞ‬W ૧D >ਥNDMW ૧D@ carta
DOСR >ਥDM࣢૊R@ algo
SZH‫ޞ‬NR >ਥSZHMNR@ puerco
DOPRDG૧D >DMPRਥD˓૊D@ almohada
PXKH‫ޞ‬ >PXਥKHM@ mujer
EROEH‫ޞ‬ >ERMਥɕHM@ volver
NR‫ޞ‬DVRQ >NR‫ޞ‬DਥVR‫@غ‬ corazón
DODPHG૧D >DODਥPH˓૊D@ alameda
HODСZD >HMਥD࣢Z ૊ D@ el agua
HODELVR >HMDਥɕ૊LVR@ el aviso

a. 'pFXHQWDGHODVDOWHUQDQFLDVTXHVHREVHUYDQFRQODVOtTXLGDVHQHVWRV
GDWRV
b. )RUPXOHXQDUHJODDXWRVHJPHQWDOHQSURVDTXHFDSWHORTXHRFXUUHHQHO
SURFHVR6HJ~QSODQWHDHOSURFHVR¢FyPRORGHQRPLQDUtD\SRUTXpHVFRJH
HVDGHQRPLQDFLyQ"

2. (QHOHVSDxROKDEDQHURVHUHJLVWUDQODVVLJXLHQWHVQDVDOHV *XLWDUW 

Formas subyacentes Formas fonéticas Glosas


I‫ޞ‬HQW ૧H >ਥI‫ޞ‬H‫غ‬W ૧H@ frente
DQG૧D >ਥD‫غ‬G૧D@ anda
DQSD >ਥD‫غ‬SD@ hampa
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SRQOR >ਥSR‫غ‬OR@ ponlo
NDQG૧DG૧R >ND‫غ‬ਥG૧D˓૊R@ candado
PDQСD >ਥPD‫غ‬СD@ manga
NRPHQ >ਥNRPH‫@غ‬ comen
NDPMRQ >NDਥPMR‫@غ‬ camión
QDW ૧D >ਥQDW ૧D@ nata
NDQDVW ૧D >NDਥQDKW ૧D@ canasta
PDQR >ਥPDQR@ mano

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UHJODVHSXHGHH[SUHVDUSRUH[WHQVLyQGHUDVJRV"¢3RUTXpVtRQR"
Fonología autosegmental 81 ]

3. (QHOHVSDxROVDOYDGRUHxR\KRQGXUHxRVHKDQGRFXPHQWDGRODVVLJXLHQWHVIRU
PDVIRQpWLFDV /LSVNL 

Formas fonéticas Glosas


>KHਥ‫ص‬R‫@ޞ‬ señor
>DਥKLKHਥSZH˓૊H@ así se puede
>ਥHKW ૧RK@ estos
>ਥEDPRK@ vamos
>HKSHਥKMDO@ especial
>ODKHਥPDQD@ la semana
>ORKDਥPL࣢૊RK@ los amigos
>S‫ޞ‬HKLਥ˓૊HQ૧W ૧H@ presidente
>S‫ޞ‬HKXਥSZHKW ૧R@ presupuesto
>X‫غ‬KHQ૧ਥW ૧Dɕ૊R@ un centavo

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GRPLQLRH[SUpVHORHQIRUPDDXWRVHJPHQWDO

Lecturas adicionales

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&OHPHQWV  SURSRQHXQPRGHORDXWRVHJPHQWDOHQHOTXHORVUDVJRVVHRUJDQL
]DQEDMRQRGRVTXHHVWiQGRPLQDGRVSRUXQQLYHOGH¬&9
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1~xH]&HGHxR E RIUHFHDQiOLVLVSUDJPiWLFRVSDUDH[SOLFDUHOOODPDGR
plural doble.&ROLQD D RIUHFHXQDDOWHUQDWLYDYLVWDGHVGHODySWLFDGHOD
WHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDG
(QVXVWUDEDMRVGH  :LOOLVDQDOL]DODDVSLUDFLyQGHYLEUDQWHP~OWLSOHDO
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PXUPXUDGDSUHFHGHQWHRpre-breathy voice
This page intentionally left blank
3 ]
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico
Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

3.0 Introducción

(QHOFDStWXORDQWHULRUSUHVHQWDPRVODLGHDGHTXHORVUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRVVHFDUDFWHUL]DQ
SRUWHQHUXQDRUJDQL]DFLyQMHUDUTXL]DGD\TXHHQUHDOLGDGQRVHUHSUHVHQWDQPHGLDQWH
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SRUTXHVLQRVUHPLWLPRVDORVDQiOLVLVDXWRVHJPHQWDOHVTXHKHPRVRIUHFLGRSRGHPRV
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SUHJXQWDTXHVHIRUPXODURQYDULRVLQYHVWLJDGRUHVDOREVHUYDUHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGH
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TXHORVUDVJRVWLHQGHQDDJUXSDUVHGHPDQHUDUHJXODU YpDVH&OHPHQWV 'HDKt
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WHQHUVHHQFXHQWDVHPHMDQWHFRPSRUWDPLHQWRYpDVHHOFDStWXOR
[ 84 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

3.1 Modelo jerárquico

9DULRVOLQJLVWDVKDQREVHUYDGRODDJUXSDFLyQUHJXODUTXHVHRIUHFHHQ  (VSUH


FLVDPHQWHODDJUXSDFLyQUHFXUUHQWHGHFLHUWRVUDVJRVHQUHJODVDVLPLODWRULDVODTXH
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UDOHQORVSURFHVRVGHDVLPLODFLyQXQDUHJODTXHSURSDJXHVyORXQUDVJR YJODGH
SpUGLGDGHVRQRULGDGDQWHXQDFRQVRQDQWHVRUGD RXQDTXHDIHFWHWRGRVORVUDVJRV
YJ¬OD¬GHDVLPLODFLyQWRWDODQWHRWUDFRQVRQDQWH 3RUORYLVWRVLVHFDUDFWHUL]DQFRPR
VHPXHVWUDHQ  ORVUDVJRVWLHQGHQDIRUPDUFODVHVQDWXUDOHV(VWRVJUXSRVQRVRQ
SXHVDUELWUDULRVVLQRTXHUHϩHMDQXQDDJUXSDFLyQEDVDGDHQODIRQpWLFDDXQJUXSR
ORFRQWURODQORVWRQRVDRWURHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ(VWHDVXYH]HVFRQWURODGRSRU
ODFDYLGDGVXSUDJOyWLFDHQGRQGHVHHMHFXWDQORVPRYLPLHQWRVDUWLFXODWRULRV\¬DVt
VXFHVLYDPHQWH

Ejemplo 3-1

WRQRDOWR ਔ
5DVJRVWRQDOHV
WRQREDMR ਖ

VRQRUR ਔ
5DVJRVODUtQJHRV
JORWLVGLODWDGD ਖ

GLVWULEXLGR ਔ ਔ ਔ
&RURQDO
DQWHULRU ਖ ਕ ਕ
ਕ ਕ
DOWR ਔ ਕ ਕ
EDMR ਕ 'RUVDO ਕ ਕ
3XQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
UHWUDtGR ਖ ਕ ਕ
ਕ ਕ
UHGRQGR @ /DELDO ਖ ਕ
5DVJRVVXSUDODUtQJHRV

ODWHUDO ਔ ਕ
UHVRQDQWH ਕ ਕ
FRQWLQXR ਕ ਕ
HVWULGHQWH ਖ ਖ

 /R TXH HQ SRWHQFLD HQJORED OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ   HV OD KLSyWHVLV GH TXH ORV
VHJPHQWRVHQVtVHDJUXSDQHQFRQVWLWX\HQWHV(QWRQFHVXQVHJPHQWRFRQVLVWHQRVyOR
HQORVUDVJRVIRQpWLFRVTXHORGHϧQHQVLQRTXHDGHPiVSRVHHHVWUDWRVGHFODVHTXHOR
FRQWURODQORVTXHVHLOXVWUDQFRPRORVUHVSHFWLYRVODUtQJHRV\VXSUDODUtQJHRV&RQ
HVWHPRGHORVHOHGDSULPDFtDDOKHFKRGHTXHORVDUWLFXODGRUHVVRQORVTXHHQWUDQHQ
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 85 ]

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LOXVWUDUHQHOGLDJUDPD  ORTXHKHPRVERVTXHMDGRHQ  
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0F&DUWK\  VXJLHUHTXHODUDt]ODFRQIRUPDQORVUDVJRVSULQFLSDOHV>“UHVRQDQWH@
\>“FRQVRQDQWH@'LFKRVUDVJRVVRQORVTXHXVXDOPHQWHGLVWLQJXHQORVVHJPHQWRVHQ
JUDQGHVFODVHV3RUXQODGRHOUDVJR>UHVRQDQWH@DEDUFDDODVOtTXLGDVODVQDVDOHV
ODVYRFDOHV\ODVGHVOL]DGDVPLHQWUDVTXHHOUDVJR>ਮUHVRQDQWH@DOXGHSURSLDPHQWHD
ODVREVWUX\HQWHV3RURWURODGRHOUDVJR>FRQVRQDQWH@GLVWLQJXHDWRGDVODVFRQVR
QDQWHVGHORVVHJPHQWRVYRFiOLFRV\GHVOL]DGRV

Ejemplo 3-2

; HVTXHOHWR

਑ FRQVRQiQWLFR ਔ
ਓ UHVRQDQWH ਖ

FRQWLQXR

HVWULGHQWH

ODWHUDO /DUtQJHR 6XSUDODUtQJHR

5Dt]OLQJXDO

*ORWDO

VRQRUR DYDQ]DGD UHWUDtGD

JORWLVGLODWDGD

FRQVWULFFLyQJORWDO

3DODGDUEODQGR 3XQWRRUDO

1DVDO /DELDO &RURQDO 'RUVDO

UHGRQGR DQWHULRU GLVWULEXLGR UHWUDtGR DOWR EDMR


[ 86 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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TXHOD~QLFDPDQHUDGHSRGHUSURSDJDUDOJXQRGHHOORVVHDFRPRSDUWHGHXQQRGR
FRPSOHWR³HVGHFLUVLVHSURSDJDODUDt]FRPSOHWD(VSRUHOORTXHODDVLPLODFLyQWRWDO
GHUDVJRVLPSOLFDTXHHQUHDOLGDGVHHVWiDVLPLODQGRWRGRHOFRQWHQLGRGHODUDt](MHP
SORWtSLFRGHDVLPLODFLyQFRPSOHWDHVHOSURFHVRGHJHPLQDFLyQHQHOTXHVHSURGXFH
XQDPRGLϧFDFLyQWRWDODOQRGRTXHFRQWLHQHORVUDVJRVFRQVRQiQWLFRV\UHVRQDQWHVGH
XQVHJPHQWRSRULQϩXHQFLDGHRWURVHJPHQWRYHFLQR/DVSDODEUDVbarba\toldo,TXH
UHVXOWDQHQODVUHVSHFWLYDV>ਥEDEED@\>ਥWRG૧G૧R@HQHO&DULEHKLVSiQLFRPXHVWUDQHO
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FRQYLHUWHQHQRFOXVLYDV(QODVHFFLyQVHGLVFXWHPiVH[WHQVDPHQWHODDVLPLODFLyQ
WRWDOGHODUDt]
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Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 87 ]

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[ 88 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-3

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>S@/DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFDGHHVWHVRQLGRVHUtDFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQ  
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 89 ]

Ejemplo 3-4

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'RUVDO /DELDO

>UHWUDtGR@ >UHGRQGR@

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[ 90 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 91 ]

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Ejemplo 3-5

a. >L@
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ਓ UHV ਖ

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5DVJRVWHUPLQDOHV >DOWR@ >ਮEDMR@ >ਮUHW@


[ 92 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-5 (continued)

b. >S@
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ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

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c. >Qਗ਼P@
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$UWLFXODGRU &RURQDO /DELDO *ORWDO

5DVJRVWHUPLQDOHV >DQW@ >VRQ@

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F HODUWLFXODGRUSULQFLSDOTXHHQWUDHQDFFLyQSDUDTXHVHUHDOLFH>Q@HVHOFRURQDO
 3RU ~OWLPR WRGR HO FRQMXQWR GH UDVJRV TXH FDUDFWHUL]DQ DO IRQHPD VH OLJD DO
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GHTXHDOSURGXFLUVHUDVJRVVHXWLOL]DFLHUWDFDQWLGDGGHWLHPSRHQVXSURGXFFLyQ
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UHSUHVHQWDPHGLDQWHCRV.
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 93 ]

Ejemplo 3-6

>S@
(VTXHOHWR ;

5Dt] ਑ FRQV ਔ
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$UWLFXODGRU /DELDO *ORWDO

5DVJRVWHUPLQDOHV >ਮVRQ@

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QHJDWLYR YpDVHHOFDStWXOR 
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>FRURQDOਮFRURQDO@

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UDVJRV>FRQWLQXR@>HVWULGHQWH@\>ODWHUDO@YDQXQLGRVGLUHFWDPHQWHDODUDt]
[ 94 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-7

(VTXHOHWR ;

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GHPiVUDVJRVRDUWLFXODGRUHV6LQHPEDUJRSXVLPRVHQGXGDVHPHMDQWHFRQϧJXUDFLyQ
\VXJHULPRVTXHODOHQJXDHVSDxRODRIUHFHSUXHEDVGHTXHSRVLEOHPHQWHGLFKDFRQV
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 (VWDHVODKLSyWHVLVTXHGHϧHQGH3DGJHWW  TXLHQDUJX\HDIDYRUGHODLQVHU
FLyQGH>FRQWLQXR@LQPHGLDWDPHQWHGHEDMRGHODUWLFXODGRURUDOVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ
 

Ejemplo 3-8

>UHV@

/DUtQJHR 3XQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ >QDVDO@

>VRQ@
਑ /DELDO ਔ ਑ &RURQDO ਔ ਑ 'RUVDO ਔ
ਓ FRQV ਖ ਓ FRQV ਖ ਓ FRQV ਖ

>FRQW@ >FRQW@ >FRQW@

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GDGRUDO
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QXD@ ¬EDMRODUDt] PRGHOR6DJH\+DOOH  ¬EDMRODFDYLGDGRUDO PRGHOR&OHPHQWV
+XPH \ ¬EDMRHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ PRGHOR3DGJHWW TXHGHPRGRVXFLQWR
LOXVWUDPRVUHVSHFWLYDPHQWHHQ D  E \ F 
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 95 ]

Ejemplo 3-9

a. ਑ FRQV ਔ b. ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ

6XSUDODUtQJHR >FRQW@ 6XSUDODUtQJHR

3XQWRRUDO >QDVDO@ &DYLGDGRUDO >QDVDO@

3XQWRRUDO >FRQW@

c. >UHV@

3XQWRRUDO >QDVDO@

^/DE&RU'RU`

>FRQW@

(QHOPRGHORGH¬3DGJHWWHOUDVJR>FRQVRQDQWH@WDPELpQTXHGDXELFDGRFRQHOJUXSR
GHDUWLFXODGRUHVFRQWUDULRDODKLSyWHVLVTXHVHJXLPRVHQHVWHWH[WR/RVIXQGDPHQWRV
GHVXDQiOLVLVVRQFRQWURYHUVLDOHV\SRUWDQWRQRQRVFHxLUHPRVDHOORV
 (QFXDQWRDOPRGHOR F TXHRIUHFHSRVLELOLGDGHVDQDOtWLFDV\GHUHVSXHVWDV
GHEHPRVPDWL]DUTXHKR\GtDWRGDYtDQRKDH[SHULPHQWDGRORVHPEDWHVGHODFUtWLFD
(QORTXHVLJXHFHQWUDUHPRVQXHVWUDDWHQFLyQHQORVGRVSULPHURV\VHPRVWUDUiFyPR
HOWHUFHURWLHQHPiVp[LWRHQWUDWDUIHQyPHQRVGHDVLPLODFLyQ
 (QODFDYLGDGEXFDOVHHMHFXWDQWUHVWLSRVGHFRQVWULFFLRQHV ¬>FRQVRQiQWLFD@
 ¬>REVWUX\HQWH@\ ¬>FRQWLQXD@/DVGRVSULPHUDVJR]DQGHDFHSWDFLyQJHQHUDOHQWUH
ODPD\RUtDGHORVOLQJLVWDVTXLHQHVFRQVLGHUDQTXHDPEDVFRQVWLWX\HQODUDt]GHO
VRQLGR/DWHUFHUD>FRQWLQXD@GHSHQGHSXHVGHHVWDVGRV6HPHMDQWHFRQϧJXUDFLyQ
YLHQHDYDODGDSRUQXPHURVRVSURFHVRVGHDVLPLODFLyQFRQORVTXHVHKDGHPRVWUDGR
TXHODVSULPHUDVGRVFRQVWULFFLRQHVIXQFLRQDQLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHOSXQWRDUWLFX
ODWRULR/RTXHKDVLGRPiVFRQWURYHUVLDOHVGHWHUPLQDUODXELFDFLyQH[DFWDGHOUDVJR
>FRQWLQXR@
 (Q OD GLVHUWDFLyQ GH¬ 6DJH\   SRU HMHPSOR VH DUJX\H TXHOD PHQFLRQDGD
DJUXSDFLyQ\GHSHQGHQFLDGHEHVHUDVtSRUTXHHQODOHQJXDOLEHULDQDNSHOOHH[LVWHXQ
LQWHUHVDQWHSURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO  
[ 96 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-10

a. 1SROX >PEROX@ ¶PLHVSDOGD·


b. 1WLD >QGLD@ ¶PLWDE~·
c. 1NRR >‫غ‬СRR@ ¶PLSLH·
d. 1IHOD >PYHOD@ ¶PLVVDODULRV·
e. 1VXD >QMXD@ ¶PLQDUL]·

 /D1PD\~VFXODUHSUHVHQWDXQDQDVDOQRPDUFDGDHQVXSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR/RTXH
VHGHVWDFDHQ  HVHOHMHPSOR G HQTXHODQDVDOVHDVLPLODDOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR
GHODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWHVLQTXHSRUHOORDVLPLOHVXVSURSLHGDGHVIULFDWLYDV/DQDVDO
SHUPDQHFHFRPRRFOXVLYD\QRVHKDFHIULFDWLYDFRQORTXHVHGHPXHVWUDTXHHOUDVJR
>FRQWLQXR@QRGHSHQGHGHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR(OPLVPRUD]RQDPLHQWRVHDSOLFDUtD
DOPRGHORGH¬&OHPHQWV+XPHSRUTXHVHJ~QVHYHHQ E HOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@HV
LQGHSHQGLHQWHGHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR
 6LELHQHOPRGHOR6DJH\+DOOHSUHGLFHTXHXQDQDVDOVHDVLPLODHQSXQWRGHDUWL
FXODFLyQ D RFOXVLYDV OR PLVPR RFXUUH FXDQGR VH HQFXHQWUD IUHQWH D XQD IULFDWLYD
(V¬GHFLUTXHFRQHVWHPRGHORVHSUHVXPHTXHHVWDQQDWXUDOTXHXQDQDVDOVHDVLPLOH
DXQDRFOXVLYDFRPRDXQDIULFDWLYDSRUTXHHQDPEDVHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@QRGHSHQGH
GHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR3HUR3DGJHWW  DUJX\HTXHHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHXQD
QDVDOFXDQGRVHDVLPLODDXQDRFOXVLYDWLHQGHDVHUPX\GLIHUHQWHGHORTXHVXFHGH
FXDQGRVHHQFXHQWUDIUHQWHDXQDIULFDWLYD3RUORJHQHUDOVHSURGXFHXQDSHUIHFWD
DVLPHWUtDHQFXDOTXLHUOHQJXDHQTXHODQDVDOVHDVLPLODDOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGH
XQD RFOXVLYD QR VH DVLPLOD D XQD IULFDWLYD 6LQ HPEDUJR VHJ~Q DQRWD .HQVWRZLF]
  HQ NSHOOH OD QDVDO VH WLHQH FRPR >FRQWLQXD@ SRUTXH VH VXSRQH TXH
DQWH>Y@TXHHVIULFDWLYDQRWLHQHVXϧFLHQWHREVWUXFFLyQDODFRUULHQWHGHODLUH\SRU
WDQWRHVDIULFFLyQVHOHLPSULPHDODQDVDOKDFLpQGROD>QDVDOFRQWLQXD@(QWDO
FDVR3DGJHWWSURSRQHTXHHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@GHSHQGHGLUHFWDPHQWHGHOSXQWRRUDO
VHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQ F \SRUWDQWRHQNSHOOHVHSURGXFLUtDODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQ
VLJXLHQWHFRQODSDODEUD1IHODHQ OG FX\DQDVDOIULFDWLYDUHSUHVHQWDUHPRVD
QLYHOIRQpWLFRFRQHOVtPEROR>࣏@SDUDGLVWLQJXLUODGHODODELRGHQWDO>؇@

Ejemplo 3-11

>UHV@ >ਮUHV@

>QDVDO@ 3XQWRRUDO

/DELDO

>FRQW@
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 97 ]

 3HURVLREVHUYDPRVELHQODVFRQVHFXHQFLDVGHODDSOLFDFLyQGH  YHUHPRVTXH


REWHQGUHPRVFRPRUHVXOWDGRORTXH3DGJHWWOODPDODQDVDOIULFDWLYD >࣏YHOD@\¬QR
ODQDVDORFOXVLYD>؇YHOD@TXHVHHVSHUDED3DGJHWWVHxDODTXHMXVWDPHQWHODDSOLFD
FLyQGHODUHJODDQLYHOOp[LFRVXJLHUHXQDUHVSXHVWD\HVTXHDQLYHOOp[LFRODQDVDO
IULFDWLYDQRVHGDGHPDQHUDFRQWUDVWLYDRVHDTXHQRH[LVWHQQDVDOHVIULFDWLYDVHQ
HOOp[LFR/DQDVDOIULFDWLYDTXHDSDUHFHHQNSHOOHHVSURGXFWRGHDSOLFDFLyQGHXQD
UHJODIRQpWLFDSRVWOp[LFD3DUDGDUFXHQWDGHODIRUPDFRUUHFWD>؇YHOD@VHDSHODDOD
LQWHUDFFLyQGHODPDUFDGH]XQLYHUVDOFRQRFLGDFRQHOQRPEUHGH¬3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UH
VHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUD >@ORH[DPLQDUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR FRQODJHRPHWUtD
TXHVHRIUHFHHQ  

Ejemplo 3-12 Principio de Preservación de Estructura

/DVFRQGLFLRQHVGHPDUFDGH]XQLYHUVDOVHDSOLFDQHQWRGDODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD

 (QHIHFWRHOSULQFLSLRGHSUHVHUYDFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOUHSUHVHQWDXQDVHULHGHFRQGL
FLRQHVTXHUHVWULQJHQODDSDULFLyQHQHOOp[LFRGHGHULYDFLRQHVTXHQRVHDQGRFXPHQ
WDEOHVHQODJHQHUDOLGDGGHODVOHQJXDV3RUHMHPSORXQDFRQGLFLyQXQLYHUVDOHVTXH
VLHOVHJPHQWRHV>UHVRQDQWH@QRSXHGHVHU >ਮVRQRUR@DQLYHOOp[LFR1RRFXUUH
SXHV >UHVਮVRQ@/RPLVPRVXFHGHFRQODVQDVDOHV&RPRORFRP~QHVODSUHVHQFLD
GHQDVDOHVGHULYDGDVGHFDUiFWHURFOXVLYRVHSUHVXPHODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDFRQGLFLyQ
XQLYHUVDOTXHUHVWULQJHODDSDULFLyQGHXQDQDVDOIULFDWLYD
 (QWRQFHVHVHQWHUDPHQWHSUHGHFLEOHHOKHFKRGHTXHVLODFRQVRQDQWHHVQDVDOGHEH
VHUSRUWDQWRRFOXVLYD'DGRTXHHVWHHVHOFDVRQRVHQHFHVLWDPDUFDUDODVQDVDOHVQL
SRVLWLYDQLQHJDWLYDPHQWHFRQUHVSHFWRDOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@([LVWHSRUFRQVLJXLHQWH
ODFRQGLFLyQXQLYHUVDO  

Ejemplo 3-13

>QDVDOFRQW@

6LQHPEDUJRVDEHPRVTXHDQLYHOIRQpWLFRSDUDODVOHQJXDVTXHPHQFLRQDPRVDUULED
\ SDUD PXFKDV RWUDV OR TXH DϩRUD D OD VXSHUϧFLH HV XQD QDVDO VLQ HVSHFLϧFDFLyQ
>ਮFRQW@&RPRYHUHPRVHQHOFDStWXORORVUDVJRVUHGXQGDQWHVVHSUHGLFHQPHGLDQWH
UHJOD\HQHVWHFDVRVDEHPRVTXHVLHVFRQVRQDQWHQDVDOGHEHVHURFOXVLYD(Q  
VHFDSWDHVWDUHGXQGDQFLD

Ejemplo 3-14

>FRQVQDVDO@఩>ਮFRQW@
[ 98 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 $KRUDYROYDPRVDOHMHPSOR OG \DODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO(VWDUHJOD


GHMDGHDSOLFDUVHDO1IHODSRUUD]yQGHTXHVHDSOLFDHOSULQFLSLRXQLYHUVDO  
(VGHFLUFRQ  VHFUHDHQHOOp[LFRXQDHVWUXFWXUDDQyPDODXQDQDVDOIULFDWLYD6LQ
HPEDUJRHO3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUDLPSLGHTXHVHSURGX]FDXQDIULFD
WLYDVXE\DFHQWHGHELGRDODFRQGLFLyQ  (O3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUD
HVFRPRXQYLJLODQWHVLH[LVWHXQDUHJODTXHSXHGDSURGXFLUXQIRQHPDTXHQRH[LVWHHQ
ODOHQJXDOHLPSLGHSURVHJXLUDGHODQWH(VSRUHOORTXH1IHODVDOHFRPR>؇YHOD@
 ¢3HURTXpRFXUUHHQODOHQJXDHVSDxROD"'LMLPRVTXHGHVHJXLUVHHOPRGHORGH¬3DG
JHWWODOHQJXDHVSDxRODSRVHHUtDODQDVDOIULFDWLYDDQLYHOOp[LFR$VtGHDQϧELR\
VLQϧ‫ޞ‬PDVHSURGXFLUtDQODVUHVSHFWLYDV>D࣏ਥϧɕ૊MR@\>VL࣏ਥϧ‫ޞ‬PD@3RGHPRVVDFDUGH
DTXtGRVFRQFOXVLRQHV ¬HO3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUDWLHQHH[FHSFLR
QHV\ ¬ODDVLPLODFLyQSUXHEDTXHHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@GHEHGHSHQGHUGHOSXQWRRUDO
9HDPRVDPEDVFRQFOXVLRQHVSRUVHSDUDGR

಩([FHSFLRQHVDO3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUD

/DSRVLELOLGDGGHLQYRFDUH[FHSFLRQHVDODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODDQLYHOOp[LFRHVSUR
EOHPiWLFDSXHVHO3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUDULJHHQWRGRPRPHQWROD
IRUPDVXE\DFHQWH(VXQSULQFLSLRUDGLFDOTXHGHVGHxDDQLYHOOp[LFRWRGRPHFDQLVPR
TXHDWHQWHFRQWUDVXVIXQFLRQHVUHJXODGRUDV/DDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOVHDSOLFDUtDSRU
ORWDQWRHQDTXHOORVFDVRVHQTXHHOSULQFLSLRWROHUHVXHMHFXFLyQ(QODVSDODEUDVconga
\campoVXUJLUtDQODVUHVSHFWLYDVQDVDOHVYHODU\ELODELDO(QFDPELRQRSURFHGHUtDOD
DSOLFDFLyQFRQODQGHtriunfo,TXHUHVXOWDUtDEORTXHDGDSRUHOSULQFLSLR
 1RREVWDQWHFRPRVHVDEHODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOWUDVSDVDHOFRQWH[WRGHOYRFDEOR
\VHDSOLFDIXHUDGHODSDODEUDWDQWRHQHOHVWLOROLJHUDPHQWHOHQWRFRPRHQHORUGLQDULR
VHJ~QREVHUYD1DYDUUR7RPiV >@ /DQDVDOGHcompadre\ODGHODIUDVH
con padreVRQDPEDVRFOXVLYDVELODELDOHV/RPLVPRRFXUUHHQODSDODEUDconformaTXH
con forma,HQODVTXHDPEDVQDVDOHVVXUJHQFRPRODELRGHQWDOHV(QHVWRVHVWLORVGH
KDEODODDVLPLODFLyQHVLQDSHODEOH\QRDGPLWHH[FHSFLRQHV(YLGHQWHPHQWHODOHQJXD
HVSDxRODSHUWHQHFHUtDGHDFXHUGRFRQ3DGJHWWDXQUHGXFLGRJUXSRGHOHQJXDVTXH
SRVHHQDVDOIULFDWLYD/RLQWHUHVDQWHGHOHVSDxROHVTXHFRQWUDULRDODVGHPiVOHQJXDV
WDPELpQSRVHHDVLPLODFLyQDQLYHOSRVWOp[LFR/DUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO  
WHQGUtDYLJHQFLDHQHVSDxRO&RQHVWRVHVXJLHUHTXHVHPHMDQWHUHJODQRHVOp[LFD
DSOLFDGDDIRUPDVVXE\DFHQWHVVLQRSRVWOp[LFDHVGHFLUTXHVHDSOLFDWDUGtDPHQWH
XQDYH]IRUPDGDVODVSDODEUDVRODVIUDVHV6LHQGRUHJODSRVWOp[LFDQRFUHDXQIRQHPD
QDVDOIULFDWLYR\SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHQRVHFRQWUDSRQHDORVUHTXLVLWRVGHOSULQFLSLR6X
DSOLFDFLyQSRVWOp[LFDODFRQYLHUWHHQXQWLSRGHUHJODGHLPSODQWDFLyQIRQpWLFD

಩'HSHQGHQFLDGH>FRQWLQXR@EDMRHOSXQWRRUDO

<D KHPRV YLVWR GRV PRGHORV GH XELFDFLyQ GHO UDVJR >FRQWLQXR@ (Q FXDOTXLHUD GH
ORVGRVTXHVHWRPHVXDSOLFDFLyQHMHFXWDUi~QLFDPHQWHODWUDQVIHUHQFLDGHOSXQWR
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 99 ]

DUWLFXODWRULRGHODREVWUX\HQWH\VHGHMDUiDWUiVHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@GH>I@7RPHPRV
HOGH¬6DJH\DPRGRGHLOXVWUDFLyQ

Ejemplo 3-15

>W ૧‫ޞ‬MX ؇ I R@
਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

6XSUDODUtQJHR 6XSUDODUtQJHR >FRQW@

>QDVDO@ 3XQWRRUDO 3XQWRRUDO

 <DXQTXHVHDSRVLEOHDGXFLUORVPLVPRVDUJXPHQWRVHQHOFDVRGH  FRQUHV


SHFWRDO3ULQFLSLRGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUDRVHDTXHVXDSOLFDFLyQHVSRVWOp[LFD
VHLQFXUULUtDHQXQFRVWRDGLFLRQDODOWHQHUTXHVXPDUOHXQDUHJODPHGLDQWHODFXDOVH
DVLPLODUtDHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@GH>I@HVWRVLHPSUH\FXDQGRVHSUHVXPDTXHH[LVWHXQD
QDVDOIULFDWLYD&RQODUHJOD  HQFDPELRODDVLPLODFLyQSRVWOp[LFDUHVXOWDGHOWUDV
SDVRGHWRGRPDWHULDOTXHVHHQFXHQWUHLQPHGLDWDPHQWHGHEDMRGHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR
VLQWHQHUTXHDxDGLUVHXQDUHJODHVSHFLDOTXHQRVGpDQLYHOIRQpWLFRODQDVDOIULFDWLYD

3.2 Motivación del nuevo modelo

(OPRGHORMHUiUTXLFR  VHMXVWLϧFDDEDVHGHSURFHVRVIRQpWLFRV\IRQROyJLFRV


/D¬PRWLYDFLyQIRQpWLFDVHEDVDHQHOKHFKRGHTXHDOSURGXFLUVHORVVRQLGRVVHUHTXLHUH
ODFRRUGLQDFLyQ\VXSHUSRVLFLyQVLPXOWiQHDGHJHVWRVDUWLFXODWRULRV(QRWUDVSDODEUDV
ORVJHVWRVDUWLFXODWRULRVVHJ~QHOPRGHORSXHGHQRSHUDUGHPRGRLQGHSHQGLHQWH
8Q¬HMHPSORWtSLFRVHUtDFXDQGRDOSURGXFLUVHODYRFDO>D@VHPDQWLHQHODFDYLGDGEXFDO
HQXQDFRQϧJXUDFLyQFRQVWDQWHDOPLVPRWLHPSRTXHYDUtDODFRQϧJXUDFLyQODUtQJHD
FRQORFXDOVHSURGXFHDOOtYLEUDFLyQGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVROD~YXODVHPXHYH\
SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHVHDGKLHUHDODSDUHGIDUtQJHD &OHPHQWV (OVRVWpQIRQROyJLFR
KDEUtDTXHEXVFDUORHQODVJHQHUDOL]DFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDVGRQGHVHHYLGHQFLDODDFWXD
FLyQLQGHSHQGLHQWHGHFLHUWRUDVJRRFLHUWRFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVFRPRODVRQRUL]DFLyQ
GHREVWUX\HQWH\DVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHVPHQFLRQDGDVDQWHULRUPHQWHHQHOFDStWXOR
 ¢4XpYHQWDMDVQRVRIUHFHHOPRGHOR  HQODIRUPXODFLyQGHUHJODV\H[SOLFDFLyQ
GHORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVIUHQWHDOPRGHORHVWXGLDGRHQHOFDStWXORDQWHULRU"6LQRV
DGHODQWDPRVXQSRFRHOKHFKRGHTXHVHSXHGDWRPDUXQUDVJRXQQRGRRWRGRXQ
VHJPHQWRHVEDVWDQWHVLJQLϧFDWLYRSDUDODFDUDFWHUL]DFLyQGHORVSURFHVRVQDWXUDOHV
&OHPHQWV  QRVKDFHQRWDUHOKHFKRGHTXHHQODLGHDOL]DFLyQGHOPRGHORMHUiU
TXLFRVHSXHGHQSURGXFLUYDULDVRSHUDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV'HpVWDVODVTXHUHVXOWDQ
GH PiV YDORU VRQ ODV TXH LPSOLFDQ DVLPLODFLyQ GH XQ VyOR UDVJR ODV TXH DVLPLODQ
[ 100 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

UDVJRVSDUFLDOHVGHXQQRGR\ODVTXHDVLPLODQWRGRVORVUDVJRVIRQROyJLFRVGHODUDt]
$¬PRGRGHLOXVWUDFLyQYDPRVDUHIHULUQRVDORVGRVSULPHURVLQLFLDQGRGHDQWHPDQR
ODGLVFXVLyQDOH[DPLQDUHOPRGHOR  GHDVRFLDFLyQGHQDVDOLGDGVHJ~QHOPRGHOR
DXWRVHJPHQWDOFOiVLFR +XDOGHE 

Ejemplo 3-16

਑ QDVDO ਔ
਒ ਮDOWR ਕ
ਓ ਮFRQW ਖ

& 9

 (OPRGHORFOiVLFRSHUPLWLUtDSURSDJDUHOFRQMXQWRGHUDVJRVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DQD
ODFRQVRQDQWHQDVDORVHDTXHPX\ELHQSRGUtDGDUVHHOFDVRHQHOTXHXQDYRFDO
UHFLELUtDORVUDVJRV>QDVDOਮDOWRਮFRQWLQXR@GHGLFKDQDVDOORFXDOHVLQQDWXUDO
HLQFRQFHELEOH(VDVtSRUTXHVLVHVXSRQHTXHGLFKDYRFDOVHD>ਮDOWD@VHFRQYHUWLUtD
HQXQIHQyPHQRFRQWUDGLFWRULRSRUXQODGRVHUtD>DOWDਮDOWD@ORTXHItVLFDPHQWH
HVLPSRVLEOHGHDUWLFXODU\SRUHORWURGHMDUtDGHVHU>FRQWLQXD@PLHQWUDV\DVH
VDEHTXHWRGDVODVYRFDOHVVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUVHUUHGXQGDQWHPHQWH>FRQWLQXD@
 3RUHOFRQWUDULRHVLPSRVLEOHIRUPXODUXQDUHJOD  FRQHOPRGHORMHUiUTXLFR
SRUODVLPSOHUD]yQGHTXHQRH[LVWHXQQRGRTXHDJUXSHDUDVJRVWDQGLVSDUHV&DGD
XQRGHHVWRVSHUWHQHFHDQRGRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGLVWLQWRV/DYHQWDMDWHyULFDGHODMHUDU
TXtD JHRPpWULFD TXH YLPRV HQ   HV TXH VyOR SHUPLWH OD IRUPXODFLyQ GH UHJODV
GRFXPHQWDEOHV\UHJLVWUDEOHVHQODVOHQJXDVQDWXUDOHVGHOPXQGR
 3DVHPRVDHVWXGLDUFDVRVHVSHFtϧFRVGHDVLPLODFLyQTXHRIUHFHQDOGHVQXGROD
VLPSOLFLGDG\QDWXUDOLGDGGHOPRGHOR  

಩5HDQiOLVLVGHDOJXQRVSURFHVRV

(QHOFDStWXORDQWHULRU\DKDEtDPRVYLVWRODDVLPLODFLyQGHODFRQVRQDQWHQDVDODO
SXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWH'HDKtVHLQWX\HLPSOtFLWDPHQWH
ODRSHUDFLyQGHUDVJRVHQFRQMXQWRDOVXJHULUVHTXHVRQORVUDVJRVGHOSXQWRGHDUWL
FXODFLyQORVTXHVHDVRFLDQDOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODQDVDOSUHYLDGHVDVRFLDFLyQ
GHpVWHGHVXQRGR5HDQDOL]DPRVGLFKRSURFHVRFRQODUHJOD  

Ejemplo 3-17

6/ 6/

>QDVDO@ 32 32
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 101 ]

 (Q  VHUHDOL]DQGRVRSHUDFLRQHVODGHVDVRFLDFLyQGHOSXQWRRUDO 32 GHOD


FRQVRQDQWHDVLPLODQWH\ODSURSDJDFLyQLQPHGLDWDGHO32GHODFRQVRQDQWHTXHRIUHFH
VXSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ(Q  SUHVHQWDPRVXQHMHPSORGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHOD
UHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQ  FRQODSDODEUDmango,FRQODFXDOVHLOXVWUDODDVLPLODFLyQ
GHODDOYHRODUQDORVUDVJRVGHС\VXSURGXFWRHQODYHODU>‫@غ‬

Ejemplo 3-18

PD Q С R
; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ਮFRQW@ >ਮFRQW@

6/ 6/ /DUtQJHR

3DODGDUEODQGR 32 32 >VRQ@

>QDVDO@ &RURQDO 'RUVDO

>DQW@

ఝ಩DSOLFDFLyQGH¬5HJOD 

>PD ‫غ‬ С R@
; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ਮFRQW@ >ਮFRQW@

6/ 6/ /DUtQJHR

3DODGDUEODQGR 32 32 >VRQ@

>QDVDO@ &RURQDO 'RUVDO

>DQW@
[ 102 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 &XDQGRXQDUHJODFRPROD  SURSDJDORVUDVJRVGHXQVHJPHQWRDRWURVHJ


PHQWRFRQWLJXRWUXQFiQGROHDpVWHVXVUDVJRVVHGLFHTXHODUHJODIXQFLRQDKDFLHQGR
cambios de rasgos,RTXHHVXQDRSHUDFLyQGHcambio estructural.(OUHVXOWDGRGHWDO
DVLPLODFLyQKDFHTXHODQDVDODOYHRODUQHVSHFLϧFDGDFRQVXVUDVJRVWDQWRHQLQWH
ULRUFRPRHQIURQWHUDGHSDODEUD SHMHQsiQСota VHDVLPLODDODFRQVRQDQWH
YHODUVLJXLHQWH SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHVHSURGXFHsi>‫غ‬С@ota .
 6DEHPRV VLQ HPEDUJR TXH OD DVLPLODFLyQ HV PXFKR PiV JHQHUDO GH OR TXH VH
LOXVWUDHQ  /RXVXDOHVTXHQVHKDJDKRPRUJiQLFDFRQFXDOTXLHUREVWUX\HQWH
TXHOHVLJD\DVHDHQLQWHULRURHQIURQWHUDGHSDODEUD-XVWDPHQWHHVWRHVORTXH
RFXUUHVHJ~QVHHYLGHQFLDFRQiQposible, iQ el, iQcongruente, siQposibilidad,
siQ delidadHWFTXHVHSURGXFHQUHVSHFWLYDPHQWHFRPRi>P@posible, i>؇@ϧHO, si>P@
posibilidad, si>؇@ delidad. &RPRODQDVDOQWLHQGHDDPDOJDPDUVHFRQWRGDREVWUX
\HQWHVLJXLHQWHFDEUtDHVSHUDUTXHHQVXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQEiVLFDQRWHQJDSXQWRDUWLFX
ODWRULR6LJHQHUDOL]DPRVPHGLDQWHODUHJOD  GHPDQHUDTXHODFRQVRQDQWHTXH
VXIUHODDVLPLODFLyQDSDUH]FDGHVSURYLVWDGHSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRHVSHFtϧFRHQWRQFHV
SRGHPRV LQFOXLU ODV DVLPLODFLRQHV DQWHV PHQFLRQDGDV 6L LQWHUSUHWDPRV HO SURFHVR
GHHVWDPDQHUDHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHFXDOTXLHUDVHH[WLHQGHD
XQVHJPHQWRQDVDOVLQTXHpVWHSLHUGDHOVX\R/RTXHRFXUUHHQWRQFHVHVTXHQRVH
WUXQFDQDGDHQODQDVDO(QHVWHFDVRFRPRQRVHHVWiQFDPELDQGRUDVJRVVLQRTXHVH
HVWiUHOOHQDQGRXQYDFtRFRQUDVJRVGHRWURVHJPHQWRVHGLFHTXHODUHJODVHDSOLFD
rellenando rasgos,RTXHHVGHconstrucción de estructura.
 (QHOGLDJUDPD  VHSUHVHQWDODUHJODJHQHUDOGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO/D¬C
UHSUHVHQWDXQDFRQVRQDQWHREVWUX\HQWHFXDOTXLHUD

Ejemplo 3-19

Q &
; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ਮFRQW@

6/ 6/

3DODGDUEODQGR 32 32

>QDVDO@ 'RUVDO&RURQDOR/DELDO
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 103 ]

 2EVpUYHVHTXHDKRUDODQDVDOQQRSRVHHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHDUWLFXODGRUHVFRQOR
TXHVHGHMDHQWHQGLGRTXHHVODQDVDOSUHIHUHQFLDOPHQWHLQPDUFDGD6yORFRQWLHQHHO
QRGRRUDOTXHUHFLEHORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHVLQTXHVHOHWUXQTXHQ
UDVJRV3RUHVRVHKDEODHQHVWHFDVRGHconstrucción de estructura,SRUTXHVHOHSURYHH
DOJRTXHQRSRVHtD6LQHPEDUJRVXUJHXQDFRPSOLFDFLyQTXHQRFRQVWDHQ  
(OODHVTXHVLELHQGDFXHQWDGHODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDODQWHREVWUX\HQWHQR¬SXHGH
FDUDFWHUL]DUHOKHFKRGHTXHODQDQWHODIULFDWLYDIHQLQWHULRU\IURQWHUDGHSDOD
EUDDSDUH]FDFRPRODQDVDOIULFDWLYD>࣏@(VWRRFXUUHSRUTXHHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@HVWi
VXSHGLWDGRDODUDt]\VHJ~QODUHJOD  ORTXHVHGHVSOD]DQRHVODUDt]VLQRHO
SXQWRRUDOGHOVHJPHQWR&RPRVHYHHOPRGHOR6DJH\+DOOHIXQFLRQDSHUIHFWDPHQWH
SDUDODOHQJXDHVSDxROD
 /DVRQRUL]DFLyQGHODVREVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDVDQWHFRQVRQDQWHVVRQRUDVRORLQYHUVR
HOHQVRUGHFLPLHQWRGHFRQVRQDQWHVVRQRUDVDQWHFRQVRQDQWHVVRUGDVHVRWURHMHPSOR
LQVWUXFWLYRTXHQRVD\XGDDFRPSUHQGHUD~QPiVFODUDPHQWHHOPRGHORMHUiUTXLFR
DOPRVWUDUODDVLPLODFLyQXQLWDULDGHXQUDVJR~QLFR(QODPD\RUtDGHORVGLDOHFWRV
KLVSiQLFRVODVREVWUX\HQWHVHQFRUFKHWDGDVGHODL]TXLHUGDDQWHFRQVRQDQWHVVRUGDVR
VRQRUDVHQ  VXHOHQSURQXQFLDUVHVHJ~QDSDUHFHDODGHUHFKD

Ejemplo 3-20

aEVoluto a>SV@oluto
suEW ૧erráneo su>SW ૧@erráneo
aG૧Nirir a>‫ۏ‬N@irir
MaNG૧onald’s Ma>࣢˓ ૊ @૊ onald’s
riW ૧Po ri>˓૊P@o
éW ૧Qico é>˓૊Q@ico
téNQica té>࣢૊Q@ika
deVG૧e de>]˓૊@e

 3DUHFHVHUTXHHQHVWRVFDVRVXQDREVWUX\HQWHDOϧQDOGHVtODEDDGTXLHUHORVUDVJRV
ODUtQJHRVGHVRQRULGDGRVRUGH]GHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWH9LVWRHQIRUPDMHUiUTXLFD
SUHVHQWDPRVHOSURFHVRGHODPDQHUDVLJXLHQWH

Ejemplo 3-21

*ORWDO *ORWDO

>“VRQ@‫۝‬ >“VRQ@

7RPHPRVFRPRHMHPSORLOXVWUDWLYRGHODDSOLFDFLyQGH  ODVHFXHQFLDEVGH


absoluto  TXHPRGHODPRVFRPR>SV@DXQTXHHQHVWDVHFXHQFLDODEWDPELpQ
SXHGHHOLGLUVHVHJ~QFRPSUREDUHPRVHQODVHFFLyQ
[ 104 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-22

D E V ROXW ૧R
; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ਮFRQW@ >FRQW@

6/ /DUtQJHR /DUtQJHR 6/

32 *ORWDO *ORWDO 32

/DELDO >VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@ &RURQDO

>DQW@

ఝ಩DSOLFDFLyQGH¬5HJOD 

>D S V ROXW ૧R@


; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ਮFRQW@ >FRQW@

6/ /DUtQJHR /DUtQJHR 6/

32 *ORWDO *ORWDO 32

/DELDO >VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@ &RURQDO

>DQW@

/DUHJOD  HVGHFDPELRHVWUXFWXUDO\DTXHVHSDUDHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@GHE\


UHFLEHHQFDPELRHOVRUGRGHV
 6LELHQVHSURGXFHDVLPLODFLyQSDUFLDOGHXQUDVJRWDPELpQVHGDORFRQWUDULRDO
ϧQDOGHVtODED/RFRP~QHVTXHODVREVWUX\HQWHVHQODFRGDVHHQVRUGH]FDQRVHVRQR
ULFHQLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHOFRQWH[WRVLJXLHQWH$VtWHQGUtDPRVTXHODVVXE\DFHQWHV
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 105 ]

oSVión, diСQo\eNVactoVHSURQXQFLDQFRPRODVUHVSHFWLYDVo>EV@ión, di>NQ@o


\e>СV@acto.3HURKD\UHDOL]DFLRQHVIRQpWLFDVHQTXHVHKDFHGLItFLOGHWHUPLQDUVLOD
DVLPLODFLyQHVSURGXFWRGHODUHJOD  RVLHOHQVRUGHFLPLHQWRHVVLPSOHPHQWH
UHVXOWDGRGHODVXSUHVLyQGHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@GHODREVWUX\HQWHHQODFRGD¢4XpVH
SURSRQGUtDSRUHMHPSORHQHOFDVRGHobsesión,TXHVHSURQXQFLDORPLVPR>RSVHਥVMRQ@
TXH >Rɕ૊VHਥVMRQ@ HVWD ~OWLPD FRQ ELODELDO OLJHUDPHQWH DSUR[LPDQWH" &RPR VXJLHUH
+XDOGH E ORPiVSUREDEOHHVTXHODSURQXQFLDFLyQVHDYDULDEOHHQVXHIHFWR
KD\KDEODQWHVHQTXLHQHVSUHGRPLQDODDVLPLODFLyQ\RWURVHQTXLHQHVHOHQVRUGHFL
PLHQWRHVORXVXDORDJUHJDPRVQRVRWURVWDPELpQVXFHGHTXHXQPLVPRKDEODQWH
SURGXFHDPEDVYDULDQWHVDFWLYLGDGTXHHVWiVXMHWDDODUDSLGH]ROHQWLWXGFRQTXHVH
KDEOH(QWRGRFDVRYHUHPRVODH[SOLFDFLyQGHODVRQRUL]DFLyQRHQVRUGHFLPLHQWRGH
FRQVRQDQWHVHQORVHMHPSORVFLWDGRVFXDQGRWUDWHPRVHOWHPDGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ
HQHOFDStWXOR

3.3 Propagación de un nodo completo

+DVWDDKRUDKHPRVSRGLGRGRFXPHQWDUTXHHQHIHFWRVHSXHGHQDVLPLODUWDQWRXQ
UDVJRFRPRXQJUXSRSDUFLDOGHUDVJRV/DGLDOHFWRORJtDKLVSiQLFDQRVEULQGDWDPELpQ
GDWRVHQTXHVHSURGXFHODDVLPLODFLyQWRWDOGHODUDt]GHXQVHJPHQWR6HWUDWDGHO
FRQRFLGRIHQyPHQRGHO&DULEHKLVSiQLFRHQHOTXHO‫ޞ‬VHDVLPLODQDOSXQWRGHDUWL
FXODFLyQGHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWH *XLWDUW-LPpQH]6DEDWHU /RXVXDO
SDUDPXFKRVKDEODQWHVGHHVWRVGLDOHFWRVHVTXHODVFRQVRQDQWHVHQFRUFKHWDGDVDOD
L]TXLHUGDHQ  PDQLϧHVWHQODWHQGHQFLDGHODGHUHFKD

Ejemplo 3-23

ba‫ޞ‬Eero ~ ba>EE@ero
eOSomo ~ e>SS@omo
eOEerde ~ e>EE@erde
a‫ޞ‬G૧e ~ a>G૧G૧@e
pa‫ޞ‬W ૧e ~ pa>W ૧W ૧@e
o‫ޞ‬Nídea ~ o>NN@ídea
o‫ޞ‬Сanizar ~ o>СС@anizar
eOIrente ~ e>II@rente
se‫ޞ‬Iino ~ se>II@ino
se‫ޞ‬Pejor ~ se>PP@ejor
eO‫ص‬ame ~ e>‫@صص‬ame
eO[abón ~ e>[[@abón
Ca‫ޞ‬Oos ~ Ca>OO@os
fue‫ޞ‬Va ~ fue>VV@a
[ 106 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 /DDVLPLODFLyQTXHVHPXHVWUDHQ  HVWRWDO\SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHQRVHWUDWD


GHODH[WHQVLyQGHXQVRORUDVJRSDUWLFXODU/DLQFRUSRUDFLyQGHHVWHIHQyPHQRDOD
HVWUXFWXUD JHRPpWULFD TXH QRV RIUHFH   H[LJLUtD SRU WDQWR TXH XQ VHJPHQWR VH
KDJDLGpQWLFRDVXYHFLQRKHFKRTXHVHORJUDFRQGHVDUWLFXODUWRGRVORVUDVJRVTXH
FDUDFWHUL]DQDODVOtTXLGDVORVFRUWDGHVXUDt]\VLPXOWiQHDPHQWHFRSLDORVGHOD
UDt]GHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWHVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ  (OOLQGHGHSDODEUDHQWUH
SDUpQWHVLVUHϩHMDHOKHFKRGHTXHWDPELpQVHDSOLFDHQWUHSDODEUDV3RUWDQWR  
WLHQHSURSLHGDGHVGHUHJODSRVWOp[LFD

Ejemplo 3-24 Asimilación de líquidas

;  ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ “UHV ਖ

 (VWHDQiOLVLVRIUHFHODYHQWDMDGHDLVODUORVUDVJRVFRPSOHWRVGH¬;FRQORTXHGHMDD
pVWHLQWDFWR\OLVWRSDUDUHFLELUORVUDVJRVGHVXYHFLQR'HKDEHUVHVHJXLGRHOPRGHOR
RULJLQDOGH¬*ROGVPLWK  QRWHQGUtDPRVPiVUHPHGLRTXHSURSRQHUODHOLPLQD
FLyQWRWDOGHUDVJRV\GHSDVRVHGDDHQWHQGHUTXHFRQVHPHMDQWHSURFHVRWDPELpQVH
SHUGHUtDHOVRSRUWHGHORVUDVJRVRVHDVX;HOFXDOQRVHGLVWLQJXLUtDHQWRQFHVGHORV
GHPiVUDVJRVSXHVQRH[LVWLUtDFRPRHVWUXFWXUDLQGHSHQGLHQWH$GHPiVGHVXSRQHUVH
TXHHOHVTXHOHWRVHHOLPLQDKDEUtDTXHSUHVHQWDUSUXHEDVDGLFLRQDOHVTXHDYDOHQWDO
HOLVLyQFRPRSRUHMHPSORTXHKXELHVHXQDWRWDODVLPLODFLyQGHGLJDPRVORVUDVJRV
GHXQDYRFDODORVGHXQDFRQVRQDQWHRYLFHYHUVDHVWRVLQHPEDUJRQRH[LVWHHQOD
OHQJXDHVSDxROD

಩5HGXFFLyQGHUDVJRV

6LELHQVHSURGXFHDVLPLODFLyQSDUFLDORWRWDOGHUDVJRVWDPELpQVHGDORFRQWUDULR
DOϧQDOGHVtODEDORVUDVJRVWLHQGHQDGHVDSDUHFHURUHGXFLUVHHQYDULRVFRQWH[WRV
(V¬FRP~QSRUHMHPSORTXHODVREVWUX\HQWHVVHHQVRUGH]FDQRVHVRQRULFHQLQGHSHQ
GLHQWHPHQWHGHOFRQWH[WRVLJXLHQWH$VtWHQHPRVTXHODVVXE\DFHQWHVHQaEnegar,
aEdicar\diJnoVHSXHGHQSURQXQFLDUHQHOKDEODHQIiWLFDFRPRa>S@negar, a>S@dicar
\di>N@no.(VQRWDEOHTXHHOFRQWH[WRDQWHV\GHVSXpVGHHVWDVREVWUX\HQWHVHVVRQRUR
SRUORTXHVHGHEHSUHVXPLUTXHGLFKRUDVJRQRMXHJDQLQJ~QSDSHOHQHOSURFHVR\D
TXHGHORFRQWUDULRREYLDPHQWHHYLWDUtDTXHVDOLHUDQVRUGDV3DUDGDUFXHQWDGHOSUR
FHVRVLPSOHPHQWHVHWHQGUtDTXHGHVDVRFLDUHOQRGRJORWDOGHHVWDVFRQVRQDQWHVVLQTXH
RFXUUDSURSDJDFLyQGHRWURVUDVJRV3DUDODg!GHdigno,VH¬SRVWXODODUHJOD  
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 107 ]

Ejemplo 3-25

਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ

*ORWDO

>VRQ@

$O VXSULPLUVH HO UDVJR WHUPLQDO >VRQRUR@ HO ϧQDO GH OD GHULYDFLyQ UHFLELUi SRU
GHIHFWRHOUDVJR>ਮVRQRUR@TXHFDUDFWHUL]DDODVREVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDV
 2WURHMHPSORQRUPDOGHUHGXFFLyQHVHOFRQRFLGRSURFHVRGHDVSLUDFLyQGHVHQ
ODULPDTXH\DKDEtDPRVDGHODQWDGRHQHOFDStWXOR&RPRVHUHFRUGDUiODVϧQDO
GHtoVtado, caVpa, máVcara, deVde\meVXVXDOPHQWHVHSURQXQFLDFRQ>K@
6HJ~QLQGLFiUDPRVORTXHRFXUUHHQHVWRVHMHPSORVHVTXHVHVXSULPHQVXVUDVJRV
VXSUDODUtQJHRVHIHFWRTXHLOXVWUDPRVJHRPpWULFDPHQWHHQ  

Ejemplo 3-26

਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>FRQW@

6/ /DUtQJHR

32 *ORWDO

>DQW@ >JORWLVGLODWDGD@

3.4. El Principio de Contorno Obligatorio

&RPR VH UHFRUGDUi HQ HO FDStWXOR  KDEtDPRV SURSXHVWR TXH ODV SDODEUDV FRQ >U@
LQWHUYRFiOLFD SRVHHQ HQ VX QLYHO IRQROyJLFR OD VHFXHQFLD ‫ ޞޞ‬7DPELpQ KDEtDPRV
VXJHULGRTXHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHH[LVWHXQDHVWUHFKDUHODFLyQHQWUHORVVHJPHQWRV\
VXVVRVWHQHV\DVHDQHVWRVGH¬&9R;¬3DUDUHFDSLWXODUODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ D VH
FRQYLHUWHHQ E PHGLDQWHOD&RQYHQFLyQGH¬$VRFLDFLyQ8QLYHUVDOYLVWDHQ  
HQHOFDStWXOR
[ 108 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-27

a. & 9 & & 9 & 9 ఩ b. & 9 & & 9 & 9


&RQGLFLyQ 
N D ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D N D ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D

6LQ HPEDUJR HO UHVXOWDGR E  VH FRQVLGHUD DQyPDOR ¢'H GyQGH VXUJH SXHV
OD¬UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ E TXHVHVXSRQHGHIHFWLYDVLODJHQHUDOD&RQYHQFLyQGH¬$VR
FLDFLyQ8QLYHUVDO"
 /DDQRPDOtDGH E WLHQHXQDLQWHUHVDQWHKLVWRULDTXHVHUHPRQWDDORVWUDEDMRV
GH¬/HEHQ  FRQOHQJXDVWRQDOHV\GH¬0F&DUWK\  FRQOHQJXDV
QR WRQDOHV (VWRV LQYHVWLJDGRUHV SURSRQHQ XQ SULQFLSLR TXH DSDUHQWHPHQWH SRVHH
FDUiFWHUXQLYHUVDOEDXWL]DGRSRU*ROGVPLWKFRQHOQRPEUHGH¬3ULQFLSLRGH¬&RQWRUQR
2EOLJDWRULR 3&2 (OSULQFLSLRGLFHDVt  

Ejemplo 3-28 Principio de Contorno Obligatorio

6HSURKtEHQHOHPHQWRVLGpQWLFRVDG\DFHQWHV

(O3&2WLHQHHQWRQFHVODSURSLHGDGGHKDFHUTXHHQ D ODVGRV&HVTXHHVWiQ


DQFODGDVFDGDXQDFRQXQD‫ޞ‬DSDUH]FDQXQLGDVDXQDVROD‫ޞ‬VHJ~QPXHVWUD E 

Ejemplo 3-29

a. & & ఩ b. & &


3&2
‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬

 (Q D ODVGRVHUUHVIRUPDQODVHFXHQFLDGHGRVVHJPHQWRVLGpQWLFRVRGLFKR


HQWpUPLQRVWpFQLFRVFDGDVHJPHQWRHVWiOLJDGRLQGLYLGXDOPHQWHDVX&¬(QFRQWUDVWH
HQ¬ E QRKD\DG\DFHQFLDGHGRVVHJPHQWRVVLQRTXHH[LVWHVyORXQR HVWXGLDPRVHO
WHPDGHODDG\DFHQFLDHQODVHFFLyQ IRUPDOPHQWHVHGLFHTXH E UHSUHVHQWD
ODXQLyQP~OWLSOHGHGRVSRVLFLRQHVHQHOHVTXHOHWRFRQXQVHJPHQWR³P~OWLSOHHQ
HOVHQWLGRGHTXHKD\GRV&HVTXHVHOLJDQDXQVHJPHQWR~QLFR‫ޞ‬/RVHIHFWRVGHO
SULQFLSLR  VREUHcarreta³HOFXDOUHSURGXFLPRVDODGHUHFKDGH  ³UHVXOWDQ
FRPRVHPXHVWUDDFRQWLQXDFLyQ

Ejemplo 3-30

a. & 9 & & 9 & 9 ఩ b. & 9 & & 9 & 9


3&2
N D ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D N D ‫ޞ‬ H W૧ D
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 109 ]

 /RVHMHPSORVTXHFRQϧUPDQHO3&2DEXQGDQ/DթLQWHUYRFiOLFDGHYDULRVGLDOHF
WRVKLVSDQRDPHULFDQRVVXHOHWHQHUYDULDVPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVIRQpWLFDVTXHYDQGHVGHXQD
SURQXQFLDFLyQSUHSDODWDODIULFDGDSDVDQSRUODGHVOL]DGD>M@KDVWDTXHGHVDSDUHFHSRU
FRPSOHWR6HUHSRUWDTXHODWHQGHQFLDSUHGRPLQDQWHHQHOHVSDxROPp[LFRDPHULFDQR
HVDHOLPLQDUODORFXDOVHGLFHTXHHVFRQVHFXHQFLDGHODSUHVLyQTXHHMHUFHHO3&2DO
FUHDUVHODXQLyQGHGRVVHJPHQWRVTXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUVHU>FRURQDO@ /LSVNL 
6HJ~QHODQiOLVLVGH¬/LSVNLODVSDODEUDVsilla, patilludo, bellísima\bullicioVHSURQXQFLDQ
UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH>ਥVLD@>SDਥW ૧MX˓૊R@>EHtVLPD@\>EXtVMR@(QHVWRVHMHPSORVWDQWROD
>L@ \WDPELpQOD>H@FRPRORPXHVWUDsella,TXHGD>ਥVHD@ FRPROD>M@³UHDOL]DFLyQ
SUHGRPLQDQWHGHODթLQWHUYRFiOLFDHQHVWHGLDOHFWR³FRLQFLGHQHQVHUFRURQDOHV
DO¬QLYHOGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHVXVUDVJRV(VWRVLJQLϧFDTXHHO3&2SXHGHDEDUFDUVyOR
XQDSDUWHGHODFRPSRVLFLyQGHXQVHJPHQWRFRPRVHKDGHPRVWUDGRWDPELpQHQ
DUiELJR 0F&DUWK\ 7RPHPRVFRPRHMHPSORODSDODEUDsilla:

Ejemplo 3-31

>V L j D@
; ;

&RURQDO &RURQDO

(Q  VXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQHVH[DFWDPHQWHSDUDOHODDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQTXHDSDUHFH


HQ D (O3&2H[LJLUtDTXHVHFRQYLUWLHVHHQXQDHVWUXFWXUDVLPLODUDODGH E 
SHURHVWRVKDEODQWHVWRPDQODYtDFRQWUDULD\SRUWDQWRVHDMXVWDQDORVUHTXLVLWRVGHO
SULQFLSLR(VSRUHOORTXHSUHVXPLEOHPHQWHVHSLHUGHHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@GHODGHVOL]DGD
 6LELHQHQHOGLDOHFWRPHQFLRQDGRVHSURGXFHODHOLVLyQVXUJHODDOWHUQDWLYDGH
LQVHUWDU>բ@HQHOPLVPRFRQWH[WR/RVYRFDEORVdía, viuda\leeDSDUHFHQFRPR>ਥG૧LբD@
>ELਥբX˓૊D@\>ਥOHբH@FRQORFXDOVHVXJLHUHTXHHO3&2QRWLHQHHOSRGHUTXHVHOHDWUL
EX\HSXHVHYLGHQWHPHQWHVHLQVHUWDXQUDVJR\VLODSUHVLyQHVHYLWDUODDG\DFHQFLD
GHUDVJRVLGpQWLFRVHOSULQFLSLRGHEHUtDHYLWDUVHPHMDQWHGHVHQODFH'HWRGDVPDQHUDV
DOLQVHUWDUVHODYDULDQWHIULFDWLYDGHOSORVLYRթHO3&2H[LJHTXHODFRQϧJXUDFLyQ
RFXUUDFRPRHQ E 
 0XFKRVLQYHVWLJDGRUHVKDQSUHVHQWDGRVREUDGDVUD]RQHVGHPXFKDVOHQJXDVTXH
MXVWLϧFDQHO3&2 SRUHMHPSOR6WHULDGH ([LVWHQUHJODVTXHWLHQGHQDHOLPLQDU
RDHVSLUDQWL]DUXQVHJPHQWRSDUWLFXODUDϧQDOGHVtODEDHQSRVLFLyQLQWHUQDGHSDOD
EUDSHURFXDQGRpVWHVHHQFXHQWUDHQXQFRQWH[WRHQHOTXHSRWHQFLDOPHQWHSXGLHUDQ
DSOLFDUVHGLFKDVUHJODVSRUDMXVWDUVHDODGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOGHODHQWUDGDIRQR
OyJLFDVHQFLOODPHQWHIDOODQ3RUHMHPSORHQWLJULQLDXQDOHQJXDGH¬(ULWUHDVH¬GD
XQDUHJODTXHHVSLUDQWL]DODSULPHUDkGHXQDVHFXHQFLDGHNNTXHSURYLHQHQGHOD
FRQFDWHQDFLyQGHGRVPRUIHPDVGLIHUHQWHV$VtODIRUPDEDUĐNND¶EHQGLWRVHDV·VH
WUDQVIRUPDHQ>EDUĐ[ND@6LQHPEDUJRFXDQGRGLFKDUHJODVHHQFXHQWUDFRQVHFXHQ
FLDVWDXWRVLOiELFDVGHNNVXUJHQLQDOWHUDGDVIĐNNĐUжDODUGHy·JHQHUD>IĐNNĐUĐ@
[ 110 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

3XHVWRTXHODUHJODGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQSXHGHDSOLFDUVHHQDPERVFDVRV\¬HQUHDOLGDG
VyORVHUHDOL]DHQXQRVHGHEHSUHVXPLUTXHHOPRWLYRGHVXLQDSOLFDFLyQREHGHFHDOD
GLVWLQFLyQIRQROyJLFDTXHVXE\DFHHVWDVVHFXHQFLDVGHVHJPHQWRV'LFKRGHRWURPRGR
ODHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQVyORSXHGHOHHUDVRFLDFLRQHVPRQRVHJPHQWDOHV ODVGH>D@ 
PLHQWUDV TXH VH YXHOYH FLHJD DQWH DVRFLDFLRQHV PXOWLVHJPHQWDOHV VHQFLOODV ODV GH
>E@  ODV FXDOHV VH GHQRPLQDQ SURSLDPHQWHgeminadas. $¬ QR VHU SRU HO 3&2 \
SRUXQSULQFLSLRGHLQDOWHUDELOLGDGGHJHPLQDGDVTXHGLOXFLGDUHPRVHQGHWDOOHPiV
DGHODQWHIĐNNĐUĐVDOGUtDHUUyQHDPHQWHFRPR >IĐ[NĐUĐ@
 (QDUiELJRODVUDtFHVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVHVWiQVXMHWDVDUHVWULFFLRQHVPX\VHYHUDV
(Q¬SULPHUOXJDUHQXQPRUIHPDQRSXHGHKDEHUGRVFRQVRQDQWHVLGpQWLFDVFRQWLJXDV$Vt
VHLPSRVLELOLWDODSUHVHQFLDGHVHFXHQFLDVGHELODELDOHVGHQWDOHVRYHODUHVDXQFXDQGRD
YHFHVLQWHUYHQJDHQWUHpVWDVRWUDFRQVRQDQWH/DVHFXHQFLD GEWSRUHMHPSORHVLQDFHS
WDEOHHQHVWDOHQJXD3URFHGHSUHJXQWDUVH¢SRUTXpQRVHSHUPLWHWDOVHFXHQFLDFXDQGR
DSDUHQWHPHQWHODVFRQVRQDQWHVTXHODVFRQIRUPDQVRQWDQGLIHUHQWHV"/DUHVSXHVWDOD
RIUHFHHO3&2DOUHYHODUVHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHORVUDVJRVGHHVWRVVHJPHQWRV  

