Está en la página 1de 21
cuarren | Pavement types, wheel loads, and design factors ‘The field of pavement design is dynamic in that concepts are continually changing as new data become available, There are.many methods of design ‘available, since opinions regarding suitability of designs vary from locale to locale. In particular, materials that are available for construction of pavements have a major influence on design. There are, however, principles of design that are common to all problems irrespective of other extenuating circumstances. ‘The design of airport and highway pavements involves a study of soils and paving materials, their behavior under load, and the design of a pavement to carry that load under all climatic conditions. All pavements derive their ultimate support from the underlying subgrade; therefore, a knowledge of basic soil mechanics is essential. In the early stages of development, design consisted of rule-of-thumb proce- dures based on past experiences. During the period 1920 to 1940, engineers made a concerted effort to evaluate the structural properties of soil, principally for foundations for buildings and bridges. During this time a vast amount of basic data was accumulated, which enabled the engineer to design foundations on a rational basis. At that time, soil mechanics as applied to pavements dealt primarily with classification of soils, which in itself was a big step, however inadequate. Highway engineers were aware that performance of pavements was dependent toa large extent upon the types of soils over which the highway was constructed. As a result, correlations of pavement performance with subgrade types were established. In general, the studies showed that highways constructed over plastic soils showed higher degrees of distress than those constructed over granular de- posits, Frost action and adverse drainage conditions were recognized early as two of the primary causes of pavement failure, 4 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS Nevertheless, many highway departments utilized standard cross sections for most highways. This meant that a road, even though it crossed several soil types, was constructed using a constant thickness. The practive was often justified on the basis of economics. Beginning in the 1950s, gear loads imposed by heavy aircraft necessitated a more rational approach. Also, at about the same time, truck traffic increased immeasurably with the result that severe breakup was common on some highways. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the basic fundamentals involved in the design of pavements and to set forth the techniques that will enable an engineer to design a pavement to fit a variety of situations. TEST ROADS IN THE UNITED STATES ‘The Bureau of Public Roads in the United States® and the AASHO have been responsible for several test roads constructed in the United States. In addition, several state highway departments have constructed test pavements for the purpose of evaluating the effect of load and materials on pavement design. The first major test road was known as the Bates Experimental Road and was constructed in Illinois in 1920, This test road was constructed: using various materials, including brick, asphaltic concrete, and Portland cement concrete. The results of this test road gave basic data that were used by design engineers for many years, ‘The next major test road was designated the Maryland Test Road, and the tests were made on a I.I-mile section of concrete pavement constructed in 1941. Major conclusions were drawn from the research project relative to the effect of loads on pumping of rigid pavements. ‘The WASHO road test was constructed in Idaho for the purpose of evaluating the design of flexible pavements. This test road was constructed under controlled conditions; four different axle loadings were used during the testing program. This project brought out forcibly the fact that major distress was confined largely to the spring seasons of the year, and illustrated the effect of the thickness of wearing course on pavement performance. In 1951, a major road test was planned for Ottawa, Illinois. ‘This road test has been designated the AASHO Road Test, and included both concrete and asphal- tic pavements. Major findings dealt with concepts of serviceability, as well as the effect of relative pavement thickness on performance. In addition to the major road tests, the Federal Highway Administration has sponsored research programs throughout the country wherein pavements have been evaluated under varying soil, climatic, and loading conditions. The Corps of Engineers has for the past 20 years conducted extensive research programs on prototype pavements as well as pavement test sections. There is litle doubt that the results of these field test programs have had major influence on present-day design concepts. In addition, performance of prototype pavements in service has had significant influence on design. This is not surprising, if one considers that it is difficult if not impossible to evaluate * The Bureau of Public Roads now carries the name Federal Highway Administration, shortened FHWA, DEFINITION OF PAVEMENT TYPES 5 fully design concepts in the laboratory. Furthermore, it has been known for some time that user opinion in the final analysis dictates the adequacy of the design. Subsequent chapters of this text will rely heavily on the results of the test pavements mentioned above, as well as