Ejemplo 3-32

G E W

5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt]

2UDO 2UDO 2UDO

&RURQDO &RURQDO

/DELDO

 6LQRVϧMDPRVHQHOQRGRRUDOQRWDUHPRVTXHEVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUQRWHQHUHO
DUWLFXODGRUFRURQDOHQHVHQLYHO³RVHDSRUTXHQRLQWHUYLHQHQDGDHQWUHHODUWLFXODGRU
RUDO\HOODELDO(QYLVWDGHHOORVHWHRUL]DTXHORVDUWLFXODGRUHVRFXSDQQLYHOHVGLIH
UHQWHVPLHQWUDVTXHORVUDVJRVWHUPLQDOHVVHHQFXHQWUDQHQXQPLVPRSODQR&RPR
UHVXOWDGRGHWDOKLSyWHVLVORVDUWLFXODGRUHVGHG\WVHHQFXHQWUDQDG\DFHQWHV
HQHOPLVPRQLYHOSHURQRDVtHO>ODELDO@/DUD]yQSRUODTXHQRH[LVWHODVHFXHQFLD
GEWHVSRUTXHORSURKtEHHO3&2DOHVWLSXODUTXHQRGHEHKDEHULGHQWLGDGGHVRQLGRV
FRQWLJXRVHQXQPLVPRPRUIHPD
 1DWXUDOPHQWHSHQVDUtDPRVTXHGDGRHO3&2QRGHEHUtDQH[LVWLUODVVHFXHQFLDV
‫ޞ‬W ૧OW ૧QG૧\QW ૧HQWUHRWUDV\ELHQVDEHPRVTXHHVWHWLSRGHVHFXHQFLDHVSHU
IHFWDPHQWHOHJtWLPDHQHVSDxROVHJ~QYHPRVHQODVUHVSHFWLYDVarte, alto, mando\
cante.¢&yPRVHMXVWLϧFDODSUHVHQFLDGHHVWDVVHFXHQFLDVSHVHDO3&2"6HKDFHSDU
WLHQGRGHODXQLyQGHORVUDVJRVLGpQWLFRVHQXQPLVPRHVWUDWR'LFKRGHRWURPRGR
ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ D VHUHVXHOYHDIDYRUGH E FRQODLQWHUYHQFLyQGHO3&2
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 111 ]

Ejemplo 3-33

a. & & ఩ b. & &


3&2
5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt]

&RURQDO &RURQDO &RURQDO

(Q  VHGDXQFODURHMHPSORGHXQDXQLyQP~OWLSOHGHGRVHVWUDWRVDXQHVWUDWR


HO¬GHORVDUWLFXODGRUHVTXHFRLQFLGHQHQUDVJRV(OHVSDxROGRPLQLFDQRVLUYHGHPRGHOR
SDUDLOXVWUDUFRQPiVULJRUODDSOLFDFLyQGHO3&2HQORTXHUHVSHFWDDXQSDUGHUDVJRV
LGpQWLFRV
 (QGRPLQLFDQRXQRGHORVRWURVIHQyPHQRVTXHOHRFXUUHDODYLEUDQWH‫ޞ‬HV
TXHVHFRQYLHUWHHQODDVSLUDGD>K@DOϧQDOGHVtODEDFXDQGROHVLJXHXQDFRQVRQDQWH
UHVRQDQWH'HPRGRTXH D SXHGHVHUHMHPSORWtSLFRGHSRVLEOHVDOWHUQDQFLDV
SHURQR E  1~xH]&HGHxR 

Ejemplo 3-34

a. Ca>‫@ޞ‬los ~ Ca>K@los b. pa>‫@ޞ‬te ~ *pa>K@te


pe>‫@ޞ‬la ~ pe>K@la bo>‫@ޞ‬de ~ *bo>K@de
pie>‫@ޞ‬na ~ pie>K@na to>‫@ޞ‬pe ~ *to>K@pe
a>‫@ޞ‬mada ~ a>K@mada cu>‫@ޞ‬bero ~ *cu>K@bero
ca>‫@ޞ‬nívoro ~ ca>K@nívoro pue>‫@ޞ‬co ~ *pue>K@co
a>‫@ޞ‬golla ~ *a>K@golla
ma>‫@ޞ‬char ~ *ma>K@char
Me>‫@ޞ‬cedes ~ *Me>K@cedes

 &RPRVHHMHPSOLϧFyHQ  OD‫ޞ‬VHJXLGDGHFRQVRQDQWHUHVRQDQWHWLSLϧFD


DGRVFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVTXHWLHQHQTXHXQLUVHDQLYHOGHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
SDUDQRHQWUDUHQFRQϩLFWRFRQHO3&2
 5HVXOWDTXHDGHPiVGHGDUVHODDVSLUDFLyQGH‫ޞ‬DOϧQDOGHVtODEDXQSURFHVR
SDUHFLGROHRFXUUHWDPELpQDODYLEUDQWHP~OWLSOH(VSRUHOORTXHHQGRPLQLFDQRVH
UHJLVWUDQODVDOWHUQDQFLDVTXHDSDUHFHQHQ  

Ejemplo 3-35

piza>U@a ~ piza>K‫@ޞ‬a
ca>U@eta ~ ca>K‫@ޞ‬eta
bo>U@ador ~ bo>K‫@ޞ‬ador
chu>U@ioso ~ chu>K‫@ޞ‬ioso
mi>U@a ~ mi>K‫@ޞ‬a
[ 112 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 /RVGDWRVHQ  KDQVLGRDQDOL]DGRVQRFRQXQDUVXE\DFHQWHVLQRFRQXQD


VHFXHQFLDGHYLEUDQWHVVHQFLOODVKLSyWHVLV\DSUHVHQWDGDHQHOFDStWXOR6LVHDFHSWDOD
KLSyWHVLVGHTXHODJHPLQDGD‫ޞޞ‬HVFRUUHFWDVHJ~QODH[SRQHQ+DUULV  \1~xH]
&HGHxR  QXHYDPHQWHHO3&2H[LJLUiTXH D VHFRQYLHUWDHQ E TXHDO
QRWHQHUQLQJ~QOLQGHVLOiELFRRPRUIHPiWLFRTXHODVVHSDUHVHFRQVWLWX\HHQJHPLQDGD

Ejemplo 3-36

a. & & ఩ b. & &


3&2
5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt]

‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬

 (YLGHQWHPHQWHORVGDWRVWDQWRHQ D FRPRHQ  SRGUtDQFDSWDUVHFRQ


XQDVRODUHJODTXHDVSLUHOD‫ޞ‬DOϧQDOGHVtODED\DTXHDPERVFRQMXQWRVGHGDWRV
SRVHHQODFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHFRPSDUWLUODPLVPDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHTXHHVOD
TXHWDPELpQVHRIUHFHHQ E 6LQHPEDUJRKD\TXHUHVROYHUXQVHULRSUREOHPD
SXHVWRTXHODUHJODGHDVSLUDFLyQTXHSRGUtDDSOLFDUVHD D VyORVHFXPSOHFRQ
VHJPHQWRVVHQFLOORV\QRFRQFRPSOHMRVFRPRHOTXHVHPXHVWUDHQ E &RQORV
GDWRVHQ D VyORIXQFLRQDODUHJOD  

Ejemplo 3-37 Regla de aspiración en la coda

; ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ‫۝‬ ਓ UHV ਖ

6/ /DUtQJHR 6/ /DUtQJHR

&RURQDO *ORWDO &RURQDO

>JORGLO@

/DUHJOD  VHSDUDORVUDVJRVVXSUDODUtQJHRVGH‫\ޞ‬OHGHMD~QLFDPHQWHHOUDVJR


ODUtQJHR>JORWLVGLODWDGD@ORTXHODFRQYLHUWHHQODDVSLUDGD>K@FXDQGROHVLJXH
XQDFRQVRQDQWHUHVRQDQWH
 &RQ   VH FDPELD OD ‫ ޞ‬GHperla, TXH VH HQFXHQWUD DO ϧQDO GH VtODED 6LQ
HPEDUJR  QRSXHGHDSOLFDUVHD  SRUTXHGLFKDUHJODQRVHDMXVWDDOD
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 113 ]

GHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOGHODVFDGHQDVGHVRQLGRVTXHFRPSRQHQ  (VGHFLUPLHQ


WUDVODVHFXHQFLD>‫ޞ‬O@VHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUWHQHUGRVUDtFHVODGH E FRQWLHQHXQD
VRODUDt]\SRUORWDQWR  QRSXHGHDSOLFDUVHMXVWDPHQWHSRUTXHVHPHQFLRQDXQD
UDt]\QRGRV7DPSRFRSXHGHUHDOL]DUVH  HQHOFRQWH[WR E SRUTXH*XHUVVHO
 +D\HV  \6FKHLQ\6WHULDGH  HQWUHRWURVKDQGHPRVWUDGRTXHQR
VHSXHGHDOWHUDUODPLWDGGHXQDJHPLQDGDVLQTXHVHDOWHUHODRWUDSDUWHFRVDTXHVH
KDDUWLFXODGRFRPRSULQFLSLRGHODIRQRORJtDFRQHOQRPEUHJHQpULFRGH¬&RQGLFLyQ
GH¬8QLIRUPLGDGTXHSDVDUHPRVDHVWXGLDUHQODVHFFLyQ6LVHDSOLFDUD  
WHQGUtDODPDODVXHUWHGHFRQWUDULDUHOPHQFLRQDGRSULQFLSLRSXHVWRTXHXQDYH]TXH
VHFDPELDHOFRQWHQLGRGHXQDUDt]VHFDPELDWRGR6LHVDVtODJHPLQDGD‫ޞޞ‬VH
FRQYHUWLUtDHQ >KK@ORFXDOQRVHKDGRFXPHQWDGRHQGRPLQLFDQR6LQHPEDUJRORV
GDWRVHQ  QRVPXHVWUDQTXHHVSRVLEOHTXHVHDOWHUHODVHFXHQFLDJHPLQDGD‫ޞޞ‬
¢4XpKDSDVDGRHQWRQFHV"
 (QSULPHUOXJDUODUHJOD  QRQRVVLUYHSDUDMXVWLϧFDUORVGDWRVHQ  SRU
ORTXHKHPRVGLFKRHQHOSiUUDIRDQWHULRU3RURWUDSDUWHODUHJODHVEXHQDSRUTXH
IXQFLRQDFRQORVGDWRVHQ D 3HURHVWiFODURTXHHOIHQyPHQRHVXQRDVSLUDFLyQ
GH‫ޞ‬ϧQDOHQDPERVGDWRV/RTXHVHQRVHVFDSDHVHOSDUDOHOLVPRTXHH[LVWHHQWUHOD
JHPLQDGD‫\ޞޞ‬ODVHFXHQFLDGHGRVFRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHV7RPDQGRFRPRHMHPSOR
LOXVWUDWLYRODVSDODEUDVcarne\parra,UHSUHVHQWpPRVODVFRPRHQ  

Ejemplo 3-38

ND ‫ޞ‬ Q H SD ‫ޞޞ‬ D


/DUtQJHR ਑ JORGLO ਔ ਑ ਮJORGLO ਔ ਑ JORGLO ਔ
ਓ VRQ ਖ ਓ VRQ ਖ ਓ VRQ ਖ

5Dt] ਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ


ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ

6XSUDODUtQJHR • • •

3XQWRRUDO >FRU@ >FRU@

 /DSDUWHGHODODULQJHQRHVWiHVSHFLϧFDGDSDUD‫ޞ‬FRQORTXHVHSUHVXPHTXHSRU
GHIHFWRVHOHLQFOXLUiHOYDORUSRVLWLYR  SRUTXHHVWHVRQLGRSXHGHVHUVRUGRSDUD
ORVKDEODQWHVTXHORHPLWHQHQOD5HS~EOLFD'RPLQLFDQD(QWRQFHVODV‫ޞ‬GHDPEDV
SDODEUDVWLHQHQXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQLGpQWLFDH[FHSWRTXHODGHcarneWLHQHGRVUDtFHV
\ODGHparra,XQD1yWHVHTXHHQWUHHOHVWUDWRVXSUDODUtQJHR\ODUDt]KD\GRVUD\DV
DVRFLDWLYDVORFXDOHTXLYDOHDGHFLUTXHORVGRVQLYHOHVFRPSDUWHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
 KHFKRTXHUHTXLHUHHO3&2
[ 114 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-39

6XSUDODUtQJHR •

3XQWRRUDO >FRU@ >FRU@

(Q>@VHDEUHYLDQGHWDOOHVQyWHVHTXHSUHVXPLPRVTXHDQLYHOGHUDVJRVWHUPL
QDOHVKD\IXVLyQGHHOHPHQWRVLGpQWLFRV
 $KRUDELHQFRPRHVWDVHFXHQFLDHVLGpQWLFDDQLYHOVXSUDODUtQJHRHQWRQFHVXQD
UHJOD TXH GHVXQD XQD GH ODV SDUWHV VXSUDODUtQJHDV KDUi SRU FRQVLJXLHQWH TXH OD
PLVPDVHSLHUGD$OHVWDUGHVOLJDGDQRWHQGUiLQWHUSUHWDFLyQIRQpWLFDVHHVFXFKDUi
~QLFDPHQWHORTXHVHSHUFLEHFRPRDVSLUDFLyQ3RUORWDQWRVHWHQGUtDTXHSURSRQHU
ODUHJOD  SDUDGDUFXHQWDGHORVGDWRVHQ  \  

Ejemplo 3-40

6XSUDODUtQJHR •

3XQWRRUDO >FRU@ >FRU@

(OKHFKRGHTXHVHHOLPLQDQORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVVXSHULRUHVORVVXSUDODUtQJHRV
\¬QRODUDt]H[SOLFDSRUTXpVHDOWHUDODSULPHUDSDUWHGHparra:WDQVyORTXHGDODDVSL
UDFLyQ$GHPiVFRQ  QRVyORVHDVSLUDODSULPHUDSDUWHGHODVHFXHQFLD‫ޞޞ‬VLQR
TXHWDPELpQVHUHDOL]DHOPLVPRIHQyPHQRHQODSULPHUDSDUWHGHXQDVHFXHQFLDGH
FRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHVTXHQRVRQJHPLQDGDVVLQTXHFRQHOORVHTXHEUDQWHOD&RQ
GLFLyQGH¬8QLIRUPLGDG

಩,QWHJULGDGGHODVJHPLQDGDV

(Q OD VHFFLyQ DQWHULRU SUHVHQWDPRV OD GHEDWLEOH LGHD GH TXH SRVLEOHPHQWH H[LVWDQ
JHPLQDGDVHQODOHQJXDHVSDxRODORFXDOVHFRQVWDWD~QLFDPHQWHHQORVFDVRVHQTXH
VHVLHQWHXQDGLVWLQFLyQVLJQLϧFDWLYDHQWUHODYLEUDQWHVHQFLOOD\ODP~OWLSOHSHMcaro
YVcarro, amarasYVamarras,HWF3RUgeminadaKHPRVGLFKRTXHHQWHQGHPRVODXQLyQ
GHGRVHVTXHOHWRVDG\DFHQWHVDXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpPLFDVHQFLOOD$¬QLYHOGHHVTXH
OHWRODVSDODEUDVcaro\carroVHGLIHUHQFLDQSRUTXHOD‫ޞ‬VLPSOHGHODSULPHUDFRQWLHQH
XQDDVRFLDFLyQVLPSOHHQWUHHOVRQLGR\HOHVTXHOHWRPLHQWUDVTXHHQODVHJXQGDOD
YLEUDQWHVHDVRFLDFRQGRVHVTXHOHWRVVHJ~QVHGHVWDFDHQ   /HEHQ 

Ejemplo 3-41

a. ; ; ; ; b. ; ; ; ; ;

N D ‫ޞ‬ R N D ‫ޞ‬ R
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 115 ]

 6HPHMDQWHRSRVLFLyQGLVWLQWLYDHVEDVWDQWHUHVWULQJLGDHQODOHQJXDHVSDxRODHVWiQ
GDU\VHREVHUYDQPX\SRFDVUHDOL]DFLRQHVFRQRWURVVRQLGRV³SRUHMHPSORHOJHQWLOL
FLRchiíta,TXHFRQWLHQHXQDYRFDOJHPLQDGDHQRSRVLFLyQDchita;Rloor,TXHVHRSRQH
Dlord FRPSiUHVHFRQlores,HQGRQGHVHPXHVWUDTXHODJUDItDd!QRVHSURQXQFLD
\SRUORWDQWRQRVHHQFXHQWUDDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH SRUODVPLVPDVUD]RQHV(VWHWLSR
GHJHPLQDGDLQWUDPRUIpPLFDRWDXWRPRUIpPLFDVHFRQRFHFRQHOQRPEUHGHgeminada
real.eVWDVHRSRQHDODgeminada falsaTXHVXUJHGHODXQLyQGHGRVVHJPHQWRVLGpQWLFRV
TXHVHHQFXHQWUDQHQGLIHUHQWHVPRUIHPDV3RUHMHPSORODSDODEUDriíto,TXHVHRSRQH
Drito,SURYLHQHGHODFRQFDWHQDFLyQGHODEDVHPRUIpPLFD‫ޞ‬LGHrío,FRQHOVXϧMR
-ito;HVWDJHPLQDGDFRQWLHQHSXHVXQSDUGHtHVFDGDXQDGHODVFXDOHVSHUWHQHFH
DGLIHUHQWHVPRUIHPDV+D\YDULRVHMHPSORVGHDSDUHQWHVVHJPHQWRVJHPLQDGRVTXH
QRFRQWUDVWDQSHMperenne, estannífero, coona\galaadita,HQWUHRWURVSHURFX\DV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVVHUtDQFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQ E 
 /RLQWHUHVDQWHGHODVJHPLQDGDVHVTXHWLHQGHQDUHVLVWLUORVHPEDWHVGHSURFHVRV
IRQROyJLFRVTXHPX\ELHQSRGUtDQDSOLFiUVHOHV.HQVWRZLF]\3\OH  \SRVWHULRU
PHQWH*XHUVVHO  KDEtDQVXJHULGRTXHXQDJHPLQDGDQRVHSXHGHGLYLGLUFRQUHJOD
GHHSpQWHVLVQLWDPSRFRVHSXHGHDOWHUDUXQDGHVXVIDVHVVLQTXHVHOHDOWHUHODRWUD
$¬PDQHUDGHLOXVWUDFLyQKLVWyULFDYDPRVDUHPLWLUQRVDRWUDVOHQJXDVSDUDOXHJRGHV
HPERFDUHQODHVSDxRODFRPR\DORKHPRVKHFKRSDUFLDOPHQWHHQODVHFFLyQDQWHULRU

಩,QDOWHUDELOLGDGGHJHPLQDGDVHQRWUDVOHQJXDV

*XHUVVHO  KDEtDREVHUYDGRTXHHQHOiUDEHPDUURTXtKD\XQDUHJODTXHWLHQGHD


LQVHUWDUXQDYRFDOUHGXFLGDHQWUHORVGRVSULPHURVPLHPEURVGHXQJUXSRWULFRQVRQiQ
WLFRRVHDHQHOFRQWH[WR&ಣಣ&&¬(QWRQFHVDQWHODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHQNW͑EVH
SURGXFHODIRQpWLFD>Q͑NW͑E@¶\RHVFULER·6LQHPEDUJRFXDQGRVHHQFXHQWUDHQFRQ
WH[WRVLPLODUFRQJHPLQDGDODUHJODGHHSpQWHVLVGHMDGHRSHUDU$VtDQWHODVXE\D
FHQWHWWO͑С¶VXHOWDV·QRVHSURGXFH >W͑WO͑С@SHVHDTXHODVHFXHQFLDWWOSRQ
GUtDGHPDQLϧHVWRHOFRQWH[WRGHDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODGHHSpQWHVLV&ಣಣ&&¬3RU
RWUDSDUWH+D\HV  SODQWHDHOFDVRGHOSHUVDHQHOTXHVHGRFXPHQWDXQDUHJOD
TXH FDPELD OD ODELRGHQWDO Y SRU OD GHVOL]DGD >Z@ FXDQGR OH SUHFHGH XQD YRFDO
EUHYHWDXWRVLOiELFD\VHHQFXHQWUDHQODFRGD'LFKDUHJODQRVHDSOLFDDODYGH
VHQ Y QGH¶R\HQWH·SHUR VtDEHVHQ YTXHSURGXFH>EHVHQRZ@¶HVFXFKDG·
6LQHPEDUJRODVIRUPDVavvæl¶SULPHUR·\morovvæt¶JHQHURVLGDG·QRVXUJHQFRPR
ODVUHVSHFWLYDV*awwolQL*morowwot,SHVHDTXHHQDPEDVQXHYDPHQWHVHSRQHGH
PDQLϧHVWRHOFRQWH[WRHQTXHODUHJODSXHGHDSOLFDUVH
 /DUD]yQSRUODTXHQRVHSXHGHQDSOLFDUODVUHJODVDHVWDVJHPLQDGDVREHGHFHDOD
&RQGLFLyQGH¬8QLIRUPLGDGFRQODTXHVHLPSLGHFDPELDUXQDGHODVIDVHVGHODVJHPL
QDGDV3DUDH[SOLFDUFyPRIXQFLRQDHVWRWHQHPRVTXHFRQVLGHUDUODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGH
ODVJHPLQDGDV3RUTXHDVtORUHTXLHUHHO3&2XQDJHPLQDGDPXHVWUDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
VXE\DFHQWHTXHVHRIUHFHHQ D HQODTXHKD\GRVDVRFLDFLRQHVHVTXHOpWLFDVFRQ
XQVHJPHQWR\FRQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVHQFLOOD E VyORVHHVWDEOHFHXQDLGHQWLGDG
[ 116 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

HQWUHXQVHJPHQWR\XQHVTXHOHWR8QDUHJODTXHDOXGDDXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQEL~QLFD
FRPROD E QRSXHGHDSOLFDUVHD D 

Ejemplo 3-42

a. ; ; b. ;

>VHJPHQWR@ >VHJPHQWR@

/DUHJODGHOPDUURTXtVHUtDLQDSOLFDEOHSRUTXHODLQVHUFLyQGHXQVHJPHQWRSURGXFH
XQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQLQDGPLVLEOHTXHTXHEUDQWDHOSULQFLSLRTXHSURKtEHODFUHDFLyQ
GHOtQHDVDVRFLDWLYDVTXHVHFUXFHQ)LMpPRQRVHQODUHJOD  \VXVHIHFWRVHQODV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVHQ  

Ejemplo 3-43

‘఩ 9&ಣಣ&&

Ejemplo 3-44

a. & & & 9 & ఩ * & 9 & & 9 &


5HJOD 
W O ͑ С W ͑ O ͑ С

b. & & & 9 & ఩ & 9 & & 9 &


5HJOD 
Q N W ͑ E Q ͑ N W ͑ E

&XDQGR  LQVHUWDODYRFDOHQ D SURGXFHXQFUXFHFRQODVOtQHDVGHDVRFLDFLyQ


FX\RUHVXOWDGRSRUSULQFLSLRXQLYHUVDOUHVXOWDDQyPDOR(Q E ODLQVHUFLyQQRGD
OXJDUDXQFUXFHGHOtQHDV\SRUORWDQWROD&RQGLFLyQGH¬%XHQD)RUPDFLyQODWROHUD
 (Q FDPELR HQ SHUVD QR VH LQVHUWD XQ VHJPHQWR VLQR TXH VH PRGLϧFDQ UDVJRV
,OXVWUDPRVODUHJODHQ  VHJ~Q+D\HV  

Ejemplo 3-45

‫۝‬

9 &

Y఩Z >ಣ@ ಣಣ
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 117 ]

/DUHJOD  GLFHTXHYVHFRQYLHUWHHQ>Z@FXDQGRDpVWDODSUHFHGHXQDYRFDO


HQ XQD PLVPD VtODED 6L OD SUREDPRV HQ D  FRQ OD HQWUDGD EiVLFD QRYUX৸]
¶DxRQXHYR·ODUHDOL]DFLyQIRQpWLFDUHVXOWD>QRZUX৸]@3RUHOFRQWUDULRFRQDYY O
¶SULPHUR·HQ E   QRSXHGHDSOLFDUVHSRUTXHORTXHSUHFHGHDYQRHV9
VLQRRWUD&¬6DOHHQWRQFHVDODVXSHUϧFLH>DYY O@

Ejemplo 3-46

a. ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

& 9 & & 9 9 & ఩ & 9 & & 9 9 &


5HJOD 
Q R Y U X ] Q R Z U X ]

b. ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

9 & & 9 & ఩ 9 & & 9 &


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D Y   O QRVHDSOLFD D Y   O

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SDODEUD
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FLyQGH¬8QLIRUPLGDG(VWHSULQFLSLRHODERUDGRSRU+D\HV  \6FKHLQ\6WHULDGH
 \¬FX\RVDQWHFHGHQWHVORVKDQDUWLFXODGR.HQVWRZLF]\3\OH\*XHUVVHOOR¬SDUD
IUDVHDPRVDOR.HQVWRZLF]  HQ  

Ejemplo 3-47 Condición de Uniformidad

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[ 118 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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ODUHJODGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQ  

Ejemplo 3-48 Espirantización de /k/

9 &

਑ ਮVRQ ਔ ఩ >FRQW@ ಣಣ
ਓ UHWU ਖ

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Ejemplo 3-49

IࣜNNࣜUࣜ
9 & &

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GDGRTXHKD\SUXHEDVGHTXHHQHIHFWRODVJHPLQDGDVVtFDPELDQ"
 8QDSULPHUDUHVSXHVWDODKDOODPRVQXHYDPHQWHHQWLJULQLDHQGRQGHVLELHQOD
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ODVHJXQGDDRWUDVtODEDGHXQPRUIHPDGLIHUHQWH
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 119 ]

Ejemplo 3-50

PӝUDNND ఩ PӝUD[ND
9 &  & 9 &  &

N N [ N

(VWHHVXQFDVRQRUPDOGHDOWHUDFLyQHQJHPLQDGDVIDOVDVSRUTXHORVGRVIRQHPDV
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GLIHUHQWHV3RUHQGHVHSXHGHDSOLFDU  
 8QDVHJXQGDUHVSXHVWDDHVWDSUHJXQWDVHHQFXHQWUDSRWHQFLDOPHQWHHQ  
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GHOQRGRGRUVDOGHODYRFDOVLJXLHQWH7RPHPRVFRPRHMHPSORODHH\HOFDPELRD
>RR@DQWHX

Ejemplo 3-51 Posteriorización de vocal

9 9 9

>ਮFRQV@ >ਮFRQV@

'RUVDO 'RUVDO

>ਮEDMR@ >ਮUHWU@ >UHWU@ >DOWR@

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[ 120 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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& &

‫ޞ‬ ‫ޞ‬

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& &

‫ޞ‬

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Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 121 ]

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[ 122 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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3.5 La asimilación y la Condición de Uniformidad

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Ejemplo 3-52 Asimilación de líquidas

;  ;

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ “UHV ਖ
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 123 ]

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GHVXVSDUWHV
 (QHIHFWRHQHVWRVGLDOHFWRV\PXFKRVRWURVGHOPXQGRKLVSiQLFRODVFRQVRQDQWHV
HQFRUFKHWDGDVHQ  WLHQGHQDDOWHUQDUHQHOKDEODGHVFXLGDGDXRUGLQDULD

Ejemplo 3-53

a>W ૧@mósfera ~ a>‘@mósfera


dé ci>W ૧@ ~ dé ci>‘@
a>N@tuación ~ a>‘@tuación
fra>N@ ~ fra>‘@
a>S@titud ~ a>‘@titud
ca>S@ ~ ca>‘@
a>E@soluto ~ a>‘@soluto
uste>G૧@ ~ uste>‘@
di>С@nidad ~ di>‘@nidad

 6LELHQVHSRGUtDQVXVWHQWDUWHVLVDOWHUQDVTXHGHPXHVWUHQTXHORTXHVXE\DFHD
HVWDVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQpWLFDVHVXQIRQHPDRFOXVLYRRTXHHQUHDOLGDGHVDSUR[L
PDQWHORTXHLPSRUWDSDUDQXHVWURFDVRHVHOKHFKRGHTXHVHHOLPLQDQ9DPRVD
SUHVXPLUTXHVRQRFOXVLYDVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH\TXHQRSRVHHQHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@
HO¬FXDOHVOXHJRDVLJQDGRSRUGHIHFWR VHSUHVXPHTXHODVYLHQHFRQVXUDVJR>FRQ
WLQXR@\SRUWDQWRQRVHUtDDIHFWDGD /DUHJODTXHQHFHVLWDUtDPRVSDUDGDUFXHQWDGH
HVWDVIRUPDVVHRIUHFHHQ  

Ejemplo 3-54 Elisión de obstruyente

; ఩‘ಣಣ@‫۝‬

>ਮUHV@

/DUHJOD  SRQHGHUHOLHYHTXHODVRFOXVLYDVVHHOLGHQDOϧQDOGHVtODED6LQRV


ϧMDPRVHQ  YHPRVTXHDOXGHDXQDFRQVRQDQWHTXHHVWiXQLGDDXQD;\TXHVH
DSOLFDUtDVLQSUREOHPDDODGHULYDFLyQGHabsolutoHQ  SHURQRDbarbero,VL¬HV
TXHSUHVXPLPRVTXHODUHJODGHJHPLQDFLyQVHKDDSOLFDGRSULPHUR1RVHDSOLFDD
barbero SRUTXH HVWD IRUPD QR UH~QH ORV UHTXLVLWRV HVWUXFWXUDOHV GH GHVFULSFLyQ GH
[ 124 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 SDUDTXHVHDSOLTXHORTXHVHKDFUHDGRSRUJHPLQDFLyQHVXQDDVRFLDFLyQ
P~OWLSOHGHGRVVHJPHQWRVDXQD&

Ejemplo 3-55

D E V R O X W ૧ R E D ‫ޞ‬ E H ‫ޞ‬ R

; ; ; ;

³ E E 5HJOD 

³ ; 3&2
‘ ³ 5HJOD 
>D ‘ V R O X W૧ R@ >E D E E H ‫ޞ‬ R@

 (Q  SXHVHQWUDHQYLJRUODSURWHFFLyQGHJHPLQDGDTXHOOHYDDFDEROD&RQ


GLFLyQGH¬8QLIRUPLGDGTXHH[LJHXQDFRPSOHWDLGHQWLGDGHQWUHVHJPHQWRVHVTXHOHWR
\Q~PHURGHDVRFLDFLRQHVGHXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ\ODGHVFULSFLyQGHODUHJODTXHOD
YDDDIHFWDU3XHVWRTXHODJHPLQDGDEEQRVHLGHQWLϧFDGHVFULSWLYDPHQWHFRQOD
DVRFLDFLyQHQWUHHVTXHOHWR\VHJPHQWRGHODUHJOD  pVWDQRSXHGHDSOLFDUVH

಩(VSLUDQWL]DFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHV

2WUR FDVR TXH HMHPSOLϧFD OD LQDSOLFDFLyQ GH XQD UHJOD SRU ORV PLVPRV PRWLYRV
YJ¬SRUTXHQRFRLQFLGHVXGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOFRQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHHQODFHV
P~OWLSOHVGHGRVHVWUXFWXUDVFRQXQVRORVHJPHQWR QRVORRIUHFHHOSURFHVRGHHVSL
UDQWL]DFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHV(VWHSURFHVRVHUHϧHUHDOKHFKRGHTXHODVRUWRJUDItDV
b, d, g! \v! VHUHDOL]DQIRQpWLFDPHQWHFRPRODVDSUR[LPDQWHV>ɕ૊˓૊࣢@૊ GHVSXpV
GHYRFDOHVOtTXLGDVIULFDWLYDV\YDULDEOHPHQWHDOϧQDOGHSDODEUDVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ
D²G H[FHSWRd!TXHGHVSXpVGHOVLHPSUHVDOHRFOXVLYD E HQRWUDV
SDUWHVVHUHDOL]DQFRPRODVRFOXVLYDV>EG૧С@FRPRVHORSUHVHQWDHQ H 

Ejemplo 3-56

a. a>ɕ૊@ismo c. club>ɕ૊@
na>˓૊@ando ciuda>˓૊@
ma>࣢@૊ o zigza>࣢@૊
b. bar>ɕ૊@ero d. atis>ɕ૊@an
dar>˓૊@o des>˓૊@én
ar>࣢૊@umento mus>࣢૊@o
al>ɕ૊@orada
*al>˓૊@eano,SHURal>G૧@eano
al>࣢૊@uno
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 125 ]

Ejemplo 3-56 (continued)

e. >E@ate
>G૧@istancia
>С@alán
don>G૧@e
hom>E@ro
mon>С@olés

 3RUORYLVWRORTXHFDXVDODHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQHVHOWLSRGHVHJPHQWRTXHSUHFHGH
SXHVWRTXHHQ H FXDQGRODVFRQVRQDQWHVREVWUX\HQWHVHVWiQHQSRVLFLyQLQLFLDO
DEVROXWDRODVSUHFHGHQQDVDOHVVHSURQXQFLDQFRPRRFOXVLYDV+DUULV D 
OOHJDDLJXDOFRQFOXVLyQ\VXJLHUHTXHORTXHRFXUUHHVTXHVHSURSDJDHOUDVJR>FRQ
WLQXR@ GHO VHJPHQWR TXH SUHFHGH D OD REVWUX\HQWH VRQRUD ,PSOtFLWDPHQWH VH HVWi
VXJLULHQGRTXHORTXHVXE\DFHDHVWDVFRQVRQDQWHVVRQREVWUX\HQWHVRFOXVLYDVSXHVVH
HVWiGLFLHQGRTXHORTXHVHSURGXFHHVXQSURFHVRGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQ(VWDDVHYHUDFLyQ
KDGDGRRULJHQDEDVWDQWHGHEDWHHQODOLWHUDWXUDSRUXQODGRVHKDDUJXPHQWDGRTXH
ODVFRQVRQDQWHVVXE\DFHQWHVVRQREVWUX\HQWHVRFOXVLYDVTXHVHWRUQDQDSUR[LPDQWHV
+DUULV \SRUHORWURVHGLFHTXHQRVRQQLREVWUX\HQWHVQLDSUR[LPDQWHVVLQR
TXHQRVHHVSHFLϧFDQHQFXDQWRDOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@\DGTXLHUHQVXVYDORUHVPHGLDQWH
HOFRQWH[WR /R]DQR (QHIHFWR/R]DQRSUHVHQWDXQDVHULHGHDUJXPHQWRVFRQ
YLQFHQWHVTXHGDQVRVWpQDHVWDKLSyWHVLV
 &RPR PXHVWUD FHQWUHPRV QXHVWUD DWHQFLyQ HQ HO HVSDxRO SRUWHxR GH %XHQRV
$LUHV (QSULPHUOXJDUVHDUJX\HTXHODYDULDELOLGDGGHODIULFDWLYDHVWULGHQWHVRQRUD
>ও@FRQODRFOXVLYD>Gও@ TXHHQODRUWRJUDItDFRUUHVSRQGHDODVOHWUDVy!\ll! 
VXJLHUHTXHHOPHQFLRQDGRDQiOLVLVGH¬+DUULVQRHVHQWHUDPHQWHDGHFXDGR(QJHQHUDO
HQSRUWHxRHVWHVRQLGRVHGDYDULDEOHPHQWHDOSULQFLSLR\ϧQDOGHVtODEDDOSULQFLSLR
GHSDODEUDSXHGHDOWHUQDUFRQXQDYDULDQWHRFOXVLYD>Gও@SHURGHVSXpVGHXQDQDVDO
RODWHUDOVyORDSDUHFHHVWD~OWLPD(Q  PRVWUDPRVDOJXQRVHMHPSORV

Ejemplo 3-57

>ও@ >Gও@ >Gও@

ਥওDPD ਥGওDPD H‫ئ‬ਥGওDPDV


ਥওXɕ૊MD ਥGওXɕ૊MD NR‫ئ‬ਥGওXɕ૊MD
ওHਥ࣢D
૊ ‫ޞ‬
G
ওHਥ࣢D
૊ ‫ޞ‬ H‫ד‬ਥGওH࣢D
૊ ‫ޞ‬
ਥPDওD WD‫ד‬ਥGওD࣢D૊
СDਥ‫ޞ‬Dও

3HURVLDHVWRVGDWRVOHVDJUHJDPRVHOKHFKRGHTXH>ও@DOWHUQDFRQODYRFDO>L@ROD
GHVOL]DGD>M@FRPRHQORVSDUHVle>M@ale>ও@es, o>L@rao>ও@endo,VXJLHUHTXH>Gও@VH
GHULYDGHXQDFRQVRQDQWHFRQWLQXDGHYRFDORGHGHVOL]DGD(VWRVHFRPSOHPHQWDDO
[ 126 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

QRWDUVHTXHHOVHJPHQWRIULFDWLYRGHULYDGRDSDUHFHFRPRRFOXVLYRGHVSXpVGHQDVDOR
ODWHUDO8QDQiOLVLV\UD]RQDPLHQWRSDUHFLGRVVHRIUHFHSDUDHOHVSDxROPH[LFDQRTXH
SUHVHQWDDOWHUQDQFLDVGHIULFDWLYDSDODWDOVRQRUD\RFOXVLYDSDODWDOVRQRUDHQFRQWH[WRV
VLPLODUHVDORVGH  SHURODDSDULFLyQGHODIULFDWLYDVHH[FOX\HSUHFLVDPHQWHHQ
HOPLVPRFRQWH[WRHQTXHVHDSDUHFHHQSRUWHxR
 (OFDVWHOODQRWDPELpQDSRUWDGDWRVSDUDODKLSyWHVLVGHREVWUX\HQWHVFRQWLQXDV
HQ HO Op[LFR 6H WUDWD GHO FRPSRUWDPLHQWR GH ODV GHVOL]DGDV M \ Z FX\D H[LV
WHQFLDYDULRVIRQyORJRVFXHVWLRQDQ 5RFDHQWUHRWURV 6HJ~Q$ODUFRV >@
 GHVSXpVGHQDVDOHV\ODWHUDOHVODVGHVOL]DGDVVXUJHQSURQXQFLDGDVFRPRVL
IXHUDQRFOXVLYDV3RUORYLVWRHVWHIHQyPHQRUHVXOWDVHUHOPLVPRTXHVHFRPSUXHED
HQORVGRVGLDOHFWRVUHIHULGRVDQWHULRUPHQWH /R]DQR 
 /RFXULRVRHVTXHHOHVSDxROFDVWHOODQRRIUHFHHYLGHQFLDGHSURFHVRVGLDPHWUDO
PHQWHRSXHVWRVDODPHQFLRQDGDKLSyWHVLV(VGHFLUORVGDWRVSDUHFHQLQGLFDUTXHD
ODVREVWUX\HQWHVFRQWLQXDVODVVXE\DFHQREVWUX\HQWHVRFOXVLYDV/DVRFOXVLYDVϧQDOHV
SW ૧NVXUJHQHQHOKDEODPRGHUDGDRHQIiWLFDFRPRVRUGDVPLHQWUDVTXHHQHOKDEOD
HVSRQWiQHDVHVXHOHQSURQXQFLDUFRPRDSUR[LPDQWHVVRQRUDVRVRUGDV(MHPSORVGH
HVWDVUHVSHFWLYDVYDULDFLRQHVVRQ>NRਥHSW ૧R@a>NRਥHɕ૊WR@>ਥULW ૧PR@a>ਥUL˓૊PR@>DNਥW ૧R‫¬@ޞ‬a
>D࣢૊ਥW ૧R‫@ޞ‬6HSXHGHWHRUL]DUTXHODSURQXQFLDFLyQGHHVWDVFRQVRQDQWHVHVSDUDOHODD
ODTXHVHUHJLVWUDHQODHYROXFLyQGHODOHQJXDHVSDxROD(QODGLDFURQtDVHVDEHTXH
SW ૧NHQVXVRUtJHQHVVHFRQYLUWLHURQHQVRQRUDV\TXHpVWDVDVXYH]VHHVSLUDQWL]D
URQ3HURSRUVLHVWHSDUDOHOLVPRUHVXOWDVHGXGRVRVyORKD\TXHFRQVLGHUDUODHQWUDGD
GHSUpVWDPRVOLQJtVWLFRVTXHOHOOHJDQDHVHGLDOHFWRFRQREVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDVϧQDOHV
/DVSDODEUDVfrac\coñacHQSURQXQFLDFLyQDLVODGDUHVXOWDQ>ਥI‫ޞ‬DN@\>NRਥ‫ص‬DN@SHUR
HQFRQWH[WRVHKDFHQFRQWLQXDV>X‫غ‬NRਥ‫ص‬D࣢૊ ਥɕ૊ZHQR@>HOਥI‫ޞ‬D࣢૊ ˓૊HਥटZDQ@
 (VWRV~OWLPRVGDWRVOHGDQVREUDGRSRGHUDODWHRUtDGHODPDUFDGH] VREUHHOWHPD
YpDVHHOFDStWXOR &KRPVN\\+DOOH  DOLJXDOTXHVXVSUHGHFHVRUHVHVWUXFWX
UDOLVWDVDUJX\HQTXHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHGHEHDSDUHFHUHOVHJPHQWRXQLYHUVDOPHQWH
HVSHUDGR³RVHDDOϧQDOGHVtODEDORTXHVHHVSHUDHVTXHDSDUH]FDODREVWUX\HQWH
VRUGD(VWRVHGHVSUHQGHGHFLHUWDVLPSOLFDFLRQHVSXHVXVXDOPHQWHODVOHQJXDVSRVHHQ
REVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDV\VRQRUDVKD\RWUDVHQTXHVHGRFXPHQWDQVRODPHQWHREVWUX\HQ
WHVVRUGDVVLQVRQRUDVSHURQRH[LVWHQOHQJXDVTXHVyORWHQJDQREVWUX\HQWHVVRQRUDV
$KRUDELHQHQORTXHWRFDDODPDUFDGH]GHODVREVWUX\HQWHVVRQRUDVXQDFRQWLQXD
VRQRUDHVPXFKRPiVPDUFDGDTXHXQDQRFRQWLQXD6LELHQHVFLHUWRTXHODH[LVWHQ
FLDGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHIULFDWLYDSUHVXSRQHODSUHVHQFLDGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHRFOXVLYD
KD\PXFKDVOHQJXDVTXHVyORWLHQHQIULFDWLYDVVRQRUDV\VLQHPEDUJRQRFXHQWDQFRQ
RFOXVLYDVVRQRUDV 5XKOHQ0DGGLHVRQ 3RUORWDQWRVHSXHGHHVSHFXODU
TXHODHYLGHQFLDTXHSUHVHQWDQHVWDVOHQJXDVVHH[WLHQGHSRULJXDODODKLSyWHVLVGH
TXHKD\DREVWUX\HQWHVFRQWLQXDVVXE\DFHQWHV
 6LQHPEDUJRSHUVLVWHQORVGDWRVSDUDTXHVHIDYRUH]FDXQRXRWURODGR(VGHFLUTXH
VHKDFHH[WUHPDGDPHQWHGLϧFXOWRVRSURSRQHUDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHDODVREVWUX\HQWHV
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 127 ]

EG૧СRODVFRQWLQXDVɕ૊˓૊࣢૊(QYLVWDGHHOOR\PDQWHQLHQGRTXHHOUDVJR>FRQ
WLQXR@QRHVGLVWLQWLYRHQODOHQJXDHVSDxROD/R]DQRVHSURQXQFLyHQFRQWUDGHOD
HVSHFLϧFDFLyQWRWDOGHUDVJRVHQORVXE\DFHQWHDXQTXHQRDUWLFXODXQDWHRUtDJHQHUDO
SDUDH[SOLFDUODDXVHQFLDGHUDVJRV(OODVHDSR\DHQORVGDWRVTXHOHRIUHFHODOHQJXD
HVSDxRODSDUDDERJDUSRUXQDHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSDUFLDOGHUDVJRVSHURVyORHQORTXH
UHVSHFWDDOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@
 6LSRUXQODGRWRPDPRVHOFDVRPiVVHQFLOORHQHOTXHODVREVWUX\HQWHVQRFRQWUDV
WDQFRQUHVSHFWRDHVWHUDVJR\SRUHORWURHOKHFKRGHTXHWLHQGHQDVDOLURFOXVLYDVHQ
HOKDEODHVPHUDGD 1DYDUUR7RPiV>@ SDUHFHUtDTXHKDEUtDTXHUHSUHVHQ
WDUODVHQHOOp[LFRVLQHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@6LJXLHQGRDGHPiVD0DVFDUy  TXLHQ
VRVWLHQHTXHUHDOPHQWHQRKD\SUXHEDVIXHUWHVTXHMXVWLϧTXHQODSUHVHQFLDVXE\DFHQWH
GHOUDVJR>“FRQWLQXR@SDUDHVWDVREVWUX\HQWHVVHGHEHSUHVXPLUORPiVHOHPHQWDO
RVHDODKLSyWHVLVGH¬/R]DQRGHTXHYLHQHQLQHVSHFLϧFDGDVHQFXDQWRDHVWHUDVJR
)UHQWHDHVWRODUHJODGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQTXHEULQGDPRVHQ D FXEUHFDVLWRGRV
ORVFDVRVTXHPRVWUDPRVHQ  (Q E²F VHLOXVWUDODDSOLFDFLyQGH D 
&RQODSDODEUDignoranteVHPXHVWUDQXHYDPHQWHTXHODFDXVDGHODHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQ
HVHOVHJPHQWRTXHSUHFHGH\QRHOVLJXLHQWHSXHVWRTXHQVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUVHU
>ਮFRQWLQXR@

Ejemplo 3-58 Regla de espirantización

a. ; ;

>“FRQV@ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>FRQW@

b. L Сnorante

>ਮFRQV@ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>FRQW@
6/ /DUtQJHR 6/ /DUtQJHR

'RUVDO *ORWDO 'RUVDO *ORWDO

>ਮUHWU@ >VRQ@

ఝ಩5HJOD D
[ 128 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-58 (continued)

c. >L ࣢૊@norante

>ਮFRQV@ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>FRQW@
6/ /DUtQJHR 6/ /DUtQJHR

'RUVDO *ORWDO 'RUVDO *ORWDO

>ਮUHWU@ >VRQ@

 /DDSOLFDFLyQGH D RFXUUHDQLYHOGHUDt]FRQORTXHVHWUDQVPLWHVyORHOUDVJR


>FRQWLQXR@GHOVHJPHQWRDG\DFHQWHVLQTXHRFXUUDFRDUWLFXODFLyQGHORVGHPiVUDVJRV
3RUHVRWRGRHOVHJPHQWRDSDUHFHDPDOJDPDGRFRPR>࣢૊@FRQVXUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@
\QRFRPRVHJPHQWRFRPSOHMRTXHUHFLEHSRUXQDSDUWHHOUDVJR>ਮFRQWLQXR@\SRU
ODRWUDORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHHVHVHJPHQWR
 'LMLPRVTXH D FXEUH´FDVLWRGRVORVFDVRVµSRUTXHVXDSOLFDFLyQLUUHVWULQJLGD
SURGXFLUtDODDQyPDOD >DO ૧˓૊HਥDQR@\FRPRYLPRVHQ E HVWDSDODEUDVHSURQXQFLD
FRQRFOXVLYD>G૧@/DIDOWDGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQGHG૧GHVSXpVGHOVLHPSUHKDVLGR
ODHVSLQDTXHKDDWULEXODGRDWRGRVORVIRQyORJRV\TXHODWHRUtDJHRPpWULFDMXQWD
PHQWHFRQHOSULQFLSLRGH¬&RQGLFLyQGH¬8QLIRUPLGDGORJUDGLOXFLGDUFRQHVSHFWDFXODU
VHQFLOOH]
 (QHIHFWRVDELGRHVTXHODODWHUDOODGTXLHUHHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODV
DOYHRODUHV\DOYHRSDODWDOHVVLJXLHQWHVGHVXHUWHTXHalzar, balde, altar\colchaVHSUR
QXQFLDQUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH>DOਥVD‫>@ޞ‬ਥEDO ૧G૧H@>DO ૧ਥW ૧D‫>\@ޞ‬ਥNR‫߿ד‬D@ 1DYDUUR7RPiV>@
 /RTXHHQUHDOLGDGRFXUUHHVTXHODODWHUDOSLHUGHVXVUDVJRVGHSXQWRGH
DUWLFXODFLyQDODYH]TXHUHFLEHHOGHODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWH/DUHJOD  UHϩHMD
FyPRVHSURGXFHODDVLPLODFLyQGHODWHUDO

Ejemplo 3-59 Asimilación de lateral

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>ODW@ 32 >FRQW@ 32

&RURQDO &RURQDO
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 129 ]

&RPRVHYHHQ  FXDQGRVHUHDOL]DODDVLPLODFLyQVHGDSRUFRQVLJXLHQWHXQD


QXHYDHVWUXFWXUDDOKDEHUHQODHQWUDGDGRVHVTXHOHWRVTXHGRPLQDQXQDVHFXHQFLD
GHSXQWRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGLIHUHQWHVRVHD

32 32

O૧ G

VHSURGXFHXQDDPDOJDPDFLyQWLSRJHPLQDGD32HQODTXHHO32VXUJHDWDGRDXQD
~QLFDVHFXHQFLDVHJPHQWDOVHJ~QORH[LJHHO3&2

32

O૧ G

$OFUHDUVHODHVWUXFWXUD  ODUHJODGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQ  QRSXHGHDSOLFiUVHOH


SRUTXHpVWDUHTXLHUHXQFRQWH[WRGHDSOLFDFLyQDVHJPHQWRQRJHPLQDGRPLHQWUDVTXH
ODUHJOD  FUHDXQFRQWH[WRWLSRJHPLQDGR(QWRQFHVHQWUDHQDFFLyQOD&RQGLFLyQ
GH¬8QLIRUPLGDGTXHLPSLGHTXH D VHDSOLTXHDXQDODWHUDOTXHVHKDDVLPLODGR
3RUHVWDUD]yQODG૧QRVHKDFHDSUR[LPDQWHGHVSXpVGHOPLHQWUDVVtVHKDFHQ
DSUR[LPDQWHVODVGHPiVREVWUX\HQWHVVRQRUDVSRUTXHODODWHUDOQRVHDVLPLODDVXV
SXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQ/DUHJOD D WHQGUtDTXHLQWHUSRQHUVHHQHVWRVFDVRVSDUD
TXHIXHUDQDSUR[LPDQWHV

3.6 Asimilación y propagación de rasgos sin desunión

+HPRVDQDOL]DGRORVGDWRVGHDVLPLODFLyQWRWDOGHODVLQREVWUX\HQWHV‫ޞ‬ODXQDREV
WUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWHYLVWRVHQ  HQHOHVSDxROFDULEHxRPHGLDQWHODDSOLFDFLyQGH
ODUHJOD  TXHSURSDJDORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHODREVWUX\HQWHGHODGHUHFKD
FDXVDQGRODFRQVLJXLHQWHVHSDUDFLyQGHORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHODUHVRQDQWHGH
ODL]TXLHUGD6HSURGXFHHQWRQFHVXQDJHPLQDGDGHVXHUWHTXHED‫ޞ‬EH‫ޞ‬RVDOHFRPR
>EDਥEEH‫ޞ‬R@6LQHPEDUJRHVWHWLSRGHDQiOLVLVGHSURSDJDFLyQFRQGHVXQLyQTXHVHGRFX
PHQWDHQFDULEHxRQRSXHGHH[WHQGHUVHDORVGHPiVGLDOHFWRVKLVSiQLFRV(Q¬FDVWHOODQR
SRUHMHPSOR1DYDUUR7RPiV >@ REVHUYDTXHHQHOOHQJXDMHRUGLQDULROD
EGH>Dɕ૊‫ݢ‬ਥVX‫˓ޞ‬૊R@SURYHQLHQWHGHODSDODEUDabsurdo,VXUJHSDUFLDOPHQWHHQVRUGHFLGD
FRQORFXDOVHVXJLHUHTXHQRHVFRQGLFLyQQHFHVDULDTXHVHFXPSODODGHVXQLyQGHUDVJRV
SDUDTXHVHHIHFW~HJHPLQDFLyQSRUDVLPLODFLyQSXHVWRTXHHYLGHQWHPHQWHEQRVyOR
KDDVLPLODGRODVRUGH]GHVVLQRTXHWDPELpQKDSUHVHUYDGRVXVRQRULGDG 0DUWtQH]*LO
 /DWHVLVTXHVHSXGLHUDVXJHULUHVTXHQRVLHPSUHVHQHFHVLWDGHVXQLUXQQRGRSDUD
[ 130 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

TXHVHFXPSODXQSURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQ9HDPRVSULPHURDOJXQDVJHQHUDOL]DFLRQHVGH
GDWRV\OXHJRDOJXQRVRWURVGH¬1DYDUUR7RPiVTXHUHVXPH0DUWtQH]*LO  
 (QHVSDxROHVWiQGDUODVREVWUX\HQWHVVRQRUDVVXE\DFHQWHVϧQDOHVFDVLVLHPSUHVXUJHQ
FRPRDSUR[LPDQWHVHQWRGRVORVGLDOHFWRVSHURFRQODVVLJXLHQWHVSHFXOLDULGDGHVD ¬VRQ
VRQRUDVDQWHVRQRUDV\SDUFLDOPHQWHHQVRUGHFLGDVDQWHVRUGDVE ¬DOϧQDOGHSDODEUD
VXHOHQVHUVRQRUDVRVRUGDV/RVGDWRVHQ  SRQHQGHUHOLHYHHVWDVJHQHUDOL]DFLRQHV

Ejemplo 3-60 Obstruyentes sonoras subyacentes

D ಣಣ>VRQ@ ಣಣ>ਮVRQ@
a>ɕ૊@dicar a>ɕ૊‫@ݢ‬sorber
clu>ɕ૊@malo clu>ɕ૊‫@ݢ‬caro
a>˓૊@vertir a>˓૊‫@ی‬quirir
amí>࣢૊@dalas zi>࣢૊[@zag

E ಣಣ
clu>ɕ૊@ R >ਥNOX@
ciuda>˓૊@ R ciuda>‫@ۏ‬
zigza>࣢@૊ R zigza>[@

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\HQWHTXHFRPRGLMLPRVVHUHDOL]DHQWRGRVORVGLDOHFWRVHORWURGHDVLPLODFLyQGH
VRUGH](OSULPHUFDVR\DORKHPRVGLVFXWLGR\SURSXVLPRVXQDUHJODTXHGDFXHQWD
GHODHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHVRQRUDHQODVHFFLyQDQWHULRU(OVHJXQGROD¬DVL
PLODFLyQHVXQIHQyPHQRGLVWLQWRHQFDVWHOODQRHVWiQGDUSRUTXHHOVHJPHQWRTXH
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VRUGH]VRQRULGDG GHO VHJPHQWR FRQVRQiQWLFR VLJXLHQWH 6HPHMDQWH DEVRUFLyQ GHEH
SURGXFLUVHVLQGHVXQLyQXQDYH]TXHVHSURSDJDQORVUDVJRVGHOVHJPHQWRTXHFDXVD
ODDVLPLODFLyQVHJ~QORVHxDODPRVHQ D SDUDREVWUX\HQWHVVRQRUDV7DPELpQ
RFXUUHORFRQWUDULRFRQREVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDVVHJ~QVHQRWDHQODSURQXQFLDFLyQGHOD
SDODEUDétnico,TXHGDXQDGHQWDOVRUGDFRQFRDUWLFXODFLyQVRQRUD>W ૧ʶ@6LIXpUDPRVD
LQFOXLUDPERVFDVRVHQWRQFHVWDQVyORVHQHFHVLWDUtDGHMDUDODUWLFXODGRUJORWDOGHOD
SULPHUDFRQVRQDQWHVLQVXHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHVRQRULGDGHQFX\RFDVRVHSURSDJDUtDOD
VRUGH]RVRQRULGDGGHOVHJXQGRVHJPHQWR

Ejemplo 3-61 Asimilación de sordez

਑ FRQV ਔ >FRQV@
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

*ORWDO @‫۝‬ *ORWDO

>VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 131 ]

$PRGRGHDSOLFDFLyQYHDPRVORVHIHFWRVGH  HQODVHFXHQFLDEVGHabsurdo


 .

Ejemplo 3-62

a. E V
਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

2UDO /DUtQJHR /DUtQJHR 2UDO >FRQW@

/DELDO *ORWDO *ORWDO &RURQDO

>VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@ >DQW@

ఝ಩5HJOD 

b. >ɕ૊‫ݢ‬ V@
਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ ਮUHV ਖ

>FRQW@ 2UDO /DUtQJHR /DUtQJHR 2UDO >FRQW@

/DELDO *ORWDO *ORWDO &RURQDO

>VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@ >DQW@

+HPRVSUHVXPLGRTXHODUHJODGHHVSLUDQWL]DFLyQ D VHKDDSOLFDGRHQ E 


1yWHVHTXHDOSURGXFLUODDVLPLODFLyQTXHGDXQDVHFXHQFLDGHDUWLFXODGRUHVJORWDOHV
HIHFWRWDOTXHORLPSLGHHO3&2¬3RUORWDQWRODFUHDFLyQGH E UHSURGXFLGD
SDUFLDOPHQWHHQ D WLHQHTXHUHVROYHUVHDIDYRUGH E 

Ejemplo 3-63

a. ɕ૊‫ݢ‬ V b. ɕ૊‫ݢ‬ V

5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt] 5Dt]

/DUtQJHR /DUtQJHR ఩ /DUtQJHR


3&2
*ORWDO *ORWDO *ORWDO

>VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@ >VRQ@ >ਮVRQ@


[ 132 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 6LVHJXLPRVODGLVFXVLyQHQWRUQRDODDVLPLODFLyQYHPRVTXHSDUDTXHVHGpXQ
VRQLGRFRDUWLFXODGRFRPRHO>ɕ૊‫@ݢ‬HVSUHFLVRPDQWHQHUODVRQRULGDGGHOVRQLGRDVLPL
ODQWHVLQTXHpVWHSLHUGDVXFDUDFWHUtVWLFD(QWRQFHVVLPDQWHQHPRVODUHJODQRUPDO
GHDVLPLODFLyQHQODTXHHOHOHPHQWRDVLPLODQWHSLHUGHHOUDVJRTXHVHPHQFLRQDHQOD
UHJODTXHFDXVDODDVLPLODFLyQQRHVSRVLEOHGDUFXHQWDGHORVVRQLGRVFRPSOHMRVTXH
VHSURGXFHQHQHVWHGLDOHFWR'HKDFHUVHODDVLPLODFLyQFRQGHVXQLyQVHREWHQGUtD
~QLFDPHQWHXQVRQLGRHQVRUGHFLGRHQVXWRWDOLGDG>‫@ݡ‬DOJRSDUHFLGRDORTXHSURGXFH
ODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGHVRUGH]TXHRIUHFLPRVHQ  

಩&RDUWLFXODFLyQGHODVQDVDOHV

8Q~OWLPRHMHPSORGHOSURFHVRGHFRDUWLFXODFLyQVLQODFRQFRPLWDQWHGHVDVRFLDFLyQGH
UDVJRVQRVORRIUHFHODVHFXHQFLDGHQDVDOHV¢4XpRFXUUHFXDQGRDXQDQDVDOOHVLJXH
RWUDQDVDO"1DYDUUR7RPiV >@ \DKDEtDREVHUYDGRORTXHVXFHGHHQ
VHPHMDQWHFRQWH[WR
 1DYDUUR7RPiVQRWyTXHDOHQWUDUHQFRQWDFWRODDOYHRODU>Q@FRQODELODELDO>P@
HQODFRQYHUVDFLyQRUGLQDULDLED´JHQHUDOPHQWHFXELHUWDSRUODGHmµORTXHGDED
SRUUHVXOWDGRXQDFRDUWLFXODFLyQSURGXFWRGHODDUWLFXODFLyQVLPXOWiQHDGHOD>Q@\
OD>P@(QWRQFHVODJORVDGHODL]TXLHUGDHQ  DSDUHFHSURQXQFLDGDFRPRVHYH
DODGHUHFKD

Ejemplo 3-64 Representación fonética de la coarticulación de nasales

inmóvil >LQਗ਼PਥPRɕ૊LO@
conmigo >NRQਗ਼PਥPL࣢R ૊ @
sin más >VLQਗ਼PਥPDV@
un mínimo >XQਗ਼PਥPLQLPR@

/DIRQRORJtDFOiVLFDJHQHUDWLYDVHSHUFDWyGHWDQLQWHUHVDQWHIHQyPHQR +DUULV 
SHURGDGRHOLQFLSLHQWHGHVDUUROORGHGLFKDFLHQFLDHQDTXHOORVDxRVVH¬OLPLWyDFRQV
WDWDUORVKHFKRV\SRVSXVRVXH[SOLFDFLyQSDUDRWURPRPHQWR(O¬PRGHORMHUiUTXLFR
SHUPLWHGHVSHMDUODFRDUWLFXODFLyQFRPSOHMDGHHVWDVQDVDOHV<¬HVSUHFLVDPHQWHHOHVWX
GLRGHRWUDVOHQJXDVHQSDUWLFXODUHOGHODVDIULFDQDVHOTXHEULQGDSRVLELOLGDGHVH[SOL
FDWLYDVDODGREOHDUWLFXODFLyQFXDQGRVHWUDWDGHFRDUWLFXODUUDVJRVVXSUDODUtQJHRV
 6DJH\  HQIUDQFDUHIHUHQFLDD+DOOH  UHFRQRFHTXHHQXQDDUWL
FXODFLyQFRPSOHMDSDVDQDIXQFLRQDUWUHVyUJDQRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQHOODELRLQIHULRU
HOiSLFHGHODOHQJXD\HOGRUVRGHODOHQJXD&RPRODSRVLFLyQGHFDGDXQRGHHVWRV
WUHVDUWLFXODGRUHVDFW~DGHPDQHUDLQGHSHQGLHQWHHVHQWRQFHVSRVLEOHSURGXFLUFRQVR
QDQWHVFRQPiVGHXQDREVWUXFFLyQ/DFRDUWLFXODFLyQVHULJHPHGLDQWHXQDUWLFXODGRU
TXHVHHQFXHQWUDVyORHQXQSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ\SUHFLVDPHQWHHQXQPRPHQWR
GDGRHQHOWLHPSR'HDTXtTXHVyORVHDSRVLEOHGRFXPHQWDUFLHUWDVFRPELQDFLRQHVGH
FRDUWLFXODFLyQVLPXOWiQHDHQWUHODVTXHSRGHPRVFLWDUODTXHQRVFRPSHWHDQRVRWURV
ODODELRFRURQDO
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 133 ]

 3XHVELHQDORVWUHVDUWLFXODGRUHVTXHFRPRGLMLPRVIXQFLRQDQGHPDQHUDLQGH
SHQGLHQWH OHV FRUUHVSRQGHQ WUHV QRGRV \D PHQFLRQDGRV DQWHULRUPHQWH HO ODELDO
HO¬FRURQDO\HOGRUVDO$OIXQFLRQDUORVQRGRVLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHORTXHRFXUUHHV
TXHHOQRGRFRURQDOGHODQDVDODOYHRODUUHFLEHSRUDVRFLDFLyQORVUDVJRVGHOQRGR
ODELDOGHODQDVDOELODELDOVLQTXHDTXpOODSLHUGDQLQJXQRGHVXVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRV
(VWDHVWUXFWXUDFRDUWLFXODGDVHLOXVWUDHQ  

Ejemplo 3-65

Qਗ਼P P
6/ 6/

>QDVDO@ 2UDO 2UDO >QDVDO@

&RURQDO /DELDO

(OHMHPSOR  UHϩHMDSXHVODGREOHDUWLFXODFLyQFRURQDO\ODELDOHQODVHFXHQFLD


QPFX\RUHVXOWDGRϧQDOVHUtDODSURQXQFLDFLyQ>Qਗ਼P@TXHVHPXHVWUDHQ  
$GHPiVODUHJOD  QRVSRQHGHPDQLϧHVWRDOJRTXH\DKDEtDPRVPHQFLRQDGR
HO¬KHFKRGHTXHORVDUWLFXODGRUHVDSDUHFHQVLQYDOHQFLDV6LQRVUHPLWLPRVDODFOD
VLϧFDFLyQ JHQHUDWLYD WUDGLFLRQDO GH ODV FRQVRQDQWHV ODELDOHV HQFRQWUDPRV TXH VH
FDUDFWHUL]DQFRQORVUDVJRV>DQWHULRUਮFRURQDO@\ODVDOYHRODUHVFRQ>DQWHULRU
FRURQDO@(QWpUPLQRVGHYDOHQFLDVWHQGUtDPRVODLPSRVLEOHFRPELQDFLyQDUWLFXODWR
ULD >ਮFRURQDOFRURQDO@$OSURGXFLUVHODFRDUWLFXODFLyQYHPRVQRREVWDQWHTXHVt
HVSRVLEOHHQFRQWUDUFRPELQDFLRQHVGHODELDOHV\DOYHRODUHV$OGHϧQLUODVFRQELYDOHQ
FLDVHQVXQRGRDUWLFXODWRULRVHUtDSRUWDQWRLPSRVLEOHLQWHUSUHWDUIRQpWLFDPHQWHXQ
VHJPHQWRFRQYDOHQFLDVRSXHVWDV(VLUUHOHYDQWHTXHFXDQGRVHDUWLFXODXQDODELDOVH
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SURGXFLUXQDELODELDODFW~DQORVODELRV\QRODOiPLQDGHODOHQJXD(YLGHQWHPHQWHVH
KDFHLPSRVLEOHFRPELQDUVHJPHQWRVFRPSOHMRVVLORVDUWLFXODGRUHVTXHORVDFWLYDQVRQ
ELYDOHQWHV6LHQFDPELRVHDOXGHVyORDORVQRGRVTXHHVWiQSUHVHQWHV\QRDORVTXH
HVWiQDXVHQWHVQRKD\FRQWUDGLFFLyQHQUHSUHVHQWDUDDPERVWDOFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQ
 ORFXDOQRVRIUHFHDODVD]yQHOVHJPHQWRFRPSOHMR>Qਗ਼P@1RREVWDQWHYLPRV
HQHOFDStWXORTXHFRQUHVSHFWRDOFRQWRUQRWRQDOVHDGPLWHQELYDOHQFLDVRSXHVWDV
 3RURWUDSDUWHORFXULRVRGHODFRPELQDFLyQGHQDVDOHVHVTXHHQHVSDxROHVWiQGDU
ODVHFXHQFLDFRQWUDULDGHQDVDOHVRVHDPQQRSURGXFHFRDUWLFXODFLyQ>Pਗ਼Q@/DV
FRQVRQDQWHVHQFRUFKHWDGDVGHhi>PQ@o, alu>PQ@o, sole>PQ@e,HWFVHSURQXQFLDQWRGDV
FRPR>PQ@6RQFXULRVDVSRUTXHORQRUPDOHVTXHWRGDQDVDOVHDVLPLOHDOSXQWRGH
DUWLFXODFLyQGHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWHLQFOX\pQGRVHODVQDVDOHVVHJ~QORDWHVWLJXD
ODSURQXQFLDFLyQGHODVVHFXHQFLDVQ‫ص‬FX\DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFDHV>‫@صص‬FRPR
HQ>VL‫صص‬R‫ص‬Hਥ‫ޞ‬LD@sin ñoñería.
 /DUHVWULFFLyQ >Pਗ਼Q@SXGLHUDREHGHFHUDTXHDOQRSRVHHUQOp[LFDPHQWHHOUDVJR
>FRURQDO@QRWHQGUtDQDGDTXHSURSDJDUDODQDVDOSUHFHGHQWHORFXDOHVFRQWUDULRD
[ 134 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

ODVHFXHQFLDQP(VSRUHOORTXHPQVHSURQXQFLD>PQ@RPVHDVLPLODDQ
\¬SRUWDQWRSURGXFH>QQ@ HQHOKDEODRUGLQDULDGHYDULRVGLDOHFWRValumnoVHSURQXQ
FLD>DਥOXQQR@ 

3.7 Unidad en la organización de rasgos en vocales y consonantes

(QODIRQRORJtDJHQHUDWLYDWUDGLFLRQDOODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHGHϧQHQPD\RUPHQWHSRUSUR
GXFLUVHFRQREVWUXFFLyQUDGLFDOHQODFDYLGDGEXFDOKHFKRTXHVHWUDGXFHPHGLDQWHHO
UDVJR>FRQVRQDQWH@7DPELpQVHGHϧQHQSRUODFRQϧJXUDFLyQTXHDGRSWDODFDYLGDG
EXFDOODFXDOFRQWULEX\HDTXHVHUHVWULQMDVHYHUDPHQWHODVRQRUL]DFLyQHVSRQWiQHD
GHORVVHJPHQWRVFRQVRQiQWLFRVSRUWDQWRVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUVHUREVWUX\HQWHV\VH
UHSUHVHQWDQFRQHOUDVJRIDPLOLDU>ਮUHVRQDQWH@/DVYRFDOHVHQFDPELRQRHQFXHQWUDQ
REVWUXFFLyQDOJXQDHQVXSURGXFFLyQ\ODVRQRUL]DFLyQHVHVSRQWiQHDVHFDUDFWHUL]DQ
SRUVHU>ਮFRQVRQDQWHUHVRQDQWH@(VWDGLVWLQFLyQODUHϩHMDHOPRGHORMHUiUTXLFR
 HQGRQGHVHLQFOX\HQGHPRGRLOXVWUDWLYRORVYDORUHVELQDULRVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DQ
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VH¬GHVSUHQGHTXHWDQWRODVYRFDOHVFRPRODVFRQVRQDQWHVFRPSDUWHQXQPLVPRQRGR
FRQGRVFRQMXQWRVGHUDVJRVTXHVHRSRQHQHQVXVYDOHQFLDVVLHPSUHWHQLpQGRVHSUH
VHQWHTXHHV´µR´ਮµSHURQRORVGRVVLPXOWiQHDPHQWH
 $GHPiVGHFRPSDUWLUHOQRGRUDGLFDOODVYRFDOHV\ODVFRQVRQDQWHVFRPSDUWHQOD
SRVLFLyQTXHDGRSWDODOHQJXDFRQUHVSHFWRDODUHJLyQSDODWDORYHODU3RUHOORVHGLFH
TXHSXHGHQVHU>“DOWD@>“EDMD@\>“UHWUDtGD@(VWHKHFKRVHUHϩHMDHQHOPRGHOR
GH¬6DJH\+DOOHDOHVWDUGLFKRVUDVJRVVXSHGLWDGRVDXQPLVPRQRGRDUWLFXODWRULRHO
GRUVDOHOFXDODVXYH]TXHGDGRPLQDGRSRUHOQRGRGHOSXQWRRUDO3HURHODERFLQD
PLHQWRGHORVODELRVTXHGDUHJLGRLQGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHSRUHOQRGRDUWLFXODWRULRODELDO
/DGLIHUHQFLDTXHH[LVWHHQWUHODVYRFDOHV\ODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHUHPLWHDODDXVHQFLD
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D \ E 3UHV~PDVHTXHHOUDVJR>QDVDO@TXHGDUtDSUHVHQWHVHJ~QORSUH
VHQWDPRVDQWHULRUPHQWHHQ  6XLQFOXVLyQVHFLxHDODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHYRFDOHV
QDVDOHV\RUDOHVTXHH[LVWHHQOHQJXDVFRPRODIUDQFHVD

Ejemplo 3-66

a. 9
3XQWRRUDO

/DELDO 'RUVDO

>UHG@ >DOWR@ >EDMR@ >UHW@


Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 135 ]

Ejemplo 3-66 (continued)

b. 9
3XQWRRUDO

/DELDO &RURQDO 'RUVDO

>UHG@ >DQW@ >DOWR@ >EDMR@ >UHW@

 6LQHPEDUJR&OHPHQWV\+XPH  \+XPH  VXJLHUHQTXHH[LVWHXQD


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KHFKRTXHHVWiDSR\DGRSRUXQEXHQQ~PHURGHSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVHQODVOHQJXDV
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DQWHULRU(QHVORYDFRODVYHODUHVNС[FDPELDQD>߿ˎߑ@DQWHODVYRFDOHVLH 
8QHMHPSORVHUtDHOGHODSDODEUDYQXN¶QLHWR·FX\DNϧQDOFDPELDD>߿@DQWHL
YQXNLN!>ਥYQX߿LN@¶QLHWHFLWR·7DPELpQVXFHGHORFRQWUDULRFXDQGRXQDFRQ
VRQDQWHSDODWDOFDPELDODFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHXQDYRFDOFRQWLJXD(QODOHQJXDLDWPXO
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VHGHULYDQSRUHQWUDUHQFRQWDFWRFRQODVFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVբ‫ص‬SRUHMHPSOR
ODVXE\DFHQWHԌHQFRQWDFWRFRQODIULFDWLYDSDODWDOբSURGXFH>L@GH¬PDOԌբVH
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 +XPHWDPELpQGLFHTXHDOJXQRVSURFHVRVGLVLPLODWRULRVHQORVTXHLQWHUDFW~DQODV
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FRQVWULFFLyQ(VWDSDUDPHWUL]DFLyQUHVSRQGHDOKHFKRVLQJXODUGHTXHODFRQVWULFFLyQ
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GRVSDUiPHWURVGHFRQVWULFFLyQEXFDOORVDXWRUHVDOXGLGRVOHVDVLJQDQVXVUHVSHFWLYRV
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DODGHODFRQVWULFFLyQ>“FRQWLQXD@HQGRQGHVHXQHQYRFDOHV\FRQVRQDQWHV
[ 136 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

಩0RGHORJHRPpWULFREDVDGRHQODFRQVWULFFLyQEXFDO

&RQHOPRGHORDOWHUQRVHSURSRQHHQWRQFHVTXHODVYRFDOHV\ODVFRQVRQDQWHVVH
FDUDFWHUL]DQSRUTXHODFRQVWULFFLyQTXHVHSURGXFHFRLQFLGHHQJUDGR\HQORFDOL
GDG6HWHRUL]DSRUFRQVLJXLHQWHTXHHVWDVGRVSDUDPHWUL]DFLRQHVHVWiQXQLGDVD
XQQRGRSULQFLSDODOTXHGHQRPLQDQpunto-ConsWU LFWLYR HOFXDOFRUUHVSRQGHDOD
FDYLGDGRUDOGHGRQGHVHGHVSUHQGHODORFDOL]DFLyQGHFRQVWULFFLyQRpunto-C. 3DUD
ODVYRFDOHVLQPHGLDWDPHQWHGHEDMRGHOSXQWR&VHGHVSUHQGHXQQRGRvocálicoTXH
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FRQHOQRGRpunto-V RFiOLFR OXJDUGRQGHVHFRQFHQWUDODDFWLYLGDGDUWLFXODWRULD
'HOQRGRYRFiOLFRWDPELpQVHGHVSUHQGHODFRQVWULFFLyQJUDGXDOTXHVHUHSUHVHQWD
PHGLDQWHXQQRGRGHapertura\TXHFRUUHVSRQGHDOJUDGRGHDSHUWXUDTXHVHSURGXFH
FRQODOHQJXDVHJ~QpVWDVHDSUR[LPDDOSDODGDU,OXVWUDPRVVHPHMDQWHJHRPHWUtD
HQ D $SDUWHGHODFDUHQFLDGHOQRGRGHDSHUWXUDODVFRQVRQDQWHVVLPSOHV
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ORFDOL]DFLyQTXHUHSUHVHQWDPRVHQ E FRQpunto-C,\GHJUDGRTXHFRUUHVSRQGH
DOUDVJR>“FRQWLQXR@3HURDGLIHUHQFLDGHODVYRFDOHVQRSRVHHQQRGRYRFiOLFR
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SURSDJDFLyQ GH UDVJRV R DVLPLODFLyQ YRFiOLFD D WUDYpV GH FRQVRQDQWHV 7DQWR HO
SXQWR9FRPRHOSXQWR&VRQJURVVRPRGRHOFRQRFLGRSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRGHORV
VHJPHQWRV

Ejemplo 3-67

a. 9
਑ ਮFRQV ਔ
ਓ UHV ਖ

&DYLGDGRUDO

>FRQW@ SXQWR&

YRFiOLFR

SXQWR9 DSHUWXUD

/DELDO &RURQDO 'RUVDO >“DELHUWR@

>ਮDQW@
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 137 ]

Ejemplo 3-67 (continued)

b. &
਑ FRQV ਔ
ਓ “UHV ਖ

&DYLGDGRUDO

>“FRQW@ SXQWR&

/DELDO &RURQDO 'RUVDO

>“DQW@

 /DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ  QRHVFRPSOHWDSRUIDOWDGHHVSDFLRHQODSiJLQD3UHV~


PDVHSXHVTXHWDQWRHOQRGRODUtQJHRFRPRHOQDVDO\ORVUDVJRVTXHGRPLQDQHVWiQ
GLUHFWDPHQWHOLJDGRVDODUDt]DOLJXDOTXHHQHOPRGHOR6DJH\+DOOH+D\TXHQRWDU
TXHODVYRFDOHVWLHQHQODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUHGXQGDQWH>ਮDQWHULRU@VHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQ
D &RPRODVYRFDOHVQRVHGHϧQHQSRUGLFKRUDVJRVXYDORUQHJDWLYRVHDGTXLHUH
PHGLDQWHODUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLDODFXDOORLQWURGXFLUtDVLHOVHJPHQWRHQFXHVWLyQ
IXHVHYRFDO6HUtDGHHVWDPDQHUD>@఩>ਮDQWHULRU@>YRFiOLFRFRURQDO@/DLQHV
SHFLϧFDFLyQGHOYDORUQHJDWLYRGHOUDVJR>DQWHULRU@VHKDFHPiVSDWHQWHFXDQGRVH
FRQVLGHUDHOFDPELRGHW ૧D>V@DQWHLFRPRODW ૧GHS‫ޞ‬HVLGHQW ૧HTXHHQFRQ
WDFWRFRQL9VHUHDOL]DFRPR>V@S‫ޞ‬HVLGHQW ૧LDO఩>S‫ޞ‬HVL˓૊HQਥVMDO@(YLGHQWHPHQWH
HQHVWDDVLPLODFLyQODLQRSRGUtDWUDQVPLWLUXQUDVJRVXE\DFHQWH>ਮDQWHULRU@SXHV
HQYH]GH>V@WHUPLQDUtDPRVFRQODSDODWDO>ߑ@TXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUVHU>ਮDQWHULRU@
(O¬KHFKRGHTXHHQLQJOpVVHUHDOLFHSUHFLVDPHQWHXQD>ߑ@HQHOPLVPRFRQWH[WRVXJLHUH
TXHHQHVSDxROWDOYDORUQRDSDUHFHHQODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHGHODVYRFDOHV
 (OPRGHORTXHVHSUHVHQWDHQ  GHϧQHSXHVORVUDVJRVTXHVHSURGXFHQHQ
ODFDYLGDGRUDOQRHQWpUPLQRVGHDUWLFXODGRUHVVLQRHQWpUPLQRGHVXFRQVWULFFLyQ
(O¬JUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQ\ODORFDOL]DFLyQSXHGHQYDULDUSHURODVFDWHJRUtDVIRUPDOHV
GHODUHDOL]DFLyQRUDOVRQLGpQWLFDVDPEDVVHDJUXSDQEDMRHOQRGRGHODFDYLGDGRUDO
&OHPHQWV\+XPHH[SUHVDQODXQLGDGGHYRFDOHV\FRQVRQDQWHVGHHVWDPDQHUD  

Ejemplo 3-68

>ODELDO@ FRQVRQDQWHVODELDOHVYRFDOHVUHGRQGDV\ODELDOL]DGDV
>FRURQDO@ FRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVYRFDOHVLUUHWUDtGDV SDODWDOHV\PHGLDV
DQWHULRUHV
>GRUVDO@ FRQVRQDQWHVGRUVDOHVYRFDOHVUHWUDtGDV SRVWHULRUHV
[ 138 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

/RVVHJPHQWRVODELDOHVVHGHϧQHQSRUTXHDOSURGXFLUVHVHUHDOL]DXQDFRQVWULFFLyQGHORV
ODELRV/RVFRURQDOHVLQYROXFUDQHQVXFRQVWULFFLyQODSDUWHDQWHULRUGHODOHQJXDGHVGHHO
GRUVRTXHVHDSUR[LPDDRWRFDODUHJLyQSDODWRDOYHRODUKDVWDODSDUWHDQWHULRU iSLFH
\SUHGRUVR TXHWRFDODSDUWHSRVWHULRUGHORVLQFLVLYRV\ORVDOYHRORV/RVGRUVDOHVVH
IRUPDQFRQFRQVWULFFLyQHQODSDUWHSRVWHULRUGHODOHQJXDRVHDTXHFRPLHQ]DGHVGH
HOSRVWGRUVRKDFLDVXUDt]6LVHGHϧQHQSRUFRLQFLGLUHQVXFRQVWULFFLyQGHMDQGHVHU
PLVWHULRVRVDOJXQRVGHORVFDVRVFRPSOHMRVGHDVLPLODFLyQTXHVHUHDOL]DQHQHVSDxRO1RV
UHIHULPRVDOPHQFLRQDGRFDPELRGHW ૧DQWHL\DGHVYHODUL]DFLyQGHNTXHVHFRQ
YLHUWHHQODIULFDWLYD>V@DQWHYRFDOHV>ਮUHWUDtGD@3DVHPRVDFRQVLGHUDUHVWH~OWLPRFDVR

಩&RURQDOL]DFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHYHODUVRUGD

8QDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDQRWDEOHGHODOHQJXDHVSDxRODHVODDOWHUQDQFLDGH>N@\>V@TXH
VXHOHSURGXFLUVHSRULQϩXHQFLDGHODYRFDOL\HQPHQRUFDVRSRUODH+DUULV
² VHSHUFDWyWHPSUDQDPHQWHGHHVWHWLSRGHDOWHUQDQFLDV\SURSXVRXQ
SDUGHUHJODVWUDGLFLRQDOHVGHGHVYHODUL]DFLyQFRQODVTXHVHUHSURGXFtDHOFRQWH[WR
PHQFLRQDGR/DSULPHUDUHJODFDPELDEDODNGHRSDNLG૧DG૧HQXQDLQWHUPHGLD
>߿@\ODVHJXQGDVHHQFDUJDEDGHFRQYHUWLUHVWHVHJPHQWRFRPSOHMRHQ>V@SDUDSUR
GXFLUODHYHQWXDO>RSDVLਥ˓૊D˓૊@/RPLVPROHRFXUULUtDDLQG૧LNHTXHFRQHOFRQFXUVR
GHGRVUHJODVGHYHQtDHQ>ਥLQ૧G૧LVH@+DUULVUHVWULQJtDHOFRQWH[WRTXHSUR\HFWDEDHO
IHQyPHQROLPLWiQGRORDOOLQGHPRUIpPLFRSXHVODVNGHes>N@eleto, ata>N@e, a>N@
ito,\PXFKDVRWUDVPiVQRVHGHVYHODUL]DQ7RGDVpVWDVKDEtDTXHUHPLWLUODVH[FHS
FLRQDOPHQWHDOOp[LFRHQDOJXQRVFDVRV\HQRWURVHUDQSURGXFWRGHODGLVWLQFLyQ
PLVPDHQWUHXQDNZTXHVXE\DFtDDFLHUWDVSDODEUDVFRPRHQNZiere\ODNHQ
puertorriNeñoDGHPiVGHORVHMHPSORVDQWHVFLWDGRV
 6HSXGLHUDSHQVDUTXHDODOX]GHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFDODGHVYHODUL]DFLyQSDUHFH
SURGXFLUVHDQWHLHSHURHOORVXFHGHVyORHQFLHUWRVWLSRVGHFRQWH[WRV(VMXVWROR
TXHVXJLHUH1~xH]&HGHxR ² TXLHQQRWDTXHORVVXϧMRV-idad, -ista\
-ensePRWLYDQHOFDPELRVLQHPEDUJRORVVXϧMRV-edad, -ez, -ero, -izo, -eño, -ía\RWURV
FXDQWRVQRFRQGLFLRQDQPXWDFLyQDOJXQD(Q DEF VHRIUHFHHMHPSORVGHORV
SULPHURV\HQ G GHORVVHJXQGRV

Ejemplo 3-69

a. excéntri>N@o ~ excentri>V@idad c. itáli>N@o ~ itali>V@ense


eléctri>N@o ~ electri>V@idad Costarri>N@a ~ costarri>V@ense
cadu>N@o ~ cadu>V@idad
católi>N@o ~ catoli>V@idad
b. clási>N@o ~ clasi>V@ista
eléctri>N@o ~ electri>V@ista
cientí >N@o ~ cienti >V@ista
gáli>N@o ~ gali>V@ista
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 139 ]

Ejemplo 3-69 (continued)

d. ter>N@o ~ ter>N@edad
brus>N@o ~ brus>N@edad
domésti>N@o ~ domesti>N@ez
cadu>N@o ~ cadu>N@ez
ban>N@o ~ ban>N@ero
palen>N@e ~ palen>N@ero
blan>N@o ~ blan>N@izo
Puerto ~ puertorri>N@eño
Ri>N@o
Antio>N@ía ~ antio>N@eño
monar>N@a ~ monar>N@ía
tur>N@o ~ Tur>N@ía

 &RPRKD\H[FHSFLRQHVQRWDEOHVHQORVFDVRVHQTXHKD\FDPELRGHND>V@WDQWR
HQQRYHUEDOHVFRPRHQYHUEDOHV SDUDPiVGHWDOOHVUHϧpUDVHD1~xH]&HGHxR 
ORTXHTXHUHPRVUHVDOWDUHVTXHODNHQOtPLWHGHSDODEUDDQWHLHGHYDULRVWLSRV
GHPRUIHPDVHVSHFtϧFRVGHODOHQJXDIDYRUHFHODGHVYHODUL]DFLyQRFRURQDOL]DFLyQ
HVWH~OWLPRTXHHQVtUHϩHMDϧHOPHQWHORTXHRFXUUHVHJ~QFRPSUREDUHPRVHQXQ
PRPHQWR$KRUDELHQVLUHJUHVDPRVDOPRGHORWUDGLFLRQDOTXHSUHVHQWy+DUULVHQ
QRWHQGUtDPRVPDQHUDGHVDEHUORTXHSDVDSRUTXHDOOtVHQFLOODPHQWHVHGHVFULEH
TXHHVWDVYRFDOHVLQFHQWLYDQHOSURFHVR1RVHVDEHSRUTXpORKDFHQHVWDVYRFDOHV\
QRODDRGHPiVYRFDOHVUHWUDtGDV
 &XDQGRFRQVLGHUDPRVDWHRUtDGH¬6DJH\+DOOHKDOODPRVTXHHQUHDOLGDGWDPSRFR
VHKDDYDQ]DGRGHPDVLDGRHQFDUDFWHUL]DUORTXHRFXUUHSRUTXHVLSHQVDPRVHQODV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVTXHSURSRQHQHVWRVIRQyORJRVQRVSHUFDWDUHPRVGHTXHWHQGUtDPRV
TXHGDUWUHVSDVRV(QSULPHUOXJDUKDEUtDTXHGHVDUWLFXODUHOQRGRGRUVDOGHNVLQ
SURSDJDFLyQGHOGHODYRFDOSXHVQRVHSURGXFHXQVRQLGRFRDUWLFXODGR FRPSOHMR 
VHJ~QODUHJOD D OXHJRKDEUtDTXHSURSDJDUOHODFRQVWULFFLyQ>FRQWLQXD@GH
ODYRFDO>ਮUHWUDtGD@GHDFXHUGRFRQ E 3RU~OWLPRDOGHVDUWLFXODUVHHOQRGR
GRUVDOODFRQVRQDQWHSHUPDQHFHUtDVLQHVSHFLϧFDFLyQHQVXSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRFRQOR
FXDOVHSUHVXPLUtDTXHHYHQWXDOPHQWHUHFLELUtDSRUUHGXQGDQFLDHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@
KHFKRTXHSDUHFHFRUURERUDUVHHQRWUDVOHQJXDV/RVGDWRVGHHVWDVOHQJXDVVXJLHUHQ
TXHXQDFRQVRQDQWHTXHFDUHFHGHUDVJRVHQVXSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRUHFLEHGHPRGR
JHQHUDOHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR>FRURQDO@ 3DUDGLV\3UXQHWDE\HOFDStWXOR 
FRQHOTXHDXWRPiWLFDPHQWHVHLPSOLFDTXHVLHV>FRURQDO@WDPELpQHV>DQWHULRU@
/DVUHJODVGHGHVDVRFLDFLyQ\GHDVLPLODFLyQVHRIUHFHQHQ DE \ODSUHVXQWD
UHJODTXHLQWURGXFHHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@VHRIUHFHHQ FG /D:UHSUHVHQWDHO
FRQWH[WRTXHGHEHVHJXLUDODYRFDO\TXHVHERVTXHMyDUULEDSDUDTXHVHUHDOLFHHO
SURFHVRRVHD-dad, -sta, -nse,HWF
[ 140 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-70

a. ;@ ; :

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ ਮFRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ

32 >FRQW@ 32

'RUVDO 'RUVDO

>UHW@ >ਮUHW@

b. ;@ ; :

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ ਮFRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ

32 >FRQW@ 32

'RUVDO

>ਮUHW@

c. 5HJODJHQHUDOGHLQVHUFLyQGHUDVJR
3XQWRRUDO ఩ 3XQWRRUDO

>FRURQDO@

d. V@ L :

਑ FRQV ਔ ਑ ਮFRQV ਔ
ਓ ਮUHV ਖ ਓ UHV ਖ

32 >FRQW@ 32

&RURQDO 'RUVDO

>DQW@ >ਮUHW@
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 141 ]

 3RUORTXHVHYHHQODVUHJODVRIUHFLGDVDUULEDHVSRVLEOHSURYHHUXQDPDTXLQDULD
IRUPDOTXHFDUDFWHULFHHOFDPELRGHND>V@/RTXHQRUHVXOWDFODURHVSRUTXpVHQHFH
VLWDQWDQWRVSDVRV\DSDUWHGHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@TXHRIUHFHODYRFDO\TXHDSDUHQWHPHQWH
FDXVDTXHODYHODUVHKDJD>FRQWLQXD@³DGLFLyQTXHWDPELpQOHSXGLHUDVHUFRQIHULGD
SRUFXDOTXLHURWUDYRFDO³UHVXOWDLQH[SOLFDEOHHOSDSHOUHDOTXHGHVHPSHxDQODVYRFDOHV
LH+D\TXHYHUSRUHMHPSORTXHHOVHJPHQWRUHVXOWDQWHQRSURGXFHXQDFRQVRQDQWH
SDODWDOL]DGDFRQORFXDOVHVXJLHUHTXHHOUDVJR>DOWR@QRVHWUDQVPLWHGHODYRFDODOD
FRQVRQDQWH3HURHVWRQRFRQVWLWX\HSUREOHPDDOJXQRHQODH[SUHVLyQIRUPDOGHODUHJOD
SRUODVHQFLOODUD]yQGHTXHHQVXGHVFULSFLyQQRVHDOXGHDHVWHUDVJR3RUHOFRQWUDULR
VHKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDOUDVJR>ਮUHWUDtGR@FRQHOTXHVXSXHVWDPHQWHVHLQGXFHXQFDPELR
H[WUDRUGLQDULRGHFRQVRQDQWHTXHVHDUWLFXODHQODSDUWHSRVWHULRUGHODFDYLGDGRUDO
SDUDSDVDUDUHDOL]DUVHHQODSDUWHDQWHULRU(OORVLJQLϧFDVLQHPEDUJRTXHODFRQVR
QDQWH>ਮUHWUDtGD@TXHVXUJHSXGLHUDVHUXQDGHODVREVWUX\HQWHVSEW ૧G૧EI߿3DUD
UHVWULQJLUODGHVXHUWHTXHQRVDOJD>I@VLQR>V@KD\TXHGHMDUTXHLQWHUYHQJDODUHJODSRU
GHIHFWRTXHOOHQDHOYDFtRGHOSXQWRRUDODXVHQWHTXHWHQGUtDNRVHDODTXHOHSURYHH
FRURQDOLGDG'LFKRGHRWURPRGRHIHFWLYDPHQWHQRVHHVWiDVLPLODQGRQDGDSRUTXHOD
FRURQDOLGDGTXHDVXPHNQRYLHQHSRUDVLPLODFLyQGHXQUDVJRSULQFLSDOVLQRSRULQVHU
FLyQDXWRPiWLFD/DKLVWRULDWRPDRWURPDWL]VLVHFRQVLGHUDHOPRGHOR&OHPHQWV+XPH
TXH1~xH]&HGHxR ² DGRSWDSDUFLDOPHQWH\SURSRQHSDUDHOHVSDxRO

಩&RURQDOL]DFLyQFRPRSURGXFWRGHDVLPLODFLyQGHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@

6LVHSLHQVDTXHODVFRQVRQDQWHV\ODVYRFDOHVLQWHUDFW~DQGHPDQHUDTXHFRPSDUWHQ
XQ QRGR DUWLFXODWRULR TXH GRPLQD XQ PLVPR FRQMXQWR GH UDVJRV VHJ~Q YLPRV HQ
  HO¬ SURFHVR GH FRURQDOL]DFLyQ GH N FRPLHQ]D D UHYHODUVH FRQ QDWXUDOLGDG
VRUSUHQGHQWHFRPRORPXHVWUD  

Ejemplo 3-71

N@ L :

&DYLGDGRUDO &DYLGDGRUDO

SXQWR& >FRQW@ SXQWR&

YRFiOLFR

'RUVDO SXQWR9

&RURQDO

>GLVW@
[ 142 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

3ULPHUDPHQWHVHGHVXQHHOUDVJRGRUVDOGHOSXQWR&GHODNFRQORTXHVHFRQ
WULEX\H D VX FRQVLJXLHQWH SpUGLGD (Q VHJXQGR OXJDU HO SXQWR9 GH OD L SDVD D
DVRFLDUVXUDVJR>FRURQDO@DOSXQWR&TXH\DKDVLGRGHVOLJDGR$ODVRFLDUVHHOQRGR
FRURQDOVX¬UDVJRGHSHQGLHQWH>GLVWULEXLGR@WDPELpQHPLJUDFRQpO$OUHDOL]DUVH
ODDVLPLODFLyQGHOQRGRFRURQDOVHKDEODHQWRQFHVGHXQSURFHVRGHFRURQDOL]DFLyQ
\DTXHVHHVWiWUDQVPLWLHQGRGLFKRSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRGXUDQWHHOSURFHVRGHDVL
PLODFLyQ6HPHMDQWHDVRFLDFLyQFRQFRQFRPLWDQWHGHVDVRFLDFLyQSURGXFHSXHVXQ
VRQLGRFRURQDO
 2EVpUYHVH TXH HQ HVWH PRGHOR OD L VH GHϧQH SRU VHU >FRURQDO@ HQ YH] GH
>ਮUHWUDtGD@ FRQ OR FXDO VH FDUDFWHUL]D HO KHFKR GH TXH HV XQ VRQLGR TXH VH DUWL
FXODHQWUHHO SUH GRUVR\HOiSLFHGHODOHQJXD3HURDQLYHOLQWHUPHGLRGHGHULYD
FLyQWRGDYtDQRVHKDORJUDGRFXDMDUQHFHVDULDPHQWH>V@SRUGRVPRWLYRV3ULPHUR
OD¬HQWUDGDQRHVSHFLϧFDTXHNVHD>FRQWLQXD@HVORRSXHVWR\GHKHFKRFRPR
HVWHUDVJRQRUHVXOWDGLVWLQWLYRQRYLHQHFRQVLJQDGRHQHOOp[LFRVLQRTXHUHFLEHHO
UDVJR>ਮFRQWLQXR@SRUGHIHFWR6HJXQGRODVYRFDOHVVRQUHGXQGDQWHPHQWH>FRQ
WLQXD@FRQORFXDOWDPSRFRKD\TXHDVLJQDUOHVHVHUDVJRDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH<D~Q
VLHVWXYLHUDFRQVLJQDGRFRPRORVXJLHUHHOPRGHOR&OHPHQWV+XPHODUHJOD  
QRFDSWDHVWDDVLPLODFLyQSRUTXHVyORVHHVWiDVLPLODQGRODORFDOL]DFLyQGHODYRFDO
\QRVXFRQVWULFFLyQ>FRQWLQXD@ODFXDOGHSHQGHGLUHFWDPHQWHGHOQRGRFDYLGDG
RUDO
 6LQHPEDUJRDOSURGXFLUVHXQVRQLGRFRURQDOTXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUVHU>GLVWUL
EXLGRDQWHULRU@HQODOHQJXDHVSDxRODHO~QLFRTXHFRQWLHQHHVWDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
IRQpWLFDVHVSUHFLVDPHQWHOD>V@VHJ~Q+DUULV  &RPRYHUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR
HOUDVJR>FRURQDO@LPSOLFDSRUGHIHFWR>DQWHULRU@FRQORFXDOVHGHGXFHHQWRQFHV
TXHXQDUHJODSRUGHIHFWROHDWULEX\HDODVDOLGDHOUDVJR>FRQWLQXR@DODV/D¬UHJOD
SRUGHIHFWR  OXFHDVt

Ejemplo 3-72

਑ DQWHULRU ਔ ఩ >FRQWLQXR@
ਓ GLVWULEXLGR ਖ

(Q E VHLOXVWUDHOUHVXOWDGRGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD  SDUDODHQWUDGD


Op[LFDRSDNLG૧DG૧TXHRIUHFHPRVHQ D 6HGHEHSUHVXPLUSRUVXSXHVWRTXH
ODUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLD  \DVHKDDSOLFDGRHQ E 
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 143 ]

Ejemplo 3-73

a. RSD N@ L@ G૧DG૧@

&DYLGDGRUDO &DYLGDGRUDO

SXQWR& >FRQW@ SXQWR&

YRFiOLFR

'RUVDO SXQWR9

&RURQDO

>GLVW@

b. RSD V@ L@ G૧DG૧@

&DYLGDGRUDO &DYLGDGRUDO

>FRQW@ SXQWR& >FRQW@ SXQWR&

YRFiOLFR

&RURQDO SXQWR9

>DQW@ >GLVW@ &RURQDO

>GLVW@

 (QϧQHOFDPELRGHND>V@UHVXOWDUHYHODGRUVLVHFRQIRUPDDODWHRUtDGH¬&OHPHQWV
+XPHSRUTXHFRQHOODODVYRFDOHVLUUHWUDtGDVVHWLHQHQSRU>FRURQDO@\HVMXVWDPHQWH
HVWHUDVJRHOTXHOHFRQϧHUHDODFRQVRQDQWHNVXHYHQWXDOWUDQVIRUPDFLyQHQVHJPHQWR
FRURQDODOPRPHQWRGHUHDOL]DUVHHOSURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQ&RQHOPRGHORGH¬6DJH\
+DOOHVHPHMDQWHSURFHVRSHUPDQHFHHQHOiPELWRGHORPLVWHULRVRSRUTXHDOQRGRGRUVDO
TXHGHϧQHDLHHQSDUWLFXODUHOUDVJR>ਮUHWUDtGR@WHQGUtDTXHKDFpUVHOHODDFUREDFLD
IRQROyJLFDTXHERVTXHMDPRVDUULEDSDUDDWULEXLUOHDODNVXFDUiFWHU>FRURQDO@
(O¬FyPRORJUDUORQRVUHPLWLUtDQHFHVDULDPHQWHDOiPELWRGHODDUELWUDULHGDG
[ 144 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

3.8 Teoría de la adyacencia

(QODVHFFLyQDUJLPRVTXHHQDUiELJRQRVHSHUPLWHODVHFXHQFLDGHGRVFRQ
VRQDQWHV FRURQDOHV DXQ FXDQGR HQWUH pVWDV SXGLHUD LQWHUYHQLU RWUD 3RU HMHPSOR
WEGHVWiPDO3XGLPRVFRPSUREDUHQHIHFWRTXHODUHVWULFFLyQVHFXPSOHDWUDYpV
GHFLHUWRVUDVJRVFRVDTXHVHH[SOLFDSRUTXHDUTXLWHFWyQLFDPHQWHORVUDVJRVGHOD
FRQVRQDQWHEHVWiQHQXQSODQRGLIHUHQWHDOGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVWG7DPELpQYLPRV
HQHOFDStWXOR¬TXHHQ*UDQDGDHOSURFHVRGHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDVHKDFHDWUDYpVGH
FRQVRQDQWHVFRQORTXHVHVXJLHUHTXHORVUDVJRVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVSDUHFHQQRHVWDU
SUHVHQWHVRVLORHVWiQVHHQFXHQWUDQHQRWURQLYHOGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQHQVXDUTXLWHF
WXUDJHRPpWULFD6L¬VHFXPSOHXQDXRWUDSRVLELOLGDGODDVLPLODFLyQGHOUDVJRYRFiOLFR
SURFHGHFRPRVLODVYRFDOHVHVWXYLHUDQMXQWDVDOLJXDOTXHHOSURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQ
GHQDVDODOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRGHODVREVWUX\HQWHVVLJXLHQWHV(VWHWLSRGHSURFHVRQR
HVQDGDFRQWURYHUVLDOGDGDODSUR[LPLGDGGHORVHOHPHQWRVTXHORDIHFWDQ\GHORVTXH
VRQDIHFWDGRV/R¬TXHUHVXOWDGHHVSHFLDOLQWHUpVHVODDVLPLODFLyQDODUJDGLVWDQFLD
IHQyPHQRTXHVHGHEHUHVWULQJLUIRUPDOPHQWHSXHVHVSUHFLVRHVWDEOHFHUFRQGLFLRQHV
TXHOLPLWHQODGLVWDQFLDTXHSXHGHH[LVWLUHQWUHXQVHJPHQWRTXHDFWLYDXQFDPELR\
RWURTXHORUHFLEH9HDPRVHOGHVDUUROORGHODIRUPDOL]DFLyQGHVHPHMDQWHUHVWULFFLyQ
VHJ~QODHVER]D2GGHQ  

಩%UHYHERVTXHMRKLVWyULFRGHODDG\DFHQFLD

(QODWHRUtDOLQHDOUHSUHVHQWDGDSRUHOWUDEDMRGH¬&KRPVN\\+DOOH  VHWUDWyHO


SURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQGHVHJPHQWRVFXDQGRQRVHHQFRQWUDEDQFRQWLJXRV(OPHFDQLVPR
IRUPDOTXHXWLOL]DEDQHUDLQGLFDUFRQVXEtQGLFHGHFHURODQRSUHVHQFLDGHXQVHJPHQWR
TXHLQWHUYLQLHUDHQWUHHOVHJPHQWRTXHLQFHQWLYDEDHOSURFHVR\VXEODQFR(QWRQFHV
HQHOFDVRGHOUHODMDPLHQWRYRFiOLFRHQ>PɬਥP͑Q૧W ૧ɬ@,HQHOGLDOHFWRJUDQDGLQREDVWDED
FRQSRVWXODUODUHJOD  HQGRQGH&VLJQLϧFDEDTXHSRGtDRQRKDEHUFRQVRQDQWHV

Ejemplo 3-74

9
9఩>ਮWHQVD@ಣಣ& >ਮWHQVD@

& WHQtD SRVLELOLGDGHV LQϧQLWDV UHSUHVHQWDED LJXDO QLQJXQD TXH XQ VLQQ~PHUR GH
FRQVRQDQWHV
 3RVWHULRUPHQWHVHOLPLWyODFDSDFLGDGH[SUHVLYDGHUHJODVFRPROD  DOHVSH
FLϧFDUVHTXHODDVLPLODFLyQDODUJDGLVWDQFLDSRGUtDRFXUULUVyORHQDTXHOORVFDVRVHQ
TXHQRKXELHUDFRLQFLGHQFLDGHUDVJRVHQWUHHOIRFRPLVPRGHODUHJOD\HOVHJPHQWR
DIHFWDGR 2GGHQ (OORVLJQLϧFDSRUHMHPSORTXHXQDUHJODTXHQDVDOLFHXQD
YRFDOEDMDLQLFLDODQWHODVHFXHQFLDಣಣ >DOWD@>VRQRUD@>UHVRQDQWH@ >QDVDO@
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 145 ]

QR GHEH DOXGLU D YRFDO EDMD HQ HVWH FRQWH[WR $Vt GLFKD UHJOD QR VH DSOLFDUtD D
DNDZQSRUTXHpVWDQRVHFLxHDVXGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDO
 6LQ HPEDUJR QDGD LPSLGH TXH OD UHJOD GH QDVDOL]DFLyQ VH DSOLTXH D DNHZQ
OR¬FXDOSURGXFLUtDODLQH[LVWHQWH>mNHZQ@(UDREYLRTXHODWHRUtDQRHVWDEDORVXϧ
FLHQWHPHQWHUHVWULQJLGDSRUTXHSHUPLWtDTXHVXUJLHUDQIRUPDVLQH[LVWHQWHV/DPHWD
WHyULFDHUDSXHVHYLWDU\HOLPLQDUODVH[SUHVLRQHVGHWLSR &9 

಩$G\DFHQFLDHQODWHRUtDQROLQHDO

/DIRQRORJtDQROLQHDOYDGHϧQLpQGRVHGHPRGRWDOTXHVHHYLWHQODVUHJODVTXHDOX
GDQDVXEtQGLFHVFRQFHURV/OHJDDUHϧQDUVHFRQPD\RUDUWLFXODFLyQHQORVWUDEDMRV
GH¬ $UFKDQJHOL \ 3XOOH\EODQN TXLHQHV VXJLHUHQ TXH ORV SURFHVRV GHEHQ UHVSHWDU OD
&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDG'LFKDFRQGLFLyQVHQFLOODPHQWHHVWDEOHFHTXHWDQWRHOUHFHS
WRUGHORVHIHFWRVGHXQDUHJODIRQROyJLFDFRPRVXUHVSHFWLYRDFWLYDGRUGHEHQHVWDU
DG\DFHQWHV$XQTXHQRODYDPRVDH[SOLFDUFRQYLHQHVHxDODUTXHSHVHDVXDSRUWH
VLJQLϧFDWLYRDOWHPD\DODWHRUtDIRQROyJLFDVHOHYLHQHQHQFLPDXQDEXHQDFDQWLGDG
GHSUREOHPDVTXHQRSXHGHUHVROYHU0iVH[LWRVDSDUHFHVHUODWHRUtDTXHDUWLFXOD
2GGHQHQHOWUDEDMRDQWHVFLWDGR
 /DWHRUtDGH¬2GGHQVHEDVDHQODHVWUXFWXUDJHRPpWULFDGH¬&OHPHQWV+XPH&RPR
VHUHFRUGDUiHQODDUTXLWHFWXUDJHRPpWULFDGHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQTXHGHϧHQGHQ
HVWRVDXWRUHVVHGLFHTXHKD\XQDHTXLYDOHQFLDIXQFLRQDOHQWUHORVUDVJRVGHODVYRFDOHV
\ORVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHV6HYLRSRUHMHPSORTXHKD\XQDHVWUHFKDLQWHUDFFLyQHQWUHOD
YRFDOL\ODREVWUX\HQWHFRURQDOW ૧$GHPiVKD\OHQJXDVHQTXHHOSUHϧMRYRFiOLFR
GHFLHUWRPRUIHPDHVXQDFRSLDϧHOGHODYRFDOGHODUDt]6LODFRQVRQDQWHLQLFLDOHV
XQDFRQVRQDQWHFRURQDOHOSUHϧMRYRFiOLFRUHVXOWDVHUODYRFDO>L@3RURWUDSDUWH
DXQTXHVHDUJX\HTXHKD\VHPHMDQWHHTXLYDOHQFLDORVQRGRVGHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR
GHODVYRFDOHV\ODVFRQVRQDQWHVHVWiQHQGLIHUHQWHVHVWUDWRV3RUHVRVHMXVWLϧFDHOTXH
ODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHDQWUDQVSDUHQWHVFXDQGRRFXUUHODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDFRPRHQHO
FDVRGHOJUDQDGLQRDQWHVPHQFLRQDGR%UHYHPHQWHERVTXHMDGRHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULR
GHODVFRQVRQDQWHVVHGLVWLQJXHGHOGHODVYRFDOHVVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQ  

Ejemplo 3-75

SXQWR&
SXQWR9 SXQWR9

FRU FRU FRU

'HDKtVHH[SOLFDTXHHOSXQWR9GHFRUSXHGDSURSDJDUVXUDVJRDOGHFRUSDVDQGR
SRUFRU<DXQTXHSDUHFHTXHVHFUXFHQOtQHDVGHDVRFLDFLyQGHKHFKRQRRFXUUH
DVtSRUTXHHOFUXFHQRVHUHDOL]DHQXQPLVPRSODQRVLQRHQSODQRVGLIHUHQWHV9LVWR
[ 146 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

GHRWURPRGRGHEDMRGHOSXQWR&QRLQWHUYLHQHXQSXQWR9SRUORWDQWRQRSXHGH
KDEHUFUXFHGHOtQHDV

಩'HϧQLFLyQGHORFDOLGDG

6LVHDFHSWDODWHRUtDGH¬&OHPHQWV+XPHGHDFXHUGRFRQ  SRGHPRVYHUTXH


GHKHFKRWDQWRHOSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRGHODFRUO\HOGHFRUHVWiQFRQWLJXRVSXHVWR
TXHQDGDLQWHUYLHQHHQHVHSODQR HOSODQRSXQWR&QRFRQWLHQHGHEDMRXQSXQWR9 
/D¬DG\DFHQFLDVHGDDSDUWLUGHODSUHVHQFLDGHUDVJRVTXHHVWpQHQGLIHUHQWHVQLYH
OHV3RUORWDQWRODDG\DFHQFLDVHHIHFW~DVLHPSUHTXHVHUHVSHWHODLQWHUDFFLyQGH
SUR[LPLGDGHQWUHORVHOHPHQWRVTXHVHDIHFWDQ'HPDQHUDPiVWpFQLFDODVUHODFLRQHV
IRQROyJLFDVGHEHQUHVSHWDUOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDG

Ejemplo 3-76 Condición de Localidad

(QXQDUHODFLyQHQTXHVHLQYROXFUDQ$¬\%\ORVUHVSHFWLYRVQRGRVǓ\ɕTXH
DPERVGRPLQDQQDGDSXHGHVHSDUDUDǓ\ɕDQRVHUTXHORTXHOHVVHSDUHHVWp
HQRWURHVWUDWR

/DFRQGLFLyQ  VHQFLOODPHQWHGLFHTXHHQ D \ E Ǔ\ɕHVWiQDG\DFHQ


WHVDXQFXDQGRHQ E DSDUHFHXQD&TXHVHSUHVXPHHVWiHQXQHVWUDWRGLIHUHQWH

Ejemplo 3-77

a. $ B b. $ & B

Ǔ ɕ  Ǔ ɕ

6LQHPEDUJRHQ D \HQ E Ǔ\ɕQRHVWiQDG\DFHQWHVSRUTXHLQWHUYLHQHHQ


HOPLVPRHVWUDWRRWURPDWHULDOFXDOTXLHUDHQHVWHFDVR#(OVtPEROR#HQ E 
FRUUHVSRQGHDXQHOHPHQWRϩRWDQWHTXHLQWHUYLHQHHQHVHHVWUDWR

Ejemplo 3-78

a. $ & B b. $ B

Ǔ # ɕ Ǔ # ɕ

6LDSOLFDPRVOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGDOSDVLHJRDPRPHQW ૧ɬYHPRVORVLJXLHQWH
SXQW SXQWR& 
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 147 ]

Ejemplo 3-79

P ɬ P ͑ Q૧ W૧ ɬ
SXQWR SXQWR SXQWR SXQWR SXQWR SXQWR SXQWR

YRFiOLFR YRFiOLFR YRFiOLFR

/DELDO 'RUVDO /DELDO 'RUVDO &RURQDO &RURQDO >ਮWHQVR@

(OUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@GHOVXϧMRɬVHSURSDJDDHSRUTXHODVFRQVRQDQWHVQ\W ૧QR
FRQWLHQHQXQQRGRYRFiOLFRFRQORTXHODVYRFDOHVR\HTXHGDQHIHFWLYDPHQWH
DG\DFHQWHVGHDFXHUGRFRQOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDG/XHJRSRUUHSHWLFLyQGHOD
PLVPDUHJODVHUHODMDQODVGHPiVYRFDOHVGHELGRDOPLVPRPRWLYRGHORFDOLGDG3UHVX
PLPRVTXHODVYRFDOHVWHQVDVQRSRVHHQHOUDVJR>WHQVR@(OKHFKRGHSRGHUUHFLELU
HOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@GHODYRFDOYHFLQDOHGDVXVWHQWRDHVWDSUHVXQFLyQ2VHDTXHSDUD
FDUDFWHUL]DUORVGDWRVKDEUtDXQDUHJODDOJRSDUHFLGDDOD  

Ejemplo 3-80

SXQWR& SXQWR&

YRFiOLFR YRFiOLFR

>ਮWHQVR@

 2WURHMHPSORGHODUHVWULFFLyQTXHLPSRQHOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGORLOXVWUDHO
PHQFLRQDGRFDVRGHGLVLPLODFLyQGHOtTXLGDHQODWtQ6HJ~QYHUHPRVHQHOFDStWXOR¬
OD¬OGHOVXϧMR-a:lisVHFDPELDD>‫@ޞ‬FXDQGROHSUHFHGHOVDOYRVLLQWHUYLHQHXQD
‫ޞ‬HQFX\RFDVRQRVHGDODGLVLPLODFLyQ$TXtODSUHVHQFLDGHOUDVJR>ਮODWHUDO@EOR
TXHDUtDHOSURFHVRGHGLVLPLODFLyQ$OJRPX\SDUHFLGRRFXUUHHQEXNXVXXQDOHQJXD
EDQW~TXHVHKDEODHQ.HQLD(QHVWDOHQJXDODOGHXQVXϧMRVHFRQYLHUWHHQ>‫@ޞ‬
GHVSXpVGH‫ޞ‬VHJ~QVHYHHQ  

Ejemplo 3-81

WHH[HOD ¶FRFLQDUSDUDDOJXLHQ· ‫ޞ‬HHEH‫ޞ‬D ¶SHGLU·


OLPLOD ¶FXOWLYDSDUDDOJXLHQ· ‫ޞ‬HVMH‫ޞ‬D ¶UHFXSHUDU·
LLOLOD ¶HQYLDUDOJR·
ND‫ޞ‬L‫ޞ‬D ¶WRUFHU·
‫ޞ‬XPL‫ޞ‬D ¶HQYLDUDDOJXLHQ·
[ 148 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

2EVpUYHVHTXHHQODVWUHVSULPHUDVSDODEUDVHOVXϧMR-ila R-ela QRVHPRGLϧFDDXQ


FXDQGROHSUHFHGHODODWHUDOO(QFDPELRHQODVGHPiVVtKD\PXWDFLyQFXDQGROD
EDVHSRVHHODYLEUDQWH‫ޞ‬3RUORYLVWRHQEXNXVXVHGDHODQYHUVRGHOODWtQODSUH
VHQFLDGHOUDVJR>ODWHUDO@LPSLGHODGLVLPLODFLyQ

಩3DUWLFXODULGDGHVGHRWUDVOHQJXDV

/D&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGUHVXOWDVHUHOFDVRJHQHUDOTXHDEDUFDODDVLPLODFLyQDODUJD
GLVWDQFLDVLQTXHVHWHQJDTXHHVSHFLϧFDUOtPLWHDOJXQRH[FHSWRHOGHTXHVHUHVSHWHODFRQ
GLFLyQPLVPDGHDG\DFHQFLDFRPRYLPRVHQHOGLDOHFWRJUDQDGLQR$GHPiVHQ¬NLNRQJR
OHQJXDEDQW~GH¬5HS~EOLFD'HPRFUiWLFDGHO&RQJRVHHMHFXWDODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO
SDVDQGRSRUDOWRFXDOTXLHUQ~PHURGHFRQVRQDQWHVTXHLQWHUYHQJDQ6HGDHOFDVRGHTXH
XQDOVHFRQYLHUWDHQ>Q@FXDQGROHSUHFHGHHQODEDVHXQDFRQVRQDQWHQDVDOSRUHMHPSOR
ODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHNXNLQLVLODVHFRQYLHUWHHQ>NXNLQLVLQD@¶KDFHUEDLODUSDUDDOJXLHQ·
(VHQFLDOPHQWHORTXHRFXUUHHVXQDDVLPLODFLyQVLQOtPLWHFRPRORPXHVWUD  

Ejemplo 3-82

N X  N L Q L V  L O  D

5 5 5 5 5 UDt]

>QDV@

(QHVWHHMHPSORHQHOHVWUDWRQDVDOQRKD\QDGDPiVTXHXQVHJPHQWRTXHFRQWLHQH
HVHUDVJR\SRUWDQWRODOϧQDOVHFRQYHUWLUtDHQ>Q@
 3RUHOFRQWUDULRHQFKXNFKLXQDOHQJXDSDOHRDVLiWLFDTXHVHKDEODHQ6LEHULD
ODDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOVyORVHSURGXFHVLODFRQVRQDQWHDVLPLODQWH\ODTXHDVLPLOD
HVWiQVHSDUDGDVSRUQRPiVGHXQDFRQVRQDQWHRYRFDO/DDVLPLODFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWH
GHHVWDOHQJXDHVEDVWDQWHUHVWULQJLGDSXHVVyORVHHMHFXWDLQPHGLDWDPHQWHDQWHXQD
FRQVRQDQWHQDVDO/DVXE\DFHQWHUHSQHWVHWRUQDHQ>UHPQHW@¶FDUQHGHXQϩDQFR·
SHURVLLQWHUYLHQHXQDYRFDOHQWUHODREVWUX\HQWH\ODQDVDOODDVLPLODFLyQVHQFLOOD
PHQWHQRVHFXPSOH$VtUHSHQVHUHDOL]DFRPR>UHSHQ@¶FDUQHGHϩDQFRV·(Q  
VHPXHVWUDODFRQϧJXUDFLyQGHDPERVFDVRV

Ejemplo 3-83

a. UH S Q HW b. UH S H Q
5 5 5 5 5

>ਮFRQW@ >QDV@ >ਮFRQW@ >QDV@


Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 149 ]

 /D&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGVHSRGUtDDSOLFDUSRWHQFLDOPHQWHHQDPERVFDVRVGH
 SHURORFLHUWRHVTXHVyORVHFXPSOHHQHOSULPHUR\QRHQHOVHJXQGR7DOFRPR
VHSODQWHDSXHVODFRQGLFLyQH[LJHTXHVHDWHQ~HGHPRGRWDOTXHSXHGDUHVSRQGHU
DORVUHWRVTXHVHOHSUHVHQWDQ(OUHWRVLQHPEDUJRQRVHFRQWUDSRQHGHPDQHUD
UDGLFDODOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGSRUTXHVLELHQpVWDWLHQHHQFXHQWDDG\DFHQFLDGH
HVWUDWRVDQLYHOGHSXQWRDUWLFXODWRULRORVHMHPSORVFRQWUDULRVTXHVXUJHQPXHVWUDQ
TXHWRGDYtDKD\DG\DFHQFLDDXQQLYHOPiVDOWRRDQLYHOGHODUDt]FRPRHQFKXNFKL
RDQLYHOGHVtODEDFRPRPRVWUDUHPRVHQRWUDVOHQJXDV
 3RU OR WDQWR KD\ TXH DJUHJDUOH D OD &RQGLFLyQ GH¬ /RFDOLGDG RWURV SDUiPHWURV
OLPLWDQWHVTXHSUHVHQWDPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 3-84 Parámetros de adyacencia

a. $G\DFHQFLDGHUDt]ORVQRGRVUDGLFDOHVGHOEODQFR\HODFWLYDGRUGHEHQ
HVWDUDG\DFHQWHV
b. $G\DFHQFLDGHVtODEDHOEODQFR\HODFWLYDGRUGHEHQHVWDUHQVtODEDV
DG\DFHQWHV

3DUD D  GLPRV HO HMHPSOR D  $xDGDPRV WDPELpQ >WHPHN@ ¶PDWDU· \
>СDQPHOHQ@ ¶pO PDWy· SURYHQLHQWH GH OD VXE\DFHQWH СDWPHNOHQ (VWH ~OWLPR
PXHVWUDQXHYDPHQWHTXHODDVLPLODFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHDQDVDOWLHQHTXHVXFHGHUHQ
SUR[LPLGDGGHUDtFHVVLQTXHLQWHUYHQJDYRFDODOJXQD
 2WURFDVRWtSLFRGHDG\DFHQFLDGHUDtFHVVHHQFXHQWUDHQHOGLDOHFWRYDVFRJHUQLFiQ
VHJ~Q+XDOGH F (QHVWHGLDOHFWRODYRFDOHWLHQGHDFDPELDUDLLQPHGLD
WDPHQWHDQWHVGHRWUDYRFDO3RUHMHPSORODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHGHOVLQJXODUDEVROXWR
HW]HHSURGXFH>HW]LH@¶FDVD·HQFDPELRHOLQGHϧQLGRDEVROXWRVHUHDOL]DFRPR>HW]H@
\HOSDUWLWLYRLQGHϧQLGRFRPR>HW]H‫ޞ‬LN@(QHVWRVGRV~OWLPRVHMHPSORVVHYHTXHODV
HTXHQRHVWiQLQPHGLDWDPHQWHDG\DFHQWHVDRWUDYRFDOQRFDPELDQD>L@
 8QHMHPSORGHODUHVWULFFLyQSURGXFLGDSRULQWHUYHQFLyQGHODVtODEDQRVORSURYHH
HOFKLPZLLQLOHQJXDEDQW~TXHVHKDEODHQ6RPDOLD(OVXϧMRSHUIHFWLYRGHHVWDOHQJXD
HV-i eR-e e  

Ejemplo 3-85

WRYH৸‫ב‬H ¶]DPEXOOy·
MLEL৸‫ב‬H ¶pOFRQWHVWy·
KDGL৸‫ב‬H ¶GLMR·
VRPH৸‫ב‬H ¶OH\y·

$KRUDELHQFXDQGRD‫ב‬OHSUHFHGHLQPHGLDWDPHQWHXQDVtODEDTXHFRQWLHQHO‫בޞ‬
WLHQGHDFDPELDUVHHQODDOYHRODU>@FRPRVHGHWDOODHQORVHMHPSORVHQ  
[ 150 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 3-86

VXOL৸OH ¶TXLVR·
NRPHOH৸OH ¶FHUUy·
IDGLOL৸OH ¶SUHϧULy·
JL‫ޞ‬L৸OH ¶VHPXGy·
PH‫ޞ‬H৸OH ¶JLUy·

3HURVLHQWUHOD‫ב‬GHOVXϧMR\ODVOtTXLGDVTXHOHSUHFHGHQLQWHUYLHQHRWUDVtODED
HO¬FDPELRQRVHSURGXFH

Ejemplo 3-87

‫ޞ‬HEH৸‫ב‬H ¶SDUy·
JR‫ޞ‬RPH৸‫ב‬H ¶UXJLy·
‫ב‬XPL৸‫ב‬H ¶PRUGLy·

(Q  VHYHTXHHQWUHODVOtTXLGDVGHODEDVHLQWHUYLHQHQODVVtODEDV-be, -me y -mi.


'HLQYRFDUVHOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGQRKDEUtDPDQHUDGHLPSHGLUHOFDPELRSRUTXH
DTXpOODQRSRVHHRWUDUHVWULFFLyQTXHQRVHDODTXHVHH[SUHVDHQODFRQGLFLyQPLVPD
3DUHFHSXHVTXHHQHVWDOHQJXDKD\TXHOLPLWDUHOSRGHUH[SUHVLYRGHODFRQGLFLyQ
SHURVLHPSUHVXMHWRDTXHODVVtODEDVGHEHQHVWDUFRQWLJXDV'HORFRQWUDULRHOFDPELR
DODUJDGLVWDQFLDVHQFLOODPHQWHQRVHSURGXFH+D\PXFKDVRWUDVOHQJXDVTXHSRVHHQ
VHPHMDQWHUHVWULFFLyQFRQORTXHVHTXLHUHGHFLUTXHOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬/RFDOLGDGYLHQH
DVHUODUHJODXQLYHUVDO\TXHHQVXGHIHFWRIXQFLRQDQODVSDUWLFXODUHVTXHPLOLWDQHQ
DOJXQRVGLDOHFWRV\OHQJXDV

Ejercicios

1. 3DUDHOVLJXLHQWHHMHUFLFLRSRGHPRVUHPLWLUQRVDODDVSLUDFLyQGHVHQODULPD
TXH\DYLPRVHQHOFDStWXORDQWHULRU$QDOLFHORVGDWRVVLJXLHQWHVTXHYLHQHQGH
YDULRVGLDOHFWRVDQGDOXFHV3URSRQJDVROXFLRQHVJHRPpWULFDVWDQWRDO'LDOHFWR
$¬FRPRHO%¢3XGLHUDQDPERVSURFHVRVUHSUHVHQWDUVHFRPRXQ~QLFRSURFHVR"
6LHVDVtSURSRQJDXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVLPXOWiQHDGHDPERV

Formas subyacentes Dialecto A Dialecto B Glosas


RELVSR >Rਥɕ૊LSSR@ >Rਥɕ૊LKSSR@ obispo
NDVSD >ਥNDSSD@ >ਥNDKSSD@ caspa
VXVW ૧R >ਥVXW ૧W ૧R@ >ਥVXKW ૧W ૧R@ susto
NRVWDO >NRਥW ૧W ૧DO@ >NRKਥW ૧W ૧DO@ costal
PRVND >ਥPRNND@ >ਥPRKNND@ mosca
Modelo autosegmental jerárquico 151 ]

I‫ޞ‬HVNR >ਥI‫ޞ‬HNNR@ >ਥI‫ޞ‬HKNNR@ fresco


HVIH‫ޞ‬D >HਥϱH‫ޞ‬D@ >HKਥϱH‫ޞ‬D@ esfera
PLVPR >ਥPLPPR@ >ਥPLѓPPR@ mismo
DVQR >ਥDQQR@ >ਥDѓQQR@ asno
LVOD >ਥLOOD@ >ਥLѓOOD@ isla

2. +HPRVYLVWRTXHODNVHFRQYLHUWHHQ>V@DQWHLSRUHOSURFHVRGHFRURQDOL
]DFLyQ$KRUDH[DPLQHORVGDWRVVLJXLHQWHV3URSRQJDODIRUPDVXE\DFHQWHSDUD
ODVDOWHUQDQFLDVTXHVHREVHUYDQ¢4XpWLSRGHSURFHVRGLUtD8GTXHUHSUHVHQWD
HVWDDOWHUQDQFLD")RUPDOLFHVXSURSXHVWDGHOSURFHVRVLJXLHQGRHOPpWRGRGH
DQiOLVLVTXHVHSUHVHQWDHQHVWHFDStWXOR

>ਥIHVHV@ feces >IHਥNDO@ fecal


>ਥDSLVH@ apice >DSLਥNDO@ apical
>ਥHOLVH@ hélice >HOLਥNDO@ helical
>ਥEH‫ޞ‬W ૧LVH@ vértice >EH‫ޞ‬W ૧LਥNDO@ vertical
>ਥIDZVHV@ fauces >IDZਥNDO@ faucal
>ਥNDZVD@ causa >NDZਥVDO@ causal
>ਥI‫ޞ‬HVD@ fresa >I‫ޞ‬HਥVDO@ fresal
>ਥEH‫ޞ‬VR@ verso >EH‫ޞ‬ਥVDO@ versal
>NRਥORVR@ coloso >NRORਥVDO@ colosal
>ਥIRNR@ foco >IRਥNDO@ focal
>D‫غ‬ਥ[HOLND@ angélica >D‫[غ‬HOLਥNDO@ angelical
>ਥUXVW ૧LNR@ rústico >UXVW ૧LਥNDO@ rustical

Lecturas adicionales

(Q%URZPDQ\*ROGVWHLQVHSURSRQHXQPRGHORGHUDVJRVEDVDGRVHQJHVWRV
DUWLFXODWRULRVTXHFRLQFLGHHQPXFKRVDVSHFWRVFRQODWHRUtDGHJHRPHWUtDGH
UDVJRV
(Q+XDOGHDVHSUHVHQWDXQDQiOLVLVJHRPpWULFRSDUDODDVSLUDFLyQGHVϧQDO
\ODSUHDVSLUDFLyQGHRFOXVLYDV
This page intentionally left blank
4 ]
Teoría de la subespecificación
Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

4.0 Introducción

/XHJRGHFRQVLGHUDUODDUTXLWHFWXUDIRQROyJLFDGHORVVHJPHQWRVFRQYHQGUtDDKRUD
LQTXLULU HQ WRUQR D OD QDWXUDOH]D GH OD UHSUHVHQWDFLyQ GH ORV PLVPRV HQ HO Op[LFR
(Q¬HIHFWRHQ¬SiJLQDVDQWHULRUHVKHPRVGDGRSRUVHQWDGRHOSLODUSULQFLSDOTXHVRV
WHQtDDODIRQRORJtDJHQHUDWLYDDQWHVGHODOOHJDGDGHODWHRUtDJHRPpWULFDHOKHFKR
GHTXHORVVRQLGRVGHOKDEODVHUHSUHVHQWDQFRPRKDFHVGHSURSLHGDGHVIRQpWLFDV
FX\RVHOHPHQWRVLQGLYLGXDOHVQRVyORVHUHODFLRQDQHQWUHVtVLQRTXHSDUWHQGHVGHHO
QLYHOGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFDKDVWDHOGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH'LFKRGH
RWURPRGRODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFDGHXQDHORFXFLyQWDQWRDQLYHOIRQpWLFRFRPR
IRQROyJLFRVHUHSUHVHQWDPHGLDQWHXQFRQMXQWRGHVHJPHQWRVGLVFUHWRVHQHOTXHFDGD
VHJPHQWRFRQVLVWHHQXQDPDWUL]GHUDVJRVTXHFRUUHVSRQGHQFRPR\DVDEHPRVDODV
GLIHUHQWHVDFWLYLGDGHVTXHVHUHDOL]DQHQODFDYLGDGEXFDOSDUDDUWLFXODUHVHVRQLGR
7DOFRUUHVSRQGHQFLDQRVHGHVFULEHFRPRWRWDOPHQWHVLPpWULFDSXHVDORODUJRGHOD
KLVWRULDGHODIRQRORJtDVHKDGHWHFWDGRXQDYDVWDFDQWLGDGGHUDVJRVTXHQRGHVHP
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[ 154 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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QRKD\QHFHVLGDGDOJXQDGHFLWDUORVFRPRSDUWHGHORVUDVJRVGHXQIRQHPD

4.1 Redundancia léxica

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IRQROyJLFDVTXHVXPLQLVWUDEDQDODODUJDHOFRQWHQLGRIRQpWLFRGHXQVHJPHQWRHQ
FXHVWLyQ(VWDVUHJODVGHQRPLQDGDVUHJODVGHestructura morfémicaRGHredundancia
léxica,HUDQORVPHFDQLVPRVSRUPHGLRGHORVFXDOHVVHDxDGtDQORVUDVJRVTXHIDOWDEDQ
)RUPDEDQSDUWHGHODJUDPiWLFDXQLYHUVDOTXHDVLJQDEDORVYDORUHVQRPDUFDGRVGH
ORVUDVJRVFRPRHOYDORULPSOLFDFLRQDOFLWDGRDQWHULRUPHQWHRODRPLVLyQGHOUDVJR
>VRQRUR@HQ¬HOFDVRGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHV>UOPQ@GHELGRDTXHXQLYHUVDO
PHQWHWLHQGHQDVHU>VRQRUD@/DJUDPiWLFDXQLYHUVDOUHQGtDVXYDORUDQLYHOIRQpWLFR
PHGLDQWHODLPSOLFDFLyQGHTXHVLHUD>UHVRQDQWH@GHEtDVHU>VRQRUD@6HPHMDQWHV
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OD´VXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQµGHUDVJRVFRQFHSWRDPSOLDPHQWHHODERUDGR\DUWLFXODGRHQ
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IRQpWLFRODLQIRUPDFLyQTXHIDOWD

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ODWHRUtDTXHODVXSODQWD
Teoría de la subespecificación 155 ]

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[ 156 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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VXE\DFHQWHVORVUHVSHFWLYRVYDORUHVGHPiV  \GHPHQRV ਮ FRQN SDUDORVno
marcados \M SDUDORVmarcados /RVWUHVFDVRVTXHIDYRUHFHQXQVHJPHQWR\QR
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Ejemplo 4-1

a. >1VRQRUR@ ఩ >VRQRUR@  >UHVRQDQWH@


b. >1UHWUDtGR@ ఩ >UHWUDtGR@  >EDMR@
c. >1UHGRQGR@ ఩ >ǓUHGRQGR@  ਑ ǓUHWUDtGR ਔ
ਓ ਮEDMR ਖ

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 /DFRGLϧFDFLyQGHUDVJRVFRQHQHV\HPHVVHFRQYLHUWHHQSDUWHLQWHJUDOGHOD
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Teoría de la subespecificación 157 ]

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4.2 Teoría de la subespecificación radical

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[ 158 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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SUREOHPiWLFRVDODteoría de subespeci cación radical 6WHULDGH 

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SRUORJHQHUDOODYRFDOHSHQWpWLFDWLHQGHDVHUGLIHUHQWHHQODVOHQJXDVGHOPXQGR8Q
HMHPSORPX\FRP~QGHWDOYDULDELOLGDGVHGDHQLJERTXHHVFRJHLQVHUWDUODL
 /DRSFLyQGHHVFRJHUODHHQYH]GHRWUDYRFDOFDXVDXQDVLQJXODUDVLPHWUtDHQ
HOLQYHQWDULRGHYRFDOHV6HPHMDQWHDVLPHWUtDKDFHSUHGHFLEOHVWRGRVORVUDVJRVTXH
ODFRQIRUPDQ\TXHSRUORWDQWRQRGHEHQDSDUHFHUDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH&ODURHVWiTXH
ODIDOWDWRWDOGHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSDUDHQRVLJQLϧFDTXHODVGHPiVVHFRPSRUWHQGHOD
PLVPDPDQHUDGLFKRGHRWURPRGRODVRWUDVYRFDOHVWHQGUiQFLHUWDHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ
DXQTXHQRWRGDODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQVLQRODQHFHVDULDSDUDGLVWLQJXLUDXQDGHRWUD/D¬X
SDUDFLWDUXQFDVRVyORUHTXLHUHODSUHVHQFLDGHORVUDVJRV>DOWRUHWUDtGR@ORV
FXDOHVODGLVWLQJXHQGHODVGHPiVYRFDOHV/RTXHVHLPSOLFDFRQODSUHVHQFLDGHHVWRV
UDVJRVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHHVTXHKDEUiQGHFRQVLJQDUVHHQHVHQLYHOGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
ORVUDVJRVTXHVLUYDQSDUDGLVWLQJXLUIRQHPDV
Teoría de la subespecificación 159 ]