performance data published in the literature. Detailed findings of the various field projects will be discussed through out the text. DEFINITION OF PAVEMENT TYPES Historically, pavements have been divided into two broad categories (see Figure 1.1). The classical definitions of pavements, in some cases, represent an over- simplification, as will be discussed in later paragraphs. Pavement classification is subject to the limitations inherent to all classification techniques. ‘The exible pavement may consist of a relatively thin wearing surface built over a base course and subbase course, and they rest upon the compacted sub- grade, In contrast. rigid pavements are made up of Portland cement concrete and may or may not have a base course between the pavement and subgrade The essential difference between the two types of pavements, flexible and rigid, is the manner in which they distribute the load over the subgrade, The rigid pave- ment, because of its rigidity and high modulus of elasticity, tends to distribute the load over a relatively wide area of soil; thus, a major portion of the structure capacity is supplied by the slab itself. The major factor considered in the design of rigid pavements is the structural strength of the concrete. For this reason, minor variations in subgrade strength have little influence upon the structural capacity of the pavement. It should be noted at this point that the classical definition of flexible pave- ments includes primarily those pavements that have an asphalt concrete surface, —_Foranaccuent cee) [Bae enare ay Seay notte ed] o i Figure 1.1, Components of (a) flexible and (0) rigid pavements. Base courses under rigid pavements are often called subbase courses. For these illustrations the base and subbase courses re shown in a “trench” section, See Figure 1.2 for designs wherein the base is either drained or extended through the shoulder for drainage. 6 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS. In contrast, the classical rigid pavement is made up of Portland cement concrete. It should be obvious that the definitions “fexible and rigid” are arbitrary and were established in an attempt to distinguish between asphalt and Portland ‘cement concrete pavements. Asphalt pavements may possess stiffness much as Portland cement concrete pavements. This is tue when stabilized materials are used in any of the pave- ‘ment components or if, for example, relatively thick asphaltic concrete layers are used. At the other extreme, if very thin surfaces are used (for example, surface treatments), the pavement can be considered to be flexible. Hence, the reader must bear in mind that the definitions are arbitrary and may or may not be strictly true. Base courses are used under rigid pavements for various reasons, including (1) control of pumping, (2) control of frost action, (8) drainage, (4) control of shrink and swell of the subgrade, and (5) expedition of construction. The base course (often called a subbase course) lends some structural capacity to the pave- ment. However, its contribution to the load-carrying capacity may be rela- tively minor. ‘The load-carrying capacity of a truly flexible pavement is brought about by the load distributing characteristics of the layered system, Flexible pavements consist of a series_of layers with the highest-quality materials at or near the surface Hence, the strength of a flexible pavement is the result of building up thick layers and, thereby, distributing the load over the subgrade, rather than by the bending action of the slab. The thickness design of the pavement is influenced by the strength of the subgrade. If an asphalt pavement has high stiffness, it may behave essentially asa Figid pavement and fatigue of the surface or of any pavement component may become critical. In these cases, concepts underlying design approach those historically adopted for concrete pavement design. For example, full-depth asphalt pavements are used in certain situations. This type of pavement undoubtedly approaches the rigid condition and the classical methods for designing flexible pavements no longer apply. The same is true if a cementing agent is used as a stabilizing additive in the base or subbase. Base courses are constructed some distance beyond the edge of the wearing surface. This is done to make certain that loads applied at the edge of the pave- ment will be supported by the underlying layers. If the layers are built with an abrupt face, loads applied at the surface are likely to cause failure due to the lack of support at the pavement edge. Base courses generally are extended about 1 foot beyond the edge of the pavement, although in special situations they may be extended for greater distances. Roadway and Airport Cross Section. Figures 1.2 and 1.8 show typical cross sections of a highway and of a runway and taxiway. The standard width of high. ‘ways that carry large volumes of traffic (ie., highi-type highways) is generally 24 feet, although for highways that carry lesser amounts of traffic the width may be somewhat less, The shoulders adjacent to the traffic lane again are of variable width, generally about 10. feet. Base courses and subbase courses under highway pavements may be constructed using one of several techniques. If the material is pervious, it may extend through the shoulder to permit drainage at the point it intersects the side slope. DEFINITION OF PAVEMENT TYPES Shoulder Medial ries | 24 pavement varies \ my iol a ‘Subbase ‘Storm drain, ‘through shoulder” an vate ae igue 1.2, Typical cross section of a highway. Pavement slope 4 (© 4 inch per foot, Shoulder slope 3 to If inches per foot. Cut and fill slope variable. why fumay 8 | | | Storm Figue 1.3. Typical runway and taxiway cros section, Widths are variable depending on the type of airport. Distances 4, 4’, and B are determined by clearance standards. In some cases, particularly in cuts, subbase drains will be used. Many highways are built utilizing trench construction (see Figure 1.1). In this type of construc: tion drainage is not attempted. Performance surveys have shown that many miles of the pavements have functioned satisfactorily, as long as proper attention is given to the gradation and the compaction of the base-course and subbase- course materials. These factors will be discussed in great detail in subsequent chapters. In contrast to highways, airfield runways are constructed in widths up to 500 feet, The widths of civilian airfields are variable, ranging between 50 and 200 feet, depending upon the type of airfield. Typical runways are 150 feet wide. Greater widths are used on some military airfields to accommodate heavy bom- bers. Runways are nearly always crowned, whereas highway pavements may or may not be crowned, In some cases it is more economical to build highway pave- ments tilted downward toward the outside lane with no crown. This type of construction, however, is not justified on major airfields, because of the long distance the water must travel to drain from one edge of the pavement to the other. ‘Taxiway widths are variable, ranging between 20 and 100 feet, depending upon the class of airport and are typically 75 feet wide, Many airfields have been built with subbase drainage similar to that indicated for highways. However, to be effective, the drains must be spaced at closer in- tervals. Thickened Pavement Sections. Pavements with thickened edges are used in some situations to accommodate high stresses that exist at the pavement edge “The pavement sections are designated, for example, as 9-8-9 inch, 9-7-9 inch, or 9.6.9 inch (Figure 14). ‘Thickened-edge pavements are more costly than uniform pavements, because of the grading operations that are required at the thickened 8 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS. FE Pee 1 L 10% (ight aicrat) ~ 1000" heavy airratty oo ¢ Thickened center| width varies I © igure 1.4. Thickened pavements for high load concentration. (a) ‘Transverse section of 9-8-9 inch highway pavement; (b) longitudinal section of runway end (normal traffic, no channelization); (©) “keel” section for high load concentration on runway. edge. In addition, the use of the thickened-edge highway pavement was popular at the time when pavement widths were in the neighborhood of 18 to 20 feet and traffic traveled very close to the pavement edge. On wider pavements, how- ever, traffic concentration is between 3 and 4 feet from the pavement edge, alleviating the necessity for using a thickened edge. ‘Taxiways and runway ends should always be constructed using a heavier section than the central portion of the runway because of high concentration of traffic (Figure 1.5). Touchdown at the end of the runway may not be critical because the airplane is partially airborne. ‘The distance from the end of the runway for which-a thickened section is used ranges between 10 percent of the total runway Tength and 1000 feet. A “keel” section is a thickened center used on airport pavements (Figure 1.40). HIGHWAY AND AIRPORT PAVEMENTS COMPARED The performance of highway pavements and the performance of airport pave- ments are for the most part different. Rigid highway pavements that carry high HIGHWAY AND AIRPORT PAVEMENTS COMPARED 9 Building ‘pron Figure 1.5. Triangular runway system showing location of strengthened pavements. Runway fends, taxiways, and aprons are designed for greater thickness than interior of runways. Exit taxiways may be classified as noncritical. volumes of heavy traffic nearly always result in pumping distress if built directly on clay subgrades. On the other hand, many airfield pavements built directly over plastic soils have shown little or no pumping. Flexible highway pavements show serious distress at pavement edges, whereas airfield pavements do not. The chief factors that must be considered in the design of highway and airfield pavements are the same; however, differences exist regarding the quantitative values assigned. to each factor. The total weight of an airplane is usually greater than that of a truck, but the number of repetition of loads is much greater on highways than on airports. The design load for a major highway is ordinarily in the vicinity of 9000 pounds on dual tires, and the expected repetition may be as much as 1000 to 2000 trucks per day. In contrast, a heavy airplane may have wheel loads in excess of 100,000 pounds, but only 20,000 to 40,000 coverages® may be considered for the life of the pavement. Tire pressures on jet aircraft may be as high as 400 psi (pounds per square inch), whereas for conventional truck tires, pressures are in the vicinity of 60 to 90 psi. Lateral placement of traffic on highways is such that nearly all truck traffic travels within 8 to 4 feet of the pavement edge. In contrast, traffic on an airfield is such that the distribution of traffic is concentrated primarily in the center. As a general rule, the traffic on a runway is distributed over about 60 feet of the