಩6XEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUDGLFDOGHϧQLGD

/RTXHSUHVXSRQHODWHRUtDHQWRQFHVHVTXHGHEHKDEHUFLHUWRVSULQFLSLRVTXHULMDQ
ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH3RUORWDQWRQRVLQWHUHVDIRUPXODU\FRQRFHUHOSULQ
FLSLRGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQHOFXDOUHJLUiODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV\TXHVH
UHVXPHGHHVWHPRGR

Subespeci caci n.಩1RH[LVWHUDVJRGHWDOPDQHUDTXHVHWHQJDTXHHVSHFLϧFDU


XQYDORUSDUDGLFKRUDVJRHQFDGDIRQHPD 6DJH\WUDGXFFLyQPtD

(VWD GHϧQLFLyQ VH EDVD HQ ODV VXSRVLFLRQHV GH¬ &KRPVN\ \ +DOOH UHVSHFWR D TXH HO
Op[LFRGHEHWHQHUODPHQRUFDQWLGDGSRVLEOHGHUDVJRVTXHVLUYDQSDUDGLVWLQJXLUSLH
]DVOp[LFDV$KRUDELHQ¢TXpVLJQLϧFDODGHϧQLFLyQDQWHULRU"(QSULPHUOXJDUTXHHO
KDEODQWHWHQGUiPHQRVTXHDSUHQGHU\PHPRUL]DUSRUTXHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQPtQLPDGH
ORVUDVJRVHVPXFKRPiVVLPSOHTXHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGRQGHKD\HVSHFLϧFDFLyQWRWDO
RSDUFLDOGHUDVJRV3RUHMHPSORFRPSiUHVHD  FRQ  HQGRQGHVHGHEHWHQHU
SUHVHQWHTXHODVFROXPQDVUHSUHVHQWDQIRQHPDV\ODVϧODVORVYDORUHVGHORVUDVJRV

Ejemplo 4-2

A B C
F 
G 
H

Ejemplo 4-3

A B C
F  ਮ ਮ
G ਮ  
H   

 (YLGHQWHPHQWHVLVHFRPSDUDD  FRQ  KDEUtDTXHFRQFOXLUTXHHOKDEODQWH


VHYHUtDPHQRVIRU]DGRHQHODSUHQGL]DMHGHOSULPHURDOFRQWHQHUpVWHXQDFDQWLGDG
PXFKRPHQRUGHYDOHQFLDVTXHHOVHJXQGR(QRWUDVSDODEUDV  HVPXFKRPiV
VLPSOHTXH  /DUHSUHVHQWDFLyQSDUFLDOGH  MXHJDSRUORWDQWRXQSDSHOFUX
FLDOHQODIRQRORJtD\DTXHFRQHOODVHSURSRQHTXHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHDSDUHFHUiQ
~QLFDPHQWHORVUDVJRVPtQLPDPHQWHQHFHVDULRVSDUDGLVWLQJXLUXQVRQLGRGHRWUR
/RVTXHQRFXHQWDQSDUDHIHFWXDUWDOGLVWLQFLyQVHKDEUiQGHUHOOHQDUFRQUHJODVGH
UHGXQGDQFLD
[ 160 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

಩,QYHQWDULRDOIDEpWLFR

/DPDWUL]FRPSOHWDFRQWRGRVVXVUDVJRVIRUPDSDUWHGHXQLQYHQWDULRIRQROyJLFRRVHD
TXHFRUUHVSRQGHDODOIDEHWRGHVRQLGRVTXHSRVHHXQDOHQJXD6LELHQODDSOLFDFLyQGH
ODVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLDJHQHUDXQDPDWUL]IRQROyJLFDFRPSOHWDPHQWHHVSHFLϧFDGD
ODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVGHODOHQJXDWDPELpQSXHGHQLQWHUDFWXDUFRQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
IRQROyJLFDGHVXHUWHTXHVHREWHQJDHQ~OWLPDLQVWDQFLDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQpWLFD
/RTXHTXHUHPRVGHFLUHVTXHODPDWUL]GHXQIRQHPDQRVXUJHDODVXSHUϧFLHGHEL
GDPHQWHUHOOHQDGDKDVWDWDQWRQRVHKD\DQDSOLFDGRODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVGHODOHQ
JXDODVTXHPX\ELHQSXGLHUDQFDPELDUORVUDVJRVGHOIRQHPD(VWR~OWLPRHVPX\
LPSRUWDQWHSRUTXHODVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLDSXHGHQRQRLQVHUWDUUDVJRVTXHIDOWHQ
SHURQXQFDFDPELDUORV
 +D\WUHVWLSRVGHUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLD ¬UHJODVSRUGHIHFWR HQLQJOpV´GHIDXOW
UXOHVµ  ¬UHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDV\ ¬UHJODVDSUHQGLGDV/DVGRVSULPHUDVWLHQHQPD\RU
LPSRUWDQFLDHQHOVLVWHPD\VRQODVTXHJR]DQGHPD\RUDFHSWDELOLGDGSRUODPD\RUtD
GHORVIRQyORJRVJHQHUDWLYLVWDVSRUORWDQWRFHQWUDUHPRVQXHVWUDDWHQFLyQHQHOODV
 /DVUHJODVSRUGHIHFWRVRQGHFDUiFWHUXQLYHUVDO\QRDxDGHQFRVWRDODJUDPiWLFD
6HVXSRQHSRUHMHPSORTXHHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@OHHVSURSLRDWRGRVRQLGRUHVRQDQWH
\DTXHVXSURGXFFLyQVLHPSUHUHTXLHUHYLEUDFLyQGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHVSRUORFXDOQR
VHDQRWDHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQOp[LFDGHHVWHWLSRGHVRQLGR(VWHWLSRGHUHGXQGDQFLD
VHH[SUHVDUtDPHGLDQWHODUHJOD  

Ejemplo 4-4

>ಣ@಩఩಩>VRQRUR@ ಣಣ
>UHV@

HQGRQGHHOFRUFKHWHYDFtRVHxDODTXHHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@FDUHFHGHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSDUD
ODVFRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHV/RTXHVHUHϩHMDHQ  SRUWDQWRHVODLPSOLFDFLyQGH
TXHVLHOVHJPHQWRHVUHVRQDQWHGHEHVHUVRQRURFRPR\DKHPRVGLFKRDUULED 5RFD\
-RKQVRQ /OHJDHOPRPHQWRVLQHPEDUJRTXHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQOp[LFDGH
ODVUHVRQDQWHVVLVHYDQDSURQXQFLDUWLHQHTXHVXUJLUFRQWRGRVORVUDVJRVTXHIDOWDQ
SDUDDVtWHQHULQWHUSUHWDFLyQIRQpWLFD&XDQGRVDOHODUHVRQDQWHFRQVXYDORUSRVLWLYR
RQHJDWLYRHQODIRQpWLFDVHKDFHPHGLDQWHXQDUHJODTXHVXSOHORVUDVJRVDXVHQWHV
ORVFXDOHVYLHQHQGDGRVSRULPSOLFDFLyQXQLYHUVDO(VHVWDGHϧQLFLyQTXHVHFDSWDFRQ
reglas por defecto/DLGHDGH´SRUGHIHFWRµVHUHϩHMDSRULJXDOFRQXQDLPSOLFDFLyQ
SDUDODVRFOXVLYDVVRUGDV>SWN@TXHVRQODVLQPDUFDGDVHQODVOHQJXDVGHOPXQGR
SRUFRQVLJXLHQWHHOUDVJR>ਮVRQRUR@HVUHGXQGDQWHDQLYHOOp[LFR
 (QVHJXQGROXJDUϧJXUDQODVUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDVODVFXDOHVUHVSRQGHQDOD
SDUWLFXODULGDGGHXQDOHQJXD\WDPSRFRVRQFRVWRVDV&RPRORLQGLFDHOQRPEUHHVWH
Teoría de la subespecificación 161 ]

WLSRGHUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDDODVUHJODVSRUGHIHFWR(VGHFLUORVUDVJRVDXVHQWHVTXH
QRVRQVXPLQLVWUDGRVOp[LFDPHQWHSRUODJUDPiWLFDXQLYHUVDOHQFXHQWUDQH[SUHVLyQ
IyQLFDFRQODVUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDVTXHORVLQWURGXFHQ
 3DUDLOXVWUDUODIXQFLyQGHHVWDVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLDWRPHPRVHQSULPHUOXJDU
ODVYRFDOHVHVSDxRODV

4.3 Reglas de redundancia: por defecto y de complemento

9DPRVDVXSRQHUSRUDKRUDTXHSRUPRWLYRVTXHSUHVHQWDUHPRVPiVDGHODQWHVH¬WLHQH
DODHFRPRODYRFDOLQPDUFDGDODYRFDODVLPpWULFDGHODOHQJXD$OQRHVWDUPDU
FDGDHQHOOp[LFRVXVUDVJRVQRGHEHQDSDUHFHU\SRUWDQWRVHUHSUHVHQWDGHODPDQHUD
VLJXLHQWH

Ejemplo 4-5 Representación subespecificada

H
DOWR¬
EDMR
UHWUDtGR
UHGRQGR

3DUDOOHJDUDSURSRQHUODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDHQ  GHEHPRVVXSRQHU


TXHSULPHUDPHQWHVHGDXQDOJRULWPRTXHOHGDVRSRUWH\TXHKDVLGRGHWDOODGRRUL
JLQDOPHQWHHQ$UFKDQJHOL\VV'LFKRDOJRULWPRSRUHMHPSORFRPHQ]DUtD
FRQWRGRVORVYDORUHVGHHTXHVXPDULDPHQWHYDQGHVDSDUHFLHQGRKDVWDSURGXFLU
ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ  $KRUDELHQSDUDTXHHUHFLEDVXVUDVJRVIRQpWLFRVVHKDFH
QHFHVDULRHODERUDUUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDVTXHLQVHUWDQORVYDORUHVGHORVUDVJRVTXH
VHREVHUYDQHQ  

Ejemplo 4-6 Reglas complementarias

a. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮDOWR@
b. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮEDMR@
c. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮUHWUDtGR@
d. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮUHGRQGR@

8QDYH]VHDSOLFDQODVUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDVORVYDORUHVGHORVUDVJRVTXHFRQHOODV
VHLGHQWLϧFDQVHHOLPLQDQGHOOp[LFRQRVyORSDUDODHPLVPDVLQRSDUDWRGRVORV
YDORUHVGHORVRWURVUDVJRV'HHVWDPDQHUDODPDWUL] D VHFRQYLHUWHHQ E 
[ 162 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 4-7

a. L H D R X ఩ b. L H D R X

DOWR  ਮ ਮ   
EDMR ਮ  ਮ ਮ 
UHWU ਮ      
UHG ਮ ਮ    

/DPDWUL] E WRGDYtDFRQWLHQHUHGXQGDQFLDVTXHVRQSUHGHFLEOHVSRUPDUFDGH]


XQLYHUVDORVHDFRQUHJODVSRUGHIHFWR2EVpUYHVHTXHWDQWRODRFRPRODXFRLQ
FLGHQ HQ VHU UHWUDtGDV \ UHGRQGDV /R TXH JHQHUDOPHQWH RFXUUH HQ ODV OHQJXDV GHO
PXQGRHVTXHVLODYRFDOHV>UHWUDtGD@HVWDPELpQ>UHGRQGD@SRUORTXHQRKD\
QHFHVLGDGGHHVSHFLϧFDUHOUDVJR>UHGRQGR@$GHPiVFRPRHVFRP~QTXHODDVH
FDUDFWHULFHSRU>EDMDUHWUDtGD@ DXQTXHWDPELpQHVXVXDOHQFRQWUDUXQDYRFDO
>EDMDਮUHWUDtGD@FRPROD> @GHOLQJOpV SRUJHQHUDOLGDGVHSXHGHSUHGHFLUTXH
VL HO VHJPHQWR HV >EDMR@ WDPELpQ HV >UHWUDtGR@ FRQ OR TXH VH SXHGH HOLPLQDU
GHOOp[LFRHVWH~OWLPRUDVJR(VWDVLPSOLFDFLRQHVGHPDUFDGH]XQLYHUVDOVHUHϩHMDQ
PHGLDQWHODVUHJODVHQ  ODVFXDOHVLQWURGXFHQVXVYDORUHVDQLYHOIRQpWLFR

Ejemplo 4-8 Reglas por defecto

a. ਑ UHWU ਔ ఩ >UHGRQGR@
ਓ ਮEDMR ਖ
b. >EDMR@ ఩ >UHWUDtGR@

6LGDPRVSRUVHQWDGRODVGRVUHJODVHQ  TXHVXSOHQORVUDVJRVDXVHQWHVODPDWUL]


ϧQDOOXFLUtDGHODVLJXLHQWHIRUPD

Ejemplo 4-9

L H D R X

DOWR  
EDMR 
UHWUDtGR  
UHGRQGR

(Q XQD OHQJXD WRGR OR TXH WHQJD IXQFLRQHV GH UHGXQGDQFLD \ VHSURGX]FD FRQ HO
HPSOHR GH UHJODV SRU GHIHFWR \ UHJODV FRPSOHPHQWDULDV QR WLHQH TXH DSUHQGHUVH
/R¬~QLFRTXHHOKDEODQWHWLHQHTXHDSUHQGHUHVODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHTXHHV
ODPLVPDTXHVHSUHVHQWDHQ  SDUDODVYRFDOHVHVSDxRODV
Teoría de la subespecificación 163 ]

4.4 Epéntesis de /e/

<DKHPRVVXJHULGRTXHHHVODYRFDOHSHQWpWLFDSRUH[FHOHQFLD\TXHSRUWDQWRVH
ODGHEHWHQHUFRPRDVLPpWULFDVLQHVSHFLϧFDUOHQLQJXQRGHVXVUDVJRVDQLYHOVXE
\DFHQWH3DVHPRVUHYLVWDDORVYDULRVDUJXPHQWRVTXHVHKDQDGXFLGRSDUDPRWLYDU
ODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQYRFiOLFDGHHVWDYRFDOSULPHURUHVSHFWRDO
HVSDxROHQJHQHUDO\OXHJRFRQUHODFLyQDOGLDOHFWRSDVLHJR
 +D\HQHVSDxROSRUORPHQRVFLQFRSURFHVRVGHYRFDOHSHQWpWLFD(OSULPHURWLHQH
TXHYHUFRQODSOXUDOL]DFLyQ5HFXpUGHVHTXHHOPRUIHPDGHIRUPDFLyQGHSOXUDOHV
VHOFXDODSDUHFHQRUPDOPHQWHHQSDODEUDVTXHWHUPLQDQHQYRFDOHVQRDFHQWXD
GDV6LVHSUHVXPHTXHH[LVWHXQHVTXHOHWRGHIRUPDFLyQGHSOXUDO9&HQTXH&VH
LGHQWLϧFDFRQGLFKRPRUIHPDKD\GRVSRVLELOLGDGHVSDUDODUHDOL]DFLyQGHOHVTXHOHWR
9XQDHQODTXH9VHLGHQWLϧFDFRQDTXHOODVSDODEUDVTXHWHUPLQDQDQLYHOIRQpWLFR
HQYRFDO³SHMHOFDVRGH

muchach9&఩muchach 9 &

o s

\RWUDHQODTXH9VHDVRFLDFRQ-eFXDQGRODUDt]GHODSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQFRQVRQDQWH³
SHM

hotel9&఩hotel 9 &

e s

2 VHD TXH FXDQGR VH IRUPD HO SOXUDO \ QR KD\ DVRFLDFLyQ HQWUH HO HVTXHOHWR 9 \
XQD GH ODV YRFDOHV GLFKD 9 VXUJH LQFRQWURYHUWLEOHPHQWH FRPR >H@ (V MXVWDPHQWH
pVWDYRFDOODTXHVXUJHHQORVGHQRPLQDGRVSOXUDOHVGREOHVGHOGRPLQLFDQR 1~xH]
&HGHxR+DUULV 3RUHMHPSORHOSOXUDOGHmujerSDUDDOJXQRVKDEODQWHV
HVmujér>H@s>H@.
 8QVHJXQGRHMHPSORGHLQVHUFLyQGHHRFXUUHDOSULQFLSLRGHSDODEUDDQWHORV
JUXSRVFRQVRQiQWLFRVV&5HFRUGHPRVSRUHMHPSORTXHORVUHVSHFWLYRVPRUIHPDV
-sperma, -sclerosis, -sfera, -slavoSXHGHQDSDUHFHUVLQe-HQSRVLFLyQLQWHUQDGHSDODEUD³
S HM zoo>VS@erma, arterio>VN@lerosis, hemi>VI@erio, yugo>VO@avo— SHUR WDO YRFDO HV
LPSUHVFLQGLEOH VL HVWRV JUXSRV LQLFLDQ SDODEUD³S HM >HV@permatozoo, >HV@klerosis,
>HV@fera>HV@lavo8QIHQyPHQRSDUHFLGRVHGDHQODDGDSWDFLyQGHSUpVWDPRVTXHVH
LQLFLDQFRQHOVXVRGLFKRJUXSRFRQVRQiQWLFR3RUHMHPSORODSDODEUDstressGHOLQJOpV
QRVOOHJDFRQXQDeLQLFLDOLQVHUWDGDestrés.
 8QWHUFHUHMHPSORGHLQVHUFLyQGHHHVHOSURFHVRGHIRUPDFLyQGHGLPLQXWLYRV
-DHJJOL 6LVHSUHVXPHHOPRUIHPD V LW9SDUDGHULYDUWRGRVORVGLPLQXWLYRV
[ 164 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

SHMjoven joven+cito,SRGHPRVFRPSUREDUTXHKD\FLHUWRVFRQWH[WRVHQTXHGHEH
DSDUHFHUODYRFDO>H@DQWHGLFKRPRUIHPDSRUHMHPSORpan\novioGDQORVUHVSHFWLYRV
pan+e+cito, novi+e+cito.
 8Q FXDUWR HMHPSOR GH LQVHUFLyQ GH H VH GD DO ϧQDO GH SDODEUD SURFHVR TXH
DOJXQRVIRQyORJRVFXHVWLRQDQ6LWRPDPRVFXDOTXLHUGLFFLRQDULRGHODOHQJXDHVSD
xRODOOHJDPRVDODREYLDFRQFOXVLyQGHTXHFXDQGRXQDSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQYRFDOOR
XVXDOHVTXHVHDQD\RVLQTXHLPSRUWHHOWLSRGHFRQVRQDQWHTXHODVSUHFHGHQ
(MHPSORVGHHVWDVVRQti>S@o, pi>W ૧@o, ma>N@o, tu>ɕ૊@o, ma>࣢૊@o, tu>I@o, ha>˓૊@a, pa>O@a,
tu>Q@a, ce>U@o, ca>V@o, cier>‫@ۏ‬o, ma>[@a. 6LQ HPEDUJR WDPELpQ VH SXHGH FRQVWDWDU
TXHVLODSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQ-e,JHQHUDOPHQWHODVFRQVRQDQWHVTXHODSUHFHGHQQR
VRQGHOJUXSRG૧OQ‫ޞ‬V‫ۏ‬SHURVtGHOJUXSRSW ૧NEСI[³SHMgri>S@e, ma>W ૧@e,
ja>N@e, nu>ɕ૊@e, alber>࣢૊@e, ana>I@e, chin>߿@e, enca>[@e.$QWHHVWHKHFKR+DUULV F 
SURSRQHFRPR\DKHPRVYLVWRHQSiJLQDVDQWHULRUHVTXHODDXVHQFLDGHHVWDVFRQ
VRQDQWHVϧQDOHVRQ~FOHRVFRQVRQiQWLFRVGHHVWHWLSRHVWiVXMHWDDFLHUWDVUHJODVGH
FRQVWUXFFLyQGHVtODEDFRQODVTXHVHSUHVXPHODLQVHUFLyQDXWRPiWLFDGHHVLOD
SDODEUDDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHWHUPLQDHQFXDOTXLHUDGHHVWDVFRQVRQDQWHV&RQWUDULRD
ORTXHRSLQD+DUULVKD\DXWRUHVTXHRSLQDQTXHHVWRVHMHPSORVQRFRQVWLWX\HQXQ
SURFHVRDFWLYRGHHSpQWHVLVHQODIRQRORJtDVLQFUyQLFD &ROLQD%RQHW 
HOODVGHVGHXQDSHUVSHFWLYDGHODWHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDGDUJXPHQWDQQRVyORTXHVRQ
UHVXOWDGRGHHSpQWHVLVGLDFUyQLFDVLQRTXHHHQHVRVWLSRVGHIRUPDVHVWiSUHVHQWH
HQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH&RQSUXHEDVFRPRlord, comfort, bistek, Dirk, grog,
HQWUHRWUDV%RQHWHQSDUWLFXODUVHxDODTXHODHSpQWHVLVGHHVyORRFXUUHDOSULQFL
SLR\GHQWURGHODSDODEUDKLSyWHVLVTXHWDPELpQ+DUULV  DFHSWDYLVWDGHVGH
ODySWLFDGHORTXHVHGHQRPLQDPRUIRORJtDGLVWULEXFLRQDO'HVHUDVtVXDUJXPHQWR
DYDODHOGH¬+DUULV  FRQUHVSHFWRDODGHULYDFLyQGHODSDODEUDabertura,TXLHQ
ODXVDSDUDDUJLUTXHODDSDULFLyQGHHHVWiOLJDGDDVXHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFD'DGR
TXHHOVXVWDQWLYRaberturaSURYLHQHGHOYHUERabrir+DUULVVXJLHUHTXHKD\XQDEDVH
DE‫ޞ‬DODTXHVHOHDJUHJDHOVXϧMRWX‫ޞ‬D&RPRODVHFXHQFLDE‫ޞ‬WHVLQDFHS
WDEOHHQHVSDxRO\D¬TXHQRH[LVWH*abrtura,VHPHMDQWHDQRPDOtDVHUHVXHOYHFRQOD
LQVHUFLyQGHH
 3RU~OWLPRXQTXLQWRHMHPSORGHLQVHUFLyQGHHSURYLHQHGHODGLSWRQJDFLyQ
HVSDxROD (Q SDUWLFXODU QRV UHIHULPRV DO IHQyPHQR TXH SUHVHQWDQ ODV DOWHUQDQFLDV
>R@a>ZH@>X@a>ZH@>H@a>MH@H>L@a>MH@HQORVVLJXLHQWHVHMHPSORVc>R@ntóa
c>ZH@ntoj>X@góaj>ZH@goc>H@góac>MH@goDGT>L@rióaadq>MH@re(Q+DUULVD
VHSUHVXPHTXHHOSURFHVRSDUHFHHVWDUUHJLGRSRUODFDUJDDFHQWXDO\DTXHVyORVH
GLSWRQJDQODVYRFDOHVDFHQWXDGDV\~QLFDPHQWHVLDQLYHOGHOp[LFRYLHQHQPDUFDGDV
GLIHUHQFLDOPHQWHFRQXQGLDFUtWLFRTXHODVGLVWLQJXHGHDTXpOODVTXHQRVHGLSWRQJDQ
FRPRODHGHmeto.
 ,QGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHVL+DUULVWLHQHUD]yQHQVXVGHWDOOHV FRPSiUHVHSRUHMHP
SORHVWHWUDEDMRFRQHOGH¬&DUUHLUD SDUHFHKDEHUFRP~QDFXHUGRHQTXHORV
PHQFLRQDGRVGLSWRQJRVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHSUHVHQWDQODVXEHVWUXFWXUD
Teoría de la subespecificación 165 ]

e, o

;;

5LPD

(VGHFLUHQODVXE\DFHQFLDGHORVGLSWRQJRVH[LVWHXQDSRVLFLyQYDFtDTXHPHGLDQWH
UHJODGHVLODELϧFDFLyQSDVDDXQLUVHFRQODULPDGHODYRFDOSUHFHGHQWH&RPRGLFKD
;QRWLHQHDVRFLDGRQLQJ~QUDVJRODUHJODSRUGHIHFWRDXWRPiWLFDPHQWHOHVXSOLUtD
ORVUDVJRVGHH1DWXUDOPHQWHVHSUHVXPHTXHKD\XQDUHJODPRWLYDGDTXHHOHYDODV
SULPHUDVYRFDOHVPHGLDVFRQYLUWLpQGRODVDVtHQYRFDOHV>DOWDV@
 6LELHQHVFLHUWRTXHODHSpQWHVLVDSULQFLSLRRϧQDOGHSDODEUDVHGDHQFRQWH[WRV
GLIHUHQWHVHQORVSULPHURVFXDWURSURFHVRVORTXHOHLPSDUWHFRKHUHQFLD\XQLGDGD
WRGRVHVHOVLPSOHKHFKRGHTXHODYRFDOTXHDSDUHFHHQFDGDXQRGHHOORVHVVLQOXJDU
DGXGDVODH(VSRUHOORHQWRQFHVTXHFRPRHQWRGDVHVWDVVLWXDFLRQHVHVHQWHUD
PHQWHSUHGHFLEOHORTXHYDDDSDUHFHUQRKD\UD]yQDOJXQDSDUDTXHODHWHQJDTXH
VXUJLUFRPSOHWDPHQWHHVSHFLϧFDGD7RGRORFRQWUDULRVHWHRUL]DTXHDQLYHOVXE\D
FHQWHFDUHFHGHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHUDVJRV(QWRQFHVVXVYDORUHVOHVHUiQVXPLQLVWUDGRV
SRUODVUHJODVTXHRIUHFLPRVDQWHULRUPHQWH
 (OKHFKRGHTXHHQODOHQJXDHVSDxRODVHWRPHODH\QRRWUDYRFDOORGHWHUPLQDQODV
UHJODVFRQWH[WXDOHVROLEUHVTXHOHVXSOHQVXVYDORUHVDXVHQWHV$OJRPX\VLPLODURFXUUH
HQODVOHQJXDVDIULFDQDVJHQJEH $EDJOR\$UFKDQJHOL \WLY 3XOOH\EODQND 
FX\DYRFDOHSHQWpWLFDHVVLHPSUHODH3DUDRWUDVOHQJXDVODYRFDOSUHGHFLEOHSXHGHVHU
GLIHUHQWHHQMDSRQpVHQODOHQJXDDPHULQGLD\DZHOPDQL\HQODDIULFDQDLJERODYRFDO
HSHQWpWLFDHVODLPLHQWUDVTXHHQWHOXJXGH¬)LOLSLQDVHVODX $UFKDQJHOL 

4.5 La armonía vocálica en pasiego

(OSDVLHJRHVXQGLDOHFWRGHOHVSDxROTXHVHKDEODHQODVPRQWDxDVFDQWiEULFDVDOVXU
GHODSURYLQFLDGH¬6DQWDQGHU(OYRFDOLVPRSDVLHJRPDQLϧHVWDXQSDUGHSURFHVRVGH
DUPRQtDYRFiOLFDXQRGHORVFXDOHVVHUHϧHUHDODGLVWLQFLyQTXHVHSURGXFHHQWUH
YRFDOHVWHQVDV\UHODMDGDV 3HQQ\ PLHQWUDVTXHHORWURWLHQHTXHYHUFRQOD
DUPRQtDGHOUDVJR>DOWR@$PERVIXHURQHVWXGLDGRVSRU0F&DUWK\HQDTXt
FHQWUDUHPRVQXHVWUDDWHQFLyQHQHOSULPHUR
 (OSDVLHJRSRVHHHOVLVWHPDYRFiOLFRIRQpWLFRTXHDSDUHFHHQ  

Ejemplo 4-10

LUUHWUDtGDV FHQWUDOHV UHWUDtGDV

DOWD L X
Ԍ ࡱ
[ 166 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 4-10 (continued)

LUUHWUDtGDV FHQWUDOHV UHWUDtGDV

PHGLD H R
ɬ
EDMD D
Đ

/RPiVVLJQLϧFDWLYRGH  HVTXHWRGDVODVYRFDOHVFRQH[FHSFLyQGHHVH¬GLV


WLQJXHQ SDUWLFXODUPHQWH PHGLDQWH ORV UDVJRV >WHQVR@>ਮWHQVR@ \D SUHVHQWDGRV
HQFDStWXORVSUHYLRV0F&DUWK\  FRQVLGHUDTXHHVWDGLVWLQFLyQHVGHFDUiFWHU
PRUIRIRQROyJLFRSXHVVHJ~QpOODVDOWHUQDQFLDVVHSURGXFHQFXDQGRDSDUHFHHOVXϧMR
PDVFXOLQRFRQWDEOHࡱ+XDOGH D SRUHOFRQWUDULRDUJX\HTXHODDOWHUQDQFLD
HQ  HVHVWULFWDPHQWHIRQROyJLFDSRUTXHHQSDVLHJRQRH[LVWHODPRUIRORJtDGHO
UDVJRFRQWDEOHVLQRODGHJpQHUR\PDVD/DVDOWHUQDQFLDVVHLOXVWUDQHQ  

Ejemplo 4-11

>WHQVD@ >ਮWHQVD@

a. VRO ૧ਥG૧DZV soldados VɬO ૧ਥG૧lࡱ soldado


NDVਥW ૧D‫ص‬XV castaños NĐVਥW ૧l‫ࡱص‬ castaño
ਥNDQ૧W ૧D‫ޞ‬XV cántaros ਥNlQ૧W ૧Đ‫ࡱޞ‬ cántaro
b. SXVਥW ૧LբD postilla SࡱVਥW ૧Ԍբࡱ postilla
ਥW ૧‫ޞ‬LSD tripa ਥW ૧‫ޞ‬ԌSࡱ trípita
NDਥQDVW ૧‫ޞ‬D canastro NĐਥQlVW ૧‫ࡱޞ‬ canastrito

0DVFVLQJ
)HPVLQJ 0DVFVLQJ FRQWDEOH

c. ਥPDOD ਥPDOX ਥPlOࡱ malo


ਥVXVMD ਥVXVMX ਥVࡱVMࡱ sucio
JXOXQ૧ਥG૧‫ޞ‬LQD JࡱOࡱQ૧ਥG૧‫ޞ‬ԌQࡱ golondrina (macho)

/DHFRPR\DDGYHUWLPRVQRDOWHUQDVLQRTXHDSDUHFHVLHPSUHHQVXIRUPDWHQVD
 

Ejemplo 4-12

>WHQVD@ >ਮWHQVD@

H‫ޞ‬ਥPDQXV H‫ޞ‬ਥPlQࡱ hermano


SHਥ‫ص‬DVNXV SHਥ‫ص‬lVNࡱ peñasco
NR؇IHVRਥQD‫ޞ‬MXV Nɬ؇IHVɬਥQl‫ޞ‬Mࡱ confesionario
Teoría de la subespecificación 167 ]

 6XFHGHHQWRQFHVTXHODYRFDOHGHOSDVLHJRVHFRPSRUWDLJXDOTXHVXKRPyORJDGHO
GLDOHFWRFDVWHOODQRHVGHFLUTXHUHVXOWDVHUODYRFDOQHXWUDSRUTXHQRSDUWLFLSDQLFRKtEH
ODGLVHPLQDFLyQGHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@$GHPiVVHVXJLHUHTXHVLODDUPRQtDRFXUUHDXQ
FXDQGRODVYRFDOHVWHQVDV >WHQVD@ HVWiQSUHVHQWHVHOORREHGHFHDTXHQRSRVHHQHVH
UDVJR3RUORWDQWRHVSRVLEOHWHRUL]DUTXHODVYRFDOHVOD[DV\WHQVDVVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRU
ODDXVHQFLDGHOUDVJR>WHQVR@1RVH[WHQGHPRVPiVVREUHODeWHQVDHQODVHFFLyQ
 $KRUD ELHQ ¢FyPR ORJUDU HQWRQFHV ODV DOWHUQDQFLDV IRQpWLFDV TXH KHPRV YLVWR
PiVDUULEDGDGRTXHWDQWRORVQRPEUHVFRQWDEOHVFRPRORVQRFRQWDEOHVVHVXSRQH
TXHFDUHFHQGHOUDVJR>WHQVR@HQORVXE\DFHQWH"+DEtDPRVVXJHULGRTXHHOPRUIHPD
ࡱSURSLFLDODVDOWHUQDQFLDVORFXDOVHFRPSUXHEDQtWLGDPHQWHFRQ  /R¬TXH
VHWHRUL]DHQWRQFHVHVTXHGLFKRPRUIHPDVHOLJDDQLYHOIRQROyJLFRFRQHOUDVJR
>ਮWHQVR@~QLFDPHQWHHQHOFRQWH[WRUHVWULQJLGRGHϧQDOGHSDODEUD\QRHQORVGHPiV
SURFHVRTXHVHIRUPXODFRQODUHJOD   EDVDGDHQ0F&DUWK\ 

Ejemplo 4-13 Morfología del masculino singular contable

>ਮWHQVR@

ࡱ

8QDYH]LQVHUWDGRGLFKRUDVJRHQWUDHQDFFLyQODUHJODLWHUDWLYDGHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD
 FX\RSURSyVLWRHVH[WHQGHUGLFKRUDVJRDWRGDVODVSRVLFLRQHV9SRUGHIHFWR\
GHFRPSOHPHQWRTXHVXSOHQORVUDVJRVTXHOHIDOWDQD9¬0RVWUDPRVXQDGHULYDFLyQ
HQ  

Ejemplo 4-14 Armonía vocálica

>ಣ@ >ਮWHQVR@

9 ࡱ

Ejemplo 4-15

V9PS9W ૧9N9
>ਮWHQVR@ 5HJOD 

V9PS9W ૧9Nࡱ
>ਮWHQVR@ 5HJOD 

V PS W ૧ Nࡱ

 /DV SLH]DV Op[LFDV DSDUHFHQ FRQ YRFDOHV WHQVDV \ REYLDPHQWH GHEHQ VXUJLU GH
HVWDPDQHUDDQLYHOIRQpWLFR(QWRQFHVSRGUtDPRVSUHVXPLUTXHSDUDHVWHGLDOHFWR
[ 168 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

VHQHFHVLWDXQDUHJODDGLFLRQDOFRPSOHPHQWDULDTXHVXSODHOUDVJR>WHQVR@ODFXDO
RIUHFHPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 4-16

>ಣ@಩఩಩>WHQVR@

 ¢&yPR LQWHUDFW~D OD UHJOD GH UHGXQGDQFLD   FRQ OD IRQROyJLFD  "
¢<¬FyPRVHUHODFLRQDQHVWDVGRVFRQOD  "(VWDVSUHJXQWDVVRQGHFUXFLDOLPSRU
WDQFLDSRUTXHVXJLHUHQTXHGHKHFKRVHHVWDEOHFHXQRUGHQHQHOPRGRGHDSOLFDFLyQ
GHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVFRQODVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLD(QUHVSXHVWDDODSULPHUD
SUHJXQWDFXDQGRVHHQFXHQWUDHVWHWLSRGHUHODFLyQODSUHVXQFLyQQDWXUDOHVTXHODV
UHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLDVHDSOLFDQWDUGtDPHQWHDOϧQDOGHODGHULYDFLyQVDOYRVLXQD
UHJODIRQROyJLFDPHQFLRQDXQUDVJRTXHGHEDVXSOLUODUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLD(QHVWH
FDVRODUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLDGHEHSUHFHGHUSDUDTXHODUHJODIRQROyJLFDHQFXHQWUH
VXEODQFRGHDSOLFDFLyQ(VWDLQWHUDFFLyQHVWiUHJLPHQWDGDSRUODUHVWULFFLyQXQLYHUVDO
TXHQRVVXPLQLVWUD$UFKDQJHOL  \TXHPRGLϧFDPRVOHYHPHQWH

Restricci n al orden de re las de redundancia.಩8QDUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLD


TXHVXSODORVYDORUHVGHFLHUWRVUDVJRVGHEHDSOLFDUVHDQWHVGHFXDOTXLHUUHJOD
HQTXHVHPHQFLRQHQGLFKRVUDVJRVHQVXGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDO

/DPHQFLRQDGDUHVWULFFLyQJDUDQWL]DTXHHQFXDOTXLHUOHQJXDHQTXHLQWHUDFW~HQUHJODV
FRPROD  \OD  ODSULPHUDSUHFHGHHQRUGHQGHDSOLFDFLyQ
 3RURWUDSDUWHFRPRODUHJOD  QRHQWUDHQFRQϩLFWRQLFRQ  QLFRQ
 SURFHGHDSOLFDUODFRPRVLHPSUHDOϧQDO(Q  VHRIUHFHXQHMHPSORGHOD
LQWHUDFFLyQGHHVWDVUHJODV

Ejemplo 4-17

V9PS9W ૧9N9V V9PS9W ૧9N9


³ ࡱ 5HJOD 
³ VԌPSĐW ૧ԌNࡱ 5HJOD 
VLPSDW ૧LNXV VԌPSĐW ૧ԌNࡱ 5HJOD  \GHPiVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLD
>VLPSDW ૧LNXV@ >VԌPSĐW ૧ԌNࡱ@

಩9HQWDMDVGHODLQHVSHFLϧFDFLyQHQSDVLHJR

¢4XpYHQWDMDVQRVRIUHFHFDUDFWHUL]DUDODVYRFDOHVVLQHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSDUDHOUDVJR
>ਮWHQVR@HQYH]GHFRQVLJQDUOHVYDOHQFLDSRVLWLYDRQHJDWLYD"0LUHPRVODVFRVDVGHVGH
ODSULPHUDSHUVSHFWLYD\WHRULFHPRVTXHVyORH[LVWHQYRFDOHVWHQVDV\TXHHOVXϧMRHVSH
FLDOWLHQHHOYDORUTXH\DOHKHPRVFRQIHULGR6LVHKLFLHUDHODQiOLVLVDSOLFDQGRHOPRGHOR
Teoría de la subespecificación 169 ]

WUDGLFLRQDOWHQGUtDPRVTXHSRVWXODUWDPELpQXQDUHJODLWHUDWLYDGHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD
FRQIXQFLRQHVSDUHFLGDVDODVGH  'LFKDUHJODGDUtDFXHQWDGHORVKHFKRVWDQWR
HQORREVHUYDEOHFRPRHQORGHVFULSWLYR3HURQRSRGHPRVSHQHWUDUHQODQDWXUDOH]D
PLVPDGHOIHQyPHQRSRUTXHQRVWHQGUtDPRVTXHFRQIRUPDUFRQVXVWLWXLUXQDYDOHQFLD
SRURWUD1RVyORHVRWDPELpQWHQGUtDPRVTXHHPSOHDUGHKHFKRXQDUHJODGHFDPELRV
GHUDVJRVVLQTXHFRQHOORVHQRVUHYHOHORTXHHVWiRFXUULHQGRRVHDHOTXHORVUDVJRV
VHHVWiQDVLPLODQGR3HRUVROXFLyQVHUtDVLSURSXVLpVHPRVHQFDPELRTXHODVYRFDOHVVH
FDUDFWHUL]DQSRUVHU>ਮWHQVR@DQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHHVWRHVDVtSRUTXHODHQRUPHFDQWL
GDGGHSLH]DVOp[LFDVGHWLSRQRFRQWDEOHVGHOSDVLHJRLQYDOLGDVHPHMDQWHSUHVXQFLyQ
 3HUR¢TXpWDOVLVXSRQHPRVTXHHOUDVJR>WHQVR@HVXQDXWRVHJPHQWRTXHVH
GHVXQHGHVXEDVHYRFiOLFDPHGLDQWHODDSOLFDFLyQGHXQDUHJOD\TXHGHVSXpVHQWUD
HQDFFLyQODUHJOD  "(VWDRSFLyQHVSHUIHFWDPHQWHIDFWLEOHSHURSDUHFLGDHQVXV
HIHFWRVDODWUDGLFLRQDOH[SXHVWDPiVDUULEDSRUTXHHQYH]GHVHUXQDUHJODGHDVLPL
ODFLyQRSURSDJDFLyQGHUDVJRVORVFDPELDSXHVWRTXHGHKHFKRVHHVWiFDXVDQGR
ODGHVXQLyQGHXQUDVJRSUHH[LVWHQWH/RSUHIHULEOHSRUH[FHOHQFLDHVSXHVODLQHV
SHFLϧFDFLyQGHOUDVJR>WHQVR@FRQORFXDOUHVXOWDFODURSRUTXpDSDUHFHQODVYRFDOHV
WHQVDVHQODVYRFDOHVQRDVLPLODGDV(OORVHGHEHDODLQWHUYHQFLyQGHXQSULQFLSLRTXH
VXSOHDXWRPiWLFDPHQWHHOUDVJR>WHQVR@

಩/DHWHQVDGHOSDVLHJR

+DEtDPRV LQGLFDGR PiV DUULED TXH OD H HV QHXWUDO \ TXH QXQFD SDUWLFLSD HQ HO
SURFHVRGHUHODMDPLHQWRYRFiOLFR$GHPiVVXPDQLIHVWDFLyQIRQpWLFDHVWHQVD(YL
GHQWHPHQWHODGHVFULSFLyQTXHKHPRVRIUHFLGRWHQGUtDFRQVHFXHQFLDVLQDFHSWDEOHVHQ
SDODEUDVFRPR>H‫ޞ‬ਥPĐQࡱ@ODFXDOVLVHJXLPRVODOyJLFDGHQXHVWUDSUHVHQWDFLyQFRQ
9LQHVSHFLϧFDGDVHSURGXFLUtDHUUyQHDPHQWHFRPR >͑‫ޞ‬ਥPĐQࡱ@
 6H KDQ RIUHFLGR WUHV GHVFULSFLRQHV TXH LQWHQWDQ GDU HQ HO EODQFR DO WUDWDU GH
H[SOLFDUODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDSDUDHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@/DSULPHUDODPiVWUDGLFLRQDO
HV¬ GH¬ 0F&DUWK\ ²  TXLHQ SURSRQH TXH OD H VH FRPSRUWD VXE\DFHQ
WHPHQWHFRPRODVGHPiVYRFDOHV&XDQGRVHGDODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDODHTXHGD
DIHFWDGDFRQHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@/D>͑@QRDSDUHFHMDPiVHQODVXSHUϧFLHGHDKtTXH
VHSURSRQHHQWRQFHVXQDUHJODTXHGHVOLJXHGLFKRDXWRVHJPHQWRHOFXDOVHSLHUGH
\¬GHVSXpVDOϧQDOGHODGHULYDFLyQODUHJODFRPSOHPHQWDULD  VHHQFDUJDUtDGH
VXPLQLVWUDUOHHOUDVJR>WHQVR@0F&DUWK\DUJX\HTXHHOKHFKRGHTXHOD>ɬ@VXED
D>ࡱ@HQFLHUWRVFRQWH[WRVVXJLHUHTXHGHEHKDEHUXQSDVRLQWHUPHGLRSDUDODH
\D¬TXHWDPELpQWLHQGHDVXELUXQJUDGRFRQYLUWLpQGRVHDVtHQ>Ԍ@SHMODVUHVSHFWLYDV
>NRਥQH[XV@conejosYV>NࡱਥQԌ[ࡱ@conejo\>HOਥSHOX@YV>LOਥSԌOࡱ@el pelo./DVLPHWUtDTXH
HVWDEOHFH0F&DUWK\SDUHFHVHUFRQJUXHQWHFRQORVKHFKRV/RTXHQROXFHWDQGHVHDEOH
HVWHQHUTXHDVLPLODUXQUDVJRSDUDOXHJRHOLPLQDUOR\SRVWHULRUPHQWHKDFHUORHQWUDU
GHQXHYRSHURFRQYDOHQFLDRSXHVWD6RQQXPHURVRVORVSDVRVTXHLPSOLFDVHPHMDQWH
VROXFLyQ 1R REVWDQWH OD GHVFULSFLyQ HV FRKHUHQWH HQ HO VHQWLGR GH TXH WRGDV ODV
YRFDOHVYLHQHQXQLIRUPHPHQWHLQHVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDHOUDVJR>WHQVR@
[ 170 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 8Q VHJXQGR DQiOLVLV HV HO HQ TXH VH SURSRQH TXH FXDQGR VH DVLPLOD XQ UDVJR
VXKRPyORJRQRHVWiSUHVHQWHHQHOOXJDUTXHORKDEUiGHUHFLELU(VWDSURSXHVWD
DUWLFXODGD SRU $YHU\ \ 5LFH   DGROHFH SRU XQ ODGR GH QR KDEHU UHVLVWLGR HO
LPSODFDEOHHVFUXWLQLRGHODFUtWLFD$GHPiVKDEUtDTXHSUHVXPLUTXHVyORHFRQWD
UtDFRQODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ>WHQVR@ORTXHHYLWDUtDHQWRQFHVODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD
 SXHVVHJ~QORVDXWRUHVPHQFLRQDGRVODSUHVHQFLDGHGLFKRUDVJRLPSHGLUtD
HOGHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHVXKRPyORJRQHJDWLYR(OWHQHUTXHHVSHFLϧFDUDODHFRQHO
UDVJR>WHQVR@\QRODVGHPiVYRFDOHVQRVyORSURGXFHXQDLQGHVHDEOHDVLPHWUtD
GHFRQVWDWDFLyQGHUDVJRVVXE\DFHQWHVVLQRTXHQRVHFRPSDJLQDFRQORVKHFKRVOD
HHVQHXWUDOD~QLFDFRPRGLMLPRVTXHQRSDUWLFLSDQLLQFHQWLYDHOSURFHVRGH
UHODMDPLHQWRYRFiOLFR
 8QWHUFHUDQiOLVLVHVHOTXHRIUHFH+XDOGH D HQHOTXHGHVFDUWDTXHH[LVWDQ
ORVSDVRVLQWHUPHGLRVGLVFXWLGRVDUULEDFXDQGRVHSURGXFHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDHQHOVLQ
JXODUGHSLH]DVOp[LFDV(OSURSRQHSRUHMHPSORTXHHQODGHULYDFLyQGHNRQW ૧HQW ૧XOR
TXHH[LVWHHVXQDFRPELQDFLyQGHODDVLJQDFLyQGHODFHQWRPpWULFR\SURSDJDFLyQGH
UDVJRV(OUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@ pOHPSOHD>ਮ$75@RVXHTXLYDOHQWHHQHVSDxRO>ਮ5/$@ 
VHXQHDODHSUHYLDPHQWHDFHQWXDGDHOFXDOGHVHQFDGHQDHOUHODMDPLHQWRGHWRGDV
ODVYRFDOHVTXHVHFRQYLHUWHQHQOD[DV/XHJRLQWHUYLHQHXQDUHJODDXWRVHJPHQWDOTXH
SURSDJDHOUDVJR>DOWR@GHODXϧQDOORTXHGDSRUUHVXOWDGR>NࡱQ૧ਥW ૧ԌQ૧W ૧ࡱ@
 ,QGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHFXiOGHHVWDVWUHVRSFLRQHVGHDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDVHDOD
FRUUHFWD³DXQTXHORVKHFKRVSDUHFHQLQGLFDUTXHODGH¬+XDOGHHVODTXHYDPHMRU
HQFDPLQDGD³LPSRUWDUHVDOWDUHOKHFKRGHTXHHQWRGDVVHGHEHSUHVXPLUODLQHVSH
FLϧFDFLyQGHOUDVJR>WHQVR@DOQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH

4.6 Subespecificación consonántica

(QORVFDVRVGHODVYRFDOHVHVWXGLDGDVDQWHULRUPHQWHKHPRVSRGLGRFRPSUREDUTXHD
QLYHOIRQROyJLFRKD\UDVJRVTXHVRQLQQHFHVDULRV\TXHVyORVHQHFHVLWDQORVTXHVLUYHQ
SDUDGLVWLQJXLUDXQVHJPHQWRGHRWUR/RPLVPRRFXUUHFRQODVFRQVRQDQWHV(QHVWH
DSDUWDGRVLQHPEDUJRYDPRVDSUHVHQWDUXQERVTXHMRJHQHUDOGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ
FRQVRQiQWLFD\GDUHPRVHMHPSORVGHOHVSDxRO\RWUDVOHQJXDVTXHVHUYLUiQGHVXVWHQWR
HPStULFRDQXHVWUDIRUPXODFLyQ

಩,QYHQWDULRFRQVRQiQWLFRJHQHUDO

$OLJXDOTXHODVYRFDOHVSDUDFDUDFWHUL]DUODVFRQVRQDQWHVQRVHQHFHVLWDFRQVLJQDU
WRGRVVXVUDVJRVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH3ULPHUDPHQWHKDEUtDTXHFRQVLJQDUVHTXHODV
UHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVYLHQHQVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDFLHUWRV
UDVJRV\HQVHJXQGROXJDUHVQHFHVDULRSURYHHUODVUHJODVSRUGHIHFWRTXHVXSODQ
ORVYDORUHVGHORVUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV3HURFRQWUDULRDORTXHRFXUUHFRQODVYRFDOHV
Teoría de la subespecificación 171 ]

HQHVSDxROQRVHKDFRPSUREDGRTXHH[LVWDQFRQVRQDQWHVDVLPpWULFDVHQFXDQWRD
ODSUHVHQFLDGHUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVDSDUWLUGHORVFXDOHVVHSXHGDQFUHDUORVGHPiV
UDVJRV/DVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVHVSDxRODVQRKDJR]DGRGHODPLVPD
DWHQFLyQTXHODGHODVYRFDOHVH[FHSWRHQORTXHUHVSHFWDDODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHO
UDVJR>FRURQDO@1RREVWDQWHKD\DOJXQRVSULQFLSLRVGHLPSOLFDFLyQGHUDVJRVGLV
WLQWLYRVTXHVHDSOLFDQXQLYHUVDOPHQWHDWRGDVODVOHQJXDVFRPRHOTXHDOXGHDOD
LQWHUDFFLyQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVUHVRQDQWHVFRQHOUDVJRGHVRQRULGDG\ODUHODFLyQGH
HVWD~OWLPDFRQODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHV
 &RPHQFHPRV SRU FDUDFWHUL]DU HO UDVJR >UHVRQDQWH@ /DV YRFDOHV \D HVWXGLDGDV
WLHQHQ TXH GLIHUHQFLDUVH GH ORV GHPiV VHJPHQWRV PHGLDQWH OD SUHVHQFLD GHO UDVJR
>UHVRQDQWH@HOFXDOHVXQVRQLGRTXHWLHQGHDSURGXFLUVRQRULGDGHVSRQWiQHDHQOD
FDYLGDGEXFDO &KRPVN\\+DOOH 6HPHMDQWHUDVJRVHUHSRUWDUtDSDUDODV
YRFDOHVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH(OPLVPRIHQyPHQRGHHVSRQWDQHLGDGVRQRUDOHRFXUUHD
ODVQDVDOHVYLEUDQWHVODWHUDOHV\GHVOL]DGDV6LQHPEDUJRHVWDSURSLHGDGQRVHQHFH
VLWDSDUDFDUDFWHUL]DUDODVFRQVRQDQWHVREVWUX\HQWHVSRUTXHVLELHQVHVDEHTXHQR
H[LVWHVRQRULGDGHVSRQWiQHDWDPELpQVHVDEHTXHHOVHJPHQWRGHEHVHU>ਮUHVRQDQWH@
'DGRTXHODVUHVRQDQWHVHVWiQLGHQWLϧFDGDVHQHOOp[LFRVHKDFHUHGXQGDQWHDVLJQDUOHV
YDORUDODVREVWUX\HQWHVKHFKRTXHVHGHEHUHϩHMDUPHGLDQWHXQDUHJODFRPSOHPHQWD
ULD(QHOOp[LFRHVSUiFWLFDPHQWHLPSRVLEOHVDEHUVLXQDFRQVRQDQWHREVWUX\HQWHVHUiR
QRVRQRUD3DUDKDFHUORVHUtDQHFHVDULRLGHQWLϧFDUVyORDTXHOODVFRQVRQDQWHVTXHVHDQ
GLVWLQWLYDVOp[LFDPHQWHHQFXDQWRDOUDVJR>VRQRUR@\DxDGLUOHVHOUDVJR>ਮVRQRUR@
DODVGHPiVREVWUX\HQWHVPHGLDQWHUHJODVXQLYHUVDOHVSRUGHIHFWR
 7DPELpQVHSXHGHSUHGHFLUFRQUHODWLYDVHQFLOOH]TXHFXDOTXLHUVHJPHQWRTXHVH
FDUDFWHULFHSRUVHU>UHVRQDQWH@HVXQLYHUVDOPHQWH>VRQRUR@FXDQGRVHUHϧHUHDODV
UHVRQDQWHV>PQ‫ص‬Oु‫ޞ‬MZ@WHPDTXHYROYHUHPRVDDERUGDUFRQHMHPSORVGHOMDSRQpV
/DPLVPDSUHGLFFLyQRFXUUHHQFXDQWRDOJUDGRGHFRQVWULFFLyQJORWDOSXHVWRGDFRQ
VRQDQWHVRQRUDUHTXLHUHSRUDQDWRPtDDUWLFXODWRULDHOFLHUUHGHODVFXHUGDVYRFDOHV
SDUDSURGXFLUVRQRULGDG(VWD~OWLPDSUHGLFFLyQODHIHFWXDUtDXQDUHJODSRUGHIHFWR
'H QXHYR GHEHPRV SUHVXPLU TXH ODV FRQVRQDQWHV QR VRQ WRWDOPHQWH DVLPpWULFDV
FRQUHVSHFWRDWRGRVORVUDVJRVVLQRFRQUHVSHFWRDDOJXQRVGHHOORV3RUHMHPSORHO
KHFKRGHTXHQVHFDUDFWHULFHSRUVHU>ਮODELDO@QRLPSOLFDUtDTXHPWDPELpQOR
VHD &RQWLQXHPRVHOWHPDGHSUHGHFLUORVUDVJRV\SDUDHOORFRQVLGHUHPRVODPDWUL]
FRPSOHWDSDUDORVVLJXLHQWHVUDVJRV  

Ejemplo 4-18

P Q ‫ص‬ O ु ‫ޞ‬ j Z I S W૧ N E G૧ С V ‫ۏ‬ ߿ թ

UHVRQDQWH         ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ
VRQRUR         ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ    ਮ ਮ ਮ 
JORWLV ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ     ਮ ਮ ਮ    ਮ
GLODWDGD
[ 172 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

6LWHQHPRVSUHVHQWHVODVLPSOLFDFLRQHVTXHVHDQRWDQDQWHULRUPHQWHSRGUtDPRVSUR
SRQHUODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ  TXHODVUHϩHMDQFRPRVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDV

Ejemplo 4-19

P Q ‫ص‬ O ु ‫ޞ‬ j Z I S W૧ N E G૧ С V ‫ۏ‬ ߿ թ

UHVRQDQWH        
VRQRUR    
JORWLV       
GLODWDGD

/RVFRUFKHWHVYDFtRVSDVDQHQWRQFHVDUHOOHQDUVHPHGLDQWHODVUHJODVGHUHGXQGDQFLD
HQ  

Ejemplo 4-20

5HJODFRPSOHPHQWDULD
a. >ಣ@಩఩಩>ਮUHVRQDQWH@

5HJODVSRUGHIHFWR
b. >UHVRQDQWH@಩఩಩>VRQRUR@
c. >ಣ@಩఩಩>ਮVRQRUR@
d. >VRQRUR@಩఩಩>ਮJORWLVGLODWDGD@

 /DPDWUL]  QRUHVXOWDFRQWURYHUVLDOSRUTXHUHϩHMDSURSLHGDGHVDQDWyPLFDV


TXHVHFXPSOHQXQLYHUVDOPHQWHHQWRGDVODVOHQJXDV,JXDOPHQWHXQLYHUVDOHVODUHOD
FLyQGHRUGHQTXHGHEHH[LVWLUHQWUHXQSDUGHUHJODVFRPRVHREVHUYDHQWUHODVUHJODV
E \ F &RPRVHGLMR E SUHGLFHTXHHOUDVJRLQPDUFDGRSDUDODVUHVR
QDQWHVHV>VRQRUR@PLHQWUDVTXH F LQWURGXFHHOYDORU>ਮVRQRUR@DWRGDVODV
GHPiVFRQVRQDQWHV(OSUREOHPDGHLQWHUDFFLyQHQWUHHVWDVGRVUHJODVHVTXHVHVXSRQH
TXHOD F HVPiVJHQHUDOHQVXDSOLFDFLyQSRUTXHQRDOXGHDQLQJ~QFRQWH[WR\
TXHSRUORWDQWRGHEHDSOLFDUVHSULPHUR(VWRQDWXUDOPHQWHVHUtDFRQWUDSURGXFHQWH
SXHVWRTXHKDUtDDODVUHVRQDQWHV>ਮVRQRUD@/DVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUDGLFDOFRQWHPSOD
XQDVROXFLyQDVHPHMDQWHGLOHPDFXDQGRDSHODDO3ULQFLSLRGHO5HVWRXQ¬SULQFLSLR
XQLYHUVDO SURSXHVWR SRU .LSDUVN\   (Q VX DFHSFLyQ PiV DPSOLD OR TXH HVWD
FRQGLFLyQHVWLSXODHVTXHFXDQGRKD\XQSDUGHUHJODVTXHSURGXFHQUHVXOWDGRVFRQWUD
GLFWRULRV\XQDGHHOODVLQFOX\HDODRWUDSRWHQFLDOPHQWHHQVXGHVFULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDO
pVWDWLHQHSUHFHGHQFLDGHDSOLFDFLyQ'LFKRGHPRGRPiVLQIRUPDOODFRQGLFLyQH[LJH
TXHVHDSOLTXHODUHJODPiVHVSHFtϧFDHQFX\RFDVR E GHEHSUHFHGHUVLHPSUHD
OD F 
Teoría de la subespecificación 173 ]

಩(OUDVJR>VRQRUR@HQMDSRQpV

9ROYDPRVDODLQWHUDFFLyQTXHVHUHDOL]DHQWUHODUHVRQDQFLD\ODVRQRULGDG8QEXHQ
HMHPSORTXHVLUYHGHVRVWpQDHVWDDVHYHUDFLyQQRVYLHQHGHOMDSRQpV 0HVWHUH,WR
  /D FRQVRQDQWH LQLFLDO GHO VHJXQGR PLHPEUR GH XQ FRPSXHVWR VH KDFH
VRQRUDPHGLDQWHXQDUHJODTXHVHOODPDrendaku,GHPDQHUDTXHORVGRVFRPSXHVWRV
VXE\DFHQWHVFRQVXVREVWUX\HQWHVVRUGDVLQLFLDOHVGDGDVHQQHJULWDVHQPDNLsXߑL\
NRtDQXNLVRQUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH>PDNL XߑL@¶VXVKLHQUROODGR·\>NRdDQXNL@¶EHEp
PDSDFKH·$KRUDELHQVLHQHOVHJXQGRPLHPEURKD\XQDREVWUX\HQWHVRQRUDODUHJOD
UHQGDNXQRVHDSOLFD/DLQDSOLFDELOLGDGREHGHFHDORTXHVHGHQRPLQDLey de Lyman,
FRQODTXHVHSURKLEHODDSDULFLyQGHXQDREVWUX\HQWHVRQRUDVLHQHOPRUIHPD\D
KD\RWUD'HDFXHUGRFRQHVWDSURKLELFLyQODN\ODWLQLFLDOHVVXE\DFHQWHVGH
NDPLkD]H\GRNXtRNDСHVHPDQWLHQHQUHVSHFWLYDPHQWHHQ>NDPLND]H@¶YLHQWR
GLYLQR·\>GRNXtRNDСH@¶ODJDUWRYHQHQRVR·SRUTXHOD/H\GH¬/\PDQLPSLGHTXHVDOJDQ
>NDPL D]H@R >GRNXdRWDСH@(YLGHQWHPHQWHODSUHVHQFLDGHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@GH
ODREVWUX\HQWHVXE\DFHQWHHQHOVHJXQGRPLHPEURHYLWDTXHODFRQVRQDQWHLQLFLDOVH
KDJDVRQRUD
 (QFDPELRVLHOVHJXQGRPLHPEURFRQWLHQHXQDFRQVRQDQWHUHVRQDQWHODUHJODUHQ
GDNXVHFXPSOH/DVIRUPDVIRQpWLFDVGHR‫ޞ‬LkDPL\RQQDkRNR‫ޞ‬RVRQ>R‫ޞ‬L DPL@
¶GREODGRUGHSDSHO·\>RQQD RNR‫ޞ‬R@¶VHQWLPLHQWRVIHPHQLQRV·(OTXHHQODVREVWUX
\HQWHVODFRQVRQDQWHVRQRUDEORTXHHODUHJODUHQGDNXSHURQRDVtODVFRQVRQDQWHV
UHVRQDQWHVVXJLHUHTXHHOUDVJR>VRQRUR@TXHXQLYHUVDOPHQWHGHϧQHDHVWDV~OWLPDV
DQLYHOIRQpWLFRQRGHEHHVWDUHVSHFLϧFDGRDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH(VWRHVDVtSRUTXHGH
ORFRQWUDULRVXSUHVHQFLDEORTXHDUtDODDSDULFLyQGH>С@HQ>R‫ޞ‬LСDPL@\>RQQDСRNR‫ޞ‬R@
OR¬FXDOQRVXFHGH(VSRUHVWHPRWLYRDSR\DGRSRUPXFKRVRWURVHMHPSORVGHGLIHUHQ
WHVOHQJXDVTXHQRVHHVSHFLϧFDUiHQHOOp[LFRODVRQRULGDGGHODVUHVRQDQWHV

಩6XEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQHQQDVDOHV\OtTXLGDV

$GHPiVGHODVLPSOLFDFLRQHVHVWXGLDGDVDUULEDKD\RWUDVTXHPX\ELHQQRVSRGUtDQ
IRU]DUDDEDQGRQDUODSUHVHQFLDGHOUDVJR>UHVRQDQWH@HQHOFDVRGHODVFRQVRQDQWHV
3HQVHPRVHQORVUDVJRVTXHFDUDFWHUL]DQDODVQDVDOHV\DODVODWHUDOHV$OFRQVLGH
UDUORVUHVSHFWLYRVUDVJRV>QDVDO@\>ODWHUDO@REVHUYDPRVTXHTXL]iVKDEUtDTXH
FRQVLJQDUORVDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHSDUDGLIHUHQFLDUD>OुPQ‫@ص‬GHODVREVWUX\HQWHV
/D¬FRQϧJXUDFLyQTXHDGRSWDODFDYLGDGEXFDOSDUDSURGXFLUGLFKRVUDVJRVH[LJHQHFH
VDULDPHQWHTXHVHSURGX]FDXQVRQLGRFRQVRQRULGDGFDUDFWHUtVWLFDQRWDEOHPHQWH
DXVHQWHHQODVREVWUX\HQWHV3RUHQGHVLVHVDEHTXHHVWHJUXSRGHVRQLGRVHVWiHVSH
FLϧFDGRSRVLWLYDPHQWHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHFRQORVUDVJRVHQFXHVWLyQSRULPSOLFDFLyQ
VHGHGXFHTXHVRQ>UHVRQDQWH@\TXHSRUWDQWRQRVHOHVGHEHHVSHFLϧFDUHVWHUDVJR
DQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH6HQHFHVLWDUtDQODVUHJODVTXHVHSUHVHQWDQHQ  ODVFXDOHV
[ 174 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

OHVRWRUJDUtDQSRVWHULRUPHQWHORVYDORUHVSRVLWLYRVDODVQDVDOHV\ODWHUDOHVQRHVSHFL
ϧFDGDVVHJ~QVHLOXVWUDHQODPDWUL]  

Ejemplo 4-21

a. >QDVDO@಩఩಩>UHVRQDQWH@
b. >ODWHUDO@಩఩಩>UHVRQDQWH@

Ejemplo 4-22

S E P I ‫ۏ‬ W૧ G૧ V Q ‫ޞ‬ O ु ߿ թ ‫ص‬ N С [ Z j

UHVRQDQWH   
QDVDO   
ODWHUDO  

+D\TXHQRWDUHQ  TXH‫ޞ‬SHVHDTXHVHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUVHU>UHVRQDQWH@


UDVJRTXHQRGHEHLQGLFDUVHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHSRUODVUD]RQHV\DH[SXHVWDVDSDUHFH
FRQHVWHUDVJRGLIHUHQFLDGRU(VWRRFXUUHSRUTXHDSDUWLUGHODLQHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHORV
UDVJRV>ODWHUDO@\>QDVDO@ RD~QVLYLQLHUDQPDUFDGRVQHJDWLYDPHQWH SDUD‫ޞ‬QRVH
SXHGHSUHGHFLUVXFDUiFWHUUHVRQDQWH(VWHPLVPRDQiOLVLVVHOHVDSOLFDDODVGHVOL]DGDV
ZMVXFDUiFWHUUHVRQDQWHQRVHSXHGHGHGXFLUQLGHOUDVJR>ODWHUDO@QLGHO>QDVDO@
3RUORWDQWRVHODVHVSHFLϧFDDQLYHOEiVLFRFRPR>UHVRQDQWH@
 (QUHVXPLGDVFXHQWDVVLVHGLVWLQJXHQODVODWHUDOHV\ODVQDVDOHVGHODVGHPiV
FRQVRQDQWHVPHGLDQWHORVUDVJRV>ODWHUDO@\>QDVDO@REYLDPHQWHODVREVWUX\HQWHV
QRYLHQHQHVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDHVWRVUDVJRVHQFX\RFDVRODVUHJODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDV
D \ E VHHQFDUJDUtDQGHVXPLQLVWUDUOHVORVUDVJRVTXHIDOWDQVHJ~QFRQVWD
HQ  /RPLVPRVXFHGHFRQODUHJOD  TXHOHVFRQVLJQDUtDYDORUHVQHJDWLYRV
DODVFRQVRQDQWHVREVWUX\HQWHV3RUVHUFRPSOHPHQWDULDVHVWDVUHJODVVLJXHQHQRUGHQ
GHDSOLFDFLyQDODVUHJODVSRUGHIHFWROLVWDGDVHQ  

Ejemplo 4-23

a. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮQDVDO@
b. >ಣ@ ఩ >ਮODWHUDO@

Ejemplo 4-24

>ಣ@ ఩ >ਮUHVRQDQWH@

'HUHGXFLUODLQIRUPDFLyQUHGXQGDQWHREWHQGUtDPRVODPDWUL]  SDUDORVUDVJRV


\DWUDWDGRV
Teoría de la subespecificación 175 ]

Ejemplo 4-25

S E P I ‫ۏ‬ W૧ G૧ V Q ‫ޞ‬ O ु ߿ թ ‫ص‬ N С [ Z j

UHVRQDQWH   
VRQRUR
JORWLV
GLODWDGD
QDVDO   
ODWHUDO  

/DPDWUL]  QRHVFRQWURYHUVLDOHQFXDQWRDVXDFHSWDFLyQJHQHUDO\VXDOFDQFH


XQLYHUVDO(OODUHϩHMDODVLPSOLFDFLRQHVGHUDVJRVTXHQRVYLHQHQGHODWUDGLFLyQIRQR
OyJLFD\ODPDUFDGH]GHOSound Pattern of English &KRPVN\\+DOOH 1RVHSXHGH
DϧUPDUORPLVPRSDUDORVGHPiVUDVJRVFX\DDXVHQFLDOp[LFDHVWiVXMHWDDOHQJXDV
SDUWLFXODUHVWHPDTXHDERUGDPRVDFRQWLQXDFLyQ