pavement. ‘Modern aircraft have steerable nose wheels which have resulted in channelized conditions on airfield taxiways. Results of recent studies have shown that 75 percent of this type of traffic will occur on about 7.5 feet of pavement. + one coverage results when each point on the traffic area of the pavement has been traversed fone time by a wheel, 10 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS. ‘The geometry of the pavement is extremely important. The most severe distress to an airfield pavement occurs where traffic follows a designated line along the aprons and taxiways and at runway ends, Little distress is generally found on the aprons or in the center portion of the runways. From the above discussion, it is seen that the major differences between high- way and airfield pavements are repetition of load, distribution of traffic, and geometry of the pavement. In turn, each of these is affected by pavement width and type of aircraft. For a given wheel load and a given tire pressure, highway pavements are thicker than airfield pavements, because repetition of load on a highway is much higher and also because the loads are applied closer to the pavement edge. This does not mean to imply, however, that airfield pavements are generally thinner than highway pavements; gross loads on airfields are much higher with the result that in actual practice these pavements are thicker. ss se Taller Tractor os - asi one with dual tes with dual ties (@) ain single- woos < se wees = ‘gear SS Nose wheels re) Double ‘win-tandem gears Nose wheeis @ Figure 1.6. Plan view of several basic types of wheel configuration. (a) Single trailer-truck unit, (b) tricycle landing gear with single tires, (2) twin-tandem landing gear, (@) double twin- tandem gear. (Note: Not to scale) WHEEL LOADS n Figure 1.7. Boeing 707 gear () Nose wheel. (b) twin-tandem main gear. (Courtesy Boeing, Aircraft Co) WHEEL LOADS ‘Types of airplane- and truck-wheel arrangements can be divided into several basic categories, induding (1) single and dual wheels, (2) single and tandem axles, and (3) nose wheel, tricycle, and bicycle landing gears. Truck and airplane wheels may be arranged in several combinations of these listed above. For highways the legal axle load in most states ranges betwen 18,000 and 20,000 pounds, which implies that a Toad on one set of dual tires will be one- half the axle load. Thus, if greater loads are required, it is common to add a tandem axle.* Large modern-day aircraft utilize either bicycle or tricycle landing gears. In the case of tricycle landing gears, the main gear load can be of single, dual, or twin-tandem type (Figure 1.6). Figure 1.7 illustrates the twin-tandem gear used on many large aircraft. In the design of airport pavements, the design wheel load may be that of the largest plane which will use the field. Table 1.1 shows typical data for several air- craft. However, design procedure that will be presented in subsequent chapters of this book account for mixed traffic of varying loads and types of gears. The con- dition of takeoff governs thickness design of airport pavements since under this condition the load is greatest due to fuel weight. © Although the most common multiple-axle trucks have two axles in groups, present-day practices often incluele as many as three or four axles in a group. 12 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS. TABLE 1.1. Dota for Several Typical Alrraft® Max Max Load Gross Main Gear Each Main Tire Weight Dimension Assembly Pressure ‘Type of Plane (Ib X 108) Type of Gear in.) (lb X 103) (psi) Boeing 707-3206 336.0 Twin-tandem = 56 X 34.5 157.0180 Boeing 707-1208 258.0 Twin-tandem 56 X 34 120.0170 Boeing 737 11.0 Twin 30.5 25.8 148 Boeing 727-100 170.0 Twin 34.0 76.9 166 Boeing 747 713.0 Double twine tandem 58 x 44 166.5204 Convair Cv 880 185.0 ‘Twin-tandem 45 X 21.5 87.0150 Lockheed L1011-1 411.0 Twin-tandem 70 X 52 195.0 175 MeDonnel~ Douglas DCI0-10 413.0 Twin-tandem 54 X 64 194.0 175 McDonnel: Douglas DC 8-43 316.0 Twintandem 55 X 30 148.0 7 McDonnel- DouglasDC9-15 91.5 Twin Py 24 0 127 Concorde 388.0 Twintandem 66 X 26.4 184.3184 BAG 1-11-500 100.0 Twin 21 4750014 + From FAA (Reference 5) and the Asphalt Institute (Reference 3). See Reference 3 for a complete summary of aircraft data On the other hand, the length of runways may or may not be determined on the basis of takeoff conditions depending on a number of factors. Runway lengths are determined on the basis of aircraft characteristics as well as temperature, altitude, and so on, at the site. Table 1.2 shows typical lengths for several air- craft. These values are for illustrative purposes only, since each site must be analyzed on an individual basis. Allowable axle loads for highways vary from state to state as indicated in Table 1.8. The majority of the states permit single-axle loads of 18,000 pounds and maximum tandem-axle loads of 32,000 pounds. Tandem spacings range be- tween 40 and 48 inches. Tire pressures are controlled generally by allowable load per inch of width of tire. Gross weights are quite variable from state to state and may be calculated utilizing a formula as indicated in the extreme righthand column of Table 1.3. TIRE PRESSURES, CONTACT PRESSURES, AND TIRE IMPRINT IE the effect of the tire wall is ignored, the contact pressure between the tire and pavement must be equal to the tire pressure. For low-pressure tires, how- ever, contact pressures under the tire wall may be greater than at the center of the tire. For high-pressure tires the reverse is true. For most problems, however, the assumption is made that contact pressures are uniform over the imprint area. DESIGN FACTORS: 13 ‘TABLE 1.2. Typical Runway Lengths for Several Aircraft and Conditions Normal Max Temp. of Hottest Month Elevation Length? Plane ‘Type i) ® ) Boeing 707-100 100 Sea level 10,500 Boeing 707-100 B 3000 11,500 Boeing 707-100 5 1000 10,300 Bocing 727 5 1000 7,900 Boring 747 % 1000 10,500 Douglas DC 9 ® 1000 8,000 Convair Cv 880 15 1000 10,500. BAC I-ll 5 1000 7,300 «Data from charts in FAA publication (ref. 4) ©The lengths shown in the table are relative and are for illustrative purposes ‘only since the required lengths are dependent upon many factors, including effective grade of the runway, setting of the wing flaps, and takeoff weight. Each runway must be analyzed for its own particular conditions and the critical plane using the runway. In the majority of the problems, circular tire imprints are assumed. Hence the radius of contact is as follows: ay where a = radius of contact P = total load on the tire p=tire pressure (assumed to be equal to contact pressure) For some cases tire imprints as illustrated on Figure 1.8 are used. The rela- tionship between pressure and the geometry of the imprint is as shown on the figure. DESIGN FACTORS Pavement design consists of two broad categories: (1) design of the paving mixtures, and (2) structural design of the pavement components. These two design steps must go hand in hand. ‘The structural design of pavements is basically different from the structural design of bridges and buildings in that the pavement structure lies exposed upon the ground surface and, hence, is greatly influenced by environmental fac. ‘tors. Likewise, a highway, for example, will cross many different soil deposits and it becomes necessary for the design engineer to select in a rational manner a design value representative of the area under question. The strength of soil is affected by many factors, including density, moisture content, soil texture, soil structure, rate of load application, and degree of confinement. In addition, soils TABLE 1.3. Truck Axle Spacing and Weight Limits® oro Weight Limite ih alas a {Poeummatic Tires Only Lai at ig gos: é seg gqeiadash iid .. Bete 22885 2 oom HE pp EBB HEHE LS, sae Be ESE aS EE GE EERE EE rate Maun oo woe we ame TE E Aske Pe ee ee ew zoe ou 6s 0 8 staan o Ne 2 ww ma atesia Mos on ww mesma an Csonde oo a mw 6 ww ne ms ae Gonna Xs 0 ms se os Dara om 9 * w 6 6 6 a2 ae DiistoConie 0 NS nm erie oss mo © om me tat me Goin © xR m3 0s os 0 m2 mame wy Beal ae - 4 2 ww 2 io 3 at is Tae sso ah & oS. ine ox 8 os ww 4 na me Iedane om on so name tom o NR 2 © 4 me me Kana a ee ee ee ys t Kentky em ee a dd E bE E rE E Tia ow we et we wt 30 Maine so om H 2 os us mana ma Marland Ns NS md us SS mae Mancha mo mt us s * as Mt eos ew we ow Minna oxen ww ma me e a aes Mii © Tie ow nd ad Mion oR oe ow ma ms Menton ox ow ss meno F a Neate ox Me ae er Nova eo me ow ms mos wa Nortimntin Nsw seas “BY es oot mame ee New enn om m4 nt nama mt aw Mere om me us 2 wo ms 4m i) New Yor wm msm ue ee me nn nao 4 WContimeats TYPES OF DISTRESS, STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL 15 TABLE 1.3. (continued) ous Weight Lite ‘ay outa 2 8 4, go eo eG a Bh B Com Bid oH im sue SE ee HORS Fert Neus eo as ma 78 Suh Dake ow ou 2 ua tay a ie xs wo se # 18 daft =a we ®, (tone © wo th i ah oH = s nese wo woth Fi 2 sai uw mam ” ma ined xe ma _Ns us a4 mana = SouhCuoisa xR oe ma me Seth Data om 8 4 ma na Tene os um “4 @_na_n2 Ta ow ou “oa nn va sue ue ws me at Yenet am mse Rh Ba a ww 2 uw 4 «0 2 Wain 2 wo usw 6 o@ «2 ae Wot ga o kw 2 wo 4 wow e sas Yamin os as ne ww ne 3 oat at Woonin oss ww RB ge We otamtea ise, P ieee cee Eaton X pies y Emetaaratms fe BARRE 2 aA tee ‘Voir with ales ver 8 ft par «From Natal Highay Vee Confrence, "oe tomer exe srains. vary from point to point along a roadway; this fact coupled with the random snature of the traffic input makes the pavement design process a complex one. TYPES OF DISTRESS, STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL Distinction will be made here between two different types of failure. ‘The first, 2 structural failure, includes a collapse of the pavement structure or a breakdown ‘of one or more of the pavement components of such magnitude to make the payment incapable of sustaining the loads imposed upon its surface. The second, classified functional failure, may or may not be accompanied by structural 16 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS —1——_| Figure 1.8, Tire imprint assuming rectangle and semicircles. failure but is such that the pavement will not carry out its intended function without causing discomfort to passengers or without causing high stresses in the plane or vehicle that passes over it, due to its roughness. Obviously the degree of distress for both catagories is gradational, and the severity of distress of any pavement is largely a matter of opinion of the person observing the distress. However, the difference between the two types of failures is important, and the engineer must be able to distinguish between them. As an example, consider a rigid highway pavement that has been resurfaced with an asphaltic overlay. The surface may develop rough spots as a result of breakup in the bituminous overlay (functional failure) without structural breakdown of the overall structure. On the other