಩3DUWLFXODULGDGHVGHOHQJXD

+D\HVSHFLϧFDFLRQHVTXHVRQHVWULFWDPHQWHSDUWLFXODUHVDODOHQJXDHVSDxROD\TXHD
QLYHOVXE\DFHQWHVREUDUtDQ7RPHPRVSRUFDVRORVUDVJRV>FRURQDO@\>DQWHULRU@DXQ
TXHGHEHPRVDGHODQWDUTXHVREUHHOSULPHUUDVJRVHKDQRIUHFLGRGDWRVTXHSDUHFHQ
FRQϧUPDUVXVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ YpDVHODVHFFLyQ 
 <DVDEHPRVTXHHQHVSDxROH[LVWHQFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHV/RLQWHUHVDQWHHVTXH
HQHVWDOHQJXDHOORLPSOLFDTXHWRGDFRQVRQDQWHTXHHV>FRURQDO@WDPELpQVXHOH
VHU>DQWHULRU@PLHQWUDVTXHORRSXHVWRQRRFXUUH&RQODH[FHSFLyQGHQVHJ~Q
YHUHPRVPiVDGHODQWHHODUWLFXODGRU>FRURQDO@GLVWLQJXHDODVDOYHRODUHVODV DOYHR
SDODWDOHV\ODLQWHUGHQWDOGHWRGDVODVRWUDV\SRUWDQWRHVWDUiSUHVHQWHDQLYHOOp[LFR
SDUDDTXpOODVSHURQRSDUDHVWDV~OWLPDV/DUHJODSRUGHIHFWR  SUHGLFHORVYDORUHV
GHOUDVJR>DQWHULRU@SDUDODVFRURQDOHV\ORKDFHGHPDQHUDFRUUHFWD\DTXHFRQWUDULR
DODOHQJXDKLQG~HQHVSDxROJHQHUDOQRKD\FRURQDOHVUHWURϩHMDV

Ejemplo 4-26

>FRURQDO@ ఩ >DQWHULRU@

1DWXUDOPHQWHTXHODV DOYHR SDODWDOHV>ु߿թ‫@ص‬VRQH[FHSFLRQHVD  SRUTXHDO


VHU>FRURQDO@VHHVSHUDUtDTXHWDPELpQIXHUDQ>DQWHULRU@/RFLHUWRHVTXHVRQ
>ਮDQWHULRU@\SRUWDQWRGHEHQHVWDUPDUFDGDVOp[LFDPHQWHFRQHVWHUDVJR
 6L HOLPLQDPRV >FRURQDO@ SDUD OD Q TXH SDVDPRV D DQDOL]DU GH LQPHGLDWR
OD¬PDWUL]  OXFLUtDFRPROD  7pQJDVHSUHVHQWHTXHORVSDUpQWHVLVYDFtRV
VLJQLϧFDQTXHORVDUWLFXODGRUHV >FRURQDO@\>DQWHULRU@SRUHMHPSOR GHODL]TXLHUGD
[ 176 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

QRVHDFWLYDQSDUDORVVHJPHQWRVHQFXHVWLyQ/DVYDOHQFLDVSRVLWLYDVVLJQLϧFDQTXH
GLFKRVDUWLFXODGRUHVVHDFWLYDQ

Ejemplo 4-27

S E P I ‫ۏ‬ W૧ G૧ V Q ‫ޞ‬ O ु ߿ թ ‫ص‬ N С [

UHVRQDQWH 
VRQRUR    
FRURQDO                 
DQWHULRU     ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ   
QDVDO   
ODWHUDO  

4.7 El caso especial de las nasales /m,n,ɲ/

&RPRKDEtDPRVVHxDODGRHQSiUUDIRVDQWHULRUHVXQDGHODVGLIHUHQFLDVHQWUHHOVLV
WHPD GH PDUFDGH] GHO 63( \ OD WHRUtD GH OD VXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ TXH KHPRV YHQLGR
GHVDUUROODQGRKDVWDDKRUDHVTXHHQDTXpOODODGLVWLQFLyQGHUDVJRVSDUDXQVHJPHQWR
HVWiVXMHWDH[FOXVLYDPHQWHDXQDQRUPDGHDEVWUDFFLyQXQLYHUVDOPLHQWUDVTXHHVWD
~OWLPDFRPELQDWDQWRXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQXQLYHUVDODEVWUDFWDFRPRXQDHVSHFtϧFDGH
FXDOTXLHUOHQJXDSDUWLFXODU(OFDVRGHODVQDVDOHVHVEDVWDQWHDOHFFLRQDGRUFRPRSDUD
LOXVWUDUODSDUWLFXODULGDGGHOVLVWHPD/RTXHVHKDGHPRVWUDGRPX\FRQYLQFHQWHPHQWH
HVTXHDODQQRKD\QHFHVLGDGGHGLVWLQJXLUODDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHFRQORVUDVJRV
>FRURQDODQWHULRU@'HVHUHVWRDVtFDEHSODQWHDUVHGRVSUHJXQWDV(QSULPHUOXJDU
¢FyPRSRGHPRVOOHJDUDVHPHMDQWHFRQFOXVLyQ"(QVHJXQGROXJDU¢FyPRSRGHPRV
GLVWLQJXLUODGHODELODELDOPRGHODSDODWDO‫"ص‬
 6LVHHVWXGLDQODGLVWULEXFLyQ\ORVSURFHVRVGHODVQDVDOHVHQORVGLIHUHQWHVGLDOHF
WRVHVSDxROHVVHHQFRQWUDUiODUHVSXHVWDDODVGRVSUHJXQWDVDQWHULRUHV +DUULVD 
&RQVLGHUHPRVWRGRVORVGLDOHFWRV\SUHVXPDPRVTXHH[LVWHQWUHVQDVDOHVGLVWLQWLYDV
 

Ejemplo 4-28

P >P@oda co>P@a


Q >Q@ada sa>Q@a
‫@ص> ص‬oño mo>‫@ص‬o

3DUDDEDUFDUODGLVWLQFLyQGHHVWDVQDVDOHVVHHVWDEOHFHHQ  XQDPDWUL]DOHVWLOR


63(TXHHQHIHFWRGHEHOXFLUVRVSHFKRVDSRUTXHSRVLEOHPHQWHHQHOODVHSXHGDSUHV
FLQGLUGHDOJXQRVUDVJRVFRPRYLPRVFRQODVREVWUX\HQWHV
Teoría de la subespecificación 177 ]

Ejemplo 4-29

P Q ‫ص‬

FRURQDO ਮ  ਮ
DQWHULRU   ਮ
QDVDO   

6LREVHUYDPRVHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHODVQDVDOHVHQVXWRWDOLGDGWDQWRHQVXGLVWULEX
FLyQFRPRHQORVSURFHVRVHQTXHLQWHUYLHQHQSRGHPRVUHGXFLUEDVWDQWHORVYDORUHV
ELQDULRVHQODPDWUL]  &RQVLGHUHPRVSULPHUDPHQWHODGLVWULEXFLyQ
 <DVDEHPRVTXHODVQDVDOHVVXUJHQDUWLFXODGDVVHJ~QHOWLSRGHFRQVRQDQWHTXHODV
VLJD\TXHWDOHVYDULDQWHVSURYLHQHQGHODQ(QWRQFHVVHREWLHQHODODELRGHQWDO>؇@
ODGHQWDO>Q૧@ODDOYHRORSDODWDO>‫\@ئ‬ODYHODU>‫@غ‬VLQFRQWUDVWDUMDPiVHQGLFKDSRVLFLyQ
/RXVXDOHVTXHDQWHFRQVRQDQWHVTXHVHGHϧQDQFRQHVWRVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVODV
QDVDOHVDSDUH]FDQFRPRVHPXHVWUDHQ  

Ejemplo 4-30

co>P@pota co>؇@ anza mo>Q૧@tura ca>Q@sada ma>‫@ئ‬char ci>‫@غ‬co

 6LH[DPLQDPRVXQDJDPDPiVDPSOLDGHODGLVWULEXFLyQGHODVYDULDQWHVQDVDOHV
DQWH FRQVRQDQWH SRGHPRV HQFRQWUDU TXH KD\ VHFXHQFLD GH QDVDOHV WDQWR HQ SRVL
FLyQ LQWHUQD GH PRUIHPD FRPR HQWUH PRUIHPDV $Vt WHQHPRVhi>PQ@o, colu>PQ@a,
alu>PQ@o, i>QP@oral, i>QQ@obleHQWUHRWUDV/RPiVUHYHODGRUGHODVVHFXHQFLDVGH
QDVDOHVHVTXHODQSXHGHDSDUHFHUDQWHVRGHVSXpVGHPHQSURQXQFLDFLyQHVWiQ
GDUi>QP@oral,ó>PQ@ibus.$XQTXHHVSRVLEOHGRFXPHQWDU>QQ@FRPRHQpere>QQ@e
OD¬VHFXHQFLDGHQWURGHSDODEUDGH>PP@HVSRFRIUHFXHQWH
 6L QRV UHPLWLPRV DO GLDOHFWR GRPLQLFDQR 1~xH] &HGHxR   KDOODPRV TXH
JHQHUDOPHQWHOD>P@HVORTXHDSDUHFHDQWHRWUDQDVDOVLJXLHQGRHOPRGHORHVWiQGDU
6LQHPEDUJRHQODVHFXHQFLD>QQ@ODSULPHUDQDVDODSDUHFHLQFRQWURYHUWLEOHPHQWH
YHODUL]DGD FRPR >‫غ‬Q@ 3RU OR YLVWR DTXt QR KD\ IHQyPHQR GH DVLPLODFLyQ VLQR GH
QHXWUDOL]DFLyQ KHFKR TXH VH OH HVFDSDUtD D FXDOTXLHU UHJOD GH DVLPLODFLyQ TXH VH
SURSRQJDSXHVQRKD\PDQHUDGHSUHGHFLUODVPDQLIHVWDFLRQHVJHQHUDOHVQLODVGLD
OHFWDOHV(YLGHQWHPHQWHWHQHPRVTXHFRQVLGHUDUXQDDPSOLDJHQHUDOL]DFLyQ\DTXHHQ
ODVHFXHQFLDGH>QDVDO@>QDVDO@ODSULPHUDGHEHVHU~QLFDPHQWH>P@\SDUDORVTXH
YHODUL]DQVHUi>‫@غ‬$VtVHJ~QHOGLDOHFWRHVSRVLEOHSUHGHFLUSRUHOFRQWH[WRHOSXQWR
GHDUWLFXODFLyQGHXQDGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVQDVDOHVFXDQGRpVWDVVHKDOODQDJUXSDGDV
+DUULVD 
 (IHFWLYDPHQWHODJUDPiWLFDQHFHVLWDUiODVUHJODV    \  FX\DGHV
FULSFLyQHVWUXFWXUDOQRVPXHVWUDORLQQHFHVDULRTXHVHKDFHLQFOXLUHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@
DQLYHOVXE\DFHQWH
[ 178 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

Ejemplo 4-31

>QDVDO@಩఩಩>FRURQDO@>QDVDO@ಣಣ

Ejemplo 4-32

>QDVDO@಩఩಩>ODELDO@ಣಣ>QDVDO@

Ejemplo 4-33

>QDVDO@಩఩಩>GRUVDO@ಣಣ>QDVDO@

(VWDVWUHVVRQUHJODVUHJXODUHVGHFRQVWUHxLPLHQWRDODHVWUXFWXUDPRUIpPLFD\SRU
WDQWRQRVHGHEHSUHVXPLUTXHHQODHQWUDGDVHGDHOYDORUFRQWUDULRDOGHODVDOLGD
RVHDODVDOLGDFRUUHVSRQGHDODLQVHUFLyQGHXQUDVJRTXHQRHVWDEDHVSHFLϧFDGR
 (OFDVR\DHVWXGLDGRGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOFRUURERUDFRQPiVYLJRUODVXEHVSH
FLϧFDFLyQGHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@SDUDODQ6HUHFRUGDUiTXHHVWDQDVDODVXPHHOSXQWR
GHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWHHQLQWHULRU\OLQGHGHSDODEUD(QHOFDSt
WXOR¬KDEtDPRVSURSXHVWRXQDQiOLVLVHQHOTXHQYHQtDHVSHFLϧFDGRFRQVXVYDORUHV
DUWLFXODWRULRVORVFXDOHVGHVDSDUHFHUtDQPHGLDQWHUHJODGHGHVDVRFLDFLyQ/XHJRORV
UDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWHVHH[WHQGtDQGHIRUPDWDOTXHSDVDEDQ
DRFXSDUHOYDFtRGHMDGRHQODVQDVDOHVSURGXFLpQGRVHSRUFRQVLJXLHQWHODDVLPLODFLyQ
TXHVHPXHVWUDHQ  GHOFDStWXOR(VWHSURFHVRUHSUHVHQWDHOFDVRPiVJHQHUDOGH
DVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDO\VHSXHGHVLPSOLϧFDUPXFKRPiVFRQODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHOD
Q¢3RUTXp"3RUODVLPSOHUD]yQGHTXHDOQRWHQHUTXHGHVOLJDUVHUDVJRDOJXQRVH
VLPSOLϧFDODGHVFULSFLyQGHOIHQyPHQR VHHYLWDODDVLJQDFLyQGHUDVJRV \VHH[SOLFD
SRUTXpODQDGRSWDFRQϧJXUDFLRQHVDUWLFXODWRULDVWDQGLIHUHQWHVSRUTXHHOODPLVPD
FDUHFHSRUORJHQHUDOGHDUWLFXODFLyQSURSLDQRSRUWDVXUDVJR>FRURQDO@
 3RUORYLVWRVHUiQHFHVDULRGLVWLQJXLUODVQDVDOHVGHODVREVWUX\HQWHVORFXDOVH
ORJUDFRQODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSRVLWLYDGHOUDVJR>UHVRQDQWH@TXHOHFRQϧHUHDDTXpOODV
ODUHJOD D 6LQHPEDUJRFRPRKHPRVDUJLGRTXHQQRDSDUHFHHVSHFLϧFDGD
FRQHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@KD\TXHGLVWLQJXLUODWDQWRGHODPFRPRGHOD‫ص‬SXHV
VHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQ  VRQREYLDPHQWHFRQWUDVWLYDV$OOOHJDUDHVWHPRPHQWR
GHEHPRVHVWDEOHFHUXQFODURFRQWUDVWHHQWUHP\‫ص‬6RQMXVWDPHQWHODVUHVSHFWLYDV
HVSHFLϧFDFLRQHV>ODELDO@\>GRUVDO@TXHODVGLVWLQJXHQGHODQ(OUDVJR>DQWHULRU@
HQWRQFHVQRHVWDUtDHVSHFLϧFDGRSDUDODQHQFX\RFDVRREWHQGUtDPRVODPDWUL]
PRGLϧFDGDTXHDSDUHFHHQ  

Ejemplo 4-34

P Q ‫ص‬

FRURQDO  
DQWHULRU  ਮ
Teoría de la subespecificación 179 ]

Ejemplo 4-34 (continued)

P Q ‫ص‬

ODELDO   
GRUVDO   
QDVDO   

&RQHVWDPDWUL]VHUHOOHQDODQFRQHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ>FRURQDO@PHGLDQWHOD
UHJOD  

Ejemplo 4-35

>QDVDO@಩఩಩>FRURQDO@

&RQ  VHFRPSOHWDHOFXDGURGHORVUDVJRVSDUDODVWUHVQDVDOHVHQFXHVWLyQ6LELHQ


MXVWLϧFDPRVODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHQQRYHQGUtDPDOSUHVHQWDUGDWRVDGLFLRQDOHV
TXHQRVRIUH]FDQUD]RQHVPiVSRGHURVDVTXHSUXHEHQTXHP\‫ص‬VHSURGXFHQFRQ
PD\RUHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGLVWLQWLYDTXHQ
 8Q SULPHU FDVR D FRQVLGHUDU HV HO FRQWUDVWH IRQpWLFR TXH UHYHOD OD QDVDO GH OD
SDODEUD desdén.(VWDQDVDOHQDOJXQRVGLDOHFWRVKLVSiQLFRVVXHOHDSDUHFHUFRPROD
YHODU>‫@غ‬DOϧQDOGHSDODEUD YJdesdé>‫ @غ‬HQSOXUDOVLQHPEDUJRVLHPSUHDSDUHFH
FRPRODDOYHRODU>Q@ YJdesde>Q@es ,HLQYDULDEOHPHQWHFRPR>‫@ص‬HQGHULYDGDVFRPR
desde>‫@ص‬oso.
 +DUULV  D  KD VXJHULGR TXH D HVWDV DOWHUQDQWHV ODV VXE\DFH OD ‫ص‬
OD¬FXDOSRUPRWLYRGHVLODELϧFDFLyQ HVWDQDVDOQXQFDVDOHFRPRSDODWDODOϧQDOGH
SDODEUDRVtODED VHSURGXFHFRPR>Q@HQSRVLFLyQϧQDOGHVtODED/RVLJQLϧFDWLYRGH
HVWDVDOWHUQDQWHVHVTXHVXGHVFULSFLyQ\H[SOLFDFLyQH[LJHQTXHVHSRVWXOHOD‫ص‬FRPR
VHJPHQWRVXE\DFHQWHFRQORFXDOVHOOHJDDODLQHYLWDEOHFRQFOXVLyQGHWHQHUTXH
GLVWLQJXLUODGHODP\ODQORTXHREOLJDDDxDGLUOHSRUFRQVLJXLHQWHXQPD\RU
Q~PHURGHUDVJRVGLVWLQWLYRV
 8QUD]RQDPLHQWRDQiORJRVHOHDSOLFDDOWUDWDPLHQWRGHODELODELDOPODFXDO
VXUJH\DFRPR>‫@غ‬HQAdá>‫\@غ‬DFRPR>Q@HQAda>Q@es,RFRPR>P@HQadá>P@ico.
1XHYDPHQWHODH[SOLFDFLyQGHWDQYDULDEOHVDOWHUQDWLYDVIRQpWLFDVVHEDVDHQSRVWXODU
XQDPHQODVXE\DFHQFLDSDUDWRGDV\FRPRHQHOFDVRDQWHULRUVXUJHFRPRYHODUHQ
DOJXQRVGLDOHFWRVRFRPRDOYHRODUHQORJHQHUDOSHURFDVLQXQFDFRPR>P@DOϧQDOGH
SDODEUD/DIRQRORJtDUHTXLHUHTXHVHODGLVWLQJDQRVyORGHQVLQRGH‫ص‬PHGLDQWH
XQOLVWDGRPD\RUGHUDVJRV
 )LQDOPHQWHDOSURFHVRGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDDQWHREVWUX\HQWH
OHSRGHPRVDJUHJDUHOGHELODELDOVXE\DFHQWHTXHWDPELpQVHDVLPLOD(QODIRQRORJtD
VHGRFXPHQWDSRUHMHPSORHOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHOD>P@\ODGHQWDO>Q૧@RODDOYHRODU>Q@
presu>P@irapresu>P@oapresu>Q૧@toapresu>Q@ción.(ODQiOLVLVGHORVGDWRVQXHYD
PHQWHQRVOOHYDDODQHFHVLGDGGHDFHSWDUODPFRPRIRQHPDSDUDWRGDV +DUULV
[ 180 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

D FRQORTXHVHKDFHREOLJDWRULRGLVWLQJXLUODGHODVRWUDVGRVQDVDOHV
&ODURHVWiTXHVHPHMDQWHFRQFOXVLyQOHDFDUUHDDODJUDPiWLFDXQFRVWRGHVFULSWLYR
PiVFRPSOHMRSXHVFRQWUDULRDODVXE\DFHQWHQHQHOFDVRGHODPVHUHTXLHUH
XQDUHJODHQODTXHVHOHGHVOLJXHHODUWLFXODGRU>ODELDO@DQWHVGHOSDVRGHODH[WHQVLyQ
GHORVUDVJRVGHODREVWUX\HQWHPLHQWUDVTXHFRQODQVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDWDODFFLyQHV
LQQHFHVDULD6LQHPEDUJRDXQTXHHQSULQFLSLRSDUHFHUtDTXHVHUHTXLHUHQGRVUHJODV
TXHGHQFXHQWDGHORVKHFKRVVHKDQRIUHFLGRSUXHEDVTXHPRWLYDQODSUHVHQFLDGH
XQDVRODUHJODJHQHUDOTXHDEDUFDDPERVFDVRVVHJ~Q+DUULV D 
 /DVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHQFRQUHVSHFWRDODVREVWUX\HQWHVHVDOHFFLRQDGRUDHQ
HOVHQWLGRGHTXHQRVyORVHOHVFRQϧHUHQUDVJRVDORVIRQHPDVDEDVHGHXQVLVWHPD
XQLYHUVDO VLQR TXH HQWUDQ HQ MXHJR ODV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV SURSLDV³YJ ORV SURFHVRV
IRQROyJLFRV\ODGLVWULEXFLyQGHORVVHJPHQWRV³GHXQDOHQJXDSDUWLFXODUODHVSDxROD
&RQHVWRSUHVHQWHLQFOX\DPRVODVQDVDOHVHQHOLQYHQWDULRIRQpPLFRVXEHVSHFLϧFDGR
GHODOHQJXD  

Ejemplo 4-36

S E P I ‫ۏ‬ W૧ G૧ V Q ‫ޞ‬ O ु ߿ թ ‫ص‬ N С [

UHVRQDQWH 
VRQRUR    
FRURQDO                 
DQWHULRU     ਮ ਮ ਮ ਮ   
ODELDO                  
GRUVDO                  
QDVDO   
ODWHUDO  

4.8 Más en cuanto a la subespecificación del rasgo [coronal]

(QODVHFFLyQSUHYLDSXGLPRVDGYHUWLUTXHQGHEHHVWDUVXEHVSHFLϧFDGDFRQUHVSHFWR
DOUDVJR>FRURQDO@(VWDIDOWDGHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@HQHVSDxROSDUHFH
PXFKRPiVH[WHQGLGDGHORTXHVHSLHQVD(QRWUDVOHQJXDVVHKDDUJXPHQWDGRTXH
GLFKRUDVJRQRH[LVWHDQLYHOVXE\DFHQWHSDUDODVFRQVRQDQWHVDOYHRODUHV(QHIHFWR
3DUDGLV\3UXQHW DE OOHJDURQDODFRQFOXVLyQGHTXHKD\YRFDOHVTXHHVWiQVHSD
UDGDVSRUFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHV\TXHQRREVWDQWHVHFRPSRUWDQFRPRVLHVWXYLHUDQ
MXQWDV/DKLSyWHVLVGHHVWDVDXWRUDVHVTXHVLVHGDSRUHMHPSORODDUPRQtDGHGRV
YRFDOHVHQPHGLRGHODVFXDOHVLQWHUYLHQHQFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVHVSRUTXHGLFKDV
FRQVRQDQWHVVHGHEHQFRQVLGHUDUWUDQVSDUHQWHVSXHVGHORFRQWUDULRODDUPRQtDQR
VHHMHFXWDUtD
 3DUDGLV\3UXQHWSUHVHQWDQGDWRVGHYDULDVOHQJXDVDIULFDQDVTXHPXHVWUDQTXHOD
DVLPLODFLyQGHUDVJRVYRFiOLFRVVHSURGXFHDXQFXDQGRLQWHUYLHQHQODVFRQVRQDQWHV
Teoría de la subespecificación 181 ]

WO‫ޞ‬V\ODLPSORVLYD˄7RPHPRVFRPRPXHVWUDHOIXWDQNRRUHGLDOHFWRGHOIXOD
TXHVHKDEODHQ0DXULWDQLD\6HQHJDO(QHVWHGLDOHFWRKD\QXPHURVRVPDUFDGRUHVGH
FODVHQRPLQDOHVTXHVHVXϧMDQREOLJDWRULDPHQWHDUDtFHVDGMHWLYDOHV\QRPLQDOHV(QWUH
HVWRVHVFRMDPRVORVPDUFDGRUHV-ru, -re\-ri,TXHDOWHUQDQFRQ-uru, -ere\-iri.(VWRV
~OWLPRVPXHVWUDQGRVYRFDOHVLGpQWLFDVHQODVTXHODSULPHUDVHWHRUL]DTXHSURYLHQH
SRUH[WHQVLyQGHUDVJRVGHOD~OWLPD(QWDOFDVRVHJ~QHVWDVDXWRUDVHOVXϧMREiVLFR
HV‫ޞ‬99HDPRVORVGDWRVVLJXLHQWHV  

Ejemplo 4-37

a. &‫ޞ‬9 DP‫ޞ‬H tortuga


VRI‫ޞ‬X polluelo
FDDN‫ޞ‬L cuscú
b. &9‫ޞ‬9 ZRMH‫ޞ‬H liebre
ZRRWX‫ޞ‬X único
NHVL‫ޞ‬L nuevo

3DUHFHVHUTXHHQ E ODDSDULFLyQGHODSULPHUDYRFDOGHOVXϧMRUHVSRQGHDOD


EDVHPRUIROyJLFD\DOWLSRGHVHJPHQWRFRQVRQiQWLFRTXHODSUHFHGHSXHVQyWHVHTXH
HQ D ODH[WHQVLyQGHODYRFDOϧQDOQRVHSURGXFH6LDFHSWDPRVORVDUJXPHQWRV
GH¬3DUDGLV\3UXQHWWHQGUHPRVHQWRQFHVTXHODSULPHUDYRFDOVHFRQVLJXHSRUSURSD
JDFLyQGHORVUDVJRVGHOD~OWLPDYRFDOORFXDOVXJLHUHTXHGLFKDSURSDJDFLyQVHKDFH
GHGHUHFKDDL]TXLHUGD6LRPLWLPRVDOJXQRVGHWDOOHVLQQHFHVDULRVHVHQFLDOPHQWHOD
GHULYDFLyQGHOVXϧMR-iriGHkesiri¶QXHYR·VHGDDVt

Ejemplo 4-38

L ‫ޞ‬ L

; ; ;

32

>DOWR@

(Q  VHSXHGHH[WHQGHUHOUDVJR>DOWR@GHODLDWUDYpVGHOD‫ޞ‬MXVWDPHQWH


SRUTXHpVWDFDUHFHGHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@'LFKRHQOHQJXDMHWpFQLFRHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@
HVWUDQVSDUHQWHHQOD‫ޞ‬
 6LQHPEDUJRFXDQGRVHFRQVWUX\HHOSOXUDOGHSDODEUDVVHOHDxDGHDODEDVHHO
VXϧMRȴHDOFXDOOHSUHFHGHXQDYRFDOHSHQWpWLFDTXHQRHVODPLVPDGHOVXϧMR3RU
HMHPSORVLDOVLQJXODUbayl-o( o)¶KHUUHUR·TXHSURYLHQHGHODEDVHVXE\DFHQWHZDMO
VHOHDxDGHHOPDUFDGRUGHSOXUDOVHFRQVLJXH>ZDMOXȴH@\QR >ZDMOHȴH@WRGRORFXDO
VXJLHUHTXHHVWD~OWLPDQRRFXUUHVLQHVSHFLϧFDUHQVXSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
[ 182 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 $SDUWLUGHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVHQHVWDOHQJXD\HQ
RWUDVTXHGRFXPHQWDQ$YHU\\5LFH  VHKDOOHJDGRDODFRQFOXVLyQGHTXHODV
FRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVFXDQGRQRIXQFLRQDQGLVWLQWLYDPHQWHVHSURGXFHQLQHVSHFL
ϧFDGDVHQHOQRGR>FRURQDO@(VSRUHOORTXH3DUDGLV\3UXQHW E SURSRQHQ
TXHODVFRURQDOHVFDUHFHQXQLYHUVDOPHQWHGHSXQWRRUDO\UHFLEHQSRUWDQWRDTXHO
UDVJRPHGLDQWHODUHJODGHUHGXQGDQFLDTXHVHRIUHFHHQ  

Ejemplo 4-39

>3XQWRRUDO@಩఩಩>FRURQDO@

 3XGLPRV SUHVHQWDU SUXHEDV GHO HVSDxRO TXH VXVWHQWDQ SDUFLDOPHQWH VHPHMDQWH


KLSyWHVLV³SRUHMHPSORODDVLPLODFLyQGHODQDOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODREV
WUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWH6LQHPEDUJRWRGDYtDQRVHKDQSUHVHQWDGRSUXHEDVTXHPXHVWUHQ
GHPRGRLQFRQWURYHUWLEOHTXHODVGHPiVFRURQDOHVFDUH]FDQGHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQSDUDHO
QRGRFRURQDO
 /R PLVPR RFXUUH FRQ UHVSHFWR D HVWD QDVDO HQ FDWDOiQ (O FDWDOiQ WDPELpQ GD
PXHVWUDGHDVLPLODFLyQGHODODWHUDOODODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWH  

Ejemplo 4-40

e>O@ ¶HO· DUWtFXORFRQODWHUDODOYHRODUQRDVLPLODGD


e>O@pa ¶HOSDQ·
e>O@foc ¶HOIXHJR·
e>O ૧@dia ¶HOGtD·
e>O@sol ¶HOVRO·
e>O@ric ¶HOULFR·
e>‫@ד‬germá ¶HOKHUPDQR·
e>O@gos ¶HOSHUUR·

>O ૧@ FRQVRQDQWHGHQWDO>‫@ד‬ FRQVRQDQWHODPLQRSDODWDO

 (OKHFKRGHTXHODOVHDVLPLOHDODVREVWUX\HQWHVPXHVWUDXQSDUDOHOLVPRHQVXFRP
SRUWDPLHQWRFRQODQDVDOQORFXDOVXJLHUHTXHQRYLHQHHVSHFLϧFDGDSDUD>FRURQDO@
$YHU\\5LFH  DGHPiVDUJX\HQTXHODQVHDVLPLODDOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
GHODREVWUX\HQWHVLJXLHQWHHQLQJOpVFRQORFXDOVHGHPXHVWUDTXHHVWDDOYHRODUFDUHFH
GHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ>FRURQDO@/RPLVPROHDWDxHDODWGHOLQJOpVDPHULFDQR'LFHQHVWRV
DXWRUHVTXHHOKHFKRGHTXHODWDSDUH]FDSURGXFLGDFRQXQJROSHJORWDODOϧQDOGH
VtODEDDQWHFRQVRQDQWHQDVDO\HQOLQGHGHSDODEUDDQWHREVWUX\HQWHSHURQRDVtODVGHPiV
REVWUX\HQWHVHQHOPLVPRFRQWH[WRSUXHEDTXHODWQRSRVHHHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ>FRURQDO@
(QHOGLDOHFWRGHORVDXWRUHVTXHHVHOLQJOpVGH¬7RURQWROD¬WDSDUHFHFRPR>প@  
Teoría de la subespecificación 183 ]

Ejemplo 4-41

bu>প@n ¶ERWyQ· hi>প@>˓@e ¶JROSHDUHO·


ba>প@n ¶PROLGR· cu>প@>I@lowers ¶FRUWDUϩRUHV·
co>প@n ¶DOJRGyQ·

 6LELHQODWHRUtDGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQJHQHUDOSDUDODVDOYHRODUHVJR]DGHEDV
WDQWHDFHSWDFLyQHQWUHPXFKRVJHQHUDWLYLVWDVSRUORVQXPHURVRVSURFHVRVTXHDSD
UHQWHPHQWHODDYDODQHOGLDOHFWRSDVLHJRSDUHFHTXHSRQHHQHQWUHGLFKRHOSRGHU
GHJHQHUDOL]DFLyQTXHOHDWULEX\HQ3UXQHW\3DUDGLV9ROYLHQGRDORVHMHPSORVGHO
SDVLHJRTXHRIUHFLPRVHQ  SXGLPRVYHUTXHHQHIHFWRODDVLPLODFLyQGHOUDVJR
ਮWHQVRGHOVXϧMRࡱVHGDDWUDYpVGHFXDOTXLHUFRQVRQDQWHRJUXSRGHFRQVRQDQ
WHVFRPRHQVLPSDW ૧LNࡱTXHSURGXFH>VԌPਥSlW ૧ԌNࡱ@VHJ~QVHPXHVWUDHQ  
'LFKRFRQWH[WRHVEDVWDQWHSDUDOHORDOTXHRIUHFHODOHQJXDIXWDQNRRUHDQWHVPHQ
FLRQDGDFRQHODWHQXDQWHHQSDVLHJRGHTXHHOUDVJR>ਮWHQVR@GHࡱFUX]DQRVyOR
ODW ૧VLQRODN\HOJUXSRQS7DPELpQH[LVWHHQHVWHGLDOHFWRXQSURFHVRGH
HOHYDFLyQYRFiOLFDHQHOTXHODYRFDOVXϧMDODFHQWXDGDtPDUFDGRUDGHSUHWpULWR
WLHQGHDHOHYDUHQJUDGRODVYRFDOHVGHODUDt]9HDPRVDOJXQRVHMHPSORVTXHUHFRJH
3HQQ\  FRQHOYHUERcoger>NRਥ[H‫  @ޞ‬

Ejemplo 4-42

3UHWpULWR )XWXUR &RQGLFLRQDO

NXਥ[L NR[Hਥ‫ޞ‬H NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LD


NXਥ[LVWH NR[Hਥ‫ޞ‬DV NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LDV
NXਥ[MR NR[Hਥ‫ޞ‬D NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LD
NXਥ[LPXV NR[Hਥ‫ޞ‬HPXV NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LDPXV
NXਥ[LVWHV NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LLV NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LHMV
NXਥ[MH‫ޞ‬RQ NR[Hਥ‫ޞ‬DQ NX[Lਥ‫ޞ‬LDQ

 6HSXHGHREVHUYDUTXHHOIXWXURPXHVWUDYRFDOHVPHGLDVHQVXEDVHYHUEDOFXDQGR
DpVWDOHVLJXHXQVXϧMRTXHQRVHLQLFLDFRQਥLGHORFRQWUDULRVLDODEDVHOHVLJXH
ਥLODYRFDORVXEHD>X@\ODHD>L@FODUDPHQWHSRULQϩXHQFLDGHODਥL.3RU
ORYLVWRVHGHVSOLHJDQXHYDPHQWHXQUDVJRDWUDYpVGHFRQVRQDQWHVFRURQDOHVHQHVWH
FDVROD‫\ޞ‬GHQRFRURQDOHVFRPROD['HVHJXLUHOUD]RQDPLHQWRGH¬3DUDGLV
\3UXQHWKDEUtDTXHSUHVXPLUTXHWDPELpQWRGDVODVFRQVRQDQWHVREVWUX\HQWHVVRQ
WUDQVSDUHQWHVSDUDORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVTXHODVGHϧQHQSXHVWRTXHODDUPRQtD
YRFiOLFDVHHMHFXWDDWUDYpVGHHOODV9LPRVVLQHPEDUJRTXHHQIXWDQNRRUHODVRWUDV
REVWUX\HQWHVYLHQHQHVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDVXVUDVJRVFRPRVHPXHVWUDFRQODFRQVRQDQWH
ETXHLPSLGHODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD
[ 184 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

 ¢+DEUtDHQWRQFHVTXHDEDQGRQDUODWHRUtDGHHVWRVDXWRUHV\ORVLQQXPHUDEOHV
HMHPSORVTXHVXJLHUHQTXHODVDOYHRODUHV\DOYHRSDODWDOHVGHEHQYHQLUXVXDOPHQWHQR
HVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@"6tVLHPSUH\FXDQGRVHVLJDDOSLHGHODOHWUD
HODQiOLVLVGH¬3DUDGLV\3UXQHW1RVLVHSLHQVDTXHHOGHIHFWRQRUDGLFDHQODWHRUtD
VLQRPiVELHQHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHORVVHJPHQWRVHQVt(QHIHFWRYROYDPRVDO
FDStWXOR¬GRQGHWUDWDPRVVREUHODDUTXLWHFWXUDGHORVUDVJRV6LVHSLHQVDTXHORV
UDVJRVTXHGHϧQHQDODVYRFDOHVSDUWHQGHOQRGRYRFiOLFRQRGRTXHQRSRVHHQODV
FRQVRQDQWHVVHFRQFOXLUiTXHFXDQGRODVYRFDOHVSURSDJXHQVXVUDVJRVQRVHYDQD
WRSDUFRQORVUDVJRVDUWLFXODWRULRVGHODVFRQVRQDQWHVSRUORWDQWRVHSURGXFLUiOD
DUPRQtDQRVyORDWUDYpVGHODVFRURQDOHVVLQRWDPELpQDWUDYpVGHODVGHPiVREV
WUX\HQWHV'H¬HVWDPDQHUDODDUTXLWHFWXUDGHNR[LVHUHSUHVHQWDUiGHODVLJXLHQWH
PDQHUD YHU&OHPHQWV\+XPH 

Ejemplo 4-43

N R [ L

32 32 32 32

>UHWUDtGR@ • >UHWUDtGR@ •

>YRFiOLFR@ >YRFiOLFR@

DSHUWXUD DSHUWXUD

>DELHUWR@ >ਮDELHUWR@

+D\TXHFRQVLJQDUTXHODDUTXLWHFWXUDJHRPpWULFDTXHRIUHFHQ&OHPHQWV\+XPHOH
VLUYHGH]DSDWDDODWHRUtDGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUHVWULQJLGD YpDVHODSUy[LPDVHF
FLyQ TXHHOORVGHϧHQGHQSXHVWRTXHFRQODFRQϧJXUDFLyQ  QRLPSRUWDVLHOVHJ
PHQWR>[@YLHQHRQRHVSHFLϧFDGRHQFXDQWRDVXQRGRGRUVDOODDVLPLODFLyQVHGDUiGH
WRGRVPRGRVSRUTXHHOSODQRYRFiOLFRQRFRLQFLGHFRQHOSXQWRRUDOGHODFRQVRQDQWH
 6LVHSUHVXPHSXHVTXHODDUTXLWHFWXUDGHODVYRFDOHVHVGLIHUHQWHDOGHODVFRQ
VRQDQWHVVHH[SOLFDSRUTXpSXHGHSURGXFLUVHODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDDWUDYpVGHpVWDV
(OORVHGHEHDTXHODVFRQVRQDQWHVQRSRVHHQXQQRGRYRFiOLFRHQVXUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
LQWHUQD$OSDUHFHUVLQHPEDUJRODDUPRQtDVHUHDOL]DDOD]DUDXQTXHLQWXLWLYDPHQWH
KHPRVSUHVXPLGRTXHQRHVDVt6HKDVXSXHVWRSRUHMHPSORTXHHQHVWRVFDVRVHO
VHJPHQWRTXHDIHFWDDORWURDPDQHUDGHODUJDGLVWDQFLDTXHGDMXVWDPHQWHDOODGR
GHORWURORTXHJHQHUDOPHQWHVHUHTXLHUHHQORVFDVRVWtSLFRVGHDVLPLODFLyQVHJ~Q
YLPRVHQHOFDStWXOR
 5HJUHVHPRV D OD VXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQ <D GLMLPRV PiV DUULED TXH ODV DOYHRODUHV
XVXDOPHQWHQRYLHQHQHVSHFLϧFDGDVSDUDHOUDVJR>FRURQDO@\FRPRHMHPSORFLWDPRV
Teoría de la subespecificación 185 ]

FDVRVGHDVLPLODFLyQHQYDULDVOHQJXDV'HFtDPRV´XVXDOPHQWHµSRUTXHKD\OHQJXDV
TXH PXHVWUDQ TXH HO UDVJR >FRURQDO@ GHEH YHQLU HVSHFLϧFDGR D QLYHO VXE\DFHQWH
(O¬ViQVFULWRSRUHMHPSORLQFOX\HODVFRQVRQDQWHVGHQWDOHVW ૧G૧\ODVSDODWRDOYHRODUHV
߿ˎTXHDOWHUQDQFRQODVUHWURϩHMDVߺ˅(QHVWDOHQJXDSRUWDQWRODVGHQWDOHV
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UHGXQGDQFLD

4.9 La subespecificación restringida

+DVWDDKRUDKHPRVYHQLGRGHVDUUROODQGRODWHRUtDGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUDGLFDO
HQ¬ODTXHVHSUHVXPHTXHHOUDVJRFRQWUDVWDQWHDSDUHFHLQGLFDGRHQHOOp[LFRPLHQ
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HQXQFRQWH[WRGDGRORVYDORUHVTXHQRFRQWUDVWDQVHGHMDQHQEODQFR'LFKDWHRUtD
VHFRQRFHFRQHOQRPEUHGHsubespeci cación contrastiva o restringida.
 3DUD LU GLOXFLGDQGR ORV DVSHFWRV PiV VLJQLϧFDWLYRV GH HVWD WHRUtD HQIRTXHPRV
SULPHUDPHQWHODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHYDORUHVGHUDVJRVSUHGHFLEOHVTXHQRHVWiQHQOD
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HQODVXE\DFHQFLD
 &RQVLGHUHPRVSRUHMHPSORODVYRFDOHVGHODOHQJXDHVSDxROD\VXVUDVJRVFRQ
MXQWDPHQWHFRQHO>VRQRUR@

Ejemplo 4-44

5HSUHVHQWDFLyQ 5DVJRV (VSHFLϧFDFLyQ


FRPSOHWD FRQWUDVWLYRV FRQWUDVWLYD

L H D R X L H D R X

DOWR  ਮ ਮ ਮ  ^LH`^RX`  ਮ ਮ 
EDMR ਮ ਮ  ਮ ਮ ^DR`  ਮ
UHWUDtGR ਮ ਮ    ^LX`^HR` ਮ ਮ  
VRQRUR     
[ 186 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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TXHDODDQRVHOHRSRQHXQYDORU>ਮUHWUDtGR@QLWDPSRFR>DOWR@6H¬QHFHVLWDQ
ORVYDORUHVGHOUDVJR>EDMR@SRUTXHHVHVWHUDVJRHOTXHGLVWLQJXHDODDGHODR
 /DVRQRULGDGHVHQWHUDPHQWHSUHGHFLEOHHQ  (VSUHGHFLEOHSDUDODVYRFDOHV
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TXHSUHGLFHHVWHHVWDGRGHFRVDV'LFKRGHRWUDIRUPDVLODYRFDOHVUHVRQDQWHGHPRGR
DXWRPiWLFRVHVDEH\SRUHQGHVHSXHGHSUHGHFLUTXHGHEHVHU>VRQRUD@6HPHMDQWH
SUHGLFFLyQVHLQWHUSUHWyFRQODUHJOD E ODFXDOUHSURGXFLPRVHQ  FRQϧQHV
LOXVWUDWLYRV

Ejemplo 4-45

>UHVRQDQWH@಩఩಩>VRQRUR@

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HQ~OWLPDLQVWDQFLD>VRQRUR@
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SDUDHOUDVJR>DOWR@\ ¬ODVFRPSOHPHQWDULDVTXHOHVRQHVSHFtϧFDVDXQDOHQJXDGDGD
\DGHPiVLQWURGXFHQORVYDORUHVRSXHVWRVTXHQRLQWURGXMHUDQODVUHJODVSRUGHIHFWR
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DORVUDVJRVIXQFLRQHQHVWRVGLVWLQWLYDPHQWHRQRVLQTXHLPSRUWHVXFDUiFWHUSDUWLFX
ODU 6WHULDGH (QODSUy[LPDVHFFLyQLOXVWUDPRVFRQHOHMHPSORGHOODWtQODV
SUHGLFFLRQHVTXHVHFXPSOHQFRQHOHPSOHRGHODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUHVWULQJLGD

಩(OODWtQ\ODVXEHVSHFLϧFDFLyQUHVWULQJLGD

(QHVSDxRODOLJXDOTXHHQLQJOpVQRH[LVWHRSRVLFLyQGLVWLQWLYDSDUDODVUHVRQDQWHV
FRQUHVSHFWRDOUDVJR>ODWHUDO@(VWHUDVJRXVXDOPHQWHGHϧQHODFODVHGHFRQVRQDQ
WHVUHVRQDQWHVHQSDUWLFXODUODVQDVDOHVTXHXQLYHUVDOPHQWHVHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUVHU
Teoría de la subespecificación 187 ]

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VXHUWHTXHOVHGLVWLQJXHGH‫ޞ‬SRUVHUODSULPHUD>ODWHUDO@\ODVHJXQGD>ਮODWHUDO@
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TXHHIHFWLYDPHQWHEORTXHDODSURSDJDFLyQGHODUHJODGLVLPLODQWH  

Ejemplo 4-46

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Ejemplo 4-47

I O R ‫ޞ‬  D O L V

>ODWHUDO@ >ਮODWHUDO@ >ODWHUDO@

 /DUHJOD  QRVHSXHGHDSOLFDUSRUTXHSDUDHQFRQWUDUVXEODQFRWLHQHTXH


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FDVRmilitaris.

Ejemplo 4-48

P L O L  W D O L V

>ODWHUDO@ >ಣ@ >ODWHUDO@


[ 188 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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* oraris.
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ORVGHODYRFDOLQPDUFDGDRVHDORVGHHDOLJXDOTXHHQHVSDxRO/RVHMHPSORV
 UHϩHMDQHVWDVLWXDFLyQ

Ejemplo 4-49

%DVH *HQLWLYRLQGHϧQLGR *ORVDV

DODED DODEDDQ ¶KLMD·


SDDWH SDDWHHQ ¶SDUHG·
DVWR DVWRRQ ¶EXUUR·
PHQGL PHQGLLQ ¶PRQWDxD·
߿DNXU ߿DNXUHQ ¶SHUUR·
JLVRQ JLVRQHQ ¶KRPEUH·

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ORVUDVJRVGHODYRFDOGHODEDVH&RPRVHSURSDJDQWRGRVORVUDVJRVHYLGHQWHPHQWH
HQWRQFHVKD\TXHSURSDJDUODUDt](QDXVHQFLDGHYRFDOHQWUDDIXQFLRQDUSRUGHIHFWR
ODUHJOD  
Teoría de la subespecificación 189 ]

Ejemplo 4-50 Asimilación total de vocal

9 9
UDt]

Ejemplo 4-51 Asignación de rasgos por defecto

9಩఩಩>H@

9HDPRVFyPRLQWHUDFW~DQHVWDVUHJODVHQ  

Ejemplo 4-52

DVWR9Q СLVRQ9Q

಩DVWRRQ ³ 5HJOD 


³ ಩СLVRQHQ 5HJOD 
>ಭಭDVWRRQ@ >ಭಭСLVRQHQ@

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YHVHHVWDYH]TXHODYRFDOGHODEDVHVHPRGLϧFDVLHVEDMDGHVDSDUHFHVLHVPHGLD
VXEHXQJUDGR\VLHVDOWDVHFRQVRQDQWL]D(VWRRFXUUHWDPELpQFRQRWURVVXϧMRVGHO
GLDOHFWRHQFXHVWLyQ

Ejemplo 4-53

%DVH *HQLWLYRSOXUDO *ORVD

DODED DODEHQ ¶KLMDV·


SDDWH SDDWLHQ ¶SDUHGHV·
DVWR DVWXHQ ¶EXUURV·
PHQGL PHQGLMHQ ¶PRQWDxDV·
߿DNXU ߿DNXUHQ ¶SHUURV·
JLVRQ JLVRQHQ ¶KRPEUHV·
[ 190 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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Teoría de la subespecificación 191 ]

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[ 192 Rafael A. Núñez Cedeño

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Teoría de la subespecificación 193 ]

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This page intentionally left blank
5 ]
La silabificación en español
José Ignacio Hualde

5.0 Introducción

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[ 196 José Ignacio Hualde

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Ejemplo 5-2

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N ' 9 2 2 L 9 N 2 9 L 2 2 9 2 2 9 2 9

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Ejemplo 5-3

a. 9 ' / 1 2 

b. P Z e V  W૧ ‫ ޞ‬a Q S e ‫ ޞ‬V  S e N  W૧ i  E a
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La silabificación en español 197 ]

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[ 198 José Ignacio Hualde

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XQDFRQVRQDQWHVHJXLGDGHV (abstracto, biceps, vals, adscrito, transporte, experiencia,
La silabificación en español 199 ]

perspectiva).(QHOOp[LFRFRP~QODVFRGDVGHGRVFRQVRQDQWHVWLHQHQVLHPSUHVFRPR
VHJXQGRHOHPHQWR8QDSHOOLGRFRPRSainzWHUPLQDHQQ‫ۏ‬HQHVSDxROSHQLQVXODU
 /DVQDVDOHV\ODWHUDOHVHVWiQVXMHWDVDUHVWULFFLRQHVTXHGHWHUPLQDQVXQHXWUDOL]D
FLyQ\DVLPLODFLyQHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGD2WUDVQHXWUDOL]DFLRQHVFRPRODSpUGLGDGHOD
GLVWLQFLyQHQWUHVRUGDV\VRQRUDVDIHFWDQWDPELpQDRWUDVFRQVRQDQWHV FRQGLIHUHQFLDV
HQWUHGLDOHFWRV ORTXHKDFHTXHHOQ~PHURHIHFWLYRGHRSRVLFLRQHVHQWUHFRQVRQDQ
WHVTXHHQFRQWUDPRVHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGDVHDEDVWDQWHPHQRUTXHHOTXHWHQHPRVHQ
SRVLFLyQGHDWDTXH $ORQVR 
 )LQDOPHQWHQ~FOHR\FRGDVHDJUXSDQHQXQDXQLGDGVXSHULRUGHQRPLQDGDrima.
/RVWpUPLQRVataque, núcleo, coda\rimaGHϧQHQSXHVHVWUXFWXUDVFRPRODLOXVWUDGD
HQODVLJXLHQWHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHODVtODEDplan  

Ejemplo 5-4

6tODED

$WDTXH 5LPD

1~FOHR &RGD

S O D Q

 /DVGHVOL]DGDVHQSRVLFLyQSUHYRFiOLFD VHPLFRQVRQDQWHV SUHVHQWDQXQSUREOHPD


HVSHFLDO¢6RQSDUWHGHODWDTXHRGHODULPD"6LDFHSWDPRVTXHVRQSDUWHGHODWDTXH
GHEHPRVFRQFOXLUTXHSZH\SMHWLHQHQODPLVPDHVWUXFWXUDLQWHUQDTXHSOH\
S‫ޞ‬H'HVGHHOSXQWRGHYLVWDFRQWUDULRSRURWUDSDUWHHVWDVVHUtDQVHFXHQFLDVFRQ
HVWUXFWXUDVPX\GLIHUHQWHVHQSZHSMHODGLYLVLyQLQWHUQDSULQFLSDOVHUtDHQWUH
FRQVRQDQWH\GHVOL]DGDSZHSMHPLHQWUDVTXHHQSOHS‫ޞ‬HORVGRVSULPH
URVVHJPHQWRVIRUPDQXQJUXSRGHDWDTXH+D\FLHUWDHYLGHQFLDGHTXHORVKDEODQWHV
DGRSWDQHVWHVHJXQGRDQiOLVLV([LVWHXQMXHJRGHQLxRVHQYDULDVSDUWHVGHOPXQGR
KLVSiQLFR FRQRFLGR HQ DOJXQRV SDtVHV FRPR ´MHULJRQ]Dµ TXH FRQVLVWH HQ LQVHUWDU
ODFRQVRQDQWHN XRWUDFRQVRQDQWHVHJ~QODUHJLyQ GHWUiVGHFDGDYRFDOUHSL
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HQe-kes-ta-kan./RVJUXSRVGHDWDTXHFRPRS‫ޞ‬SOQXQFDVHGLYLGHQHQHVWHMXHJR
proclamaHVpro-ko-cla-ka-ma-ka.3RUHOFRQWUDULRpuenteVXHOHVHUpu-ku-e-ken-te-ke,
\¬tieneHVti-ki-e-ke-ne-ke.,JXDOWUDWDPLHQWRUHFLEHQORVGLSWRQJRVGHFUHFLHQWHVpeineHV
pe-ke-i-ki-ne-ke./RTXHGHPXHVWUDHVWHMXHJR(ju-ku-e-ke-go-ko)HVTXHHQODLQWXLFLyQGH
ORVKDEODQWHVSZH\S‫ޞ‬HSRUHMHPSORWLHQHQHVWUXFWXUDVUDGLFDOPHQWHGLIHUHQWHV
/DVGHVOL]DGDV LQFOX\HQGRODVOODPDGDVsemiconsonantes FODUDPHQWHVHUHODFLRQDQFRQ
ODVYRFDOHVPiVHVWUHFKDPHQWHTXHFRQODVOtTXLGDV(OMXHJRDTXHKHPRVDOXGLGR
SXHGHUHVXPLUVHFRPRLQVHUFLyQGHN9GHWUiVGHFDGDYRFRLGH YRFDORGHVOL]DGD 
GRQGH9HVXQDFRSLDGHOYRFRLGHSUHFHGHQWH
[ 200 José Ignacio Hualde

 $HVWHUHVSHFWRSRGHPRVVHxDODUWDPELpQTXHHOSURFHVRGHDEUHYLDFLyQIDPLOLDU
TXHQRVSHUPLWHIRUPDUFedeDSDUWLUGH¬FedericoRprofeDSDUWLUGHprofesorSURGXFH
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REYLDPHQWHQR*Petr YpDVH3ULHWR 
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FRQWHQGUtDXQDULPDGHFXDWURVHJPHQWRV3XHVELHQHQHVWDFRPSXWDFLyQGHWUHV
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WDPSRFRKD\SDODEUDVFRPR*muens.tra.
 7DPELpQSRGHPRVQRWDUTXHHQXQGLDOHFWR RFRGLDOHFWR GHOHVSDxROFRPRHO
KDEODGRHQHO9DOOHGH¬3DV &DQWDEULD FRQDUPRQtDYRFiOLFDODVGHVOL]DGDVSUHYRFi
OLFDVVHFRPSRUWDQFRPRSDUWHGHOQ~FOHRHQFXDQWRFRQGLFLRQDQHOSURFHVRGHDUPR
QtD FI¬+XDOGHE mi lu djóYVme lo compró,SRUHMHPSOR7RGRHVWRQRVOOHYD
DFRQFOXLUTXHODVGHVOL]DGDVQRIRUPDQJUXSRGHDWDTXHVLOiELFRFRQODFRQVRQDQWH
SUHFHGHQWHVLQRTXHVRQSDUWHGHODULPD
 $KRUDELHQHVWDJHQHUDOL]DFLyQWLHQHXQDH[FHSFLyQLPSRUWDQWH8QDGHVOL]DGD
SXHGHVHULQLFLDOHQODVtODEDVLQTXHOHSUHFHGDXQVHJPHQWRFRQVRQiQWLFRFRPRHQ
hielo, hueso.(QHVWHFDVRHVSHFLDOODVGHVOL]DGDVRFXSDQHODWDTXHGHODVtODEDFRPRVH
DGYLHUWHHQVXIUHFXHQWHFRQVRQDQWL]DFLyQ>ਥբHOR@a>ਥթHOR@>ਥ࣢ZHVR@(VWRVVHJPHQWRV
VHFRPSRUWDQGHKHFKRFRPRFRQVRQDQWHVFRQUHVSHFWRDODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGH
QDVDOHV>X‫ص‬ਥթHOR@>X‫غ‬ਥСZHVR@ \QR >XਥQMHOR@ >XਥQZHVR@ /DFRQVRQDQWL]DFLyQ
GHODVGHVOL]DGDVRFXUUHQRVRORDOSULQFLSLRGHSDODEUDHQVHQWLGRHVWULFWRVLQRWDP
ELpQWUDVSUHϧMRVSURGXFWLYRVFRPRdes-;FRPSiUHQVHdes.hie.lo\de.sier.toRre.sue.na
\des.hue.sa.8QDUHVWULFFLyQFRQRFLGDDFHUFDGHODGLVWULEXFLyQGHODVGHVOL]DGDVHQ
HVSDxROHVTXHHVWDVQRFRLQFLGHQQXQFDHQODPLVPDVtODEDFRQODFRUUHVSRQGLHQWH
YRFDODOWD(VWRHVODVVLJXLHQWHVVHFXHQFLDVVRQWRGDVLPSRVLEOHV >ZX@ >XZ@ >ML@
>LM@ $ODUFRV>@+DUULV 

5.1 Principales generalizaciones acerca de la silabificación en español

(OHVSDxROHVXQDOHQJXDGHHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFDUHODWLYDPHQWHVHQFLOOD&XDQGRFRQVLGHUD
PRVFyPRVHGLVWULEX\HQHQVtODEDVORVVHJPHQWRVHQHVSDxROXQDSULPHUDREVHUYDFLyQ
TXHSRGHPRVKDFHUHVTXHXQDFRQVRQDQWHLQWHUYRFiOLFDVHVLODELϧFDVLHPSUHFRQOD
YRFDOVLJXLHQWH$VtcopaHV>ਥNRSD@\QR >ਥNRSD@DXQTXHHVWDVHJXQGDVLODELϧFDFLyQ
SURGXFLUtDWDPELpQVtODEDVTXHWRPDGDVDLVODGDPHQWHHVWDUtDQELHQIRUPDGDVFRPRVH
YHVLFRPSDUDPRVODVVtODEDVREWHQLGDVFRQODSULPHUDGHODVSDODEUDV>ਥNRSWR@\>ਥDWR@
(OSULQFLSLRGHTXHXQDFRQVRQDQWHVHVLODELϧFDVLHPSUHFRQODYRFDOVLJXLHQWHVHDSOLFD
LQFOXVRFXDQGRHQWUHYRFDO\FRQVRQDQWHPHGLDXQOtPLWHGHSDODEUDFRPRHQlas alas
>ODਥVDODV@ LJXDODla salas¶OHSRQHVVDO· ORTXHVHFRQRFHHQSRHVtDFRPRsinalefa(VWD
VLODELϧFDFLyQDWUDYpVGHIURQWHUDVPRUIROyJLFDVRVLQWiFWLFDVQRRFXUUHVLQHPEDUJRHQ
La silabificación en español 201 ]

FDVRVFRPRun hueso>X‫غ‬ਥСZHVR@Rdeshielo>GH]ਥբHOR@SRUTXHFRPRKHPRVYLVWRODV
GHVOL]DGDVHQSRVLFLyQLQLFLDOGHSDODEUD RUDt] VHUHDOL]DQFRPRFRQVRQDQWHV1RWHQH
PRVSXHVXQDVHFXHQFLD&9HQHVWRVHMHPSORVVLQRXQDVHFXHQFLDGHGRVFRQVRQDQWHV
 2WUDJHQHUDOL]DFLyQTXHSRGHPRVKDFHUHVTXHHQODVLODELϧFDFLyQGHJUXSRVGH
FRQVRQDQWHVDTXHOODVVHFXHQFLDVTXHSXHGHQGDUOXJDUDJUXSRVGHDWDTXHOHJtWLPRV ORV
FRQVWLWXLGRVSRURFOXVLYDRIVHJXLGDGHOLTXLGDH[FHSWR G૧O\GLDOHFWDOPHQWHW ૧O VH
VLODELϧFDQFRPRDWDTXHDXQTXHGHQXHYRRWUDVVLODELϧFDFLRQHVSURGXMHUDQHVWUXFWXUDV
ELHQIRUPDGDVGHVGHHOSXQWRGHYLVWDGHORVWLSRVGHVtODEDSHUPLWLGRVHQHVSDxRO$Vt
SRUHMHPSORWHQHPRVsoplo>ਥVRSOR@\QR >VRSOR@1RVUHIHULUHPRVDHVWHIHQyPHQR
FRPRmaximización de ataques silábicos6LQHPEDUJRDOFRQWUDULRGHODJHQHUDOL]DFLyQ
DQWHULRUODPD[LPL]DFLyQGHDWDTXHVVLOiELFRVQRHVXQSULQFLSLRTXHVHDSOLTXHHQWUH
SDODEUDVchef locoQRSXHGHVHU >ਥ߿HਥϩRNR@VLQR>ਥ߿HIਥORNR@\club latinoQRSXHGH
VLODELϧFDUVHFRPR >ਥNOXɕ૊ODਥW ૧LQR@VLQRTXHOD~QLFDVLODELϧFDFLyQSRVLEOHHV>ਥNOXɕ૊ODਥW ૧L
QR@GRQGHODVIURQWHUDVVLOiELFDVFRLQFLGHQFRQORVOtPLWHVGHSDODEUD/RVPLVPRVHIHFWRV
VHREVHUYDQLQFOXVRHQLQWHULRUGHSDODEUDFRQFLHUWRVSUHϧMRVFRPRHQsublingual>VXɕ૊
OL‫غ‬ਥСZDO@ QR >VXɕ૊OL‫غ‬ਥСZDO@ GRQGHHOJUXSREOTXHSXHGHIRUPDUDWDTXHVLOiELFR
DSDUHFHVLQHPEDUJRGLYLGLGRSRUXQDIURQWHUDVLOiELFDTXHFRUUHVSRQGHDODPRUIROyJLFD
 'HQWURGHXQPRGHORWHyULFRFRPRHOJHQHUDWLYRTXHSRVWXODIRUPDVIRQROyJLFDV
VXE\DFHQWHVUHODFLRQDGDVFRQODVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVIRUPDVVXSHUϧFLDOHVPHGLDQWHOD
DSOLFDFLyQGHUHJODVRUGHQDGDVHVWHPHFDQLVPRVLUYHWDPELpQSDUDGDUFXHQWDGHOD
VLODELϧFDFLyQFRUUHFWDGHODVGLIHUHQWHVVHFXHQFLDVGHVHJPHQWRV$VtODPD[LPL]DFLyQ
GHDWDTXHVVLOiELFRVVHREWLHQHRUGHQDQGRODIRUPDFLyQGHDWDTXHVDQWHVGHODIRUPD
FLyQGHFRGDV9HDPRVXQDQiOLVLVSRVLEOHGHODVLODELϧFDFLyQHQHVSDxROXWLOL]DQGR
UHJODVRUGHQDGDV SDUDRWURVDQiOLVLVYpDQVH+DUULVE1~xH]&HGHxR
+XDOGHE 
 (QXQDQiOLVLVGHQWURGHHVWHWLSRGHPRGHORWHyULFRHOSULPHUSDVRKDGHVHUOD
LGHQWLϧFDFLyQGHORVQ~FOHRVVLOiELFRV(OQ~FOHRHVHO~QLFRHOHPHQWRREOLJDWRULRGH
ODVtODED3XHGHKDEHUVtODEDVVLQDUUDQTXHQLFRGDFRPRODSULPHUDVtODEDGHala;
SHURQRVtODEDVVLQQ~FOHR(QHVSDxROHQFRQWUDPRVHOFDVREDVWDQWHVHQFLOORGHTXH
ORV~QLFRVVHJPHQWRVTXHDFW~DQFRPRQ~FOHRVGHVtODEDVRQODVYRFDOHV(VWRHVDO
FRQWUDULR TXH HQ RWUDV OHQJXDV HQ HVSDxRO XQD FRQVRQDQWH QR SXHGH FRQVWLWXLU HO
Q~FOHRGHXQDVtODED,QGLFDPRVHOQ~FOHRFRPR1F  

Ejemplo 5-5 Identificación de núcleos silábicos

N D S D D S W૧ R V R S O R

1F 1F 1F 1F 1F 1F

 /DVLJXLHQWHRSHUDFLyQHVODDSOLFDFLyQGHODOODPDGDregla CV,TXHVLODELϧFDXQD
FRQVRQDQWHFRPRDWDTXH EDMRHOQRGR$W>DTXH@ FRQXQDYRFDOLQPHGLDWDPHQWHDVX
GHUHFKD  
[ 202 José Ignacio Hualde

Ejemplo 5-6 Regla CV (incorporación de consonantes prevocálicas)

N D S D D S W૧ R V R S O R

$W 1F $W 1F 1F $W 1F $W 1F $W 1F

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

 /DDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD&9FRPRSULPHUDUHJODGHDGMXQFLyQSURGXFHHOUHVXO
WDGRGHTXHHQXQDVHFXHQFLD9&9ODFRQVRQDQWHLQWHUYRFiOLFDVHDJUXSHFRQODYRFDO
VLJXLHQWH\QRFRQODSUHFHGHQWH SHM >RVR@HVLPSRVLEOHGHJHQHUDU 
 /DPD[LPL]DFLyQGHDWDTXHVVLOiELFRV SHM>ਥNRSOD@\QR >ਥNRSOD@ VHFRQVLJXH
DSOLFDQGRDFWRVHJXLGRXQDVHJXQGDUHJODGHDGMXQFLyQEDMRHOQRGR$¬TXHVLODELϧFD
XQD VHJXQGD FRQVRQDQWH HQ HO DWDTXH VLHPSUH TXH HO UHVXOWDGR VHD XQ JUXSR GH
DWDTXHDGPLVLEOH(QWUHORVHMHPSORVGDGRVHVWDUHJODVyORWLHQHDSOLFDFLyQHQsoplo,
DGMXQWDQGRODSDODWDTXHGHODVHJXQGDVtODED(Qapto,VLQHPEDUJRODUHJODGH
IRUPDFLyQGHJUXSRVGHDWDTXHQRWLHQHHIHFWRSRUTXHVXDSOLFDFLyQFUHDUtDXQJUXSR
SWTXHQRFRQVWLWXLUtDXQDWDTXHDFHSWDEOHHQHVSDxRO  

Ejemplo 5-7 Formación de grupos de ataque

N D S D D S W૧ R V R S O R

$W 1F $W 1F 1F $W 1F $W 1F $W 1F

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

 /DDSOLFDFLyQGHHVWDVHJXQGDUHJODGHDGMXQFLyQEDMRHOQRGR$¬UHTXLHUHSXHV
ODGHϧQLFLyQLQGHSHQGLHQWHGHORVJUXSRVGHDWDTXHDGPLVLEOHVHQODOHQJXD RFOXVLYD
RIPiVOtTXLGDH[FHSWRG૧O\GLDOHFWDOPHQWHW ૧O 
 6RORXQDYH]TXHHVWDVGRVRSHUDFLRQHVGHDGMXQFLyQHQSRVLFLyQGHDWDTXHVH
KD\DQDSOLFDGRVHDSOLFDUiQRWUDVUHJODVDGMXQWDQGRRWURVVHJPHQWRVHQSRVLFLyQGH
FRGD EDMRHOQRGR&G &RGD DxDGLPRVWDPELpQHOQRGR5P 5LPD DODUHSUHVHQWD
FLyQHQ>@ 

Ejemplo 5-8 Adjunción de codas

D S W૧ R

1F &G $W 1F

5P 5P

‫۝‬ ‫۝‬
La silabificación en español 203 ]

 'DGRHVWHRUGHQGHUHJODVVLODELϧFDFLRQHVLQFRUUHFWDVFRPR >ਥNDSD@\ >ਥVRSOR@


VRQLPSRVLEOHVGHJHQHUDU3DUDTXHHVWRVHDDVtUHVXOWDFUXFLDODSOLFDUODVUHJODVHQ
HORUGHQLQGLFDGR8QFDPELRHQHORUGHQGHRSHUDFLRQHVSURGXFLUtDUHVXOWDGRVQR
GHVHDGRV'HHVWHPRGR LJQRUDQGRSRUHOPRPHQWRHVWUXFWXUDVPiVFRPSOHMDVTXH
QRVOOHYDUtDQDSRVWXODUDOJXQDVUHJODVDGLFLRQDOHV KHPRVUHFRQRFLGRHQ  FXDWUR
RSHUDFLRQHVRUGHQDGDVGHVLODELϧFDFLyQ