hand, the same pavement may crack and break up as a result of overload (structural failure). Maintenance measures for the first situation may consist of resurfacing to restore smooth-riding qualities to the pavenient. However, the structural type of failure may require complete rebuilding. cause for either of the aforementioned distress conditions may be three- fold. First, overload including excessive gross loads, high repetition of loads, and high tire pressures can cause either structural or functional failure. Second, climatic conditions as well as environmental conditions may cause surface irregu: larities and structural weaknesses to develop. For example, frost heaving, volume change of soil due to wetting and drying, breakup resulting from freezing and thawing, or improper drainage may be the prime cause of pavement distress Many of the climatic variables can be estimated, but prediction of climatic con ditions may, at best, be poor. A third cause may be disintegration of the paving materials, due to freezing and thawing and/or wetting and drying. Scaling of rigid pavements, for example, may result from nondurable aggregates and can be caused by or aggravated by the application of salts for ice removal. Base-course materials may breakdown, thus generating fines which may cause an unstable mix to develop. Subgrades also are susceptible to climatic conditions, Construction practices may have ‘SERVICEABILITY 7 some effect. For example, rutting of the subgrade during construction, which permits the accumulation of water and subsequent softening of the subgrade after the construction is completed, may cause pavement distress. Use of dirty aggregates and inadequate inspection during construction are obvious factors that may cause pavement deterioration. Design procedures must be accompained by stringent inspection and field control in order to provide adequate pavement structures. Many types of pavement distress are a function of maintenance, or, more correctly, lack of maintenance, Sealing of cracks and joints at proper intervals will insure a tight wearing surface, as provision against surface infiltration of water. Likewise, sealing of flexible-pavement surfaces is extremely beneficia Maintenance of shoulders will be discussed in great detail as it affects pavement performance. It is to be recognized from the above discussion that inadequate structural design is but one of many different factors that may cause pavement distress. Provision can be made during the design phase to take into account many of the climatic variables, as well as construction and maintenance techniques. However, the close tie-in of the factors with pavement performance should be fully recognized by the reader. SERVICEABILITY Perhaps the biggest question the paving engineer must answer is “What is an acceptable pavement?” The answer to this, of course, is qualitative and depends upon the opinion of the individual rating the pavement. Further, the answer is dependent, at least in part, upon the intended use of the pavement. As an example, less roughness can be tolerated on high-speed expressways than on secondary roads that carry low volumes of traffic. Also, it is obvious that “accept- able condition” has one meaning when applied to highway pavements and an- other when applied to airport pavements. Design concepts must account in some way for serviceability of the structure and these concepts must also distinguish between structural and functional distress. QS The Present ability Index. The serviceability index (designated the PSI) concept was developed during the AASHO Road Test.* The Present Serv- iceability Index is based upon a rating scale that designates the condition of the pavement at any instant of time. A rating of 5.0 indicates a “perfect” pavement, whereas a rating of 0 indicates an “impassible” pavement. ‘The present serviceability index is determined by a panel of individuals who rate the pavement on a rating scale from 0 to 5.0. The index is correlated with objective measurements made on the pavement surface. These objective measure ments include a measure of roughness index, extent of cracking and patching, ‘The reader is referred to the material in Chapter 19 for 2 detailed discussion of the present serviceability index concept. Special reference is made to the factors that affect the index and methods of making objective measurements, Data in Chapter 18 illustrate various distress mani: festation, Reference will be made throughout the remainder of this text to serviceability trends and the role of user opinions in design. u PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS and for flexible pavements, the average rut depth in the wheel tracks. The important point here is that an estimation of serviceability can be made by making the objective measurements, and then, through correlation equations, calculation of the index can be made. ‘The primary factor that determines the PSI is longitudinal roughness of the pavement. In fact, many engineers drop the other terms (cracking, patching, etc.) from the correlation equations. Serviceability can, thus, be determined solely through the use of pavement roughness measurements with a high degree of accuracy. THE DESIGN PROCESS, DESIGN STRATEGIES ‘As was mentioned in previous paragraphs, it is necessary in the design process to distinguish between functional and structural failures. At least in the case of highways, the primary factor overriding most design