Ejemplo 5-9 Reglas ordenadas de silabificación

1. ,GHQWLϧFDFLyQGHQ~FOHRVVLOiELFRV
2. 5HJOD¬&9
3. 5HJODGHIRUPDFLyQGHJUXSRVGHDWDTXH
4. 5HJODVGHDGMXQFLyQGHFRGDV

 &RPRLQGLFDPRVDQWHVPLHQWUDVTXHXQJUXSR&9HVVLHPSUHWDXWRVLOiELFRHQ
HVSDxROLQFOXVRDWUDYpVGHIURQWHUDVGHSDODEUDVODPD[LPL]DFLyQGHDWDTXHVVLOiELFRV
ODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODGHIRUPDFLyQGHJUXSRVGHDWDTXHHQHODQiOLVLVTXHHVWDPRV
FRQVLGHUDQGR VRORWLHQHOXJDUGHQWURGHFLHUWRVGRPLQLRVPRUIROyJLFRV(VWRORSRGH
PRVREVHUYDUFXDQGRFRQVLGHUDPRVODVLODELϧFDFLyQHQHMHPSORVFRPRchef argentino
>ਥ߿HID‫[ޞ‬HQ૧ਥW ૧LQR@IUHQWHDchef latino>ਥ߿HIODਥW ૧LQR@Rsubordinado>VXɕ૊R‫˓ޞ‬૊LਥQD˓૊R@
IUHQWHDsublingual>VXɕ૊OL‫غ‬ਥСZDO@(VWRVHMHPSORVPXHVWUDQTXHHQFLHUWRVFDVRVODV
IURQWHUDVPRUIpPLFDVRGHSDODEUDVHLJQRUDQSDUDHIHFWRVGHODVLODELϧFDFLyQSHUR
HQRWURVFDVRVVHWRPDQHQFXHQWD/DVROXFLyQGDGDHQ+XDOGHE FI¬WDPELpQ
0RUJDQ HVTXHODVLODELϧFDFLyQVHSURGXFHLQLFLDOPHQWHHQHOPLVPRGRPLQLR
PRUIROyJLFRHQWRGRVORVHMHPSORVGDGRV(OGRPLQLRLQLFLDOGHVLODELϧFDFLyQHVOD
SDODEUDIRQROyJLFDODFXDOH[FOX\HSUHϧMRVSURGXFWLYRVFRPRsub-  

Ejemplo 5-10

>ਥ߿HI@>D‫[ޞ‬HQ૧ਥW ૧LQR@ >ਥ߿HI@>ODਥW ૧LQR@


>VXɕ૊>R‫˓ޞ‬૊LਥQD˓૊R@@ >VXɕ૊>OL‫غ‬ਥСZDO@@
>VXਥɕ૊OLPH@

 3RVWOp[LFDPHQWHVLQHPEDUJRKDEUtDXQDVHJXQGDDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD&9SHUR
QRGHRWUDVUHJODVGHVLODELϧFDFLyQ HQSDUWLFXODUQRGHODUHJODGHIRUPDFLyQGHJUXSRV
GHDWDTXH /DDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJOD&9DQLYHOSRVWOp[LFRWHQGUtDOXJDUHQHMHPSORV
FRPRchef argentino,SURGXFLHQGR>ਥ߿HID‫[ޞ‬HQ૧ਥW ૧LQR@\HQsubordinando,PRGLϧFDQGROD
VLODELϧFDFLyQLQLFLDO\SURGXFLHQGR>VXɕ૊R‫˓ޞ‬૊LਥQD˓૊R@SHURQRHQHMHPSORVFRPRchef
latinoRsublingual,GRQGHODIURQWHUDVLOiELFDLQLFLDOQRVHSDUDXQJUXSR&9  

Ejemplo 5-11 Resilabificación de grupos CV

>ਥ߿HI@>D‫[ޞ‬HQ૧ਥW ૧LQR@ ఩ >ਥ߿HID‫[ޞ‬HQ૧ਥW ૧LQR@


>VXɕ૊>R‫˓ޞ‬૊LਥQD˓૊R@@ ఩ >VXɕ૊R‫˓ޞ‬૊LਥQD˓૊R@
[ 204 José Ignacio Hualde

 $Vt SXHV HO RUGHQ GH UHJODV GDGR DUULED HQ   GHEHPRV PRGLϧFDUOR GH OD
PDQHUDVLJXLHQWH  

Ejemplo 5-12

1LYHOOp[LFR'RPLQLRSDODEUDIRQROyJLFD
1. ,GHQWLϧFDFLyQGHQ~FOHRVVLOiELFRV
2. 5HJOD¬&9
3. 5HJODGHIRUPDFLyQGHJUXSRVGHDWDTXH
4. 5HJODVGHDGMXQFLyQGHFRGDV

1LYHOSRVWOp[LFR'RPLQLRIUDVHIRQROyJLFD
5. 5HJOD&9

 (VGHFLUODUHJOD&9VHDSOLFDWDQWROp[LFDFRPRSRVWOp[LFDPHQWH(QHVWHDQiOLVLV
HORUGHQGHODVRSHUDFLRQHVHVWDQFUXFLDOFRPRODVRSHUDFLRQHVPLVPDV
 (QHOPRGHORGHODWHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDG YpDVH&ROLQDE\HOFDSt
WXOR ¬ORVPLVPRVUHVXOWDGRVVHREWLHQHQHVWDEOHFLHQGRXQDMHUDUTXtDGHSULQFLSLRV
DSOLFDGRVDODVLODELϧFDFLyQ/DUHJOD&9YLVWDFRPRSULQFLSLRXQLYHUVDO $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ 
UHTXLHUHGRWDUDWRGDYRFDOGHXQDWDTXH(VWHSULQFLSLRHVVXϧFLHQWHPHQWHLPSRUWDQWH
HQHVSDxROFRPRSDUDFDXVDUTXHVHLQIULQMDRWURSULQFLSLRGHUHVSHWRDODVIURQWHUDV
GHSDODEUDHQODVLODELϧFDFLyQTXHOODPDUHPRV$ຮ๠ศໍ6LQHPEDUJRHOSULQFLSLRGH
DOLQHDPLHQWRVXSHUDUtDHQODMHUDUTXtDDRWURSULQFLSLRTXHSURKtEHXQDVtODEDFRQ
XQDFRGD &໦෋೻ 7HQGUtDPRVSXHVODVLJXLHQWHMHUDUTXtDHQWUHHVWRVWUHVSULQFLSLRV
>@HOVtPERORªVLJQLϧFD¶GRPLQDD·R¶HVPiVLPSRUWDQWHTXH· 

Ejemplo 5-13 Jerarquía de principios de silabificación

$ཋ೻༩ཟෞª$ຮ๠ศໍª &໦෋೻

 (VWDMHUDUTXtDQRVLQGLFDTXHa.zu.los.cu.roHVODPHMRUVLODELϧFDFLyQGHHVWHHMHP
SORDXQTXHQRVHUHVSHWHQORVOtPLWHVGHSDODEUDSDUDODIRUPDFLyQGHVtODEDVGDGR
TXH$ཋ೻༩ཟෞGRPLQDD$ຮ๠ศໍ3RURWUDSDUWHchef.la.ti.noHVPHMRUTXH*che. a.ti.no,
SRUTXHODSULPHUDVLODELϧFDFLyQVDWLVIDFHHODOLQHDPLHQWRGHODIURQWHUDGHSDODEUD
FRQODIURQWHUDVLOiELFDDFRVWDGHQRUHVSHWDUHOSULQFLSLRLQIHULRUGH &໦෋೻

5.2 Estructura moraica

(QODWtQHODFHQWRUHFDtDVREUHODSHQ~OWLPDVtODEDVLHVWDHVWDEDFHUUDGDSRUFRQVR
QDQWH FRPRHQper. fec.tum RFRQWHQtDXQDYRFDOODUJD FRPRHQfor. m .ca (QFDVR
La silabificación en español 205 ]

FRQWUDULRHODFHQWRVHVLWXDEDVREUHODDQWHSHQ~OWLPD FRPRHQ ta.bu.la /DUHJODGH


DVLJQDFLyQGHODFHQWRHQODWtQVXSRQHSXHVODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHGRV
WLSRVGHVtODEDVOLJHUDV\SHVDGDV(VWDGLVWLQFLyQWLHQHWDPELpQXQDJUDQLPSRUWDQFLD
HQHOVLVWHPDUtWPLFRGHOODWtQ\FRQVWLWX\HODEDVHGHODYHUVLϧFDFLyQHQHVWDOHQJXD
(VWHWLSRGHGLVWLQFLyQQRHVDOJRSHFXOLDUGHOODWtQVLQRTXHVHHQFXHQWUDWDPELpQHQ
PXFKDVRWUDVOHQJXDV +D\HV /DRSRVLFLyQQRHVH[DFWDPHQWHLJXDOHQWRGDVODV
OHQJXDVTXHGLVWLQJXHQHQWUHVtODEDVOLJHUDV\SHVDGDV8QDVtODEDGHOWLSR&9VLHP
SUHFXHQWDFRPROLJHUD\XQDVtODEDFRQYRFDOODUJD&9৸FXHQWDFRPRSHVDGD(OWLSR
&9&SRURWUDSDUWHSXHGHFRQWDUFRPRVtODEDSHVDGDRFRPROLJHUDVHJ~QODOHQJXD
8QKHFKRLPSRUWDQWHHVTXHHVDFODVLϧFDFLyQKDFHUHIHUHQFLDHQFXDOTXLHUFDVRDOD
HVWUXFWXUDGHODULPDVLOiELFD(OWLSRGHDWDTXHVLOiELFRHVJHQHUDOPHQWHLUUHOHYDQWH
HQHVWDFRPSXWDFLyQ$VtXQDVtODED9৸FRQYRFDOODUJD\VLQDWDTXHFXHQWDFRPR
SHVDGD\XQDVtODED&&9FRQYRFDOEUHYHFXHQWDFRPROLJHUD3DUDUHϩHMDUHOSHVR
VLOiELFRVHXWLOL]DHOFRQFHSWRGHmora,UHSUHVHQWDGDSRUODOHWUDJULHJD— ODFXDOVH
SURQXQFLDIRQpWLFDPHQWHFRPR>ਥPMX৸@HQLQJOpVSHUR>ਥPL@HQHVSDxRO 'LUHPRVTXH
XQDVtODEDOLJHUDFRPR>WD@FRQWLHQHXQDPRUDDVRFLDGDFRQODYRFDO\XQDVtODED
SHVDGDFRPR>WD৸@FRQWLHQHGRVPRUDV  

Ejemplo 5-14

— — —

W D W D

 6LHQXQDOHQJXDGHWHUPLQDGDXQDVtODEDFRPR>WDQ@FXHQWDFRPRSHVDGDDVLJ
QDUHPRVXQDPRUDDODFRQVRQDQWHHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGDFRPRHQ D 6LSRUHO
FRQWUDULRWDOVtODEDVHFRPSXWDFRPROLJHUDHQFXDQWRDODDVLJQDFLyQGHODFHQWRX
RWURVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVODFRQVRQDQWHϧQDOFDUHFHUiGHPRUDDVRFLDGDFRPRHQ
E 

Ejemplo 5-15

a. — — b. —

W D Q W D Q

 $OJXQRVDXWRUHV FRPR+D\HV KDQSURSXHVWRUHPSOD]DUODHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFD


GDGDHQ  RHQ  SRURWUDTXHUHSUHVHQWHGLUHFWDPHQWHODHVWUXFWXUDPRUDLFD
(QXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQGHHVWHWLSRORVVHJPHQWRVVLQSHVRVLOiELFRVHUHSUHVHQWDQDVR
FLDGRVGLUHFWDPHQWHDOQRGR‫۝‬$VtODVHVWUXFWXUDVSRVLEOHVSDUD>SODQ@GHSHQGLHQGR
GHVLWDOVtODEDFXHQWDFRPROLJHUDRFRPRSHVDGDVRQODVVLJXLHQWHV DE 
[ 206 José Ignacio Hualde

Ejemplo 5-16

a. ‫۝‬ b. ‫۝‬

— — —

S O D Q S O D Q

 3RGHPRVQRWDUTXHORVFRQFHSWRVGHDWDTXHQ~FOHRULPD\FRGDVRQWDPELpQGHULYD
EOHVGHHVWDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ(OQ~FOHRHVHOSULPHUR~QLFRHOHPHQWRPRUDLFRGHODVtODED
/DULPDHVWiFRQVWLWXLGDSRUWRGRVORVVHJPHQWRVDVRFLDGRVDXQDPRUD(O¬DWDTXHHVWi
IRUPDGRSRUORVVHJPHQWRVDVRFLDGRVGLUHFWDPHQWHDOQRGR‫۝‬DODL]TXLHUGDGHOQ~FOHR
 8QDYHQWDMDGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQPRUDLFDGHODVtODEDDGHPiVGHODWUDQVSDUHQ
FLDFRQTXHSHUPLWHUHSUHVHQWDUODHVWUXFWXUDUtWPLFD\DFHQWXDOGHOHQJXDVFRPRHO
ODWtQHVTXHRIUHFHXQDPDQHUDVHQFLOODGHGDUFXHQWDGHQXPHURVRVIHQyPHQRVGH
DODUJDPLHQWRFRPSHQVDWRULR +D\HV 3DUDGDUXQHMHPSORGHXQGLDOHFWRGHO
HVSDxRO+DPPRQG  PDQWLHQHTXHHQFXEDQRDOSHUGHUVHODVHQXQDVtODED
QRϧQDOVHSURGXFHXQDODUJDPLHQWRGHODYRFDOSUHFHGHQWHGHPRGRTXHbusqueVH
SURQXQFLDFRPR>ਥEX৸NH@GLVWLQJXLpQGRVHGHODSDODEUDbuque>ਥEXNH@SRUODGXUDFLyQ
GHODYRFDOWyQLFD8QDPDQHUDGHGDUFXHQWDGHHVWHDODUJDPLHQWRGHODYRFDOFRQWLJXD
DODVHVDVXPLHQGRTXHHVWHHVHOUHVXOWDGRGHUHDVRFLDUODPRUDGHODFRQVRQDQWH
HOLGLGDDOVHJPHQWRSUHFHGHQWHHVWRHVODSpUGLGDGHOVHJPHQWRVQRFRQOOHYDOD
GHVDSDULFLyQGHVXPRUDDVRFLDGD  

Ejemplo 5-17

— — — ఩ — — —

E X V N H E X N H

 8QDSUHGLFFLyQGHHVWHPRGHORVLOiELFRHVTXHODHOLVLyQGHVHJPHQWRVHQSRVLFLyQ
GHDWDTXHQRGDUiQXQFDOXJDUDSURFHVRVGHDODUJDPLHQWRFRPSHQVDWRULRGDGRTXH
WDOHVVHJPHQWRVQRVRQPRUDLFRVHQQLQJXQDOHQJXD

5.3 Hiatos y diptongos

+DVWDDKRUDKHPRVRPLWLGRFDVLFRPSOHWDPHQWHWRGDGLVFXVLyQVREUHODVLODELϧFDFLyQGH
ODVGHVOL]DGDV\PiVJHQHUDOPHQWHVREUHGLSWRQJRVHKLDWRV(VWRHVSRUTXHHVWDVVHFXHQ
FLDVSUHVHQWDQSUREOHPDVHVSHFLDOHVHQHVSDxROTXHH[DPLQDUHPRVHQHVWDVHFFLyQ
 3DUDGDUFXHQWDGHODVLODELϧFDFLyQGHVHFXHQFLDVYRFiOLFDVQHFHVLWDPRVPRGLϧFDU
ODHVFDODGHVRQDQFLDGDGDHQ  DVLJQDQGRYDORUHVGLIHUHQWHVDGLVWLQWDVYRFDOHV
VHJ~QVXJUDGRGHDSHUWXUD  
La silabificación en español 207 ]

Ejemplo 5-18

9RFDOHVEDMDVD  /tTXLGDV‫ޞ‬UO ु  


9RFDOHVPHGLDVHR  1DVDOHVPQ‫ ص‬
9RFDOHVDOWDVLX  2EVWUX\HQWHVSW ૧NEG૧СI ‫ ۏ‬V߿թ[ 

 'RVHOHPHQWRVYRFiOLFRVVHJXLGRVSXHGHQSURQXQFLDUVHMXQWRVHQXQDVRODVtODED
IRUPDQGRGLSWRQJR FRPRioHQMario,RHQVtODEDVVHSDUDGDV HQKLDWR FRPRiaHQ
María.
 (QHVSDxROWHQHPRVGRVWLSRVGHGLSWRQJRV+D\GLSWRQJRVGHVRQDQFLDFUHFLHQWH
FRPR>MD@>ZH@\GLSWRQJRVGHFUHFLHQWHVFRPR>DM@>HZ@$VLPLVPRSRGHPRVWHQHU
KLDWRVGHVRQDQFLDFUHFLHQWHFRPR>LD@>XH@\GHVRQDQFLDGHFUHFLHQWHFRPR>DL@
>HX@
 &XDQGRQLQJXQDGHODVGRVYRFDOHVHQODVHFXHQFLDHVDOWDWHQHPRVVLHPSUHXQ
KLDWRDOPHQRVDQLYHOOp[LFRRHQSURQXQFLDFLyQFXLGDGDpoeta>SRਥHW ૧D@maestro
>PDਥHVW ૧‫ޞ‬R@teatro>W ૧HਥDW ૧‫ޞ‬R@vaho>ਥEDR@lee>ਥOHH@moho>ਥPRR@&RPRYHUHPRV
GHVSXpVHQHOKDEODUiSLGDVLQHPEDUJRHVWDVVHFXHQFLDVSXHGHQUHGXFLUVHWDPELpQ
DGLSWRQJR
 /DVVHFXHQFLDVTXHDQLYHOOp[LFRSXHGHQIRUPDUGLSWRQJRHQHVSDxROVRQODVTXH
HMHPSOLϧFDPRVDFRQWLQXDFLyQ  

Ejemplo 5-19 Los diptongos del español

'LSWRQJRVFUHFLHQWHV

>MD@ aciago >ZD@ cual


>MH@ tiene >ZH@ suelo
>MR@ adiós >ZR@ cuota
>MX@ viuda >ZL@ cuida

'LSWRQJRVGHFUHFLHQWHV

>DM@ baile >DZ@ pausa


>HM@ reina >HZ@ neura
>RM@ oigo >RZ@ Sousa, bou
>XM@ muy >LZ@ ³

 $OJXQRVGHHVWRVGLSWRQJRVVRQPX\SRFRIUHFXHQWHVHQHVSDxRO>ZR@RFXUUHHQ
PX\SRFDVSDODEUDV\>RZ@RFXUUHVyORHQQRPEUHVGHRULJHQJDOOHJRSRUWXJXpVFRPR
Sousa,HQVLJODVFRPRCOU,HQDOJ~QSUpVWDPRGHOFDWDOiQFRPRbou
 *HQHUDOPHQWHODVVHFXHQFLDV iu, ui,GHGRVYRFRLGHVDOWRVVHSURQXQFLDQFRPR
GLSWRQJRVFUHFLHQWHV>MX@>ZL@HQYH]GHGHFUHFLHQWHV(QUHDOLGDGHVWDVGRVUHDOL]D
FLRQHVVRQGLItFLOPHQWHGLVWLQJXLEOHV\SDUHFHKDEHUSUHIHUHQFLDVGLIHUHQWHVHQDOJXQRV
GLDOHFWRV/RJHQHUDOVLQHPEDUJRHVTXHviudaULPHFRQsuda\QRFRQvida,SRUOR
[ 208 José Ignacio Hualde

TXHFRQFOXLPRVTXHHQHOGLSWRQJRiuODYRFDOHV>X@PLHQWUDVTXHcuidaULPDFRQ
vida,ORTXHLQGLFDTXHHQuiODYRFDOHV>L@(QODSDODEUDmuyVLQHPEDUJRHOSULPHU
HOHPHQWRHVHOQXFOHDUSXHVHVHOTXHUHFLEHPD\RUGXUDFLyQVLHQIDWL]DPRVODSDODEUD
muuuy bueno PiVTXHmuyyyy bueno 
 /DVPLVPDVVHFXHQFLDVTXHSXHGHQIRUPDUGLSWRQJRDSDUHFHQWDPELpQHQKLDWR
HQRWUDVSDODEUDV >@HOHMHPSORHQSDUpQWHVLVVHVLODELϧFDFRQKLDWRHQDOJXQRV
GLDOHFWRVSHURQRQHFHVDULDPHQWHHQWRGRV 

Ejemplo 5-20 Hiatos

>LD@ quería >XD@ púa


>LH@ ríe >XH@ adecúe
>LR@ desvío >XR@ búho
>LX@ (diurno) >XL@ huida
>DL@ caída >DX@ aúlla
>HL@ reímos >HX@ reúne
>RL@ oímos >RX@ coúso

 7DPELpQIRUPDQKLDWRODVVHFXHQFLDVGHGRVYRFDOHVDOWDVLJXDOHVHQORVSRFRV
HMHPSORVHQTXHRFXUUHQFRPRdiíta GLPLQXWLYRGHdía 
 /RVKLDWRVVHPDUFDQRUWRJUiϧFDPHQWHFRQXQDFHQWRFXDQGRODYRFDODOWDOOHYDHO
DFHQWRSURVyGLFR\FRPRHQMaría, navío, oído,HWF6LQHPEDUJRHODFHQWRQRVXHOH
HVFULELUVHHQ´SVHXGRPRQRVtODERVµFRPR(él) rió>ULਥR@TXHIUHFXHQWHPHQWHHVELVt
ODER\FRQWUDVWDFRQORVPRQRVtODERVdio>ਥGMR@\vio>ਥEMR@GRQGHHODFHQWRRUWRJUiϧFR
QRHVQHFHVDULRVHJ~QODVUHJODVGHOD5HDO$FDGHPLDSUHFLVDPHQWHSRUWUDWDUVHGH
PRQRVtODERV(ODFHQWRWDPSRFRVHGLVWLQJXHRUWRJUiϧFDPHQWHGHOGLSWRQJRFXDQGRODV
GRVYRFDOHVVRQDOWDVFRPRHQhuida, huimos,TXHVLQHPEDUJRSDUDPXFKRVKDEODQWHV
WLHQHQXQDVHFXHQFLDFRQKLDWRTXHFRQWUDVWDIRQROyJLFDPHQWHFRQHOGLSWRQJRGH
cuida, fuimos.(VWRHVhuida,SRUHMHPSORWLHQHWUHVVtODEDVH[DFWDPHQWHFRPRoído,
PLHQWUDVTXHcuidaWLHQHVyORGRV
 /DVVHFXHQFLDVGHVRQDQFLDFUHFLHQWHFRQDFHQWRSURVyGLFRVREUHODYRFDOQRDOWD
FRPRLਥDLਥHLਥRXਥDHWFVHVLODELϧFDQJHQHUDOPHQWHFRPRGLSWRQJRV6LQ
HPEDUJR SDUD DOJXQRV KDEODQWHV KD\ XQ FRQWUDVWH HQWUH SRU HMHPSORriendo, FRQ
KLDWR\siendo,FRQGLSWRQJRDPERVFRQDFHQWRSURVyGLFRHQODYRFDO>H@>ULਥHQ૧G૧R@
>ਥVMHQ૧G૧R@ TXHQRVHPDUFDRUWRJUiϧFDPHQWHDOQRVHUODYRFDODOWDODTXHWLHQHDFHQWR
SURVyGLFR Rdueto\duelo([LVWHEDVWDQWHYDULDFLyQGLDOHFWDOHLQFOXVRLGLROHFWDOHQ
ODVLODELϧFDFLyQGHHVWDVVHFXHQFLDV
 /RVFDVRVFRQKLDWRGRQGHODYRFDODOWDQRHVODDFHQWXDGDSURVyGLFDPHQWHVRQOD
H[FHSFLyQ\JHQHUDOPHQWHFRUUHVSRQGHQDSDODEUDVUHODFLRQDGDVPRUIROyJLFDPHQWH
FRQRWUDVGRQGHODYRFDODOWDOOHYDHODFHQWR³SRUHMHPSORriendo,TXHSHUWHQHFHDO
PLVPRYHUERTXHríe,GRQGHOD>L@OOHYDHODFHQWRriada>ULਥD˓૊D@UHODFLRQDGDFRQ
río; viable>ELਥDɕ૊OH@UHODFLRQDGDFRQvía; (yo) pie>SLਥH@FRQ(yo) pío,HWF7DPELpQ
La silabificación en español 209 ]

SRGHPRVHQFRQWUDUKLDWRVHQFDVRVGHSUHϧMDFLyQFRPRHQbienio>ELpQMR@.)LQDO
PHQWHSDUDDOJXQRVKDEODQWHVKD\SDODEUDVTXHH[FHSFLRQDOPHQWHWLHQHQKLDWRVLQ
TXHH[LVWDQLQJXQDH[SOLFDFLyQPRUIROyJLFDSDUDHOOR3RUHMHPSORdiente, mientras,
vientre, siente, tieneFRQWLHQHQXQGLSWRQJR>MH@SHURKD\KDEODQWHVSDUDTXLHQHVOD
SDODEUDclienteHVGLIHUHQWHGHODVRWUDV\FRQWLHQHXQKLDWR>NOLਥHQ૧W ૧H@'HOPLVPR
PRGR OD VLWXDFLyQ PiV FRP~Q HV TXH LਥD XਥD IRUPHQ XQ GLSWRQJR FRPR HQ
San>ਥW ૧MD@go, a>ਥ‫ۏ‬MD@go, li>ਥɕ૊MD@no,>ਥNZD@ndo,HWFSHURHQSDODEUDVFRPRd>LਥD@blo\
R>XਥD@ndaSRGHPRVHQFRQWUDUXQKLDWRFRQVWLWX\HQGRHVWDVSDODEUDVODH[FHSFLyQD
ODQRUPDJHQHUDOSDUDDTXHOORVKDEODQWHVTXHKDFHQHVWHFRQWUDVWH
 /DGLVWULEXFLyQGHHVWHFRQWUDVWHVHKDHVWXGLDGRPiVSDUDHOHVSDxROSHQLQVXODU
TXHSDUDYDULHGDGHVODWLQRDPHULFDQDV YpDVH1DYDUUR7RPiV>@5HDO$FD
GHPLD(VSDxROD²+XDOGH²&DEUp\3ULHWR (Q  VH
DQRWDQDOJXQDVSDODEUDVTXHHMHPSOLϧFDQHOFRQWUDVWHGLSWRQJRKLDWRSDUDKDEODQWHV
GHYDULHGDGHVSHQLQVXODUHV

Ejemplo 5-21

'LSWRQJR +LDWR

>ਥMD@ asiático >LਥD@ piano


mediante Viana
>ਥMH@ miel >LਥH@ riel
diente cliente
barriendo riendo
pie pie (piar)
>ਥMR@ dio >LਥR@ rio
precioso biombo
radiólogo biólogo
>ਥMX@ viuda >LਥX@ diurno
multiuso
>ਥZD@ cuando >XਥD@ Ruanda
Juana ruana
>ਥZH@ duelo >XਥH@ dueto
puente
>ਥZR@ cuota >XਥR@ presuntuoso
>ਥZL@ fuimos >XਥL@ huimos
cuita jesuita

 /DH[LVWHQFLDGHHVWRVFRQWUDVWHV HLQFOXVRSDUHVPtQLPRVFRPR>ਥSMH@\>SLਥH@ 
QRVSODQWHDQSUREOHPDVDFHUFDGHOSRVLEOHFRQWUDVWHIRQpPLFRHQWUHYRFDOHVDOWDV\
GHVOL]DGDVHQHVSDxRO
 (Q HO PRGHOR PRUDLFR WDQWR ODV YRFDOHV DOWDV >L@ >X@ FRPR ODV GHVOL]DGDV >M@
>Z@WLHQHQORVPLVPRVUDVJRVVHJPHQWDOHV\GLϧHUHQHQTXH>L@>X@WLHQHQXQDPRUD
[ 210 José Ignacio Hualde

DVRFLDGDPLHQWUDVTXH>M@>Z@QRODWLHQHQ3RUHMHPSOR>ਥG૧MH@nte\cl>LਥH@nteWLHQHQ
GLIHUHQWHHVWUXFWXUDPRUDLFD \FRQVHFXHQWHPHQWHVLOiELFD SDUDKDEODQWHVFRQHVWH
FRQWUDVWHOp[LFR  

Ejemplo 5-22 Segmentos moraicos y no moraicos

— — — — —

G૧ L H Q૧ W૧ H N O L H Q૧ W૧ H

 &RPRKHPRVGLFKRODVLWXDFLyQJHQHUDORQRPDUFDGDHVTXHXQHOHPHQWRYRFiOLFR
´YRFRLGHµ DOWRQRDFHQWXDGRHQFRQWDFWRFRQRWUDYRFDOQRVHDPRUDLFR HVGHFLU
TXHVHDXQDGHVOL]DGD PLHQWUDVTXHODPRULϧFDFLyQGDGDHQ  SDUDclienteHV
XQDHVWUXFWXUDH[FHSFLRQDO/DPHMRUVROXFLyQHVSRVWXODUXQDUHJODJHQHUDOSRUODFXDO
ODVYRFDOHVDOWDVLXSLHUGHQVXPRUDDVRFLDGDFXDQGRHVWiQHQFRQWDFWRFRQRWUD
YRFDO\QROOHYDQHODFHQWR YpDQVH+DUULV\.DLVVH5RFD+XDOGH 
 

Ejemplo 5-23 Desmorificación

— — — ఩ — —

G૧ L H Q૧ W૧ H G૧ L H Q૧ W૧ H

3DODEUDVFRPRclienteSDUDORVKDEODQWHVTXHODVLODELϧFDQHQWUHVVtODEDVFRQVWLWX
\HQH[FHSFLRQHVOp[LFDVDHVWDUHJOD(QFDVRVFRPRhuimosWDPELpQHQWUHVVtODEDV
LQWHUYLHQHQIDFWRUHVSDUDGLJPiWLFRVTXHMXVWLϧFDQVXH[FHSFLRQDOLGDG
 &RPRDFDEDPRVGHGHFLUFDVRVFRPR>NOLਥHQ૧W ૧H@HQTXHXQDYRFDODOWDHQHOFRQ
WH[WRGHGHVPRULϧFDFLyQVHPDQWLHQHFRPRPRUDLFDVRQH[FHSFLRQDOHV/DWHQGHQFLDD
HYLWDUORVKLDWRVHVXQDPDQLIHVWDFLyQGHOSULQFLSLRGHDUUDQTXHREOLJDWRULRGDGRTXH
XQDVHFXHQFLDHQKLDWRVXSRQHODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDVtODEDVLQDUUDQTXH(VWDWHQGHQFLD
KDRSHUDGRGLDFUyQLFDPHQWHHQHVSDxROUHGXFLHQGRDGLSWRQJRPXFKDVVHFXHQFLDV
TXHDQWHULRUPHQWHVHSURQXQFLDEDQHQKLDWRPXFKDVYHFHVFRQFDPELRHQODSRVLFLyQ
GHODFHQWRFRPRHQreg na!r>HਥL@na!r>ਥHM@naHWF

5.4 Resilabificación de grupos vocálicos: sinalefa y sinéresis

8QDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDGHOHVSDxROHVODH[LVWHQFLDGHSURFHVRVGHUHVLODELϧFDFLyQDWUDYpV
GHIURQWHUDVGHSDODEUDV<DKHPRVYLVWRTXHXQDFRQVRQDQWHϧQDOGHSDODEUDVXHOH
UHVLODELϧFDUVHFRPRXQDWDTXHFXDQGRYDVHJXLGDSRURWUDSDODEUDTXHHPSLH]DSRU
YRFDO$GHPiVGHHVWHSURFHVRGHUHVLODELϧFDFLyQGHVHFXHQFLDV&9WHQHPRVWDPELpQ
La silabificación en español 211 ]

UHVLODELϧFDFLyQ HQ VHFXHQFLDV YRFiOLFDV HQ HO GLVFXUVR VHJXLGR (VWH IHQyPHQR VH
FRQRFHFRPRsinalefa,\SRGHPRVREVHUYDUORHQHMHPSORVFRPRORVVLJXLHQWHV  

Ejemplo 5-24 Sinalefa

a. >MD@ mi amigo >ZD@ tu amigo


>DM@ esa italiana >DZ@ esa unidad
>DH੓@ casa enorme >DR੓@ cosa horrible
>H੓D@ ese acueducto >R੓D@ lo aguardaba
b. >MX@ bici usada >ZL@ espíritu insaciable
>H੓R@ este osito >R੓H@ lo esperaba
c. >D@ estaba hablando >R@ otroosito
>H@ monte enorme >L@ mi idea

 &RPRVHPXHVWUDHQORVHMHPSORVDQWHULRUHVGRVYRFDOHVVHJXLGDVSXHGHQIRUPDU
XQDVRODVtODEDDXQTXHVHHQFXHQWUHQHQSDODEUDVGLIHUHQWHV/DVLQDOHIDHVHVSHFLDO
PHQWH IUHFXHQWH FXDQGR QLQJXQD GH ODV GRV YRFDOHV DIHFWDGDV OOHYD DFHQWR 6L ODV
YRFDOHVWLHQHQGLIHUHQWHDOWXUDODPiVDOWDGHODVGRVVHFRQYLHUWHHQVHPLYRFDOFRPR
HQ D $¬QLYHOSRVWOp[LFRWHQHPRVWDQWRVHPLYRFDOHVDOWDVFRPRPHGLDV6LODV
GRVYRFDOHVVRQGHODPLVPDDOWXUDODSULPHUDGHODVGRVHVODTXHSLHUGHVXVLODELFL
GDGFRPRVHLOXVWUDHQ E )LQDOPHQWHVLODVGRVYRFDOHVVRQLGpQWLFDVSXHGHQ
UHGXFLUVHDODGXUDFLyQGHXQDVRODYRFDOFRPRHQ F 
 (QHOKDEODUiSLGDORVPLVPRVIHQyPHQRVSXHGHQSURGXFLUVHWDPELpQHQVHFXHQ
FLDVLQWHULRUHVGHSDODEUDHQFX\RFDVRHOIHQyPHQRVHGHQRPLQDsinéresis.$VtDXQTXH
DQLYHOOp[LFRWHQHPRVSRUHMHPSORem.pe.o.ra.ba, to.a.lla, le.e.re.mos, pe.le.ar,FRQ
YRFDOHVDG\DFHQWHVSURQXQFLDGDVHQKLDWRHQHOKDEODUiSLGDSRGHPRVSURQXQFLDU
em.peo.ra.ba, toa.lla, le.re.mos, pe.lear.(QPXFKRVGLDOHFWRVODVHPLYRFDOPHGLDSXHGH
KDFHUVHDOWDFUHDQGRXQGLSWRQJRPiVFRP~QFRPRHQ>ਥW ૧MD@tro,>ਥSZH@taemp>MR@raba,
pe>ਥOMD@r./DVLQDOHID HQWUHSDODEUDV \VLQpUHVLV UHGXFFLyQGHKLDWRVGHQWURGHOD
SDODEUD VHSXHGHQFRQFHSWXDOL]DUFRPRXQ~QLFRSURFHVRGHHOLVLyQGHPRUDVXQD
YRFDOSLHUGHVXPRUDDVRFLDGDHQFRQWDFWRFRQRWUDYRFDOHQODVFRQGLFLRQHVTXHKHPRV
HVSHFLϧFDGR  

Ejemplo 5-25

— — — — ఩ — — —

P L D P L ࣢૊ R P j D P L ࣢૊ R

 2EYLDPHQWHQRKD\VLQDOHIDVLLQWHUYLHQHXQDFRQVRQDQWHHQWUHODVGRVYRFDOHV
8QKHFKRLQWHUHVDQWHHVTXHHQDQGDOX]RULHQWDOGRQGHODVϧQDOGHSDODEUDJHQH
UDOPHQWHVHHOLGHFRPSOHWDPHQWHSRGHPRVHQFRQWUDUFRQWUDVWHVFRPRHOVLJXLHQWH
[ 212 José Ignacio Hualde

la entrada>ODH੓Q૧ਥW ૧‫ޞ‬D@las entradas>ODHQ૧ਥW ૧‫ޞ‬D@(VGHFLUODVϧQDOVXE\DFHQWHEORTXHD


HOSURFHVRGHVLQDOHIDDXQTXHQRVHSURQXQFLHGHPRGRTXHHOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHVLQJXODU
\SOXUDOVHPDQWLHQHSRUPHGLRGHXQDGLIHUHQFLDHQODVLODELϧFDFLyQ FI¬+XDOGH
*DOLQGR 
 'HDFXHUGRFRQ1DYDUUR7RPiV >@² FLHUWDVVHFXHQFLDVGHWUHV
\PiVYRFDOHVSXHGHQUHGXFLUVHWDPELpQDXQDVRODVtODED(VGHFLUDOJXQRVGHHVWRV
JUXSRV SXHGHQ MXQWDUVH HQ XQD VROD VtODED \ RWURV QR &RQVLGpUHQVH ORV HMHPSORV
VLJXLHQWHV  

Ejemplo 5-26 Secuencias vocálicas

a. *UXSRVUHGXFLEOHVDXQDVRODVtODED 1DYDUUR7RPiV


>@²
>H੓DM@ muerte airada >H੓DZ@ frente augusta
>MRZ@ sitio umbroso >ZRZ@ monstruo humano
>H੓DH੓@ áurea espada >R੓DR੓@ dispuesto a obedecer
b. *UXSRVLUUHGXFLEOHVDXQDVRODVtODED 1DYDUUR7RPiV>@
>DHZ@ culta europa >HZH@ parece hueco
>DR੓D@ esta o aquella >DH੓D@ ya he hablado
>DMH@ apaga y enciende >HZR@ siete u ocho

 /RVJUXSRVTXHSXHGHQSURQXQFLDUVHFRPRWDXWRVLOiELFRVVRQDTXHOORVTXHFRQ
WLHQHQXQD~QLFDFLPDGHVRQDQFLDPLHQWUDVTXHORVJUXSRVLUUHGXFWLEOHVDXQDVROD
VtODEDFRQWLHQHQGRVFLPDVGHVRQDQFLD
 &RPRYLPRVHQXQDVtODEDHOJUDGRGHVRQDQFLDDVFLHQGHKDVWDHOQ~FOHR\GHV
FLHQGHDSDUWLUGHpO/RVHMHPSORVHQ D FRQVWLWX\HQVHFXHQFLDVDJUXSDEOHVHQ
WRUQRDXQVRORQ~FOHR3RUHOFRQWUDULRORVHMHPSORVHQ E WLHQHQSHUϧOHVGH
VRQDQFLDTXHQRVRQFRPSDWLEOHVFRQXQDVRODVtODED
 $XQTXHFRQPHQRVIUHFXHQFLDODFRQWUDFFLyQVLOiELFDSXHGHRFDVLRQDULQFOXVRHO
GHVOL]DPLHQWRGHXQDYRFDODOWDRPHGLDDFHQWXDGDVREUHWRGRVLODSDODEUDHVWiHQ
SRVLFLyQPHGLDHQODIUDVH\QROOHYDUHOLHYHWRQDOFRPRHQ>VHਥ‫ޞ‬MD@JoséSRUsería José.
(VWDFRQWUDFFLyQHVFRP~QHQQRPEUHVFRPSXHVWRVMaría Rosa఩>ਤPD‫ޞ‬MD@Rosa, José
Antonio఩>ਤ[RVH੓D@ntonio.

5.5 Contacto silábico

6LELHQODPD\RUSDUWHGHODVJHQHUDOL]DFLRQHVSRVLEOHVDFHUFDGHODVVHFXHQFLDVGH
VHJPHQWRVTXHSRGHPRVHQFRQWUDUHQXQDSDODEUDVRQODVTXHGHULYDQGHODHVWUXFWXUD
VLOiELFDGHODOHQJXD XQDSDODEUDKDGHFRQVLVWLUHQXQFRQMXQWRGHVtODEDVELHQIRUPD
GDV KD\WDPELpQFLHUWDVUHVWULFFLRQHVTXHVHUHϧHUHQDODVVHFXHQFLDVKHWHURVLOiELFDV
8QDUHVWULFFLyQLPSRUWDQWHHQHVSDxROHVTXHHQJHQHUDOQRHQFRQWUDPRVVHFXHQFLDVGH
La silabificación en español 213 ]

GRVFRQVRQDQWHVLGpQWLFDVGHQWURGHOGRPLQLRGHVLODELϧFDFLyQHVGHFLUDOFRQWUDULR
TXHSRUHMHPSORHQLWDOLDQRHQHVSDxROQRWHQHPRVJHPLQDGDV1R¬HQFRQWUDPRV
SDODEUDVFRPR >HVVR@ >DW ૧W ૧R@ >DOOD@HWF/DVH[FHSFLRQHVDHVWDUHJODVRQHVFDVDV
perenne, obvio
 $GHPiVGHHVWDUHVWULFFLyQFRQWUDODVJHPLQDGDVHQVHFXHQFLDVGHGRVRFOXVLYDV
KHWHURVLOiELFDVHQFRQWUDPRVRWUDUHVWULFFLyQTXHKDFHUHIHUHQFLDDOSXQWRGHDUWLFX
ODFLyQ(QFRQFUHWRHQVHFXHQFLDVGHGRVRFOXVLYDVHQXQDSDODEUDODVHJXQGDVyOR
SXHGHVHUFRURQDO\ODSULPHUDQRSXHGHVHUOR(QFRQWUDPRVSXHV>ਥDNW ૧R@>ਥDSW ૧R@
SHURQR >ਥDW ૧SR@ >ਥDW ૧NR@ >ਥDSNR@QL >ਥDNSR@/DV~QLFDVH[FHSFLRQHVDHVWDUHJOD
VRQH[WUDQMHULVPRVFRPRfútbol, rugby\básquetbol\SDODEUDVFRQSUHϧMRVFRPRadpo-
sición, subcomisión\subcultura,SHURFRPRKHPRVYLVWRHVWDV~OWLPDVFRQWLHQHQGRV
GRPLQLRVGHVLODELϧFDFLyQLQGHSHQGLHQWHV&DVRVFRPRadquirir, adverbio\advertir
SXHGHQLQWHUSUHWDUVHWDPELpQFRPRSDODEUDVFRQSUHϧMRVIRUPDOHV1RKD\QLQJXQD
RWUDH[FHSFLyQ
 (QFRQWUDPRV XQD VLWXDFLyQ VHPHMDQWH HQ VHFXHQFLDV GH QDVDOHV /D ODELDO >P@
SXHGHSUHFHGHUDODFRURQDO>Q@FRPRHQhimno, alumno;SHURQRRFXUUHODVHFXHQFLD
LQYHUVD >QP@/DVHFXHQFLDVHSURGXFHHQWUHSUHϧMR\UDt]HQSDODEUDVFRPRinmortal,
inmaculada, inmenso,HWFSHURHQHVWHFDVRODSULPHUDQDVDOVHDVLPLODDODVHJXQGD
VHJ~QODUHJODJHQHUDOGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHV FI¬+DUULVD 
 8QUHSDVRGHOGLFFLRQDULRPXHVWUDTXHWDPSRFRKD\SDODEUDVFRQñRllHQSRVLFLyQ
SRVWFRQVRQiQWLFDFRQH[FHSFLyQGHDOJXQDSDODEUDFRQSUHϧMRFRPRconllevar.+D\
DOJXQDVSDODEUDVFRQyHQHVWDSRVLFLyQWDOHVFRPRcónyugeHinyectar,TXHHQWUDUtDQ
HQODFDWHJRUtDGHSDODEUDVFRQSUHϧMRVIRUPDOHV(VWDUHVWULFFLyQHQFRQWUDGHODV
FRQVRQDQWHVSDODWDOHVSRVWFRQVRQiQWLFDVQRDIHFWDVLQHPEDUJRDODSUHSDODWDOch
(concha, hinchar,HWF 
 'HFXDOTXLHUIRUPDODDXVHQFLDGHXQDVHFXHQFLDKHWHURVLOiELFDHVSHFtϧFDSXHGH
GHEHUVH D XQ VLPSOH DFFLGHQWH \ QR D XQD UHVWULFFLyQ IRQROyJLFD VLVWHPiWLFD $Vt
6DSRUWD \ &RQWUHUDV ²  DGYLHUWHQ TXH OD VHFXHQFLD GH WUHV VHJPHQWRV
VEOQRVHHQFXHQWUDHQQLQJXQDSDODEUDHQHVSDxROSHURFRQVLGHUDQTXHHVWDHVXQD
DXVHQFLDDFFLGHQWDO

Ejercicios

1. /DSDODEUDmonopolioDGPLWHVRORXQDVLODELϧFDFLyQPLHQWUDVTXHpetróleoSXHGH
UHFLELUVLODELϧFDFLRQHVGLIHUHQWHVVHJ~QHOHVWLORGHKDEOD([SOLTXHSRU¬TXp

2. 3DODEUDVFRPRguion\SionVHHVFULEtDQKDVWDKDFHSRFRFRQDFHQWRRUWRJUiϧFR
SHURHQODV~OWLPDVQRUPDVGHOD5HDO$FDGHPLD(VSDxRODVHHOLPLQDODWLOGH
¢$¬TXpSXHGHVHUGHELGRHVWR"

3. ¢6RQODVGHVOL]DGDVIRQHPDVLQGHSHQGLHQWHVHQHVSDxRO"([SOLTXH
[ 214 José Ignacio Hualde

4. ¢&yPRVHH[SOLFDTXHHQDOJXQDVYDULHGDGHVGHOHVSDxROVHDVSLUHODVHQ
desarmar\nosotrosSHURQRSRUHMHPSORHQresaca\posada?

5. 6LODELϧTXHODSDODEUDinstructorHPSOHDQGRHOVLVWHPDGHUHJODVRUGHQDGDVTXH
VHUHVXPHHQ  

6. ¢(VਥXLHXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQIRQROyJLFDDGHFXDGDSDUDhuye?([SOLTXHFyPRVH
GHWHUPLQDVXSURQXQFLDFLyQ

Lecturas adicionales

&OHPHQWVHVXQWUDEDMRFOiVLFRVREUHHOSDSHOGHOFLFORGHVRQDQFLDHQOD
VLODELϧFDFLyQ
1DP*ROGVWHLQ\6DOW]PDQ  GHVDUUROODQODKLSyWHVLVGHODFRRUGLQDFLyQJHV
WXDOGHQWURGHODVtODEDHQHOPDUFRGHODIRQRORJtDDUWLFXODWRULD
&ROLQD E RIUHFHXQHVWXGLRSRUPHQRUL]DGRGHORVSULQFLSDOHVSURFHVRVIRQROy
JLFRVGHOHVSDxROTXHHVWiQFRQGLFLRQDGRVSRUODSRVLFLyQGHOVHJPHQWRGHQWUR
GHODVtODEDHQHOPDUFRGHODWHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDG
(Q+XDOGHVHH[DPLQDQODVDOWHUQDQFLDVTXHDIHFWDQDODYRFDOL\VHGLVFXWH
ODSRVLELOLGDGGHTXHHVWHIRQHPDSXHGDWHQHUDOyIRQRVWDQWRYRFiOLFRVFRPR
FRQVRQiQWLFRVVHJ~QODSRVLFLyQTXHRFXSDHQODVtODED
(OWUDEDMRGH¬+XDOGH\3ULHWR  HVXQHVWXGLRDF~VWLFR\SHUFHSWLYRGHODV
VHFXHQFLDVGHYRFRLGHVTXHFRQWUDVWDQHQVLODELϧFDFLyQHQHVSDxROSHQLQVXODU
\HQ+XDOGH FDS ¬VHGDXQDH[SOLFDFLyQGHWDOODGDGHORVFRQWH[WRVTXH
IDYRUHFHQHOKLDWRHQHVWDYDULHGDG

Notas

1. /DQRFLyQGHHVFDODGHVRQDQFLDWLHQHXQDODUJDWUDGLFLyQ$VtVHHQFXHQWUDQSURSXHV
WDVHQHVWHVHQWLGRHQODREUDGH¬6DXVVXUH  \-HVSHUVHQ   FI¬+RRSHU²
&OHPHQWV 6REUHORVDVSHFWRVXQLYHUVDOHVGHODRUJDQL]DFLyQVLOiELFD\ODVH[FHSFLRQHV
TXHVHHQFXHQWUDQYpDVH%HOO\+RRSHU  
2. 9RFDOHV\GHVOL]DGDVIRUPDQODFODVHGHORVYRFRLGHV
3. 'HMDQGRDXQODGRDSHOOLGRV\WRSyQLPRVGHRULJHQYDVFRFRPRBeriain.
4. &RPRQRVVHxDODUD-RUJH*XLWDUWHQSRVLFLyQLQLFLDOGHVtODEDHQFRQWUDPRVODVHFXHQ
FLD>բL@HQSUpVWDPRVFRPRjeep,DSHOOLGRVGHRULJHQFDWDOiQFRPRLlinás y Lliteras HQOD
SURQXQFLDFLyQ\HtVWDKR\HQGtDLPSHUDQWHHQODPD\RUSDUWHGHOPXQGRKLVSiQLFR \DOJXQRV
QRPEUHVFRPRGina.
5. 8QDDSOLFDFLyQGHOPRGHORPRUDLFRDYDULRVDVSHFWRVGHODHVWUXFWXUDIRQROyJLFDGHO
HVSDxROVHHQFXHQWUDHQ'XQODS
6. (VWHHVXQWHPDTXHUHFLELyEDVWDQWHDWHQFLyQGHQWURGHOPDUFRWHyULFRGHOHVWUXFWX
UDOLVPRWDQWRDPHULFDQR %RZHQ\6WRFNZHOO6DSRUWD6WRFNZHOO%RZHQ\
6LOYD)XHQ]DOLGD FRPRHXURSHR $ODUFRV>@² 3DUDXQDFRQVLGHUDFLyQ
La silabificación en español 215 ]

PiVUHFLHQWHGHOWHPDFRQXQHQIRTXHJHQHUDWLYRSXHGHFRQVXOWDUVH0RUJDQ9pDVH
WDPELpQ+DUD
7. /DSDODEUDcoúso,FRQHOVLJQLϧFDGRGH¶XVRFRPSDUWLGR·QRHVWiHQHODiccionario de la
lengua españolaGHOD5HDO$FDGHPLD(VSDxROD
8. 6REUHODUHDOL]DFLyQDF~VWLFDGHOFRQWUDVWHYpDVH$JXLODU+XDOGH\3ULHWR
)DFH\$OYRUG+XDOGH\ODVREVHUYDFLRQHVHQ4XLOLV\0RQUR\
&DVDV
This page intentionally left blank
6 ]
La fonología léxica
Pilar Prieto

6.0 Introducción

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QLRVPRUIROyJLFRVGHSUHϧMR(des)\UDt](hielo),GHIRUPDTXHHOIRQHPDSRVWDOYHRODU
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[ 218 Pilar Prieto

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IRQpWLFD (QHOHMHPSOR  GHODSiJLQDHVDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQDEVWUDFWDLQLFLDO
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GHSDODEUDV 6LHJHO$URQRϱ 6HHPSH]DURQDGHVFULELUQXPHURVRVWLSRV
GHLQWHUDFFLRQHVHQWUHHVDVUHJODVGHIRUPDFLyQGHSDODEUDV\ODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV
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DE \0RKDQDQ  GHVDUUROODURQODWHRUtDGHODfonología léxica,XQD
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6.1 SPE: reglas cíclicas y no cíclicas

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\+DOOH  SURSXVLHURQXQDGLYLVLyQGHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVHQcíclicas\no
cíclicas./DVUHJODVFtFOLFDVVHDSOLFDQWDQWDVYHFHVFRPRHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFRDxDGH
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PD\RUtDGHORVFDVRVODDSOLFDFLyQFtFOLFDGHODVUHJODVSURGXFHHOPLVPRUHVXOWDGRTXH
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La fonología léxica 219 ]

DSOLFDFLyQFtFOLFDGHODUHJODGHDVLJQDFLyQGHDFHQWRSULPDULR/DQRUHGXFFLyQGHOD
>͑@HQODSDODEUDcondensationVHH[SOLFDSRUODSUHVHQFLDGHXQDFHQWRSULPDULRVREUH
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 7DQWRHQHVSDxROFRPRHQFDWDOiQODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRGHYRFDOHVDOWDV L఩
MX఩Z ¬SXHGHVHUEORTXHDGDSRUODSUHVHQFLDGHXQDFHQWRSULPDULRTXHSURFHGD
GHXQFLFORDQWHULRU(Q  SRGHPRVREVHUYDUXQDVHULHGHSDODEUDVFRQKLDWRTXH
SHUWHQHFHQ D XQ PLVPR JUXSR PRUIROyJLFR \ TXH GHULYDQ GH ODV UDtFHV uir \ ar
FX\D YRFDO DOWD UHFLEH DFHQWR SULPDULR HQ IRUPDV UHODFLRQDGDV PRUIROyJLFDPHQWH
(yo) u.yo\(yo) fí.o&RPRHQLQJOpVHOKHFKRGHTXHODVYRFDOHVDOWDVQRVHFRQ
YLHUWDQHQGHVOL]DGDVVHSXHGHDWULEXLUDODSUHVHQFLDEORTXHDQWHGHODFHQWR$OJXQRV
GHHVRVHMHPSORV TXHPDUFDPRVFRQODGLYLVLyQKLiWLFD\HODFHQWRIRQpWLFR \DVH
PHQFLRQDURQHQHOFDStWXORGHGLFDGRDODVtODED

Ejemplo 6-1

u. ir a. u. ente, con u. encia, in. u. ir, u.i. dez, u. i.do


. ar . an.za, a. .an. zar.se, a. .an. za.do, .a

 (QFDWDOiQODGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHfeineta>I̸MਥQ͑W ૧̸@¶WUDEDMLOOR·\ruïnos>UXLਥQRV@
¶UXLQRVR·WDPELpQVHSXHGHH[SOLFDUSRUODSUHVHQFLDEORTXHDQWHGHODFHQWR DVLJQDGR
HQHOSULPHUFLFOR VREUHODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWR/DGHULYDFLyQIRQROyJLFDGH  
PXHVWUDHOIXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHODVVLJXLHQWHVUHJODVGHOFDWDOiQ ¬ODUHJODGHGHVDFHQ
WXDFLyQRHOLPLQDFLyQGHDFHQWRSULPDULRODFXDOHOLGHWRGRDFHQWRSULPDULRDQWHULRU
DFXDOTXLHURWURDFHQWRHQODSDODEUD\DVHJXUDTXHFXDOTXLHUSDODEUDGHULYDGDWHQJD
VRODPHQWHXQDFHQWR QɬELOਥLW ૧ਥDW ૧఩>QXɕLOLਥW ૧DW ૧@¶QREOH]D·  ¬ODUHJODGHUHGXF
FLyQYRFiOLFDTXHWUDQVIRUPDORVIRQHPDVH͑D\RɬHQSRVLFLyQLQDFHQWXDGD
HQODVYRFDOHV≯@\>X@UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH SHM>ਥS͑‫¶@̸ޞ‬SHUD·YV>S̸ਥ‫͑ޞ‬W ૧̸@¶SHULWD·
>ਥEɬOD@¶EROD·YV>EXਥO͑W ૧̸@¶EROLWD· \ ¬ODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRGHYRFDOHVDOWDV
TXHDIHFWDDLXHQVtODEDLQDFHQWXDGD\GHVSXpVGHYRFDOEDMD SHM>ਥVDOLਥSD@¶VDO
\SDQ·YV>ਥSDMਥVDO@¶SDQ\VDO· /DGHULYDFLyQGH  ³SULPHUFLFOR³PXHVWUDFyPR
ODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRGH>L@QRVHSXHGHDSOLFDUHQHOFDVRGH UXਥLQ ਥRVSRUTXHOD
YRFDO>L@GHOUDGLFDOWLHQHDFHQWRVXE\DFHQWH >UXਥLQ̸@¶UXLQD· (QFDPELRHQHOFDVR
GH ਥI͑LQ ਥ͑W ૧ DODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRSXHGHDSOLFDUVHSRUTXHHQHVWHFDVRODYRFDO
>͑@GHOUDGLFDOHVODYRFDODFHQWXDGD)LQDOPHQWHKDFHPRVQRWDUTXHHORUGHQGHDSOL
FDFLyQGHUHJODVHVFUXFLDOSDUDODREWHQFLyQGHODVIRUPDVIRQpWLFDVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV
0DVFDUy 
[ 220 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 6-2

ಭ UXਥLQ ਥRV ਥI͑LQ ਥ͑W ૧ D


3ULPHUFLFOR
³  M 'HVOL]DPLHQWRGHYRFDOHVDOWDV
ಣ಩ದL  ͑ 'HVDFHQWXDFLyQ
³  ̸ ̸ 5HGXFFLyQYRFiOLFD
>UXLਥQRV@  >I̸MਥQ͑W ૧̸@

6.2 El Principio de Ciclicidad Estricta (Mascaró 1976)

0DVFDUy  REVHUYyXQDSURSLHGDGGHRSDFLGDGHQDOJXQDVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV


GHOFDWDOiQ\SURSXVRTXHHVDSURSLHGDGVHH[SOLFDEDDVXPLHQGRTXHODVUHJODVFtFOL
FDVFXPSOHQODSURSLHGDGGHODciclicidad estricta.&RPRVHREVHUYDHQODGHULYDFLyQ
GH  ODDSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODGHHOLPLQDFLyQGHDFHQWRGHEHVHUDQWHULRUDOD
DSOLFDFLyQGHODUHJODGHUHGXFFLyQYRFiOLFDSXHVWRTXHODUDt]GHXQDSDODEUDFRPR
ਥEDLQ͑W ૧DGHEHSHUGHUVXDFHQWRSDUDTXHODUHJODGHUHGXFFLyQVHSXHGDDSOL
FDU\SURGXFLU>E̸MਥQ͑W ૧̸@3RURWUDSDUWHODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRKDGHSUHFHGHU
DODUHJODGHGHVDFHQWXDFLyQ\DTXHFRPRKHPRVYLVWRXQDYRFDODOWDFRQDFHQWR
VXE\DFHQWHQRVHFRQYLHUWHHQGHVOL]DGDDXQTXHHQODVXSHUϧFLH\DKD\DSHUGLGRHVWH
DFHQWR S¬HM¬>U͑ਥLP@¶XYD·>U͑LਥP͑W ૧@¶XYD· GLPLQXWLYR  >U͑MਥP͑W ૧@>UXਥLQD@¶UXLQD·
>UXLਥQRV@¶UXLQRVR· >UXMਥQRV@ 1RREVWDQWHQRVLHPSUHVXFHGHDVtHQFRQWUDPRV
DOJXQRVFDVRVHQTXHXQDYRFDODOWDFRQDFHQWRVXE\DFHQWHVtSXHGHWUDQVIRUPDUVH
HQGHVOL]DGD SHM>ਥLQVW ૧D@¶LQVWD·YV>QRMQVਥW ૧D@¶QRLQVWDU· (QHOHMHPSORDQWHULRU
OD¬UHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRSDUHFHUtDDSOLFDUVHGHVSXpVGHODUHJODGHGHVDFHQWXDFLyQ
\QRDQWHVFRPRRFXUUtDHQORVHMHPSORVDQWHULRUHV
 0DVFDUy  SURSRQHXQDH[SOLFDFLyQSDUDHVHSDUDGyMLFRFRPSRUWDPLHQWR
TXHFRQVLVWHHQODSURSLHGDGGHODVUHJODVGHDSOLFDUVHHVWULFWDPHQWHHQVXFLFOR(VD
SURSLHGDGTXH0DVFDUyOODPDHOPrincipio de Ciclicidad Estricta,VHH[SUHVDHQ  
0DVFDUy (OSULPHUSULQFLSLR D H[LJHTXHODVUHJODVFtFOLFDVPDQWHQJDQ
XQDRUGHQDFLyQHVWULFWDHQORVGLIHUHQWHVFLFORVHVGHFLUVHGHEHQGHDSOLFDUSULPHUR
VREUHHOGRPLQLR M    jOXHJRVREUHHO M    MHWF(OVHJXQGRSULQFLSLR E VHUHϧHUH
DODRSDFLGDGTXHPXHVWUDQODVUHJODVFtFOLFDVODVFXDOHVVRODPHQWHWLHQHQDFFHVRD
LQIRUPDFLyQTXHOHVOOHJDGHODVDOLGDGHODVUHJODVTXHVHDSOLFDQHQXQPLVPRFLFOR
(OORHYLWDTXHUHJODVSRVWHULRUHVGHVKDJDQORTXHRWURFLFORDQWHULRUKDFUHDGR
La fonología léxica 221 ]

Ejemplo 6-3 Principio de Ciclicidad Estricta

'DGDXQDH[SUHVLyQSDUHQWHWL]DGD Q    Q             Q Q\XQFRQMXQWR SDU


FLDOPHQWHRUGHQDGR GHUHJODVFtFOLFDV&

a. &VHDSOLFDDOGRPLQLR M    jGHVSXpVGHKDEHUVHDSOLFDGRDOGRPLQLR


M    MFDGDUHJODGH¬&VHDSOLFDHQHORUGHQGDGRVLHPSUHTXHVHSXHGD
DSOLFDUSURSLDPHQWHHQM
b. 3DUDTXHXQDUHJODFtFOLFDVHDSOLTXHSURSLDPHQWHHQFXDOTXLHUFLFORGDGR
MGLFKDUHJODKDGHKDFHUXVRHVSHFtϧFRGHLQIRUPDFLyQSURSLDGHOFLFORM
HVGHFLULQWURGXFLGDHQHOPLVPRFLFORM

 9ROYDPRVDOHMHPSORGHOSULQFLSLRGHODVHFFLyQ(OSDUDGyMLFRHMHPSORGH>QRMQVਥW ૧D@
VH H[SOLFDUtD HQ YLUWXG GH OD SURSLHGDG E  GHO 3ULQFLSLR GH¬ &LFOLFLGDG (VWULFWD
/D¬UHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRGHYRFDOHVDOWDVVHSRGUiDSOLFDUHQ>QRMQVਥW ૧D@SRUTXHODYRFDO
LKDSHUGLGRVXDFHQWRHQXQFLFORDQWHULRU<HQFDPELRQRVHSRGUiDSOLFDUHQHO
FDVRGH>UXLਥQRV@SRUTXHHVDYRFDOHVWiDFHQWXDGDHQHOFLFORFRUUHVSRQGLHQWH \¬OD
UHJODGHGHVDFHQWXDFLyQHVSRVWHULRU )LQDOPHQWH¢FXiOVHUiHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGH
HVWDVUHJODVFXDQGRODSDODEUDFRQVWDGHXQQ~PHURPD\RUGHVXϧMRVFRPRHQHOFDVR
GHODSDODEUDUXਥLQਥR]ਥLVLP"/DUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRGHEHVHUEORTXHDGDSXHVWR
TXHODSDODEUDHQFXHVWLyQVHSURQXQFLDFRQKLDWR>UXLQXਥ]LVLP@\QRFRQGLSWRQJR
>UXMQXਥ]LVLP@¢&yPRVHSXHGHHYLWDUSXHVTXHODUHJODGHGHVOL]DPLHQWRVHDSOLTXH
HQHVWHFDVR\QRHQHOFDVRGHno instar?/DGLIHUHQFLDFUXFLDOHQWUHORVGRVFDVRVHVTXH
HQHOFDVRGHruïnosíssimODLQIRUPDFLyQSHUWHQHFHH[FOXVLYDPHQWHDODVDOLGDGHXQFLFOR
LQPHGLDWDPHQWHDQWHULRUPLHQWUDVTXHHQHOHMHPSORGHno instarHVHQRHVHOFDVR

6.3 Los sufijos del inglés y los estratos morfológicos (Siegel 1974)

(OUHFRQRFLPLHQWRGHODGLYLVLyQGHOFRPSRQHQWHPRUIROyJLFRHQGLIHUHQWHVQLYHOHV
VXUJLyGHODREVHUYDFLyQGHTXHORVVXϧMRVGHOLQJOpVSRGtDQVHUFODVLϧFDGRVHQGRV
FODVHVVHJ~QORVHIHFWRVTXHWXYLHUDQVREUHODORQJLWXGYRFiOLFD\HOGHVSOD]DPLHQWR
GHODFHQWRHQODUDt] 6LHJHO$URQRϱ (QLQJOpVKD\VXϧMRVTXHFDXVDQHO
GHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHODFHQWR(-ity, -al, -ous)\VXϧMRVTXHSUHVHUYDQHODFHQWRGHODUDt]
(-ness, -hood, -ly) &ODVH¬,\&ODVH¬,,UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH (Q  VHPXHVWUDQHMHPSORV
GHOHIHFWRGHHVRVVXϧMRVVREUHHODFHQWRGHOUDGLFDO
[ 222 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 6-4

&ODVH¬,(-ity) &ODVH¬,,(-ness)

curious ¶FXULRVR· curi osity ¶FXULRVLGDG· curiousness ¶FDOLGDGGH


FXULRVR·
lucid ¶O~FLGR· lu cidity ¶OXFLGH]· lucidness ¶FDOLGDGGH
O~FLGR·

6LHJHO  GHVFXEULyTXHDOJXQDVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVGHOLQJOpVFRPRODHOLVLyQGH


СRHOOODPDGRTrisyllabic Shortening VLJOD766´UHGXFFLyQWULVLOiELFDµHQHVSDxRO 
VHDSOLFDEDQWHQLHQGRHQFXHQWDVLORVVXϧMRVVRQGHOD&ODVH¬,RGHOD&ODVH¬,,¬$Vt
ORVVXϧMRVGHOD&ODVH¬,SURYRFDQXQDFRUWDPLHQWR\OD[LWXGGHODYRFDODFHQWXDGDGHO
UDGLFDO(n>HM@tion, n> @tional),PLHQWUDVTXHORVGHOD&ODVH¬,,QRDIHFWDQODFDOLGDGGH
GLFKDYRFDO&XULRVDPHQWHDGHPiVHORUGHQGHDSDULFLyQGHORVPRUIHPDVGHOLQJOpV
HVWiUHODFLRQDGRFRQODSHUWHQHQFLDGHHVRVPRUIHPDVDXQDGHODVGRVFODVHVDQWHULR
UHVGHIRUPDTXHORVVXϧMRVGHOD&ODVH¬,VHDGMXQWDQDODUDt]DQWHVTXHORVVXϧMRVGH
OD&ODVH¬,,¬'HWDOPRGRXQVXϧMRFRPR-nessVHSXHGHDxDGLUDXQDIRUPDTXH\DFRQ
WHQJDHOVXϧMR-al,SHURQRDOUHYpV FI¬ODVSDODEUDV[[parent]al]ness\ [[happy]ness]al).
 &RQVHFXHQWHPHQWH 6LHJHO SODQWHy OD SRVLELOLGDG GH TXH HO FRPSRQHQWH Op[LFR
GHOLQJOpVVHGLYLGLHUDHQGRVQLYHOHVRUGHQDGRV 1LYHO\1LYHO FDUDFWHUL]DGRV
SRUVHUHOGRPLQLRGHUHJODVPRUIROyJLFDV\IRQROyJLFDVGLIHUHQWHV\FRQSURSLHGDGHV
GLVWLQWDV(Q  VHHMHPSOLϧFDHOWLSRGHRSHUDFLRQHVPRUIROyJLFDV\IRQROyJLFDV
FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV

Ejemplo 6-5

2SHUDFLRQHVPRUIROyJLFDV 2SHUDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV

1LYHO LQϩH[LyQ\GHULYDFLyQ DFHQWR766HWF


1LYHO LQϩH[LyQ\GHULYDFLyQ HOLVLyQGHС

6.4 La fonología léxica

.LSDUVN\ DE \0RKDQDQ  VLQWHWL]DURQYDULDVGHODVLGHDV


DQWHULRUHV\GHVDUUROODURQODWHRUtDTXHVHGLRHQOODPDUfonología léxica.3URSXHVWDV
FRPRODVGH¬0DVFDUy\6LHJHOVREUHODRUGHQDFLyQPRUIROyJLFDHQHVWUDWRV\ODQRFLyQ
GHODIRQRORJtDFtFOLFDHQWUHRWUDVVLUYLHURQGHEDVHSDUDVHQWDUORVIXQGDPHQWRVGH
ODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD/DPD\RUtDGHODVYDULDQWHVGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFDSURSRQHQOD
GLYLVLyQGHODIRQRORJtDHQGRVFRPSRQHQWHVODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD\ODIRQRORJtDGHOD
IUDVH RSRVWOp[LFD 0LHQWUDVTXHHQHOSULPHUFRPSRQHQWHODVUHJODVVyORVHDSOLFDQ
GHQWURGHORVOtPLWHVGHSDODEUD\VRQGHSHQGLHQWHVGHODLQIRUPDFLyQPRUIROyJLFD
La fonología léxica 223 ]

/LVWDGHSDODEUDVPRUIHPDV

5HJODV 5HJODV
PRUIROyJLFDV IRQROyJLFDV

&RPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR

&RPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFR
5HJODVSRVWOp[LFDV

Figura 6-1 El modelo de la fonología léxica.

HQHOVHJXQGRODVUHJODVVHDSOLFDQVLHPSUH RFDVLVLHPSUH DQLYHOGHIUDVHXQDYH]


VXSHUDGRHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR
 (OPRGHORGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD\ODPD\RUSDUWHGHVXVYDULDQWHVHVTXHPDWL
]DGRHQOD)LJXUDSURSRQHODGLYLVLyQGHOFRPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFRHQGRVSDUWHV
DXWyQRPDVODfonología léxica\ODfonología postléxica.$VtHOFRPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFR
UHSDUWHVXVRSHUDFLRQHVHQGRVSDUWHVGHODJUDPiWLFDODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVléxicas,
TXHVHDSOLFDQHQHOOp[LFR\ODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVpostléxicas,TXHVHDSOLFDQVREUH
ODVDOLGDGHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR&RPRYHPRVHQODϧJXUDODVUHJODVOp[LFDVVH
DSOLFDQHQHOLQWHULRUGHOOtPLWHGHSDODEUDHLQWHUDFFLRQDQFRQODVUHJODVGHIRUPDFLyQ
GHSDODEUD\ODVSRVWOp[LFDVVHDSOLFDQFDVLVLHPSUHDQLYHOGHIUDVHXQDYH]VXSHUDGR
HOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR(VHYLGHQWHSXHVTXHHQHOPRGHORGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD
ODPRUIRORJtDFRQVWLWX\HXQPyGXORJUDPDWLFDOLQGHSHQGLHQWHGHODIRQRORJtD\GHOD
VLQWD[LV
 (O PRGHOR DQWHULRU FRQWUDVWD FRQ OD SURSXHVWD GH¬ The Sound Pattern of English
YpDVH>@ HQODTXHWRGDVODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVVHDSOLFDEDQXQDYH]VXSHUDGR
HO FRPSRQHQWH VLQWiFWLFR 8QD GH ODV UD]RQHV TXH FRQGXMHURQ D LQFOXLU ODV UHJODV
IRQROyJLFDVDQLYHOOp[LFRIXHHOSUREOHPDTXHFUHDEDODHOLPLQDFLyQGHODVIURQWHUDV
PRUIROyJLFDV3URSXHVWDVDQWHULRUHVLQFOXLGDODGH¬63(VXSRQtDQTXHDPHGLGDTXH
VH LEDQ DxDGLHQGR QLYHOHV PRUIROyJLFRV WDPELpQ VH LEDQ HOLPLQDQGR ORV FRUFKHWHV
GHGLYLVLyQPRUIHPiWLFD7DO\FRPRDSXQWy3HVHWVN\  XQRGHORVSUREOHPDV
RULJLQDGRVSRUODHOLPLQDFLyQGHFRUFKHWHVHUDODFRQVHFXHQWHGHVDSDULFLyQGHODV
IURQWHUDVVREUHODVFXDOHVGHEtDQGHDSOLFDUVHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV&RQHOϧQGH
[ 224 Pilar Prieto

UHVROYHUHVWHSUREOHPD3HVHWVN\SURSXVRTXHODVUHJODVFtFOLFDVVHDSOLFDUDQHQHO
FRPSRQHQWHOp[LFRRUGHQDGDVFRQODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV3DUWLHQGRGHHVWDKLSyWHVLV
ODIRQRORJtDOp[LFDDVXPHTXHODVDOLGDGHFDGDRSHUDFLyQPRUIROyJLFDUHSUHVHQWDXQD
HQWUDGDSDUDODDSOLFDFLyQGHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV'HHVHPHFDQLVPRVHGHGXFHTXH
WRGDUHJODOp[LFDVHUiFtFOLFD SXHVWRTXHLQWHUDFFLRQDFRQODVUHJODVGHIRUPDFLyQGH
SDODEUDV \TXHWRGDUHJODSRVWOp[LFDVHUiQRFtFOLFD
 &RPRDSXQWDQ%RRLM\5XEDFK  XQRGHORVDUJXPHQWRVPiVFODURVDIDYRU
GHODLQWHUDFFLyQHQWUHSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRV\PRUIROyJLFRVUDGLFDHQXQDFODVHGH
SURFHVRVPRUIROyJLFRVTXHSDUHFHQGHSHQGHUGHODSUHYLDDSOLFDFLyQGHXQSURFHVR
IRQROyJLFR8QRGHORVHMHPSORVFRQRFLGRVHVHOSURFHVRGHDGMXQFLyQGHORVGRVVXϧ
MRVQRPLQDOHV-isch\-iefHQKRODQGpV/DGHFLVLyQHQWUHXQRXRWURDORPRUIRGHSHQGH
GHOSDWUyQDFHQWXDOGHORVQRPEUHVGHEDVH/RVQRPEUHVTXHWHUPLQDQHQXQDVtODED
DFHQWXDGDWRPDQHOVXϧMR-isch D \ORVTXHWHUPLQDQHQXQDVtODEDLQDFHQWXDGD
WRPDQ-ief E 

Ejemplo 6-6

a. psycholo gie ¶SVLFRORJtD· psychologisch ¶SVLFROyJLFR·


hyste rie ¶KLVWHULD· hysterisch ¶KLVWpULFR·
analo gie ¶DQDORJtD· analogisch ¶DQDOyJLFR·
b. a gressie ¶DJUHVLyQ· agressief ¶DJUHVLYR·
in ventie ¶LQYHQFLyQ· inventief ¶LQYHQWLYR·
actie ¶DFFLyQ· actief ¶DFWLYR·

(OVXϧMR-alGHOLQJOpVVHFRPSRUWDGHIRUPDSDUHFLGDDORVGRVVXϧMRVGHOKRODQGpV\D
TXHVHDGMXQWDVRODPHQWHDYHUERVFX\DVtODEDDFHQWXDGDϧQDOVHIRUPDSRUXQDYRFDO
VHJXLGDGHXQDFRQVRQDQWHUHVRQDQWHRSFLRQDO\XQDFRQVRQDQWHDQWHULRURSFLRQDO
re hearsal¶HQVD\R·re fusal¶UHFKD]R·* organizal;YpDVH6LHJHO /DDGMXQFLyQ
GHORVDORPRUIRVGHGLPLQXWLYRHQHVSDxROSHQLQVXODU LWRVLW FRQVWLWX\HRWUR
FDVRSDUHFLGR/DDGMXQFLyQGHHVRVDORPRUIRVSDUHFHGHSHQGHUGHODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
IRQROyJLFDV\SURVyGLFDVGHODUDt]*HQHUDOPHQWHVLODSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQDXR
HOPRUIHPDTXHVHDGMXQWDHVLW (casa఩cas+it+a);VLODSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQHR
HQFRQVRQDQWHHOVXϧMRHVVLW (corazón఩corazon+cit+o, clase఩clas+e+cit+a)
YpDVH3ULHWR&URZKXUVW 
 /DGLYLVLyQHQWUHUHJODVOp[LFDV\SRVWOp[LFDVKDVLGRFRUURERUDGDSRUHOKHFKRGH
TXHDPERVJUXSRVGHUHJODVVHGLIHUHQFLDQVLVWHPiWLFDPHQWHSRUXQDVHULHGHSURSLH
GDGHV(VGHFLUODVUHJODVTXHVHDSOLFDQHQHOFRPSRQHQWHOp[LFRWLHQHQFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV
GLVWLQWDVGHODVTXHVHDSOLFDQHQHOFRPSRQHQWHSRVWOp[LFR$¬FRQWLQXDFLyQFLWDPRV
DOJXQDVGHODVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVWtSLFDVTXHGLIHUHQFLDQODVUHJODVOp[LFDVGHODVSRVWOp[L
FDV YpDVH.LSDUVN\E.DLVVH\6KDZ 
La fonología léxica 225 ]

Reglas léxicas Reglas postléxicas


$SOLFDFLyQDOLQWHULRUGHSDODEUDV $SOLFDFLyQHQWUHSDODEUDV
3XHGHKDEHUH[FHSFLRQHV 1RKD\H[FHSFLRQHV
&LFOLFLGDGHVWULFWD 1RFLFOLFLGDG
3UHVHUYDFLyQGHHVWUXFWXUD &UHDFLyQGHVRQLGRVQRFRQWUDVWLYRV
3UHFHGHQDUHJODVSRVWOp[LFDV 6LJXHQDUHJODVOp[LFDV

 8QDGHODVSURSLHGDGHVWtSLFDVGHODVUHJODVOp[LFDVHVODOODPDGDCondición de Pre-
servación de Estructura,PHQFLRQDGDHQFDStWXORVDQWHULRUHV(VWDFRQGLFLyQHVWLSXOD
TXHODVUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVOp[LFDVVyORSXHGHQFRQWHQHUHOHPHQWRVTXHVHHQFXHQWUHQ
HQ HO LQYHQWDULR IRQROyJLFR GH OD OHQJXD \ SRU FRQVLJXLHQWHFXDOTXLHU UHJOD TXH
LQWURGX]FDVRQLGRVQRGLVWLQWLYRVGHEHVHUSRVWOp[LFD/DVIRUPDVGH  PXHVWUDQ
FyPRQ\VHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGDVLOiELFDVHWUDQVIRUPDQHQ>‫\@غ‬HQ>K@HQPXFKRV
GLDOHFWRVFDULEHxRVGHOHVSDxRO$VtODVUHJODVGHYHODUL]DFLyQ\DVSLUDFLyQLQWURGXFHQ
DOyIRQRVQRFRQWUDVWLYRV SHM>‫>\@غ‬K@ LQGLFDQGRTXHHVDVUHJODVGHEHQDSOLFDUVH
HQHOFRPSRQHQWHSRVWOp[LFR

Ejemplo 6-7

'LDOHFWRVYHODUL]DQWHV
2UWRJUDItD
\TXHDVSLUDQ

sientan sie>‫@غ‬ta>‫@غ‬
siestas sie>K@ta>K@

/D &RQGLFLyQ GH¬ 3UHVHUYDFLyQ GH¬ (VWUXFWXUD SHUPLWH GHGXFLU ODV SURSLHGDGHV TXH
GHEHUiWHQHUXQDUHJODTXHVHDSOLTXHOp[LFDRSRVWOp[LFDPHQWH/DVUHJODVGHYHODUL]D
FLyQ\DVSLUDFLyQVHGHEHQDSOLFDUDQLYHOSRVWOp[LFRSXHVWRTXHLQWURGXFHQVHJPHQWRV
QRFRQWUDVWLYRV FI¬.HQVWRZLF] (IHFWLYDPHQWHHVWDVUHJODVQRVHDSOLFDQ
DQWHVGHOVXϧMRGHSOXUDO DQWHVGHODUHVLODELϧFDFLyQHQWUHGRPLQLRV FRPRSXHGH
DSUHFLDUVHHQORVHMHPSORVVLJXLHQWHV  

Ejemplo 6-8

'LDOHFWRVYHODUL]DQWHV
2UWRJUDItD
\TXHDVSLUDQ

pan pa>‫@غ‬
panes pa>Q@e>K@ pa>‫@غ‬e>K@
mes me>K@
meses me>V@e>K@ me>K@e>K@
[ 226 Pilar Prieto

 (QLQJOpVVHKDQGLVWLQJXLGRGRVWLSRVGHUHJODVGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHVXQD
Op[LFD\ODRWUDSRVWOp[LFD .LSDUVN\ (QODUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHVOp[LFD
TXHHVGHFDUiFWHUREOLJDWRULRODVQDVDOHVVyORDGTXLHUHQORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQ
TXHFRLQFLGHQFRQORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQGLVWLQWLYRV GHDFXHUGRFRQOD&RQGLFLyQ
GH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUD /DUHJODGHDVLPLODFLyQSRVWOp[LFDTXHHVRSFLRQDO
WUDQVϧHUHWRGRVORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQDODQDVDOSUHFHGHQWHFUHDQGRDOyIRQRV
FRPR>‫@غ‬TXHQRSHUWHQHFHQDOLQYHQWDULRIRQROyJLFRGHOLQJOpV(QFDWDOiQODUHJODGH
DVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHVWLHQHFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVVLPLODUHVDODVGHOLQJOpV .LSDUVN\ 
(QSULQFLSLRFXDQGRVHDSOLFDHVDUHJOD \DVHDHQHOLQWHULRUGHOtPLWHVGHSDODEUD
FRPRHQWUHIURQWHUDVGHSDODEUDV FXDOTXLHUQDVDOSDUHFHDGRSWDUHOSXQWRGHDUWLFX
ODFLyQGHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWHFRPRVHSXHGHREVHUYDUHQORVHMHPSORVGH  

Ejemplo 6-9

,QWHULRUGHSDODEUDV (QWUHSDODEUDV

QRDVLPLODGD ³ so>Q@amics
ODELDO e>P@viar so>P@pocs
ODELRGHQWDO e>؇@fadar-se so>؇@feliços
GHQWDO e>Q૧@tranyable so>Q૧@dos
DOYHRODU e>Q@sumar so>Q@sincers
DOYHRSDODWDO e>‫ئ‬թ@egar so>‫>@ئ‬թ@ermans
SDODWDO e>‫@ुص‬umenar so>‫@ु>@ص‬iures
YHODU e>‫@غ‬gatar so>‫@غ‬grans

 6LQHPEDUJRODVQDVDOHVTXHIRUPDQSDUWHGHXQJUXSRGHFRQVRQDQWHVKRPRUJi
QLFDVGHϧQDOGHSDODEUD FRQVWLWXLGRSRUODQDVDOVHJXLGDGHXQDFRQVRQDQWHRFOXVLYD
SRUHMHPSOR QRDGRSWDQVLHPSUHHOSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQGHODFRQVRQDQWHVLJXLHQWH
&RPRREVHUYDPRVHQ  XQDQDVDOHVELODELDO\RYHODUFXDQGRVHHQFXHQWUDDQWH
XQDRFOXVLYDELODELDO\YHODUUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH FI>ਥNDP@\>ਥED‫ @غ‬6LQHPEDUJRHQHO
FDVRGHਥSX1W ૧OD1 QDVDOVXE\DFHQWHVLQSXQWRGHDUWLFXODFLyQ QRVHDVLPLODDOD
HVSHFLϧFDFLyQGHQWDOGHODRFOXVLYDW ૧GHOFDWDOiQ >ਥSXQ૧@ VLQRTXHVHUHDOL]DFRPR
XQDQDVDODOYHRODU >ਥSXQ@ /DSUHVHQFLDIRQROyJLFDGHODVRFOXVLYDVϧQDOHV SW ૧N 
VHGHPXHVWUDFRQODVIRUPDVGHGLPLQXWLYR

Ejemplo 6-10

2UWRJUDItD )RUPDIRQROyJLFD )RUPDIRQpWLFD 'LPLQXWLYR

camp ਥND1S >ਥNDP@ >N̸PਥS͑W ૧@


punt ਥSX1W ૧ >ਥSXQ@ >ਥSXQ૧@ >SXQ૧ਥW ૧͑W ૧@
banc ਥED1N >ਥED‫@غ‬ >E̸‫غ‬ਥN͑W ૧@
La fonología léxica 227 ]

.LSDUVN\   SURSRQH TXH XQD SRVLEOH VROXFLyQ D HVWD VLWXDFLyQ VXSRQH TXH HO
FDWDOiQSRVHHFRPRHOLQJOpVGRVUHJODVGHDVLPLODFLyQGHQDVDOHVODXQDOp[LFDTXH
VRODPHQWHDGRSWDORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQPD\RUHV YpDVH>@ \ODRWUDSRVWOp
[LFDTXHWUDQVϧHUHORVSXQWRVGHDUWLFXODFLyQPD\RUHV\PHQRUHVXQDYH]pVWRVKDQ
VLGRHVSHFLϧFDGRV YpDVH>@ 3RUFRQVLJXLHQWHHOPRGHORGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFD
HVFDSD]GHPRWLYDUODVSURSLHGDGHVGHODVUHJODVGHDVLPLODFLyQGHOSXQWRGHDUWLFX
ODFLyQGHODVQDVDOHVHQFDWDOiQHVWDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVVHGHULYDQGLUHFWDPHQWHGHOD
SURSXHVWDGHGLYLVLyQGHOFRPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFRHQGRVFRPSRQHQWHVVHSDUDGRVFRQ
XQIXQFLRQDPLHQWRDXWyQRPR\FRQXQDVSURSLHGDGHVTXHORVFDUDFWHUL]DQ

6.5 Los estratos léxicos y las reglas postcíclicas

/DIRQRORJtDOp[LFDDGRSWyODFRQFHSFLyQGH¬6LHJHO  DFHUFDGHXQFRPSRQHQWH


PRUIROyJLFRHVWUDWLϧFDGR\GLYLGLGRHQYDULRVQLYHOHV.LSDUVN\ D SDUWLHQGR
GHORVGDWRVGHOLQJOpVSURSXVRTXHHOFRPSRQHQWHOp[LFRGHODJUDPiWLFDSRGtDVHU
GLYLGLGRHQestratos léxicos.&DGDXQRGHORVHVWUDWRVOp[LFRVVHDVRFLDFRQGHWHUPLQD
GDVRSHUDFLRQHVPRUIROyJLFDV\IRQROyJLFDV \HVWDV~OWLPDVVHDSOLFDQFtFOLFDPHQWH 
(Q¬JHQHUDOODFRQGLFLyQGHFLFOLFLGDGGHODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDV\ODVSURSLHGDGHVGHORV
HVWUDWRVOp[LFRVKDQVLGRGRVGHORVWHPDVPiVGLVFXWLGRVHQHOPDUFRGHODIRQRORJtD
Op[LFDVREUHWRGRXWLOL]DQGRGDWRVGHOLQJOpV .LSDUVN\5XEDFK%RRLM
\5XEDFK+DOOH\0RKDQDQ+DOOH\9HUJQDXGD%RURZVN\
 
 .LSDUVN\   5XEDFK   \ %RRLM \ 5XEDFK    UHϧQDURQ HO
PRGHORSDUDLQFRUSRUDUODVUHJODVTXHVHDSOLFDQVRODPHQWHDQLYHOGHSDODEUD\QR
FtFOLFDPHQWHSURSRQLHQGRODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQHVWUDWROp[LFRTXHFRQWLHQHODVUHJODV
postcíclicas./RVGRVJUiϧFRVGHOD)LJXUDFRPSDUDQODRUJDQL]DFLyQOp[LFDSUR
SXHVWDHQ.LSDUVN\DFRQODGH¬.LSDUVN\\%RRLM\5XEDFK3RUXQODGR
ODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVOp[LFRV\ORVSRVWOp[LFRVFRQWLQ~DVLHQGR
XQDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDFRP~QDDPERVPRGHORV3RURWURODGRREVHUYDPRVODLQWURGXFFLyQ
GHODGLVWLQFLyQHQWUHUHJODVFtFOLFDV\SRVWFtFOLFDVPLHQWUDVTXHODVUHJODVFtFOLFDV
LQWHUDFW~DQFRQORVSURFHVRVPRUIROyJLFRVODVUHJODVSRVWFtFOLFDVVHDSOLFDQGHVSXpV
GHOFRPSRQHQWHPRUIROyJLFR\DQWHVGHOFRPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR
 8QRGHORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRVTXHHMHPSOLϧFDHOFRPSRUWDPLHQWRGHODVUHJODV
SRVWFtFOLFDVHVODOODPDGDLey de PosiciónGHOIUDQFpVHXURSHR ´/RLGH¬3RVLWLRQµHQ
IUDQFpV%RRLM\5XEDFK /D/H\GH¬3RVLFLyQFRQYLHUWHODVYRFDOHVPHGLDVWHQ
VDVH¡RHQYRFDOHVOD[DV>͑±ɬ@UHVSHFWLYDPHQWHFXDQGRDSDUHFHQHQXQDVtODED
FHUUDGD RHQVtODEDDELHUWDVHJXLGDGHRWUDVtODEDFRQVFKZDXQFRQWH[WRTXHQR
VHFRQVLGHUDDTXt &RPSiUHQVHODVVLJXLHQWHVIRUPDVIRQpWLFDVHQODVTXH>H¡R@HQ
VtODEDVDELHUWDV D DOWHUQDQFRQ>͑±ɬ@HQVtODEDVFHUUDGDV E 
[ 228 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 6-11

a. nous cédons >VeਥGɬ੻@ b. je cède >ਥV G@ ¶QRVRWURVFHGH


PRV\RFHGR·
nous cueillons >NøਥMɬ੻@ je cueille >ਥNœM@ ¶QRVRWURVUHFRJH
PRV\RUHFRMR·
nous donnons >GoਥQɬ੻@ je donne >ਥG Q@ ¶QRVRWURVGDPRV\R
GR\·
mauvais >ਥPRYe@ mauvaise >PRਥY ]@ ¶PDORPDOD·
heureux >ਥ¡޶ø@ heureuse >¡ਥ޶œ]@ ¶DOHJUH· PDVFIHP
sot >ਥVo@ sotte >ਥV W@ ¶WRQWRWRQWD·

/D/H\GH¬3RVLFLyQVHDSOLFDHQHOGRPLQLRGHSDODEUD\DQWHVGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHOD
UHVLODELϧFDFLyQ SRVWOp[LFD FRPR GHPXHVWUDQ ORV HMHPSORV GH   /DV SDODEUDV
chose, cette\bonneHYLGHQFLDQTXHGHEHDSOLFDUVHHQXQQLYHOSRVWFtFOLFR \QRSRVW
Op[LFR SXHVWRTXHODDSOLFDFLyQGHHVDUHJODGHEHVHUDQWHULRUDODGHODUHJODGH
UHVLODELϧFDFLyQSRVWOp[LFD6LVHDSOLFDUDODUHVLODELϧFDFLyQSULPHURVHGHVKDUtDHO

.LSDUVN\ .LSDUVN\%RRLM\5XEDFK

/LVWDGHSDODEUDVPRUIHPDV /LVWDGHSDODEUDVPRUIHPDV

5HJODV 5HJODV 5HJODV 5HJODV


PRUIROyJLFDV IRQROyJLFDV PRUIROyJLFDV IRQROyJLFDV

5HJODVIRQROyJLFDV
SRVWFtFOLFDV
&RPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR

&RPSRQHQWHVLQWiFWLFR
&RPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFR
5HJODVSRVWOp[LFDV

&RPSRQHQWHIRQROyJLFR
5HJODVSRVWOp[LFDV

Figura 6-2 Dos modelos de la fonología léxica.


La fonología léxica 229 ]

FRQWH[WRGHOD/H\GH¬3RVLFLyQODFXDOUHTXLHUHXQDVtODEDFHUUDGD\HOUHVXOWDGRVHUtD
LQFRUUHFWRSRUHMHPSOR >ߑo]͑੻WH޶HਥVŶW@

Ejemplo 6-12

chose intéressante >ߑ ]͑੻WH޶HਥVŶW@ ¶FRVDLQWHUHVDQWH·


>ߑo]͑੻WH޶HਥVŶW@
cette amie >V WDਥPL@ ¶HVWDDPLJD·
>VeWDਥPL@
bonne amie >E QDਥPL@ ¶EXHQDDPLJD·
>EoQDਥPL@

 7DO FRPR DSXQWDQ %RRLM \ 5XEDFK   HQ HO IUDQFpV FDQDGLHQVH OD /H\
GH¬3RVLFLyQFUHDXQWLSRGHVHJPHQWRVYRFDOHVOD[DV\DOWDVTXHQRDSDUHFHQHQHO
LQYHQWDULRLQLFLDOGHIRQHPDV(VDSURSLHGDGQRVLQGLFDTXHODVUHJODVSRVWFtFOLFDVDVt
FRPRODVSRVWOp[LFDVQRUHVSHWDQOD&RQGLFLyQGH¬3UHVHUYDFLyQGH¬(VWUXFWXUD
 )LQDOPHQWH+DOOH\0RKDQDQ  VRVWLHQHQTXHODSURSLHGDGGHODFLFOLFLGDG
GHEHGHVHUXQDSURSLHGDGGHORVHVWUDWRVOp[LFRVQRGHODVUHJODVHQFRQVHFXHQFLD
VHJ~QHOORVORVHVWUDWRVOp[LFRVSXHGHQVHUFtFOLFRV\QRFtFOLFRV\FXDOTXLHUHVWUDWR
SXHGHRQRWHQHUHVDSURSLHGDG0LHQWUDVTXHHQORVHVWUDWRVFtFOLFRVODVUHJODVIRQR
OyJLFDVVHDSOLFDQGHVSXpVGHODDSOLFDFLyQGHFDGDUHJODPRUIROyJLFDHQORVHVWUDWRV
QR FtFOLFRV ORV SURFHVRV PRUIROyJLFRV VH DSOLFDQ HQ EORTXH VHJXLGRV GH ODV UHJODV
IRQROyJLFDVSHUWHQHFLHQWHVDHVHHVWUDWR

6.6 Los estratos léxicos del español

9DULRVOLQJLVWDVKDQFRLQFLGLGRHQSURSRQHUODH[LVWHQFLDGHGRVHVWUDWRVHO(VWUDWR¬
R¬GRPLQLRTXHLQFOX\HODUDt]Op[LFDPiVORVVXϧMRV\HO(VWUDWRRGRPLQLRTXHLQFOX\H
ORVSUHϧMRV\ORVFRPSXHVWRV +DUULV+XDOGHFE (OJUiϧFRHQ  
UHSURGXFHHOPRGHORPRUIRIRQROyJLFRGHOHVSDxROSURSXHVWRSRU+XDOGH F XQD
YH]UHDOL]DGDODDGMXQFLyQGHVXϧMRV (VWUDWR VHDSOLFDQUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVFRPRODV
GHVLODELϧFDFLyQODIULFDWLYL]DFLyQGHGHVOL]DGDVODYHODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV\ODDVSL
UDFLyQGHV'HVSXpVGHODDGMXQFLyQGHSUHϧMRV\FRPSXHVWRVVHDSOLFDQODVUHJODV
GHUHVLODELϧFDFLyQGHFRQVRQDQWHVϧQDOHV\ODUHVLODELϧFDFLyQGHJUXSRVYRFiOLFRV

Ejemplo 6-13

0RUIRORJtD )RQRORJtD

(VWUDWR 6XϧMDFLyQ ఩ 6LODELϧFDFLyQ


)ULFDWLYL]DFLyQGHGHVOL]DGDV
9HODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV
$VSLUDFLyQGHV
[ 230 Pilar Prieto

Ejemplo 6-13 (continued)

0RUIRORJtD )RQRORJtD

(VWUDWR 3UHϧMDFLyQ\ ఩ 5HVLODELϧFDFLyQGHFRQVRQDQWHVϧQDOHV


FRPSRVLFLyQ 5HVLODELϧFDFLyQGHJUXSRVYRFiOLFRV

 (OFXDGUR  HMHPSOLϧFDODVUHJODVIRQROyJLFDVGHOHVSDxROFLWDGDVHQHOFXDGUR


DQWHULRUHQGRVGHORVSRVLEOHVHVWUDWRVHO(VWUDWR RHOGRPLQLRGHODUDt]PiVORV
SRVLEOHVVXϧMRV \HO(VWUDWR RHOGRPLQLRGHODUDt]PiVORVSUHϧMRVRFRPSXHVWRV 
/RVHMHPSORVPXHVWUDQFyPRODPD\RUtDGHODVUHJODV FRQH[FHSFLyQGHODUHVLODELϧ
FDFLyQ VHDSOLFDQHQHO(VWUDWRHVGHFLUGHVSXpVGHODVXϧMDFLyQSHURDQWHVGHOD
DGMXQFLyQGHSUHϧMRV\FRPSXHVWRV

Ejemplo 6-14

5DGLFDO 3UHϧMDFLyQ

a. desierto des-hielo )ULFDWLYL]DFLyQGHGHVOL]DGDV


>G૧HਥVMH‫ޞ‬W ૧R@ >G૧H]ਥբHOR@
b. bienes in-humano 9HODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV
>ਥEMHQHV@ >L‫غ‬XਥPDQR@
c. casa des-armar $VSLUDFLyQGHV
>ਥNDVD@ >G૧HKD‫ޞ‬ਥPD‫@ޞ‬
d. sublimar sub-lingual 6LODELϧFDFLyQ\UHVLODELϧFDFLyQ
>VXɕ૊OLਥPD‫@ޞ‬ >VXɕ૊OL‫غ‬ਥСZDO@

5DGLFDO &RPSRVLFLyQ

e camiones camión-autobús 9HODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV


>NDਥPMRQHV@ >NDਥPMR‫غ‬DZW ૧Rਥɕ૊૊XV@
. dioses dioses-héroes $VSLUDFLyQGHV
>ਥG૧MRVHK@ >ਥG૧MRVHਥKH‫ޞ‬R੓HK@

(Q D VHHMHPSOLϧFDODUHJODGHIULFDWLYL]DFLyQGHGHVOL]DGDVODFXDOVHDSOLFD


VREUHMZHQSRVLFLyQLQLFLDOGHVtODED\VHGHEHDSOLFDUHQHO(VWUDWR(QGLFKR
HVWUDWRWRGDYtDVHPDQWLHQHQVHSDUDGRVORVGRPLQLRVGHSUHϧMR\GHUDt]\SRUWDQWR
ODGHVOL]DGDVHHQFXHQWUDD~QHQSRVLFLyQGHDWDTXHVLOiELFRdeshieloGHVMHOR
(Q¬ E \ F VHLOXVWUDQODVUHJODVGHYHODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV\DVSLUDFLyQGH
VTXHWUDQVIRUPDQQVHQSRVLFLyQGHFRGDVLOiELFDHQ>‫غ‬K@UHVSHFWLYDPHQWH(VDV
UHJODVVHDSOLFDQHQHO(VWUDWRSXHVWRTXHHQGLFKRHVWUDWRODVFRQVRQDQWHVϧQDOHV
GHORVSUHϧMRVin-\des- SHMinhumano\des+armar)WRGDYtDVHHQFXHQWUDQHQ
SRVLFLyQGHFRGDVLOiELFD DQWHVGHOSURFHVRGHUHVLODELϧFDFLyQ 
La fonología léxica 231 ]

 &RPRYLPRVHQHOFDStWXORXQRGHORVSULQFLSLRVJHQHUDOHVGHODVLODELϧFDFLyQHQ
GLIHUHQWHVOHQJXDV\HQSDUWLFXODUHQHOHVSDxROHVHOGHGDUSUHIHUHQFLDDODSRVLFLyQ
GHDWDTXHVLOiELFRHQHOSURFHVRGHDJUXSDFLyQGHIRQHPDVHQVtODEDV3RVLEOHVDWDTXHV
VLOiELFRVFRPSOHMRVVRQI‫ޞ‬S‫ޞ‬С‫ޞ‬E‫ޞ‬EOHWF SHMafrontar>DI‫ޞ‬RQ૧ਥW ૧D‫@ޞ‬
apretar>DS‫ޞ‬HਥW ૧D‫@ޞ‬agrietar>D࣢૊‫ޞ‬MHਥW ૧D‫@ޞ‬abrir>Dਥɕ૊‫ޞ‬L‫@ޞ‬hablar>Dਥɕ૊OD‫( @ޞ‬VRVPLVPRV
SULQFLSLRVGHVLODELϧFDFLyQVHDSOLFDQHQWUHVXϧMRV (VWUDWR ¬SHURQRHQWUHSUHϧMRV\
UDtFHVFRPRLQGLFDQORVHMHPSORVGH G $XQTXHODUHJODGHVLODELϧFDFLyQIRUPD
DWDTXHVFRPSOHMRVHQUDGLFDOHVFRPRsublimar,QRORVIRUPDHQWUHIURQWHUDVGHSUHϧMR
\UDGLFDO FRPRHQODSDODEUDsublingual 
 )LQDOPHQWHODVSDODEUDVFRPSXHVWDVHQ HI GHPXHVWUDQTXHODVUHJODVGH
YHODUL]DFLyQGHQDVDOHV\DVSLUDFLyQGHVGHEHQDSOLFDUVHDQWHVGHOSURFHVRPRU
IROyJLFRGHFRPSRVLFLyQTXHRFXUUHHQHO(VWUDWR&RPR\DYLPRVPiVDUULEDFRQ
UHVSHFWRDODSUHϧMDFLyQHVDVUHJODVVHDSOLFDQHQHO(VWUDWRGRQGHODVFRQVRQDQWHV
ϧQDOHVGHcamión\diosesWRGDYtDHVWiQHQODFRGDDQWHVGHODUHVLODELϧFDFLyQ

6.7 Propuestas recientes

$XQTXHHOPRGHORGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFDKDVLGRUHFRQRFLGRFRPRXQPRGHORSUH
GLFWLYRFDSD]GHH[SOLFDUPXFKDVGHODVSURSLHGDGHVGHODHVWUXFWXUDGHODVSDODEUDV
HQLQJOpV\RWUDVOHQJXDV YpDVHSRUHMHPSOR.HQVWRZLF] VHKDQFXHVWLR
QDGRUHSHWLGDPHQWHYDULDVGHVXVSURSXHVWDV8QRGHORVWHPDVPiVGHEDWLGRVHQHO
PDUFRGHODLQWHUDFFLyQIRQRORJtDPRUIRORJtDKDVLGRODFXHVWLyQGHODSUHFHGHQFLD
GHHVRVGRVFRPSRQHQWHV0LHQWUDVTXH.LSDUVN\ D SURSRQHXQDLQWH
UDFFLyQHQWUHSURFHVRVPRUIROyJLFRV\IRQROyJLFRVWUDEDMRVPiVUHFLHQWHVGH¬+DOOH
\9HUJQDXG D \2GGHQ  GHϧHQGHQODSRVLFLyQGHTXHVHSXHGHREWHQHU
XQD PLVPD DGHFXDFLyQ GHVFULSWLYD D WUDYpV GH XQD DSOLFDFLyQ SUHYLD GH WRGRV ORV
SURFHVRVPRUIROyJLFRV$VLPLVPRHVWRVDXWRUHVKDQDUJLGRTXHPXFKRVGHORVFDVRV
PHQFLRQDGRVFRPRDUJXPHQWRVDIDYRUGHODLQWHUDFFLyQPRUIRORJtDIRQRORJtDSXHGHQ
VHUUHDQDOL]DGRVHQXQPRGHORHQTXHWRGDVRSHUDFLRQHVPRUIROyJLFDVSUHFHGDQDODV
RSHUDFLRQHVIRQROyJLFDV
 2WUDGHODViUHDVTXL]iVGHVFXLGDGDVHQHOFDPSRGHODIRQRORJtDOp[LFDKDVLGROD
UHODFLyQVLQWD[LVIRQRORJtD2EVHUYDFLRQHVFRPRODTXHFLHUWDVUHJODVOp[LFDVSDUHFHQ
WHQHUDFFHVRDODVLQWD[LV 2GGHQ \TXHSXHGHQH[LVWLUYDULRVWLSRVGHUHJODV
SRVWOp[LFDV .DLVVH KDQSXHVWRHQWHODGHMXLFLRODGLYLVLyQFOiVLFDGHODIRQROR
JtDOp[LFD IRQRORJtDOp[LFD఩VLQWD[LV఩IRQRORJtDSRVWOp[LFD (QSDUWHODKLSyWHVLV
GHODIRQRORJtDSURVyGLFD 1HVSRU\9RJHO0F&DUWK\\3ULQFH VHGHVD
UUROOySDUDSRGHUGDUFXHQWDGHODVLQWHUDFFLRQHVHQWUHGRPLQLRVSRVWOp[LFRV\UHJODV
IRQROyJLFDV(VDWHRUtDGHϧHQGHODH[LVWHQFLDGHXQDMHUDUTXtDGHXQLGDGHVGHϧQLGDV
SURVyGLFDPHQWH VtODEDSLHSDODEUDIRQROyJLFDIUDVHIRQROyJLFDIUDVHHQWRQDWLYD
HWF TXHVRQXWLOL]DGDVFRPRGRPLQLRVSRUORVSURFHVRVIRQROyJLFRV
[ 232 Pilar Prieto

 )LQDOPHQWHODSURSLHGDGGHODFLFOLFLGDGGHODVUHJODVOp[LFDVKDVLGRXQRGHORV
WHPDVTXHPiVVHKDQGLVFXWLGRGHVGHODLQWURGXFFLyQGHHVDSURSLHGDGHQThe Sound
Pattern of English./DVSULQFLSDOHVREMHFLRQHVDODSURSXHVWDGHOFLFORIRQROyJLFRKDQ
VLGRODDUELWUDULHGDGFRQTXHVHSURGXFtDQORVFLFORV\HOH[FHVLYRSRGHUTXHUHSUHVHQWD
XQPHFDQLVPRFRPRpVH YpDVHSRUHMHPSOR$URQRϱ 3URSXHVWDVUHFLHQWHV
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7 ]
El acento
Alfonso Morales-Front

7.0 Introducción

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El acento 237 ]

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Ejemplo 7-1

  
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Ejemplo 7-3

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Ejemplo 7-4

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A pa la chi co la
[ 240 Alfonso Morales-Front

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TXHSXHGHQVHUIXHUWHVRGpELOHV(OJUDGRGHSURPLQHQFLDWDPELpQSXHGHFDOFXODUVH
DEDVHGHFRPSDUDUHOQ~PHURGHQRGRVIXHUWHVTXHGRPLQDXQGHWHUPLQDGRQRGR
&XDQWRVPiVQRGRVIXHUWHVVHGRPLQHPD\RUHVHOJUDGRGHSURPLQHQFLD(VWHWLSRGH
IRUPDOLVPRHVPX\FRQYHQLHQWHSDUDHODQiOLVLVGHSURFHVRVTXHXVDQGHIRUPDGLUHFWD
ORVFRQVWLWX\HQWHVPpWULFRV SHMODDUPRQtDYRFiOLFD 8QDGHVYHQWDMDVLQHPEDUJR
HVTXHUHVXOWDPiVGLItFLOH[SUHVDUODLQFRPSDWLELOLGDGGHSURPLQHQFLDVDG\DFHQWHV\
VXFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHPRYLPLHQWR'DGRTXHHQODSDUULOODHVWRHVXQDYHQWDMDOD¬SUR
SXHVWD HQ 0¬ +DPPRQG   \ +DOOH \ 9HUJQDXG D  GH FRPELQDU ODV GRV
IRUPDOL]DFLRQHVKDVLGRDPSOLDPHQWHDFHSWDGD(QHVWHVLVWHPDGHUHSUHVHQWDFLyQ
$SDODFKLFRODVHIRUPDOL]DFRPRPRVWUDPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 7-5

ಧಭಭ OtQHD
ಧಭಭ ಩ಪ OtQHD
OtQHD
A pa la chi co la

 (QFDGDOtQHDGHODSDUULOODORVSDUpQWHVLVUHSUHVHQWDQFRQVWLWX\HQWHV\VXQ~FOHR
VHUHSUHVHQWDFRPRXQDVWHULVFRHQHOQLYHOGHSURPLQHQFLDVLJXLHQWH(QODOtQHD
VHPDUFDQWRGRVORVHOHPHQWRVTXHSXHGHQOOHYDUDFHQWR(QODOtQHDVHPDUFDQORV
Q~FOHRVGHFDGDFRQVWLWX\HQWHHQODOtQHD ORVSLHV (QODOtQHDVHPDUFDQORV
Q~FOHRVGHORVFRQVWLWX\HQWHVHQODOtQHD
 (OWLSRGHSLHPiVFRP~QHQODVOHQJXDVQDWXUDOHVHVHOWURTXHRVLOiELFRXQSLH
ELVLOiELFRFRQHOQ~FOHRDODL]TXLHUGD  

Ejemplo 7-6

7URTXHR 
‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

 6LDQDOL]DPRVXQDVHFXHQFLDGHVtODEDVHQWURTXHRVGHULYDPRVXQDDOWHUQDQFLD
UtWPLFD  

Ejemplo 7-7

     
‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬ ‫۝‬

 (QXQSDUGHWUDEDMRVTXHWXYLHURQJUDQLQϩXHQFLDHQODWHRUtDPpWULFD +D\HV
0F&DUWK\\3ULQFH VHSURSRQHXQDWLSRORJtDTXHOLPLWDODVSRVLELOLGDGHV
XQLYHUVDOHVDEiVLFDPHQWHWUHVWLSRVGHSLHV  
El acento 241 ]

Ejemplo 7-8

3LHVGHJHQHUDGRV

a. 7URTXHRVLOiELFR 
‫۝ ۝‬ ‫۝‬
b. 7URTXHRPRUDLFR 
‫—۝ — ۝‬ ‫——۝‬ ‫—۝‬
c. <DPER  
‫——۝ —۝‬ ‫—۝ —۝‬ ‫——۝‬ ‫—۝‬

(OWURTXHRPRUDLFRHQ E HVHTXLYDOHQWHDOWURTXHRVLOiELFRFRQODVRODGLIHUHQFLD


GHTXHFXHQWDPRUDVHQOXJDUGHVtODEDV/DVPRUDVVRQXQLGDGHVGHSHVRTXHVLUYHQ
SDUDGLVWLQJXLUVtODEDVSHVDGDVGHVtODEDVOLJHUDV YpDVHODVHFFLyQGHOFDStWXOR¬ 
(OQ~FOHRGHXQDVtODEDHVVLHPSUHPRUDLFR/DVFRQVRQDQWHVHQXQDFRGDSXHGHQ
VHUORRQRGHSHQGLHQGRGHODOHQJXD HVXQSDUiPHWUR /DVFRQVRQDQWHVHQXQDWDTXH
QXQFDFRQWULEX\HQDOSHVRVLOiELFR\HVRLQGLFDTXHQRSXHGHQVHUPRUDLFDV
 +D\HV  \.DJHU  FRQVLGHUDQODSRVLELOLGDGGHIXVLRQDUORVGRVSUL
PHURVWLSRVHQORTXHVHGHQRPLQDXQtroqueo generalizado.(VWHWLSRGHWURTXHRVH
FDUDFWHUL]DSRUWHQHUGRVFRQVWLWX\HQWHVLQPHGLDWRV VtODEDVRPRUDV FRQSURPLQHQFLD
LQLFLDO2WURWLSRGHSLHTXHDSDUHFHHQPXFKRVWUDEDMRVGHIRQRORJtDPpWULFDHVHO
SLHLOLPLWDGR(Q  WHQHPRVXQHMHPSORGHSLHLOLPLWDGRHQODOtQHD(VWHWLSRGH
SLHWLHQHXQQ~PHURLOLPLWDGRGHVtODEDV\HOQ~FOHRSXHGHWDPELpQHVWDUHQXQRGH
VXVGRVH[WUHPRV)LQDOPHQWHHQ  HQFRQWUDPRVSLHVGHJHQHUDGRVTXHGRPLQDQ
XQDVRODVtODEDRXQDVRODPRUD(VWRVXFHGHFXDQGRXQDOHQJXDSRVHHPRQRVtODERV
TXHQRVRQFOtWLFRVRHQFDVRVHQTXHODSDODEUDWLHQHXQQ~PHURLPSDUGHPRUDVR
VtODEDV\WRGDVHVWiQREOLJDWRULDPHQWHGRPLQDGDVSRUSLHVPpWULFRV6HWUDWDSXHV
GHSLHVXQDULRV/RVSLHVGHJHQHUDGRVDSDUHFHQVyORFRPR~OWLPRUHFXUVRFXDQGRHV
LPSRVLEOHDQDOL]DUXQDVHFXHQFLDHQSLHVELQDULRV

಩3DUDPHWUL]DFLyQGHODFHQWR

2WUDLPSRUWDQWHDSRUWDFLyQGHODWHRUtDPpWULFDHVODFRQVWDWDFLyQGHTXHORVVLVWH
PDVDFHQWXDOHVGHODVOHQJXDVQDWXUDOHVSXHGHQGHULYDUVHGHXQDIRUPDSDUDPpWULFD
/D¬OLVWDGHSDUiPHWURVTXHSUHVHQWDPRVHQ  ODWRPDPRVGH¬+D\HV  TXLHQ
DVXYH]KDFHXQDUHFRSLODFLyQGHDSRUWDFLRQHVGHSURFHGHQFLDGLYHUVD

Ejemplo 7-9

a. 7LSRGHSLH
i. 7DPDxRGHOSLH ELQDULRLOLPLWDGR
ii. 6HQVLELOLGDGDOSHVRVLOiELFRXQDVLODEDSHVDGD SXHGHQRSXHGH 
DSDUHFHUHQODSRVLFLyQGpELOHQXQSLH
[ 242 Alfonso Morales-Front

Ejemplo 7-9 (continued)

iii. 1~FOHRHOQ~FOHRVHHQFXHQWUDDOD L]TXLHUGDGHUHFKD GHOSLH


iv. 5DPLϧFDFLyQREOLJDWRULDHOQ~FOHRGHXQSLH GHEHVHUSXHGHQRVHU 
XQDVLODEDSHVDGD
b. 'LUHFFLRQDOLGDGHQODIRUPDFLyQGHSLHV GHGHUHFKDDL]TXLHUGDGH
L]TXLHUGDDGHUHFKD
c. ,WHUDWLYLGDGODFRQVWUXFFLyQGHSLHVHV LWHUDWLYDVyORXQDYH]

 &DGDOHQJXDWLHQHXQDGLVSRVLFLyQHVSHFtϧFDGHFDGDXQRGHHVWRVSDUiPHWURV
\¬HVDGLVSRVLFLyQFRQVWLWX\HXQDUHJOD3RUHMHPSORODUHJODGHDFHQWXDFLyQGHOODWtQ
HVODVLJXLHQWH  

Ejemplo 7-10

a. /D~OWLPDVtODEDHVH[WUDPpWULFD LJQyUHVHOD~OWLPDVtODED 


b. /RVSLHVVRQPi[LPDPHQWHELQDULRVHQODOtQHDHLOLPLWDGRVHQODOtQHD
c. (OQ~FOHRVHHQFXHQWUDDODL]TXLHUGDHQORVSLHVGHODOtQHD\DODGHUH
FKDHQORVSLHVGHODOtQHD
d. 8QDVtODEDSHVDGDQRSXHGHDSDUHFHUHQODSRVLFLyQGpELOHQXQSLH
e. (OQ~FOHRGHXQSLHSXHGHQRVHUXQDVtODEDSHVDGD

 9DULDQGRHVWRVSDUiPHWURVREWHQHPRVORVGLVWLQWRVVLVWHPDVDFHQWXDOHVUtWPLFRV
TXHH[LVWHQHQODVOHQJXDVQDWXUDOHV+D\HV  FXHVWLRQDODYDOLGH]
GHHVWRVSDUiPHWURVSRUTXHSUHGLFHQODH[LVWHQFLDGHDOWHUQDQFLDVGHSLHVTXHQRVH
GDQRDOPHQRVTXHVRQH[WUHPDGDPHQWHPDUFDGRV/RVSDUiPHWURVSHUPLWHQSRU
HMHPSORODIRUPDFLyQGHSLHVFRQHOQ~FOHRDODGHUHFKDHQXQVLVWHPDQRVHQVLEOHDO
SHVRVLOiELFR6LQHPEDUJRORTXHVHHQFXHQWUDHVTXHORVVLVWHPDVGHSLHVFRQQ~FOHR
DODGHUHFKDVRQHQVXLQPHQVDPD\RUtDVHQVLEOHVDOSHVRVLOiELFR%DViQGRVHHQHVWD
VREUHJHQHUDFLyQWLSROyJLFD+D\HVSURSRQHUHHPSOD]DUODFRQVWUXFFLyQSDUDPpWULFD
GHSLHVSRUHOUHGXFLGRLQYHQWDULRGHSLHVTXHSUHVHQWDPRVDUULEDHQ  

7.3 Aspectos problemáticos de la acentuación en español

಩(OSDWUyQQRPDUFDGR

(OWLSRPiVIUHFXHQWHGHDFHQWXDFLyQDQLYHOGHSDODEUDHQHVSDxROHVHOTXHVLW~DOD
SURPLQHQFLDHQODSHQ~OWLPDVtODED(VIiFLOFRPSUREDUTXHHVWDJHQHUDOL]DFLyQVH
PDQWLHQHVHDFXDOVHDHOQ~PHURGHVtODEDVGHODSDODEUDDPHQRVTXHVHWUDWHGH
PRQRVtODERVHQFX\RFDVRHODFHQWRUHFDHHQOD~QLFDVtODEDGLVSRQLEOH  
El acento 243 ]

Ejemplo 7-11

fa >ਥID@
libro >ਥOLɕ૊‫ޞ‬R@
espero >HVਥSH‫ޞ‬R@
Pirineos >SL‫ޞ‬LਥQHRV@
recibimiento >UH‫ۏ‬Lɕ૊LਥPMHQ૧W ૧R@
equivocaciones >HNLɕ૊RNDਥ‫ۏ‬MRQHV@
Nabucodonosorcito >QDɕ૊XNR˓૊RQRVR‫ޞ‬ਥ‫ۏ‬LW ૧R@
esternocleidomastoideo >HVW ૧H‫ޞ‬QRNOHM˓૊RPDVW ૧RMਥ˓૊HR@

 6LELHQHOQ~PHURGHVtODEDVQRFXHQWDVXHVWUXFWXUDVLOiELFDVtSDUHFHVHUUHOH
YDQWH&RQODPLVPDIUHFXHQFLDFRQTXHXQDSDODEUDDSDUHFHFRPROODQDVLOD~OWLPD
VtODEDHVDELHUWDHQFRQWUDPRVDFHQWXDFLyQDJXGDFXDQGROD~OWLPDVtODEDHVFHUUDGD
 

Ejemplo 7-12

papel >SDਥSHO@
soledad >VROHਥ˓૊D˓૊@
canturrear >NDQ૧W ૧XUHਥD‫@ޞ‬
Nabucodonosor >QDɕ૊XNR˓૊RQRਥVR‫@ޞ‬

 (VWiIXHUDGHWRGDGLVFXVLyQTXHHOSDWUyQHQ  GHEHFRQVLGHUDUVHQRPDU


FDGR6LQHPEDUJRODDϧUPDFLyQGHTXHHOUHVWRGHORVSDWURQHVVRQPDUFDGRVHVPiV
GHEDWLEOH +D\ SURSXHVWDV TXH VXJLHUHQ TXH DOJXQRV SDWURQHV VH KDQ FRQVLGHUDGR
PDUFDGRVFXDQGRHQUHDOLGDGQRORVRQ(Q+RRSHU\7HUUHOO2WHUR5RFD
+DUULVDE\0RUDOHV)URQWVHFRQVLGHUD
TXHODVDJXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWHHQ  \ODVDJXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO
HQ  VRQWDPELpQPDQLIHVWDFLyQGHODDFHQWXDFLyQQRPDUFDGD

Ejemplo 7-13

café >NDਥIH@ (cafe-ter-o)


sofá >VRਥID@ (sofa-cit-o)
Perú >SHਥ‫ޞ‬X@ (Peru-an-o)
colibrí >NROLਥɕ૊‫ޞ‬L@ (colibri-cit-o)

 (OHOHPHQWRFODYHSDUDODGLYHUJHQFLDHVWiHQHOSDSHOTXHMXHJDODHVWUXFWXUD
PRUIROyJLFDHQODDVLJQDFLyQGHODFHQWR(Q  YHPRVTXHDGLIHUHQFLDGHORTXH
SDVDSRUHMHPSORHQcas-a~cas-it-a,HQSDODEUDVFRPRsofá~sofa-cit-oODDDOϧQDO
[ 244 Alfonso Morales-Front

GHODUDt]QRVHGHVSOD]DDOϧQDOGHODSDODEUD6HJ~QORVFLWDGRVDQiOLVLVORVHMHPSORV
HQ   GHPXHVWUDQ TXH QR HV OD HVWUXFWXUD VLOiELFD OR TXH HV UHOHYDQWH VLQR OD
HVWUXFWXUDPRUIROyJLFD7RGDVODVSDODEUDVHQ  \  VHFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUQR
WHQHUXQelemento terminal (7 /DJHQHUDOL]DFLyQEiVLFDFRPSDUWLGDSRUORVWUDEDMRV
FLWDGRVHVTXHHODFHQWRVHHQFXHQWUDHQOD~OWLPDVtODEDGHODSDODEUDVLQTXHVHSXHGD
DFHQWXDUHO(7¬&RQVHFXHQWHPHQWHVHSURSRQHQPHFDQLVPRVRUHJODVTXHDVLJQHQXQ
DFHQWRDOD~OWLPDXQLGDGPpWULFDDFHQWXDEOH%DMRHVWHVXSXHVWRWRGRVORVHMHPSORV
HQ  D  FDHQGHQWURGHOPDQWRGHORTXHSRGHPRVFRQVLGHUDUDFHQWXDFLyQ
QRPDUFDGD
 (QRWURVWUDEDMRV S¬HM¬+DUULV'XQODS VHVXSRQHTXHODDFHQWXDFLyQ
QRPDUFDGDHVHOUHVXOWDGRGHFRQVWUXLUXQSLHWURFDLFR VLOiELFRRPRUDLFRVHJ~Q
ODSURSXHVWD VREUHHOPDUJHQGHUHFKRGHODSDODEUDSURVyGLFD(QHVWRVDQiOLVLVOD
DFHQWXDFLyQHQOD~OWLPDVtODED WDQWRVLODSDODEUDWHUPLQDHQFRQVRQDQWHFRPRVL
WHUPLQDHQYRFDO HVPDUFDGD\WLHQHTXHGHULYDUVHFRQUHJODVHVSHFtϧFDV
 0iVDOOiGHFRQVLGHUDFLRQHVWHyULFDVODGHWHUPLQDFLyQGHTXpHVRQRHVPDUFDGR
SXHGHHVWDEOHFHUVHWDPELpQDEDVHGHFiOFXORVGHIUHFXHQFLDV(QFiOFXORVDEVROXWRV
EDVDGRVVREUHXQOLVWDGRHOHFWUyQLFRGHSDODEUDVSRGHPRVREVHUYDUXQUDQJR
 

Ejemplo 7-14

/ODQDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO  


$JXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWH  
(VGU~MXODVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO  
$JXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO  
/ODQDVWHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWH  
(VGU~MXODVWHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWH  

7RWDO  

 (OPDUJHQGHIUHFXHQFLDTXHVHSDUDDOSULPHUSDWUyQGHOUHVWRHVVLJQLϧFDWLYR
6HJ~QHVWHUDQJRDEVROXWRSDUHFHYLDEOHFRQVLGHUDUWRGRVORVSDWURQHVH[FHSWRHO
SULPHURFRPRPDUFDGRV(VWRFRQϧUPDUtDODSRVLFLyQWHyULFDGHTXHHOWURTXHRHVHO
SLHQRPDUFDGR8QLQFRQYHQLHQWHHVTXHHVWDSRVLFLyQQRVGHMDFRQXQGH
FDVRVTXHWLHQHQTXHGHULYDUVHFRQUHJODVHVSHFLDOHV
 (VWRVGDWRVDEVROXWRVGHEHQWRPDUVHFRQFLHUWDFDXWHODSXHVQRWLHQHQHQFXHQWD
ODGHVSURSRUFLyQTXHKD\HQHOOp[LFRHQWUHSDODEUDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO\SDODEUDV
WHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWH6LWRPDPRVHVWHDVSHFWRHQFRQVLGHUDFLyQHQFRQWUDPRV
TXHORVtQGLFHVGHIUHFXHQFLDUHODWLYRVIDYRUHFHQODDFHQWXDFLyQGHOD~OWLPDXQLGDG
PpWULFDFRPRFDVRQRPDUFDGR'HHVWDIRUPDVHGHULYDHOUHVXOWDGRSRVLWLYRGHLQFOXLU
ODVDJXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWHHQHOSDWUyQQRPDUFDGR  
El acento 245 ]

Ejemplo 7-15

7HUPLQDGDVHQYRFDO 7HUPLQDGDVHQFRQVRQDQWH

/ODQDV   $JXGDV  


(VGU~MXODV   /ODQDV  
$JXGDV   (VGU~MXODV  

7RWDO    

 6LOD~OWLPDXQLGDGPpWULFDVHDFHQW~DSRUGHIHFWRWDPELpQVHSUHGLFHTXHODV
DJXGDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDOFDEHQEDMRHOPDQWRJHQHUDOGHOSDWUyQQRPDUFDGR&ODUD
PHQWHHVWRQRHVORTXHORVGDWRVGHIUHFXHQFLDVHQ  \  LQGLFDQ/DVDJXGDV
WHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDOVRQPHQRVGHXQ¢&yPRSXHGHH[SOLFDUVHTXHXQSDWUyQ
QRPDUFDGRWHQJDWDQHVFDVDLQFLGHQFLDHQHOOp[LFR"3DUDHVFODUHFHUHVWDDSDUHQWH
FRQWUDGLFFLyQKD\TXHWHQHUSUHVHQWHTXHHQODWtQOD~OWLPDVtODEDHUDH[WUDPpWULFD
6L¬ WHQHPRV HQ FXHQWD TXH OD LQPHQVD PD\RUtD GHO YRFDEXODULR GHO HVSDxRO DFWXDO
GHULYDGHOODWtQ\TXHHQHOSDVRGHOODWtQDOHVSDxROODSRVLFLyQGHODFHQWRKDVXIULGR
HVFDVDVPRGLϧFDFLRQHVODFRQWUDGLFFLyQGHMDGHVHUOR,QFOXVRVLTXHUHPRVH[SOLFDUOD
HVFDVH]GHHMHPSORVGHSDODEUDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDOHVWyQLFDVFRQDUJXPHQWRVHVWULF
WDPHQWHVLQFUyQLFRVQRVEDVWDUiFRQREVHUYDUTXHODJUDQPD\RUtDGHODVSDODEUDV
WHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDOWLHQHQXQ(7¬/RVHOHPHQWRVWHUPLQDOHVVRQVXϧMRVϩH[LRQDOHVTXH
DSDUHFHQVyORHQSRVLFLyQϧQDOHQODSDODEUD\TXHLQYDULDEOHPHQWHVRQiWRQRV(VWD
DWRQLFLGDGSXHGHDWULEXLUVHDXQDFDUDFWHUtVWLFDLQKHUHQWHGHHVWRVVXϧMRVRDOKHFKR
GHTXHHVWpQIXHUDGHOGRPLQLRDFHQWXDO6HDFRPRIXHUDORV(7VVRQORVSULQFLSDOHV
UHVSRQVDEOHVGHTXHODPD\RUtDGHODVSDODEUDVWHUPLQDGDVHQYRFDOVHDQOODQDV1R¬HV
QHFHVDULRSXHVDVXPLUTXHHVWDVSDODEUDVVHIRUPDQFRQVWUX\HQGRWURTXHRVVREUHHO
PDUJHQGHUHFKRGHODSDODEUD

಩([FHSFLRQHVDODJHQHUDOL]DFLyQEiVLFDFyPRIRUPDOL]DUODV

(VWDJHQHUDOL]DFLyQEiVLFDTXHDFDEDPRVGHGLVFXWLU DFHQWXDFLyQGHOD~OWLPDXQLGDG
PpWULFDSRUGHIHFWR SUHVHQWDXQDVHULHGHH[FHSFLRQHVELHQFRQRFLGDV\ORVGLIHUHQWHV
PHFDQLVPRVDORVTXHVHKDDSHODGRSDUDIRUPDOL]DUHVWRVSDUiPHWURVH[FHSFLRQDOHV
VRQGHORPiVYDULDGR,QWHQWDUHPRVDTXtRIUHFHUXQDPXHVWUDVLQSUHWHQVLRQHVGH
H[KDXVWLYLGDGGHODVSRVLELOLGDGHVTXHVHKDQH[SORUDGR

಩$FHQWXDFLyQHVGU~MXODHQSDODEUDVFRQXQ(7

5HFRUGHPRV TXH SDUD GHULYDU OD DFHQWXDFLyQ QR PDUFDGD KHPRV FRQVLGHUDGR GRV
SRVLELOLGDGHV WURTXHRV FRQVWUXLGRV VREUH HO PDUJHQ GHUHFKR R DFHQWXDFLyQ GH OD
[ 246 Alfonso Morales-Front

~OWLPDXQLGDGPpWULFDH[FOX\HQGRORVVXϧMRVϩH[LRQDOHV/DVSDODEUDVTXHVHLOXVWUDQ
HQHOVLJXLHQWHHMHPSORQRSXHGHQGHULYDUVHFRQQLQJXQDGHHVDVGRVRSFLRQHV  

Ejemplo 7-16

cámara préstamo topónimo parábola


sábana cuévano sépalo sacrílega
mítico pájaro mágico Séneca
fábrica sémola sátira tálamo

 /DH[FHSFLRQDOLGDGGHHVWHSDWUyQVHFRQVLGHUDQRUPDOPHQWHOp[LFD\SRUWDQWR
WLHQHTXHPDUFDUVHFRPRXQDSDUWLFXODULGDGHQODHVSHFLϧFDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHGHHVWDV
SDODEUDV6LJXLHQGRHOPRGHORGH¬+DUULVDSRUWDPRVHOSDUPtQLPRsaban-aYVsában-a
FRPR WtSLFR HMHPSOR TXH QR GHMD GXGDV DFHUFD GH OD SRVLELOLGDG GH TXH HO DFHQWR
DSDUH]FDPDUFDGROp[LFDPHQWHHQHVSDxRO1RKD\FULWHULRPRUIROyJLFRRIRQROyJLFR
TXHSXHGDPRWLYDUODGLYHUJHQFLDDFHQWXDOGHHVWHSDUGHSDODEUDV3RUWDQWRVXHOH
VXSRQHUVHTXHODDFHQWXDFLyQSURSDUR[tWRQDGHOVHJXQGRHMHPSORYLHQHHVSHFLϧFDGD
HQODHQWUDGDOp[LFDPLHQWUDVTXHODDFHQWXDFLyQGHOSULPHUHMHPSORHVHOUHVXOWDGR
GHOSURFHVRUHJXODUGHDFHQWXDFLyQ'RQGHQRKD\FRQVHQVRHVHQFyPRHVSHFLϧFDU
ODH[FHSFLRQDOLGDGGHHVWRVSDWURQHVHQODHQWUDGDOp[LFD(QORVSiUUDIRVVLJXLHQWHV
FRQVLGHUDPRVDOJXQDVGHODVDOWHUQDWLYDVYLDEOHV
 /DSULPHUDRSFLyQHVHOXVRGHdiacríticos.8QGLDFUtWLFRHVXQDPDUFDFRQYHQFLR
QDOTXHVHLQWURGXFHHQODHQWUDGDOp[LFDDODTXHODVUHJODVRODVUHVWULFFLRQHVGHOD
JUDPiWLFDVRQVHQVLEOHV3RUHMHPSORSRGHPRVHVWLSXODUTXHODVSDODEUDVHVGU~MXODV
OOHYDQODPDUFD>H[FHS@6REUHHVWDEDVHSRGHPRVGHULYDUODVHVGU~MXODVLQWURGX
FLHQGRHQODJUDPiWLFDXQDUHJODTXHUHWUDLJDHODFHQWR SHQ~OWLPRSRUGHIHFWR HQODV
HQWUDGDVOp[LFDVSRUWDGRUDVGHODPDUFD>H[FHS@(VWHWLSRGHVROXFLyQHVHOTXHVH
SURSRQHHQ+RRSHU\7HUUHOO  (OSUREOHPDHVTXHDSHVDUGHH[SUHVDUVHHQWUH
FRUFKHWHV\FRQYDOHQFLDSRVLWLYD>H[FHS@QRHVQLXQUDVJRIRQROyJLFRQLWLSRDOJXQR
GHHQWLGDGJUDPDWLFDO(VXQGLDFUtWLFR\ORVGLDFUtWLFRVTXHQRVHFRUUHVSRQGHQFRQ
XQLGDGHVOLQJtVWLFDVVRQEDVWDQWHSUREOHPiWLFRVFRPRHQWLGDGHVOp[LFDV(Q+DUULV
DE\VHSURSRQHTXHHOHVSDxROIRUPDSLHVVLOiELFRV(OVLJXLHQWH
RUGHQGHUHJODVHVFUXFLDOSDUDHODQiOLVLV  

Ejemplo 7-17

1. (O~OWLPRHOHPHQWRDFHQWXDEOHHVH[WUDPpWULFR
2. $FHQW~HVHHQODOtQHDGHODSDUULOODOD~OWLPDVtODEDPpWULFD
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Ejemplo 7-19

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Ejemplo 7-20

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Ejemplo 7-21

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Ejemplo 7-22

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péra péra-s
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Ejemplo 7-23

péra per-ál
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[ 258 Alfonso Morales-Front

Ejemplo 7-28

$FHQWRHQHOHVWtPXOR  N

7LSRGHHVWtPXOR HMHPSOR 6REUHHVGU~MXOD (VGU~MXOD /ODQD $JXGD


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El acento 259 ]

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[ 260 Alfonso Morales-Front

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Ejemplo 7-29

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5Dt] 97 7$0 31 5Dt] 97 7$0 31

 SHUVVLQJ
D
cant -o cant -e
beb -o beb -a
viv -o viv -a
El acento 261 ]

Ejemplo 7-29 (continued)

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5Dt] 97 7$0 31 5Dt] 97 7$0 31

DSHUVVLQJ cant -o cant -e


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[ 262 Alfonso Morales-Front

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SHFXOLDUHVFRQWUDVWHVGHOWLSRTXHYHPRVHQ  

Ejemplo 7-30

1RPEUHDGMHWLYR 9HUERSUHVHQWH 9HUERSUHWpULWR

oxígeno oxigeno oxigenó


solícito solicito solicitó
rótulo rotulo rotuló
estímulo estimulo estimuló
ámplia amplío amplió
líquido liquido liquidó
página pagino paginó
péndulo pendulo penduló

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HQODVIRUPDVQRPLQDOHVSHURVHLJQRUDHQODVIRUPDVYHUEDOHV
 6HJ~Q+DUULV D HOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHoxígeno\oxigenoUDGLFDHQODFRPSRVLFLyQ
PRUIROyJLFDGHFDGDPLHPEURGHOSDU  

Ejemplo 7-31

QRPEUH YHUER
UDt] (7 UDt] 97 31

oxígen ¢o² oxigen a ¢o²

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El acento 263 ]

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Ejercicios

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en la ensaladera

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3. (OFRQFHSWRGHextrametricalidadVHSURSXVRSRUSULPHUDYH]HQ/LEHUPDQ\3ULQFH
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RFXDOTXLHUQ~PHURGHVtODEDVSXGLHUDQVHUH[WUDPpWULFDVVHSHUPLWLUtDODJHQHUDFLyQGHFDVL
FXDOTXLHUWLSRGHHVWUXFWXUD\ODWHRUtDPpWULFDVHUtDFODUDPHQWHLQDSURSLDGD(OHVWXGLRGH
ORVVLVWHPDVDFHQWXDOHVGHPXFKDVOHQJXDVKDSHUPLWLGRTXHVHOOHJXHDFRQVWDWDUTXHWDOHV
VtODEDV´LQYLVLEOHVµSDUDHODOJRULWPRPpWULFRDSDUHFHQLQYDULDEOHPHQWHHQXQH[WUHPRGHO
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HVWDFRQGLFLyQXQHOHPHQWRH[WUDPpWULFRVyORSXHGHVHUORVLHVSHULIpULFRHQVXGRPLQLR
El acento 265 ]

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5. Elemento terminalHVHOWpUPLQRDFXxDGRSRU+DUULVSDUDUHIHULUVHDORVPRUIHPDVQRPL
QDOHVTXHDSDUHFHQDOϧQDOGHODSDODEUD7DPELpQVHOHVSXHGHOODPDUmarcadores de palabra
YpDVH+DUULVF Rdesinencias 5RFD 6HFDUDFWHUL]DQSRUQRWHQHUXQFRQWHQLGR
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This page intentionally left blank
8 ]
La entonación
José Ignacio Hualde

8.0 Introducción

(QWHQGHPRV SRU entonación OD PRGXODFLyQ GHO WRQR GXUDFLyQ H LQWHQVLGDG GH ODV
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HOR\HQWH3XHGHVHUSRUHMHPSORXQDUHVSXHVWDDXQDSUHJXQWDFRPR¿Quién llegó
anoche?RWDOYH]¿Qué pasó anoche que había tanto revuelo?3RURWUDSDUWH E HV
XQDSUHJXQWDSRUPHGLRGHODFXDOHOKDEODQWHSLGHLQIRUPDFLyQRTXL]iFRQϧUPDFLyQ
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WUDWDGHXQSHQVDPLHQWRLQFRPSOHWRTXHVHDVXPHTXHHOR\HQWH RHOOHFWRUGHOWH[WR
HVFULWR SXHGHFRPSOHWDU\XQDIXQFLyQVLPLODUGHLQGLFDUXQHQXQFLDGRLQFRPSOHWR
HVODTXHWLHQHODFRPDHQ G 3RU~OWLPRHOVLJQRGHH[FODPDFLyQRDGPLUDFLyQ
HQ H VHHPSOHDSDUDVHxDODUDOJ~QWLSRGHpQIDVLVTXHSXHGHLQFOXLUVRUSUHVD
\¬WDPELpQHQyUGHQHVHQWUHRWURVXVRV6LOHHORVHQXQFLDGRVGHOHMHPSOR  HQYR]
DOWDQRWDUiTXHVHSURGXFHQFRQHQWRQDFLRQHVGLIHUHQWHV
[ 268 José Ignacio Hualde

Ejemplo 8-1

a. Llegaron mis amigos.


b. ¿Llegaron mis amigos?
c. Llegaron mis amigos . . .
d. Llegaron mis amigos, pero no me avisaron.
e. ¡Llegaron mis amigos!