decisions is that of func- tional failure, although it is necessary to build into the pavement structure resistance against structural failure to insure that the pavement will carry out its intended function, Figure 1.9 shows a generalized relationship between serviceability and age. Starting at year 0, it is to be noted that the pavement will have initial high serviceability, although this rarely approaches the PSI value of 5.0. As traffic is applied to the pavement the serviceability will decrease; the rate of decrease depends upon the amount of routine maintenance placed into the pavement. At year y,, the road may have major maintenance applied to it, such as resurfac- ing, and the serviceability then is again at its initial value. As traffic progresses the serviceability again drops to year yz, and this process is continued throughout the life of the pavement. Figure 1.10 illustrates that the design process for pavements is not an exact one, and is dependent upon many factors. Figure 1.10a shows the generalized relationship between accumulated 18,000-pound singleaxle loads (EAL) and required thickness. In this case, the accumulated axle loads would be those Major maintenance With coutine (Resurtace, ete) Serviceabilty —> ° Es a Age) Figure 1.9. Generalized serviceability versus age. THE DESIGN PROCESS, DESIGN STRATEGIES 19 Low con 2 j i é & z : i & Accra TEOOE-Poud ed Woe Sak) Year ovate (a) ) rd nace Ast resurface- N t t \ g if Total cost 3 3 Lo Mainenance i e} ot 2 3| — i ost Years of traffic —= Tnterval of redurfacing —~ @ Figure 1.10, Principles involved in optimizing the design. (a) Thickness of flexible pavement versus equivalent load repetition; (b) thickness requirements as a function of time; (©) several alternate designs as a function of years; (d) initial cost, maintenance cost, and total cost versus Interval of resurfacing, (AIL curves apply to flexible pavements) anticipated over the design period. If the data are converted to years of traffic, as shown in Figure 1.108, the lines take the general shape indicated on the graph. During the design process, the designer has open to him several options relative to the initial design he might propose as suggested in Figure 1.10c. Referring to the upper curve of this graph, the dashed lines indicate that the initial design would carry the pavement through year y, and that the initial design thickness would be f,. At this interval in time, a resurface would be applied that would carry the road to yz, at which time a second resurface would be applied to take the road to interval of time equal to yj. Another alternate that the design engineer might select would be to make the initial thickness equal to fz, which would take the road to yz years before major main- tenance would be required. Likewise, other examples could be given to demon- strate that there are almost an infinite number of possibilities that the designer can select for initial design, depending upon the year of life at which he might plan major maintenance of the facility. It must be clearly understood at the outset that the design decision relative to the life that might be expected from the pavement is a trade-off decision, wherein the engineer balances increased maintenance costs with increased initial costs, depending upon the staging he might select for his design. The matter of 20 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS costing the pavement is demonstrated in diagramatic form in Figure 1.10d. If an initial design is to be minimal (perhaps thin pavement section) the maintenance cost increases, since the road will wear out at a fairly rapid rate. However, if the designer chooses to increase the initial cost by building a substantially stronger pavement, the maintenance costs decrease accordingly. Hence, it is seen that the decision-making process includes, in part, balancing the total cost as illustrated in the upper curve of Figure 1.10d against inconvenience to the pavement user and many other factors. The total cost of the pavement structure should include not only the actual maintenance cost applied to the pavement surface itself, but added road user costs that are caused by the shutdown of the facility during the time that surface maintenance is supplied. Design as a Trade-off Process. It should be recognized from the above dis- cussion that the decision-making process that is at the heart of the design must rely heavily on trade-off of inconvenience and maintenance cost against the initial cost. It becomes necessary for the design engineer to make a decision relative to the serviceability that he wishes his pavement to achieve, and from this, make an estimate of the life of the pavement that might be expected. This decision-making process is not a simple one, and is dependent upon many factors, including the type of facility itself. To illustrate the above point, it is feasible to maintain low-volume roads at frequent intervals. On the other hand, expressways are difficult to maintain and the road user cost resulting from shutdown of the facility may be so high as to preclude practically any maintenance at all. The same can be said for airport Pavements, where the structure must be a revenueearning facility, and this fact coupled with the need for safety may be the governing factor regarding the initial design that is adopted. Figure 1.11 shows a flow diagram illustrating the principles involved in the design process. On the left-hand side of the figure