 /DSXQWXDFLyQQRVRIUHFHVRORXQDUHSUHVHQWDFLyQPX\LPSHUIHFWDGHODHQWRQD
FLyQ(OSXQWRODFRPDORVSXQWRVVXVSHQVLYRV\ORVVLJQRVGHLQWHUURJDFLyQ\GH
H[FODPDFLyQSXHGHQXVDUVHSDUDLQGLFDUORVSULQFLSDOHVFRQWUDVWHVH[SUHVDGRVSRUOD
HQWRQDFLyQFRPRKHPRVYLVWRHQORVHMHPSORVHQ  'HPDQHUDLQIRUPDOWDPELpQ
SRGHPRVXVDUUHFXUVRVFRPRODUHSHWLFLyQGHXQDOHWUDSDUDLQGLFDUODPD\RUGXUDFLyQ
GHOVRQLGRFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHFRPRHQ  

Ejemplo 8-2

a. bueeeno
b. buenooo

 (QLQJOpVXQDOHQJXDHQTXHHVPXFKRPiVQRUPDOTXHHQHVSDxROGDUfoco estre-
cho,RFRQWUDVWLYRDXQDSDODEUDHQFXDOTXLHUOXJDUGHODRUDFLyQVHXVDQDYHFHV
UHFXUVRVFRPRODVPD\~VFXODVRODVFXUVLYDVSDUDLQGLFDUTXHODSDODEUDUHFLEHWDO
IRFR\KDGHSURQXQFLDUVHFRQODHQWRQDFLyQFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHFRPRHQORVHMHPSORV
LQYHQWDGRVHQ  

Ejemplo 8-3

a. John ATE the pizza.


b. JOHN ate the pizza.
c. John ate the PIZZA.

 &RPRYHPRVHQ  HQLQJOpVHODFHQWRPiVLPSRUWDQWHRnuclear,VHSXHGH


FRORFDUVREUHGLYHUVDVSDODEUDVHQODPLVPDRUDFLyQ(OFDPELDUODSRVLFLyQGHODFHQWR
QXFOHDUHVXQUHFXUVRUHWyULFRLPSRUWDQWHHQLQJOpVTXHDYHFHVYHPRVUHϩHMDGRHQ
ODSiJLQDHVFULWDFRPRYHPRVHQHOHMHPSOR  WRPDGRGHXQDQRYHODHQHOTXH
HODXWRUTXLHUHUHSURGXFLUODRUDWRULDGHXQSUHGLFDGRU

Ejemplo 8-4

¶¶%XWWKHJDWHVRI+HOOwillQRWSUHYDLO7KH\ZLOOnotSUHYDLO7KH\ZLOOQRWpre-
vailDQGWKDW·VWKHSURPLVHRI-HVXV&KULVWµ 'RQ.XUW]Churchgoers>0LQQHD
SROLV@
La entonación 269 ]

 (QHVSDxROHVWHUHFXUVRSURVyGLFRQRHVIUHFXHQWHSRUORTXHWDPSRFRHQFRQ
WUDPRVFRQYHQFLRQHVJUiϧFDVSDUDH[SUHVDUOR'HKHFKRFRPRYHUHPRVHVWDHVXQD
GLIHUHQFLDPX\LPSRUWDQWHHQWUHHOLQJOpV\HOHVSDxRODQLYHOSURVyGLFR
 (QFXDOTXLHUFDVRODFDSDFLGDGGHLQGLFDUODHQWRQDFLyQGHORVHQXQFLDGRVRUDOHV
TXHQRVRIUHFHODSXQWXDFLyQ\HOXVRGHGLVWLQWRVWLSRVGHOHWUDFRPRODVPD\~VFXODV
HVPX\OLPLWDGD8QDQiOLVLVIRQROyJLFRPiVGHWDOODGRGHODHQWRQDFLyQUHTXLHUHXQD
QRWDFLyQPiVSUHFLVD6LELHQH[LVWHQYDULDVSURSXHVWDVGHDQiOLVLVGHODHQWRQDFLyQ
ODVFRQYHQFLRQHVTXHXWLOL]DUHPRVHQHVWHFDStWXORVRQODVGHOOODPDGRmodelo métrico-
autosegmental 3LHUUHKXPEHUW/DGG>@ (VWHPRGHORKDVLGR\DDSOL
FDGRDODQiOLVLVGHORVFRQWRUQRVEiVLFRVGHOHVSDxROHQWUDEDMRVWDQWRGHHVWHDXWRU
+XDOGHFDS ¬FRPRGHPXFKRVRWURVDXWRUHV SHM%HFNPDQ
HW¬DO¬(VWHEDV9LODSODQD\3ULHWR3ULHWR\5RVHDQR $TXtHQOXJDU
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PiVRPHQRVGXGDPiVRPHQRVDOHJUtD \ODLQWHUSUHWDFLyQSXHGHGHSHQGHUWDPELpQ
HQEXHQDSDUWHGHOFRQWH[WRFRQYHUVDFLRQDO/RVSUREOHPDVTXHH[LVWHQDODKRUDGH
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[ 270 José Ignacio Hualde

HQWRQDWLYRVVLQD\XGDLQVWUXPHQWDO6LQHPEDUJRHVWHREVWiFXORVHHQFXHQWUDKR\
HQGtDVXSHUDGRFRQHOGHVDUUROORGHSURJUDPDVSDUDHODQiOLVLVDF~VWLFRGHOKDEODDO
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'HHVWRVSURJUDPDVHOPiVXWLOL]DGRHQODDFWXDOLGDGHV3UDDW GHVDUUROODGRSRU3DXO
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YDPRVDDVXPLUTXHHOOHFWRUKDGHVFDUJDGRHLQVWDODGR3UDDW\KDDSUHQGLGRDXVDUOR

8.1 Tonos de frontera

&RPHQFHPRVSXHVFRQHOHVWXGLRGHORVFRQWRUQRVHQWRQDWLYRVGHOHVSDxRO(QOD
)LJXUDVHRIUHFHHOFRQWRUQRGHIUHFXHQFLDIXQGDPHQWDO ) GHXQDSURGXFFLyQ
GH¬Emilio me dio el dinero(QODOtQHDGHWH[WR ´7H[W*ULGµHQ3UDDW KHPRVGLYLGLGRHO
HQXQFLDGRHQVtODEDV3RGHPRVGHHVWDPDQHUDREVHUYDUORVPRYLPLHQWRVWRQDOHVTXH
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ODLQVSHFFLyQYLVXDOKHPRVPDUFDGRFRQXQDFHQWRDJXGRODVtODEDFRQDFHQWROp[LFR
GHWRGDVODVSDODEUDVQRVRORODVTXHORUHTXLHUHQVHJ~QODVFRQYHQFLRQHVRUWRJUiϧFDV
GHOHVSDxRO\HQORVSLHVGHϧJXUDVXEUD\DPRVHVWDVPLVPDVVtODEDV(QHOHMHYHUWLFDO

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-1 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo (frecuencia fundamental) de un enunciado declarativo
dividido en sílabas, Emilio me dio el dinero.
La entonación 271 ]

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TXHREVHUYDHQORVWUD]DGRVGHIUHFXHQFLDIXQGDPHQWDO

Ejemplo 8-5

a. Vino Mariano.


b. ¿Vino Mariano?
c. Vino Mariano, pero no Ana.

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GRVSXQWRVGHUHIHUHQFLDSULQFLSDOHVODVVtODEDVFRQDFHQWROp[LFROODPDGDVWUDGLFLR
QDOPHQWHtónicas ODVRWUDVVHOODPDQátonas \ODVVtODEDVϧQDOHVGHIUDVH'HFLPRV
TXHHVWDVVtODEDVVHDVRFLDQRSXHGHQDVRFLDUVHUHVSHFWLYDPHQWHFRQacentos tonales
\FRQtonos de frontera(VWDVPLVPDVVtODEDVWyQLFDV\ϧQDOHVGHIUDVHSXHGHQWDP
ELpQDODUJDUVHFRQVLGHUDEOHPHQWH3RUFRQYHQFLyQXWLOL]DUHPRVODVHWLTXHWDV/SDUD
WRQREDMR(low)\+SDUDWRQRDOWR(high).8QDVWHULVFRTXHVLJXHDXQDOHWUDLQGLFD
TXHHVHHVHOWRQRGHODVtODEDFRQDFHQWROp[LFR$VtSRUHMHPSOR/ LQGLFDUtDTXHOD
VtODEDWyQLFDVHUHDOL]DFRQXQWRQREDMR3DUDLQGLFDUORVWRQRVGHIURQWHUDVHXWLOL]D
HOVtPERORGHOWDQWRSRUFLHQWR  HOFXDOVLJXHDODOHWUDPD\~VFXODTXHLQGLFDHO
WRQR$Vt/TXLHUHGHFLUTXHODIUDVHWHUPLQDHQWRQREDMR
 (QODV)LJXUDVDVHRIUHFHQFRQWRUQRVGHSURGXFFLRQHV SRUHODXWRU GH
ODVIUDVHVHQHOHMHPSOR  6LQRVϧMDPRVSULPHURHQHOWRQRϧQDOYHPRVTXHOD
GHFODUDWLYDFRPSOHWDWHUPLQDHQXQWRQREDMR / \ODLQWHUURJDWLYDHQXQWRQRDOWR
+ 3DUDODGHFODUDWLYDLQFRPSOHWDRVXVSHQVLYDVHGDXQDYHUVLyQHQTXHKD\XQD
VXELGDLQFRPSOHWDGHVSXpVGHXQDEDMDGDWDPELpQLQFRPSOHWDDPEDVHQODVtODED
ϧQDO /+ EDMDGD\GHVSXpVVXELGDHQOD>V@VtODED>V@SRVWyQLFD>V@ (QODVϧJXUDV
DSDUHFHQWDPELpQDQRWDGRVORVPRYLPLHQWRVWRQDOHVTXHVHDVRFLDQFRQODVVtODEDV
WyQLFDV HV GHFLU ORV DFHQWRV WRQDOHV 'H PRPHQWR ϧMpPRQRV VROR HQ ORV WRQRV GH
IURQWHUDϧQDO/RVDFHQWRVWRQDOHVORVGLVFXWLUHPRVHQODVHFFLyQVLJXLHQWH
L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-2 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado declarativo neutro con tono de
frontera final L%, Vino Mariano.

H%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-3 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado interrogativo con tono de frontera
final H%, ¿Vino Mariano?
La entonación 273 ]

LH%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-4 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado suspensivo de continuación con
tono de frontera final LH%, Vino Mariano . . .

 (QHQXQFLDGRVPiVH[WHQVRVORVWRQRVGHIURQWHUDSXHGHQVHUYLUSDUDLQGLFDUOD
GLYLVLyQHQIUDVHVPXFKDVYHFHVVHxDODGDRUWRJUiϧFDPHQWHSRUPHGLRGHODFRPD
\RWURVVLJQRVGHSXQWXDFLyQ$¬YHFHVODGLYLVLyQFRUUHFWDSXHGHVHUFUXFLDOSDUDOD
LQWHUSUHWDFLyQFRPRHQHOHMHPSOR  

Ejemplo 8-6

a. Cuando llegó Manolo, abrió la ventana.


b. Cuando llegó, Manolo abrió la ventana.

 (Q D TXLHQDEULyODYHQWDQDSXHGHVHU0DQRORXRWUDSHUVRQDGLIHUHQWH SRU


HMHPSORSRGUtDVHUTXHFXDQGROOHJy0DQRORDEULyODYHQWDQD-XDQ PLHQWUDVTXH
HQ E ManoloHVQHFHVDULDPHQWHHOVXMHWRGHabrió(QOD)LJXUDVHPXHVWUD
XQFRQWRUQRGH E GRQGHFRPRYHPRVWHQHPRVXQWRQRGHIURQWHUDGHFRQWLQXD
FLyQ/+ FRQEDMDGD\VXELGDGHOWRQR GRQGHRUWRJUiϧFDPHQWHWHQHPRVXQDFRPD
3RUFLHUWRHQSULQFLSLRHQXQDQiOLVLVDOWHUQDWLYRSRGUtDPRVDWULEXLUODEDMDGD/DO
[ 274 José Ignacio Hualde

LH% L%

Tiempo (seg.)

Figura 8-5 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado con tono de frontera de
continuación LH%, Cuando llegó, Manolo abrió la ventana.

DFHQWRWRQDOGHllegóGDGRTXHODVtODEDWyQLFDHVWDPELpQOD~OWLPDGHODIUDVH3DUD
GHPRVWUDUTXHHODQiOLVLVFRUUHFWRHV/+HQHOTXHORVGRVWRQRVIRUPDQXQDXQLGDG
FRQHOYDOOH\VXELGDϧQDOUHDOL]DGRVDPERVVREUHOD~OWLPDVtODEDEDVWDUtDVXVWLWXLU
llegóFRQllegabaRllegábamosGHMDQGRDVtPiVHVSDFLRHQWUHODWyQLFD\HOϧQDOGHOD
SDODEUD

8.2 Acentos tonales

2EVHUYHPRVDKRUDOD)LJXUDTXHLOXVWUDODRUDFLyQLe dieron la moneda de oroFRQ


HQWRQDFLyQGHFODUDWLYDϧQDO3RGHPRVQRWDUTXHWHQHPRVXQDFXPEUHHQFDGDXQD
GHODVWUHVSDODEUDV7HQHPRVWUHVFXPEUHVSRUTXHWHQHPRVWUHVSDODEUDVDFHQWXDGDV
(V GHFLU WHQHPRV WUHV DFHQWRV DOWRV +  (Q VX UHDOL]DFLyQ IRQpWLFD VLQ HPEDUJR
HVWRVWUHVWRQRVDOWRVSUHVHQWDQGLIHUHQFLDV1RWHPRVTXHWDQWRHQdieronFRPRHQ
monedaKD\XQDVXELGDWRQDOGXUDQWHODVtODEDWyQLFDSHURHOSLFRVRORVHDOFDQ]DHQ
ODSRVWyQLFD8QDHWLTXHWDTXHVHKDXWLOL]DGRSDUDHVWHWLSRGHFRQWRUQRHV/!+ 
La entonación 275 ]

L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-6 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado declarativo con tres acentos altos y
desplazamiento de la cumbre acentual en los acentos altos prenucleares, Le dieron la moneda de oro.

3ULHWR\5RVHDQR GRQGHODVHFXHQFLD/+  EDMRDOWR QRVGLFHTXHKD\XQ


DVFHQVRWRQDOHQODWyQLFD\HOGLDFUtWLFR!LQGLFDTXHHOWRQRDOWRVHKDGHVSOD]DGRD
XQDVtODEDSRVWHULRU(QOD~OWLPDSDODEUDGHODIUDVHoro,QRVHSURGXFHWDOGHVSOD]D
PLHQWRSRUORFXDOXWLOL]DPRVODHWLTXHWD/+ VLQHOGLDFUtWLFRGHGHVSOD]DPLHQWR
FRPRORPXHVWUDHOHMHPSOR  

Ejemplo 8-7

le dieron la moneda de oro @

/!+ /!+ /+ /

 8QDFHQWRWRQDOQRVHUHDOL]DVLHPSUHFRPRWRQRDOWRDVRFLDGRFRQODVtODEDWyQLFD
3RGHPRVWHQHUWDPELpQXQWRQREDMR/ 8QHMHPSORORWHQHPRVHQHOFRQWRUQRLQWH
UURJDWLYRGHVFHQGHQWHDVFHQGHQWHGHOD)LJXUD¿Vino Mariano?,GRQGHODHQWRQD
FLyQEDMDHQODVtODEDWyQLFDFRQDFHQWRQXFOHDUDQWHVGHFRPHQ]DUHODVFHQVRϧQDO
[ 276 José Ignacio Hualde

L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-7 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de un enunciado interrogativo con acento bajo
descendente H+L*, ¿Quién le dio la moneda?

 (QFLHUWRVFRQWH[WRVXQDFHQWRGHWRQREDMRSXHGHUHDOL]DUVHFRPRXQDEDMDGD
GHVGHODSUHWyQLFD3DUDLQGLFDUHVWHWLSRGHPRYLPLHQWRGHVFHQGHQWHHQODVtODED
WyQLFDVHSXHGHHPSOHDUODQRWDFLyQ+/ 8QHMHPSORORWHQHPRVHQODSUHJXQWD
SDUFLDOTXHVHLOXVWUDHQOD)LJXUD¿Quién le dio la moneda?
 +D\TXHWHQHUHQFXHQWDWDPELpQTXHXQDVtODEDFRQDFHQWROp[LFRQRWLHQHSRUTXp
DVRFLDUVHQHFHVDULDPHQWHFRQXQDFHQWRWRQDO/DSURPLQHQFLDGHHVWDVtODEDSXHGH
YHQLULQGLFDGDSRUVXPD\RUGXUDFLyQHQFX\RFDVRSRGHPRVLQGLFDUHVWHDFHQWRGH
GXUDFLyQVLPSOHPHQWHFRQXQDVWHULVFRVLQFRQWRUQRWRQDODVRFLDGR0X\IUHFXHQ
WHPHQWHOD~OWLPDSDODEUDHQXQDGHFODUDWLYDWLHQHXQDFHQWRGHHVWHWLSR$OJXQRV
DXWRUHVXWLOL]DQODHWLTXHWD/ WDPELpQSDUDHVWHFDVR
 3DUDUHVXPLUSRGHPRVWHQHUFLQFRWLSRVGHDFHQWRWRQDOVHJ~QODVGHVFULSFLRQHV
GHOHMHPSOR  
La entonación 277 ]

Ejemplo 8-8 Tipos de acento tonal

a. $FHQWRVGHWRQRDOWR
+ &XPEUHWRQDOHQODVtODEDWyQLFD
/+ 9DOOHWRQDODOSULQFLSLRGHODVtODEDWyQLFDFRQVXELGDTXH
FXOPLQDGHQWURGHODPLVPDVtODED
/!+ 9DOOHWRQDODOSULQFLSLRGHODVtODEDWyQLFDFRQVXELGDTXH
FXOPLQDHQODVtODEDVLJXLHQWH
b. $FHQWRVGHWRQREDMR
L* 9DOOHWRQDOHQODVtODEDWyQLFD
+/ 'HVFHQVRHQODVtODEDWyQLFDGHVGHXQDFXPEUHHQOD
SUHWyQLFD

8.3 Acento nuclear y orden de palabras

(QHVSDxROSRGHPRVH[SUHVDUGLIHUHQFLDVHQODUHOHYDQFLDLQIRUPDWLYDGHGLVWLQWRVFRQV
WLWX\HQWHVSRUPHGLRGHFDPELRVHQHORUGHQGHSDODEUDVPLHQWUDVTXHHQLQJOpVHQHO
TXHHORUGHQGHSDODEUDVHVPiVUtJLGRHVWRVVLJQLϧFDGRVSUDJPiWLFRVPXFKDVYHFHVVH
H[SUHVDQFDPELDQGRODSRVLFLyQGHODFHQWRQXFOHDU(QHVSDxROHODFHQWRQXFOHDUFDVL
VLHPSUHYDVREUHOD~OWLPDSDODEUDH[FHSWRHQFRQWH[WRVHQIiWLFRV(V¬GHFLUHO¬HIHFWR
GHFRORFDUHODFHQWRQXFOHDUHQSRVLFLyQQRϧQDOQRHVHOPLVPRHQHVSDxROTXHHQ
LQJOpVGDGDODSRVLELOLGDGTXHWHQHPRVHQHVSDxROGHFDPELDUHORUGHQGHVXMHWR\
YHUER$Vt%ROLQJHU  QRWDTXHHOFRQWUDVWHHQWUHHOLQJOpVThe phone RINGS\The
PHONE ringsFRUUHVSRQGHDOHVSDxROEl teléfono suena\Suena el teléfono3RURWUDSDUWH
SDUDEl TELÉFONO suena%ROLQJHUVXJLHUHODWUDGXFFLyQDOLQJOpV´7KHFRQIRXQGHG
SKRQHKDVWRJRRQDQGULQJµ(VWRHVFRORFDUHODFHQWRQXFOHDUVREUHXQDSDODEUDHQ
SRVLFLyQQRϧQDOHQODIUDVHHQWRQDWLYDSURGXFHXQUHVXOWDGRPX\HQIiWLFRHQHVSDxRO
 (QRUDFLRQHVVLQpQIDVLVHVSHFLDOVREUHQLQJXQDSDODEUDHODFHQWRQXFOHDUVXHOH
LU VREUH OD ~OWLPD VtODED WDQWR HQ LQJOpV FRPR HQ HVSDxRO: I want COFFEE/quiero
CAFÉ 6LQHPEDUJRLQFOXVRHQHVWHFDVRVLQIRFRHVWUHFKRVREUHQLQJXQDSDODEUD
KD\XQDVHULHGHFRQVWUXFFLRQHVHQTXHHQLQJOpVVHSUHϧHUHVLWXDUHODFHQWRQXFOHDU
VREUHXQDSDODEUDQRϧQDO(VWRQRRFXUUHHQHVSDxROHQHOTXHHODFHQWRQXFOHDUVH
FRORFDVLVWHPiWLFDPHQWHVREUHOD~OWLPDSDODEUDGHODIUDVHHQWRQDWLYD&RPSiUHQVH
SRUHMHPSORThe MACHINE broke/Se rompió la MÁQUINAWhat type of TEA do you
want?/¿Qué tipo de té QUIERES? YHU=XEL]DUUHWD\1DYD 
 &RPSDUHPRVDKRUDORVHMHPSORVHQ D \ E FRQyUGHQHVGHSDODEUDVGLIH
UHQWHVSDUDORVTXHGDPRVXQDSRVLEOHWUDGXFFLyQHQLQJOpV&RPRDFDEDPRVGHGHFLU
[ 278 José Ignacio Hualde

HQHVSDxROWHQHPRVWDPELpQODSRVLELOLGDGGHDOWHUDUODSRVLFLyQGHODFHQWRQXFOHDU
FRPRHQ F \ G SDUDH[SUHVDUDYHFHVIRFRFRQWUDVWLYRRLQVLVWHQFLDGHXQD
PDQHUDHQIiWLFD6HxDODPRVHQYHUVDOLWDODSRVLFLyQGHODFHQWRQXFOHDU

Ejemplo 8-9

a. La nena ¶WKHJLUOZDVය༬ྞ๠ໍศ·
b. Lloraba la ¶WKHศ๠༬ຮZDVFU\LQJ·
c. La lloraba ¶WKHศ๠༬ຮZDVFU\LQJ·
d. la nena ¶WKHJLUOZDVය༬ྞ๠ໍศ·

 6LJUDEDODVIUDVHVHQ E \ G SRUHMHPSORSUREDEOHPHQWHODVtODEDWyQLFD


WHQGUiPD\RULQWHQVLGDGHQODIUDVHFRQIRFRFRQWUDVWLYRTXHHQODRWUDIUDVH6LVH
ϧMDHQODFXUYDWRQDOORPiVSUREDEOHHVTXHHQFXHQWUHWDPELpQXQDGLIHUHQFLDHQ
ODSRVLFLyQUHODWLYDGHODFXPEUHWRQDODVRFLDGDFRQODVtODEDDFHQWXDGDHQlloraba.
¢(QFXiOGHORVGRVHMHPSORVRFXUUHGLFKDFXPEUHDQWHVHQUHODFLyQFRQHOϧQDOGHOD
VtODEDWyQLFD"
 7RPHPRVHOHMHPSORHQOD)LJXUDLloraba la nena(QODSDODEUDllorabaWHQH
PRVXQDVXELGDDWUDYpVGHODVtODEDWyQLFDFRQHOSLFRGHVSOD]DGRDODSRVWyQLFD
&RPR KHPRV YLVWR HVWH FRQWRUQR DFHQWXDO VH UHSUHVHQWD FRPR /!+  HV GHFLU
XQ¬PRYLPLHQWRGHVGHXQSXQWREDMR / DOSULQFLSLRGHODVtODEDWyQLFDDXQSXQWRDOWR
+ GRQGHHOVtPEROR!LQGLFDTXHDXQTXHHOWRQRDOWRSHUWHQHFHIRQROyJLFDPHQWH
DODVtODEDFRQDFHQWROp[LFRVHHQFXHQWUDGHVSOD]DGRDXQDVtODEDSRVWHULRU(Qnena
TXHWLHQHDFHQWRQXFOHDUSRURWUDSDUWHQRKD\GHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHODFXPEUHWRQDO
(VWDϧJXUDFRUUHVSRQGHDODLQWHUSUHWDFLyQHQHOHMHPSOR E 
 (QHOFRQWRUQRGHOD)LJXUDSRURWUDSDUWH ¢DTXpVLJQLϧFDGRFRUUHVSRQGH" 
HOSXQWRGHPi[LPDDOWXUDWRQDOVHDOFDQ]DHQODWyQLFDGHlloraba\KD\XQGHVFHQVR
LQPHGLDWR 1RWH TXH OD VtODED WyQLFD GH OD SDODEUDlloraba WLHQH WDPELpQ EDVWDQWH
PD\RUGXUDFLyQTXHHQOD)LJXUDDVtFRPRPD\RULQWHQVLGDG FRPRSXHGHREVHU
YDUVHSRUODDPSOLWXGGHODRQGDVRQRUD 
 /D)LJXUDFRUUHVSRQGHDOHMHPSOR G 3RGHPRVDWULEXLUODIDOWDGHGHV
SOD]DPLHQWRGHOSLFRDFHQWXDOGHODSULPHUDVtODEDDODSUHVHQFLDGHXQWRQREDMRGH
IURQWHUD HQHVWHFDVRGHIURQWHUDPHQRULQGLFDGDFRQ/ਮDVRFLDGRFRQHOϧQDOGH
ODSDODEUDIRFDOL]DGDllorabaYpDVH+XDOGH/DGG>@ 

Ejemplo 8-10

Lloraba @ la nena @

/+ /ਮ /+ /
L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-8 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo del enunciado declarativo Lloraba la nena.

L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-9 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo del enunciado declarativo lloraba la nena.
[ 280 José Ignacio Hualde

de ma de ma de mar de ma

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-10 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de tres realizaciones de la secuencia de Mariano: (i) una
producción natural con entonación declarativa neutra, (ii) una manipulación con la curva estilizada,
(iii) otra con la altura del pico acentual aumentada y (iv) otra con la altura aumentada aún más.

 &RPRYHPRVHQHOHMHPSOR  HOGHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHOWRQRDOWRDODSRVWyQLFD


HVWiFRQGLFLRQDGRHQSDUWHSRUHOFRQWH[WRVLJXLHQWH1RKD\GHVSOD]DPLHQWRFXDQGR
ODSDODEUDSRUWDHODFHQWRQXFOHDU*HQHUDOPHQWHHVWDHVOD~OWLPDSDODEUDGHODIUDVH
HQWRQDWLYDSRUORTXHHODFHQWRYDVHJXLGRGHXQWRQRGHIURQWHUDϧQDOFRPR/
(QFDVRVHQIiWLFRVHQTXHVHFRORFDHODFHQWRQXFOHDUVREUHXQDSDODEUDQRϧQDOHQ
HOHQXQFLDGRWHQHPRVXQDIURQWHUDGHIUDVHLQWHUPHGLD/ਮTXHWDPELpQLPSLGHHO
GHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHOWRQRDOWRDFHQWXDO +D\WDPELpQRWURVIDFWRUHVTXHFRQGLFLRQDQHO
GHVSOD]DPLHQWRGHODFXPEUHDFHQWXDO3RUHMHPSORHVPHQRVFRP~QHQODVSDODEUDV
DJXGDV\WDPELpQHQODVQRLQLFLDOHVGHIUDVH

8.4 Escalonamiento y campo tonal

9ROYDPRV D OD )LJXUD  2EVHUYHPRV DKRUD TXH ORV WUHV SLFRV WRQDOHV DVRFLDGRV
IRQROyJLFDPHQWHFRQODVWUHVVtODEDVWyQLFDVGHHVWHHQXQFLDGRQRHVWiQDODPLVPD
La entonación 281 ]

DOWXUD3RUHOFRQWUDULRORVWUHVSLFRVDFHQWXDOHVHVWiQHVFDORQDGRVGHPDQHUDSUR
JUHVLYDPHQWHGHVFHQGHQWH(VWHHVHOWLSRGHHVFDORQDPLHQWRTXHHQFRQWUDPRVQRU
PDOPHQWHHQODVGHFODUDWLYDVϧQDOHV3RGHPRVLQGLFDUHOHVFDORQDPLHQWRGHVFHQGHQWH
´GRZQVWHSµHQLQJOpV SRUPHGLRGHOVLJQRGHH[FODPDFLyQTXHSUHFHGHDOWRQRDOWR
$Vt+ LQGLFDXQDFHQWRDOWRHVFDORQDGRDXQDDOWXUDLQIHULRUFRQUHVSHFWRDRWUR
SLFRDFHQWXDOSUHFHGHQWH
 (OFRQWRUQRGHOD)LJXUDSRGUtDPRVHQWRQFHVDQDOL]DUORGHODPDQHUDSUHVHQ
WDGDHQHOHMHPSOR  VLVHWLHQHHQFXHQWDHOWRQRGHIURQWHUDϧQDO\ODIRUPD\
HVFDORQDPLHQWRGHORVDFHQWRVWRQDOHV

Ejemplo 8-11 Análisis del contorno entonativo de la Figura 8-1

Emilio me dio el dinero @

/!+ /+ /+ /

 5HFRUGHPRVTXHHOGLDFUtWLFRDxDGLGRDOSULPHUDFHQWRWRQDO/+ LQGLFDTXHHO
SLFRVHHQFXHQWUDGHVSOD]DGRDODVtODEDSRVWyQLFDPLHQWUDVTXHHOGLDFUtWLFRGHORV
RWURVGRVDFHQWRVWRQDOHVLQGLFDTXHFDGDXQRGHHVWRVGRVSLFRVWRQDOHVHVPiVEDMR
TXHHOSLFRWRQDODQWHULRU
 3RURWUDSDUWHHQOD)LJXUDSRGHPRVREVHUYDUTXHHOVHJXQGRDFHQWRWRQDO
DOFDQ]DXQDPD\RUDOWXUDTXHHOSUHFHGHQWH(VGHFLUHQHVWHFDVRWHQHPRVHVFDOR
QDPLHQWRDVFHQGHQWH ´XSVWHSµHQLQJOpV (OHVFDORQDPLHQWRDVFHQGHQWHSRGHPRV
LQGLFDUORFRQHOGLDFUtWLFRRSXHVWRHOVLJQR£TXHHQHVSDxROHPSOHDPRVDOSULQFLSLR
GHXQDH[FODPDWLYD RWURGLDFUtWLFRHTXLYDOHQWHPiVIiFLOGHHQFRQWUDUHQDOJXQRV
WHFODGRVHVA $VtHODQiOLVLVGHOFRQWRUQRWRQDOGHOD)LJXUDVHUtDHOTXHVHPXHVWUD
HQHOHMHPSOR  

Ejemplo 8-12 Análisis del contorno entonativo de la Figura 8-4

Vino Mariano @

/!+ /!£+ /+

(OHVFDORQDPLHQWRDVFHQGHQWHGHXQDFHQWRWRQDOLQGLFDTXHHVWDPRVHQIDWL]DQGRHVD
SDODEUD
 ,QGHSHQGLHQWHPHQWHGHORVHIHFWRVTXHVHSURGXFHQSRUPHGLRGHOHVFDORQDPLHQWR
GHXQDFHQWRFRQUHVSHFWRDDFHQWRVSUHFHGHQWHVHOFDPSRWRQDOSRUVtPLVPRSXHGH
WHQHUHIHFWRVFRPXQLFDWLYRV(QOD)LJXUDODVHFFLyQ L ¬HVXQDSURGXFFLyQQDWXUDO
GHXQHQXQFLDGRGHFODUDWLYRQHXWURde¬Mariano/DVWUHVVLJXLHQWHVVRQWUDQVIRUPDFLR
QHVFRQ3UDDWGRQGHKHPRVPDQLSXODGRODFXUYDGH¬)(QODVHFFLyQ LL VRORKHPRV
SURGXFLGRXQDHVWLOL]DFLyQGHODFXUYDRULJLQDOPLHQWUDVTXHHQ LLL KHPRVVXELGRHO
[ 282 José Ignacio Hualde

L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-11 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo del enunciado imperativo ¡Lava la lana!

WRQRGHODFXPEUHDFHQWXDO\HQ LY ¬ORKHPRVVXELGRD~QPiV/RPiVSUREDEOHHV
TXHFRQODFXUYDWHUFHUDSHUFLEDPRVHOHQXQFLDGRFRPRPiVHQIiWLFR¡de Mariano!
HVSHUDEOHHQXQFRQWH[WRFRPR³Esto es tuyo ¿verdad?—¡No, de Mariano!, ¡Cómo va a
ser mío!),\FRQODFXUYDFXDUWDSHUFLEDPRVXQDH[SUHVLyQGHVRUSUHVD¿¡de Mariano!?
TXL]iHVSHUDEOHHQXQGLiORJRFRPR³Juan es hijo de Mariano.³¿¡de Mariano!?¡Nunca
me lo habría imaginado!) YpDVH%RUUjV&RPHV9DQUHOO\3ULHWR>@HQTXLHQHVQRV
LQVSLUDPRV 

8.5 Entonación y actos de habla

&RPRGHFtDPRVDOSULQFLSLRGHOFDStWXORODVGLIHUHQFLDVGHHQWRQDFLyQMXHJDQXQSDSHO
IXQGDPHQWDOSDUDGLVWLQJXLUHQWUHDFWRVGHKDEODFRPRODSUHVHQWDFLyQGHLQIRUPD
FLyQ GHFODUDWLYDV ODVSUHJXQWDV\ORVPDQGDWRV(QODV)LJXUDVDSRGHPRV
REVHUYDUORVFRQWRUQRVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHV D ORVWUHVHQXQFLDGRV GHOHMHPSOR  
UHDOL]DGRFRPRRUDFLyQLPSHUDWLYDGHFODUDWLYDHLQWHUURJDWLYDUHVSHFWLYDPHQWH
L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-12 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo del enunciado declarativo Lava la lana.

H%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-13 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo del enunciado interrogativo ¿Lava la lana?
[ 284 José Ignacio Hualde

Ejemplo 8-13

a. ¡Lava la lana!


b. Lava la lana.
c. ¿Lava la lana?

 &RPRYHPRVWDQWRHOHQXQFLDGRLPSHUDWLYR )LJ¬ FRPRHOGHFODUDWLYRFRP


SOHWR )LJ¬ VHFDUDFWHUL]DSRUXQDEDMDGDϧQDOXQWRQRGHIURQWHUD//D¬SUH
JXQWDGHVLKD\XQDGLIHUHQFLDVLVWHPiWLFDHQWUHRUDFLRQHVTXHH[SUHVDQHVWRVGRV
GLVWLQWRVDFWRVGHKDEODHQHVSDxROWLHQHXQDUHVSXHVWDQHJDWLYD .YDYLN:LOOLV
5REOHV3XHQWH (QODVGRVϧJXUDVYHPRVXQDGLIHUHQFLDSRUTXHHQOD
LPSHUDWLYDVHKDSXHVWRPD\RUpQIDVLVVREUHHOYHUERlavaSHURHOpQIDVLVSRGUtDKDEHU
HVWDGRVREUHlana
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+  GHVGH XQ YDOOH HQ OD WyQLFD GH OD SDODEUD FRQ DFHQWR QXFOHDU 3RGHPRV VLQ
HPEDUJRWHQHUWDPELpQLQWHUURJDWLYDVFRQEDMDGDϧQDOFRPRHQHOFRQWRUQRGHOD

¡H* L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-14 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de una pregunta confirmatoria o insistente, ¿Lava la
lana?
La entonación 285 ]

¡H* L%

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-15 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de una pregunta que pide confirmación, ¿Llegará
Manolo mañana?

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DXQDSUHJXQWDFRQϧUPDWRULDRLQVLVWHQWH
 /D)LJXUDSXHGHWHQHUHOYDORUSUDJPiWLFRTXHKHPRVLQGLFDGRHQHOGLDOHFWR
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OD)LJXUD¬
 $GHPiVGHODGLVWLQFLyQEiVLFDTXHSRGHPRVWHQHUHQWUHGHFODUDWLYDVLQWHUURJD
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OD¬FRQWUDGLFFLyQODLQFUHGXOLGDGODVRUSUHVDHWFFX\DH[SUHVLyQVHUHϩHMDWDPELpQ
[ 286 José Ignacio Hualde

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-16 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de una expresión de tristeza, Emilio viene mañana.

HQORVFRQWRUQRVHQWRQDWLYRV(VLPSRUWDQWHWHQHUHQFXHQWDTXHQRKD\XQDUHODFLyQ
XQtYRFDHQWUHFRQWRUQRVWRQDOHV\VLJQLϧFDGRVSUDJPiWLFRV3RUHOFRQWUDULRXQPLVPR
FRQWRUQRWRQDOSXHGHUHFLELULQWHUSUHWDFLRQHVGLIHUHQWHVVHJ~QHOFRQWH[WRHQTXHVH
HQFXHQWUH\HOPLVPRVLJQLϧFDGRSUDJPiWLFRSXHGHH[SUHVDUVHWDPELpQFRQFRQWRUQRV
WRQDOHVGLIHUHQWHV

8.6 Expresión de la emoción

+HPRVYLVWRTXHODVGLIHUHQFLDVHQWRQDWLYDVVHHPSOHDQSDUDLQGLFDUDFWRVGHOKDEOD
FRPR LQIRUPDU SUHJXQWDU \ PDQGDU \ WDPELpQ HQ OD H[SUHVLyQ GH OD DFWLWXG GHO
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SURVyGLFRVYDQDFRPSDxDGRVGHJHVWRVIDFLDOHV\PDQXDOHV
La entonación 287 ]

Tiempo (seg.)
Figura 8-17 Onda sonora y contorno entonativo de una expresión de alegría, ¡Emilio viene mañana!

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SURQXQFLDGRVSRUHODXWRUWUDWDQGRGHH[SUHVDUHPRFLRQHVGLIHUHQWHV(QOD)LJXUD
ODHPRFLyQTXHVHH[SUHVDHVGHWULVWH]D1yWHVHTXHHOFDPSRWRQDOHVPX\UHGX
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$¬SDUWLUGHHVWHSXQWRHOFDPSRWRQDOVHFRQWUDHSRUGHEDMRGHORV+]VLQDSHQDV
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WUDWDQGRGHH[SUHVDUDOHJUtD1RWHPRVTXHHOFDPSRWRQDOHVPXFKRPiVDPSOLRFRQ
HVFDORQDPLHQWRDVFHQGHQWHGHO~OWLPRDFHQWRTXHDOFDQ]DORV+] FRPRSRGHPRV
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TXHSRQHPRVHQFDVLWRGDVODVRWUDVϧJXUDVGHHVWHFDStWXORSDUDSRGHULQFOXLUHO
FDPSRWRQDOGHOFRQWRUQR $VtSXHVODDPSOLWXGGHOFDPSRWRQDOSDUDXQPLVPR
KDEODQWHSXHGHFRUUHODFLRQDUVHFRQVXHVWDGRGHiQLPRWULVWHRDOHJUHODDOHJUtDFRQ
PRYLPLHQWRVWRQDOHVPiVDPSOLRV\ODWULVWH]DFRQHVFDVDYDULDFLyQWRQDO

Ejemplo 8-14

Emilio viene mañana.


[ 288 José Ignacio Hualde

Ejercicios

1. $OYRUG  GHVFULEHGRVWLSRVGHFRQWRUQRVLQWHUURJDWLYRVSDUDHOHVSDxRO


FXEDQRKDEODGRHQ0LDPL8QRGHHVWRVFRQWRUQRVWLHQHGHVFHQVRϧQDO\FRUUHV
SRQGHDOHVTXHPDTXHGDPRVHQ D (VWHFRQWRUQRHVPX\SDUHFLGRDOGHODV
GHFODUDWLYDVHVTXHPDWL]DGRHQ E 

a. ¿Le dá ba mos el nú me ro?

b. Le dá ba mos el nú me ro.

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2. &RQVLGHUHPRVORVWUHVPLQLGLiORJRVVLJXLHQWHV
a. ¿Qué pasaba cuando llegaste?
—Manolo bailaba un bolero.
b. ¿Quién bailaba un bolero?, ¿María?
—No, Manolo bailaba un bolero.
c. ¿Qué estaban haciendo Manolo y María cuando llegaste a la esta?
—Manolo bailaba un bolero; María estaba preparando la comida.

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SURSRQH\DQDOLFHORVFRQWRUQRVHQWRQDWLYRVFRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVDODIUDVHManolo
bailaba un boleroSRUPHGLRGHWRQRVGHIURQWHUD\DFHQWRVWRQDOHV

3. 5HSURGX]FDORVHMHPSORVGHOD)LJXUD*UDEHXQDSDODEUDRIUDVHFRUWD
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La entonación 289 ]

4. /DHQWRQDFLyQHVSURGXFWLYDHLQGHSHQGLHQWHGHOOp[LFRSRUTXHSRGHPRVVREUH
SRQHUHOPLVPRFRQWRUQRDWH[WRVFRQXQQ~PHURGLIHUHQWHGHSDODEUDV\FRQ
GLIHUHQWHGLVWULEXFLyQGHDFHQWRVOp[LFRV&RQVLGHUHPRVHOGLiORJRVLJXLHQWHFRQ
HOFRQWH[WRTXHVHxDODPRV

Conte to +DVLQYLWDGRDWRGRVWXVDPLJRVDXQDϧHVWD7XDPLJD0DULDQD
HVYHJHWDULDQD\OHKDVSUHSDUDGRXQSODWRHVSHFLDO7XDPLJR
-XDQTXHFRQRFHPX\ELHQD0DULDQD\VDEHTXHHVYHJHWD
ULDQD\TXHYDDYHQLUDODϧHVWDYHTXHKD\XQDSHUVRQDSDUD
ODTXHKDVSUHSDUDGRFRPLGDHVSHFLDO\WHSUHJXQWD
uan ¿Para quién es ese plato vegetariano?
Tú ¡Para Mariana! REYLDPHQWH

 *UDEHODIUDVHPara MarianaFRQXQDHQWRQDFLyQDSURSLDGDSDUDHOFRQWH[WR
TXHVHLQGLFD'HVSXpVKDJDORPLVPRUHPSOD]DQGRODUHVSXHVWDFRQ

¡Para Manuel!
¡Para Bárbara!
¡Para el hermano de Mariana!
¡Para el hermano de Manuel!
¡Para el hermano de Bárbara!
¡Para el hermano menor de Mariana!
¡Para el hermano menor de Manuel!
¡Para el hermano menor de Bárbara

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FRQWRUQR"

5. *UDEHHOHMHPSORHQ  WUDWDQGRGHH[SUHVDUODVVLJXLHQWHVHPRFLRQHV


a. DOHJUtD
b. WULVWH]D
c. UDELD
d. EXUOD
e. PLHGR

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[ 290 José Ignacio Hualde

Lecturas adicionales

/DGG >@>@ HVXQDH[FHOHQWHLQWURGXFFLyQDOHVWDGRGHODFXHVWLyQHQHO


HVWXGLRGHODHQWRQDFLyQ
(Q+XDOGH  VHRIUHFHXQDGHVFULSFLyQGHOPRGHORPpWULFRDXWRVHJPHQWDO
DSOLFDGDDOHVSDxRO
6HUHFRPLHQGDWDPELpQFRQVXOWDUHQHOLQWHUQHWHOAtlas interactivo de la entonación
del español 3LODU3ULHWR\3DROR5RVHDQRFRRUGV² GRQGHHOXVXDULR
SXHGHHVFXFKDUHMHPSORVGHFRQWRUQRVHQWRQDWLYRVHQGLYHUVDVYDULHGDGHVGHO
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Nota

1. (QODGHϧQLFLyQGHRWURVDXWRUHVHOHVWXGLRGHODHQWRQDFLyQVHOLPLWDDOXVRGHOWRQRD
QLYHOGHOHQXQFLDGR
9 ]
La teoría de la optimidad
p en
la fonología del español
Sonia Colina

9.1 La teoría de la optimidad: modelo no derivacional

಩&RQFHSWRVEiVLFRV .DJHU0F&DUWK\

/DLGHDSULQFLSDOGHODWHRUtDGHODRSWLPLGDG 7RS HVTXHODIRUPDVXSHUϧFLDO(educto)


VHREWLHQHPHGLDQWHXQSURFHVRGHVHOHFFLyQHQWUHWRGRVORVHGXFWRVSRVLEOHV(candi-
datos)FRUUHVSRQGLHQWHVDXQaductoFRQFUHWR(OaductoHVORTXHWUDGLFLRQDOPHQWHVH
FRQRFHFRPRUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHDXQTXHHVLPSRUWDQWHDGYHUWLUTXHHQOD7RS
QRH[LVWHQUHVWULFFLRQHVQLOtPLWHVUHIHUHQWHVDODIRUPDGHODGXFWR
 /DVHOHFFLyQGHOHGXFWRRFDQGLGDWRySWLPRHVXQSURFHVRQRGHULYDFLRQDOSDUD
OHOROOHYDGRDFDERHQXQVRORSDVR1RKD\RSHUDFLRQHVQLUHJODVFRPRVHKDLOXV
WUDGRHQFDStWXORVDQWHULRUHVHVGHFLUHOHGXFWRQRVHREWLHQHSRUPHGLRGHUHJODV
TXHVHDSOLFDQGHIRUPDRUGHQDGDDODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHVLQRGHXQDVROD
YH]PHGLDQWHODVHOHFFLyQGHOPHMRUGHORVSRVLEOHVHGXFWRV(VSRUHVWRTXHVHSXHGH
GHFLUTXHHOHGXFWRHVWiFRQWHQLGRHQHODGXFWR(QRWUDVSDODEUDVODIRUPDVXSHUϧFLDO
QRHVUHVXOWDGRGHXQDWUDQVIRUPDFLyQGHODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWHVLQRTXHVH
HQFXHQWUDFRQWHQLGDHQODPLVPDVLHQGRXQRGHORVSRVLEOHVDQiOLVLVGHpVWD
[ 292 Sonia Colina

Ejemplo 9-1 Algunos eductos posibles contenidos en la forma subyacente /ala/

>DOD@

>W ૧DOD@
>DOD@
>OD@

3DUWLHQGRGHODGXFWRODIXQFLyQGen ´*HQHUDWRUµ HVUHVSRQVDEOHGHJHQHUDUWRGRV


ORVFDQGLGDWRVRSRVLEOHVDQiOLVLV FI>@ PLHQWUDVTXHEval ´(YDOXDWRUµ HVOD
IXQFLyQTXHVHHQFDUJDGHODHYDOXDFLyQGHORVPLVPRV\ODFRQVHFXHQWHVHOHFFLyQGHO
PHMRU¢(QEDVHDTXpVHGHFLGHFXiOHVHOPHMRUDQiOLVLVHOFDQGLGDWRySWLPR"+D\
GRVIDFWRUHVLPSRUWDQWHVDWHQHUHQFXHQWD

1. 8QFRQMXQWRGHrestricciones ´FRQVWUDLQWVµ XQLYHUVDOHVSUHVHQWHVHQWRGDV


ODVOHQJXDVKXPDQDVTXHH[LJHQTXHHOHGXFWRRODUHODFLyQHQWUHHODGXFWR
\HOHGXFWRFXPSODFLHUWDVFRQGLFLRQHV

Ejemplos de restricciones:
$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ 7RGDVODVVtODEDVGHEHQWHQHUDUUDQTXH
'ෞ༝,2 7RGRHOHPHQWRSUHVHQWHHQHOeducto ´RXWSXWµFRQODVLJOD
2 GHEHWHQHUXQHOHPHQWRTXHOHFRUUHVSRQGDHQHOaducto
´LQSXWµ,  SURKLELFLyQHQFRQWUDGHODHSpQWHVLV 
0೻ྗ,2 7RGRHOHPHQWRSUHVHQWHHQHODGXFWR , GHEHWHQHUXQHOH
PHQWRTXHOHFRUUHVSRQGDHQHOHGXFWR 2  SURKLELFLyQHQ
FRQWUDGHODHOLVLyQ 

2. 8QDMHUDUTXtDGHUHVWULFFLRQHVpropia de cada lengua/DVUHVWULFFLRQHVSXHGHQ


VHUFRQWUDGLFWRULDVSRUHMHPSOR$ཋ೻༩ཟෞH[LJHTXHWRGDVODVVtODEDVWHQJDQ
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WRVQRSUHVHQWHVHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH6LQRH[LVWHXQDUUDQTXH
HQXQDVtODEDHQODUHSUHVHQWDFLyQVXE\DFHQWH\DOPLVPRWLHPSRQRSRGH
PRVLQVHUWDUORVHSUHVHQWDXQFRQϩLFWR(Ocon ictoVHVROXFLRQDSRUPHGLR
GHODMHUDUTXL]DFLyQGHODVUHVWULFFLRQHVVHREHGHFHODUHVWULFFLyQFRQPD\RU
SULRULGDG FRQXQUDQJRPiVDOWRHQODMHUDUTXtD DFRVWDGHGHVREHGHFHUXQD
LQIHULRURFRQPHQRUSULRULGDG/DUHVROXFLyQGHQXHVWURHMHPSORGHSHQGHUi
SRUORWDQWRGHFyPRHVWpQRUGHQDGDV'ෞ༝,2\$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ(QHVSDxROGDGR
TXHQRKD\HSpQWHVLVVHSXHGHGHGXFLUTXH'ෞ༝,2GRPLQDD$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ
La teoría de la optimidad en la fonología del español 293 ]

Ejemplo (el símbolo signi ca domina a’ o es más importante que’):


'ෞ༝,2ª$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ

 (QYLVWDGHHVWRVGRVSULQFLSLRVIXQGDPHQWDOHVODVUHVWULFFLRQHVWLHQHQODVVLJXLHQ
WHVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDV

1. 1RVRQDEVROXWDVHVGHFLUVHSXHGHQWUDQVJUHGLUSHURVyORGHIRUPD
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2. 6RQXQLYHUVDOHVSRUTXHDGLIHUHQFLDGHODVUHJODVHVWiQSUHVHQWHVHQWRGDV
ODVOHQJXDV&XDQGRFLHUWDVUHVWULFFLRQHVQRWLHQHQHIHFWRVYLVLEOHVHQXQD
OHQJXDFRQFUHWDQRVHGHEHDTXHVHDQLQH[LVWHQWHVVLQRDTXHVHHQFXHQWUDQ
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QHQSULRULGDG\SRUORWDQWRQXQFDVHREHGHFHQODVFRQGLFLRQHVLPSXHVWDV
SRUODVSULPHUDV
3. 1RSXHGHQUHIHULUVHVyORDODGXFWR(QRWUDVSDODEUDVQRVHSXHGHSRQHU
FRQGLFLRQHVVREUHODIRUPDGHODGXFWR(VWHSULQFLSLRVHFRQRFHSRUHOQRP
EUHGH¬Riqueza de la Base ´5LFKQHVVRIWKH%DVHµ 
4. 6RQGHGRVWLSRVSULQFLSDOHV delidad ´IDLWKIXOQHVVµ \marcadez ´PDUNHG
QHVVµ /DVSULPHUDVHYDO~DQODUHODFLyQHQWUHHODGXFWR\HOHGXFWRSHQDOL
]DQGRFXDOTXLHUPRGLϧFDFLyQFRQUHVSHFWRDOSULPHUR0೻ྗ,2\'ෞ༝,2VRQ
HMHPSORVGHUHVWULFFLRQHVGHϧGHOLGDG/DVVHJXQGDVSURKtEHQHVWUXFWXUDV
PDUFDGDVWDOHVFRPRODVVtODEDVVLQDUUDQTXHHQHOFDVRGH¬$ཋ೻༩ཟෞRODV
VtODEDVFRQXQDFRGD &໦෋೻ 8QWHUFHUWLSRLPSRUWDQWHGHUHVWULFFLRQHV
VRQODVGHDOLQHDPLHQWR $ຮ๠ศໍ HQODVTXHHOUHTXLVLWRHVTXHHOH[WUHPR
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RL]TXLHUGR GHRWUR3RUHMHPSORFRPRYHUHPRVPiVDGHODQWH$ຮ๠ศໍH[LJH
TXHHOH[WUHPRL]TXLHUGRGHXQDEDVHGHULYDFLRQDOFRLQFLGDFRQHOH[WUHPR
GHXQDVtODED &ROLQD /DVIRUPDVFRQUHVLODEHRFRPRunas alas
>XQDVDODV@LQIULQJHQHVWDUHVWULFFLyQ

 0HQFLRQDPRVDQWHULRUPHQWHTXHOD7RSHVXQDWHRUtDIRQROyJLFDSDUDOHODEDVDGD
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 'HOPLVPRPRGROD7RSQRGLFHQDGDVREUHODIRUPDRWHRUtDGHODVUHSUHVHQWD
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HJ¬PRGHORVDXWRVHJPHQWDOHV ODVtODED HJUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVPRUDLFDVWHRUtDGH
&9R; \KDVWDUHSUHVHQWDFLRQHVIRQpWLFDV HJJHVWRVDUWLFXODWRULRVRUDVJRVDXGLWL
YRVYpDVHODVHFFLyQGHOFDStWXOR 
[ 294 Sonia Colina

಩(MHPSORGHXQDQiOLVLV

&RPR YLPRV HQ   XQD IRUPD VXE\DFHQWH R DGXFWR FRPR SRU HMHPSOR DOD
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Ejemplo 9-2

a. DOD
b. DOD
c. OD
d. W ૧DOD

D \ E GLϧHUHQHQHOVLODEHRGHODFRQVRQDQWHLQWHUYRFiOLFDPLHQWUDVTXHORV


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 (OHGXFWRSDUDHODGXFWRDODVHUiHOFDQGLGDWR D  E  F R G 
TXHPHMRUVDWLVIDJDODVUHVWULFFLRQHVXQLYHUVDOHV\ODMHUDUTXtDSURSLDGHOHVSDxRO
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HVSUHVHQWDUVyORODVTXHVRQUHOHYDQWHVSDUDHODQiOLVLV6LVHWLHQHHQFXHQWDTXHODV
UHVWULFFLRQHVSHUWLQHQWHVDQXHVWURHMHPSORVRQ$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ'ෞ༝,2\0೻ྗ,2DOJXQDV
MHUDUTXtDVSRVLEOHVVHUtDQ

Ejemplo 9-3

a. $ཋ೻༩ཟෞª'ෞ༝,2ª0೻ྗ,2
b. $ཋ೻༩ཟෞª0೻ྗ,2ª'ෞ༝,2
c. 'ෞ༝,20೻ྗ,2ª$ཋ೻༩ཟෞ
d. 0೻ྗ,2ª$ཋ೻༩ཟෞª'ෞ༝,2
e. 'ෞ༝,2ª$ཋ೻༩ཟෞª0೻ྗ,2

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Ejemplo 9-4

DOD 'ෞ༝,2 0೻ྗ,2 $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ

a. DOD 

b. OD 

c. W ૧DOD 

 d. DOD *

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Ejemplo 9-5 Relaciones de correspondencia

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> G૧ D ਥ Q j H O @ (GXFWR 2 ´2XWSXWµ RWDPELpQ%DVH %

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Ejemplo 9-6

ERਥOL࣢‫ޞ‬૊ DIR bolígrafo ਥEROL boli


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PD‫࣢ޞ‬૊Dਥ‫ޞ‬LW ૧D Margarita ਥPD‫࣢ޞ‬૊D Marga
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[RਥVH José ਥ[RVH Jose
G૧DਥQMHO Daniel ਥG૧DQL Dani
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\  

Ejemplo 9-7 Base sin reducción en la forma no hipocorística

k istina 'ෞ༝,2 0೻ྗ,2 ਥ‫۝۝‬ 'ෞ༝22 0೻ྗ22

 a. N‫ޞ‬LVਥW ૧LQD *

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Ejemplo 9-8 Reducción de bases en hipocorísticos

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Ejemplo 9-9 Retención de codas en la forma no hipocorística

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 a. [HਥVXV * *

b. ਥ[HVX 

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Ejemplo 9-10 Eliminación de codas en hipocorísticos

[HVXV
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Ejemplo 9-11 Diptongo en la forma no hipocorística

G૧DQLHO 'ෞ༝,2 0೻ྗ,2 $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ 1འය&໦໅༝

 a. G૧DਥQMHO *

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c. G૧DQLਥHO 

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Ejemplo 9-12 Simplificación de diptongos en hipocorísticos

G૧DQLHO 'ෞ༝ 0೻ྗ 1འය 0೻ྗ 'ෞ༝22 — 


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Ejemplo 9-13

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b. ,෋ෞໍཋ'ཟ༬ /DVYLEUDQWHVHQHOHGXFWRWLHQHQODPLVPDGXUDFLyQTXHODV
GHODGXFWR
c. ‫۝‬
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\GHHVWDPDQHUDVRQHOLPLQDGRV

Ejemplo 9-14

9U9 9‫ޞ‬9 6༝೻යෞ'ཟ༬ ,෋ෞໍཋ'ཟ༬ ‫۝‬


>U

 a. 9U9 9‫ޞ‬9 *

b. 9U9 

c. 9‫ޞ‬9  *

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ODV GRV YLEUDQWHV (O FRQWUDVWH QR HV ySWLPR GHELGR D TXH QR HV SHUFHSWXDOPHQWH
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SOHQODUHVWULFFLyQGHLGHQWLGDGTXHWLHQHXQDSULRULGDGPHQRU(OFDQGLGDWR E 
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FRQWUDVWHODP~OWLSOHHPHUJHFRPRODLQPDUFDGDHQSRVLFLyQLQLFLDOGHVtODEDGHELGR
DODUHVWULFFLyQ‫>۝‬U

Ejemplo 9-15

U9 ‫ޞ‬9 6༝೻යෞ'ཟ༬ ,෋ෞໍཋ'ཟ༬ ‫۝‬


>U

a. U9 ‫ޞ‬9  *

 b. U9 *

c. ‫ޞ‬9 * 
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9.2 Avances importantes de la teoría de la optimidad en español

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GHQWURGHHVWHPDUFRWHyULFR

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DODUUDQTXHGHODVLJXLHQWHFXDQGRpVWDHPSLH]DSRUYRFDO  

Ejemplo 9-16

ODVDODV఩ODVDODV las alas

$OJXQRVDQiOLVLVGHULYDFLRQDOHVEDVDGRVHQPRGHORVDXWRVHJPHQWDOHV\SURVyGLFRV
GHODVtODEDUHFRQRFHQODFRQH[LyQHQWUHHOUHVLODEHR\HOSULQFLSLRTXHDVRFLDXQD
FRQVRQDQWHLQWHUYRFiOLFDFRQODVHJXQGDFRQVRQDQWHDYHFHVOODPDGRregla del ata-
que Rregla CV ,HQHVWRVPRGHORV$PERVSULQFLSLRVHVWiQEDVDGRVHQODSUHIHUHQ
FLDXQLYHUVDOSRUVtODEDVFRQDWDTXH&RPRFRQVHFXHQFLDVHSURSRQHTXHODUHJOD
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XQDDSOLFDFLyQOp[LFDQRSRVWOp[LFD

1. /DUHJOD&9VHDSOLFDHQHOLQWHULRUGHODVSDODEUDV\HQWUHSDODEUDV

Nivel léxico Nivel postléxico


ODVಣDODV ODVDODV

2. /DUHJODGHORVDUUDQTXHVFRPSOHMRVVyORVHDSOLFDHQHOLQWHULRUGHSDODEUDV
Op[LFDPHQWHQRDOQLYHOSRVWOp[LFR 

Nivel léxico
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La teoría de la optimidad en la fonología del español 303 ]

Nivel léxico Nivel postléxico


߿HIಣORNR ߿HIORNR
 ߿HϩRNR

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YRFDO\QRWLHQHDUUDQTXHDFDUUHDXQFRVWRODVtODED\ODSDODEUD\DQRFRLQFLGHQ
E 

Ejemplo 9-17

a. >ODV@>DODV@ /DVtODED\ODSDODEUDFRLQFLGHQ³HVWiQDOLQHDGDV³SHUR
KD\XQDVtODEDVLQDUUDQTXH
b. >ODV@>DODV@ /DVtODED\ODSDODEUDQRFRLQFLGHQ³HVWiQGHVDOLQHDGDV³
SHURWRGDVODVVtODEDVWLHQHQDUUDQTXH

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HOWHQHUXQDVtODEDVLQDUUDQTXH  

Ejemplo 9-18

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RFXOWDHQHOIRUPDOLVPR

Ejemplo 9-19

ODVDODV $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ $ຮ๠ศໍ &໦෋೻

 a. ODV_DODV * *

b. ODV_DODV  **

Ejemplo 9-20

DEOD‫ޞ‬ $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ $ຮ๠ศໍ &໦෋೻

 a. Dɕ૊OD‫ޞ‬ * *

b. Dɕ૊OD‫ޞ‬ * 

Ejemplo 9-21

SXEOLQG૧R $ཋ೻༩ཟෞ $ຮ๠ศໍ &໦෋೻

 a. SXɕ૊_OLQ૧G૧R **

b. SXɕ૊_OLQ૧G૧R  *

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La teoría de la optimidad en la fonología del español 305 ]

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 VHGHEHDODSULPHUDVtODED

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Ejemplo 9-22

SE ఩ >Z@ ap.to a>Z@.to


W ૧G૧ ఩ >M@ ét.ni.co é>M@.ni.co
NС ఩ >M@R>Z@ ac.to a>M@.to

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Ejemplo 9-23

po>Z@.re
ma>M@.re
vina>M@.re
le.>S@ra *le>Z@.ra
so.>S@lar *so>Z@.lar
le.>W ૧@ra *le>M@.ra

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Ejemplo 9-24

po>Z@.re
ma>M@.re
vina>M@.re
la>˓૊@ro.ga *la>M@ro.ga
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Ejemplo 9-25

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Ejemplo 9-26

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FRUUHVSRQGDHQHOHGXFWR

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La teoría de la optimidad en la fonología del español 307 ]

Ejemplo 9-27

$ຮ๠ศໍ6༝๠༬&໦෋೻/๠ය0೻ྗ,2ª06'ª,෋ෞໍཋ FRQV

 /DYRFDOL]DFLyQGHREVWUX\HQWHVHQODFRGDYLVWDHQ  LQGLFDTXH&໦෋೻/๠ය


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VDWLVIDFHUHOSULQFLSLRGHODGLVWDQFLDGHVRQDQFLD 06' $¬VXYH]0೻ྗ,2GRPLQDD
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Ejemplo 9-28

SRE‫ޞ‬H 6༝๠༬ &໦෋೻/๠ය 0೻ྗ,2 06' ,෋ෞໍཋ FRQV

 a. ਥSRZ‫ޞ‬H *

b. ਥSRɕ૊‫ޞ‬H 

c. ਥSRE‫ޞ‬H 

d. ਥSRɕ૊‫ޞ‬H 

e. ਥSR‫ޞ‬H 

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Ejemplo 9-29

&໦෋೻ 0೻ྗ
ODE‫ޞ‬RPD $ຮ๠ศໍ 6༝๠༬ 06' ,෋ෞໍཋ FRQV
/๠ය ,2

 a. OD_ਥɕ૊‫ޞ‬RPD *

b. OD_ਥE‫ޞ‬RPD 
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Ejemplo 9-29 (continued)

&໦෋೻ 0೻ྗ
ODE‫ޞ‬RPD $ຮ๠ศໍ 6༝๠༬ 06' ,෋ෞໍཋ FRQV
/๠ය ,2

c. OD_Zਥ‫ޞ‬RPD  *

d. OD_ɕ૊ਥ‫ޞ‬RPD  *

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. OD_ਥ‫ޞ‬RPD 

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9.3 Variación sincrónica y diacrónica (Holt 2006)

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