are shown the input variables, including loads and environment as well as the various material properties that must be evaluated either in the laboratory or the field. It is important to note that these are stochastic in nature and the variability of any given input factor may be extremely high. The decision-making process, as shown in the second part of the diagram, requires that the engineer put together the variable factors listed in the input column and from these select design values that he considers to be applicable to the particular design problem. From this the pavement section is selected and in the ideal case, the pavement is evaluated and the evaluation is then checked against the original assumptions as shown in the lower portion of the diagram. “Tc is important to note that the design process includes essentially a decision. making process in which the engineer attempts to predict the eventual perform. ance of the pavement structure without going through the long-term process of waiting until traffic has been applied to the road. < ‘An essential part of the design process is the cost analysis, although this is not necessarily the only nor best factor to consider for any individual case. Neverthe- less, routinely it is desirable to minimize the total cost of the pavement structure including initial cost plus maintenance cost. 22 PAVEMENT TYPES AND DESIGN FACTORS ‘SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ‘The optimization of the decision-making process in light of minimizing the total cost of the structure is known as the ‘systems analysis” approach. All of the factors listed in Figure 1.11 are interrelated, and it is difficult at best to isolate the variables on a general basis. The engineer must make a reasonable estimate of all of these variables, and from these select a design to fit the conditions, and proceed from there to construct a pavement that will carry out its intended func tion, Thus, the problem becomes a statistical one in which estimates are made and reasoned judgments are made on the basis of these estimates. ‘The chapters in this book that contain detailed discussions of each of the factors outlined in Figure 1.11 are given in the figure. Throughout the book continual reference will be made to the matter of variability and how it may be handled in design, and methods of design accounting for total cost will be discussed. PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE AND THEORY Historically, pavement design has been approached from two broad, differing points of view. First, the practicing engineer often approaches the problem solely from the standpoint of pavement performance. In contrast, researchers and educators approach the problem largely from theoretical concepts. Neither of the above approaches is satisfactory within itself. Complete reliance upon pavement performance represents a static condition wherein one must wait a relatively long period of time before new concepts can be proven out. On the other hand, theoretical equations are generally based upon simplified assumptions and many times do not apply to conditions as they exist in the field. Ideally, the engineer must rely upon both approaches to take best advantage of design in- formation and to be able to use materials at hand in a wise manner. It will be the authors’ intent to discuss both the theoretical and practical points of view throughout the text, although this may lead to some confusion for the reader in putting the major factors into perspective. However, it will be a principal theme of this text that, although theory has much application, the final design must be influenced largely by performance of existing pavements. To be of most use, theory must not conflict with performance. This conflict will not arise if the engincer treats both theory and performance data in a logical manner. These points will be discussed in great detail in later chapters of this text, PROBLEMS AND QUESTIONS 1.1. Draw a complete typical cross section of a flexible (a) high-type four-lane, 24-foot wide highway, and (6) 75-foot airport taxiway. Include in the sketch one side of roadway or taxiway {in 4-foot cut, the other on 5-fo0t fill, Indicate on the sketch all dimensions, slopes, and other pertinent data, Exclude actual dimensions of thickness of paving components, Side slopes for the highway are 4:1, and for the airport are 1} percent maximum, 1.2, Discuss the basic design differences between an airport and highway pavement. SELECTED REFERENCES 23 1.3. For a given wheel load, which will be thicker, a highway or an airport pavement? Why? 1.4, List and discuss briefly five factors that will affect the performance of both a rigid and flexible pavement and that are difficult to evaluate during the design phase. SELECTED REFERENCES 1, American Association of State Highway Oficials, “A Policy on Geometric Design of Rural Highways," Washington, D.C. 1954. 2 American Association of State Highway Officials, “A Policy Concerning Maximum Dimension, Weights and Speeds of Motor Vehicles to be Operated over the Highways of the United States," Washington, D.C., 1964. 3. Asphalt Institute, “Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements for Air Carrier Airports,” The Asphalt Institute Manual Series No. 11(MS-I1), 1978. 4, Federal Aviation Administration, "Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design,” FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5825-4 (including changes 1 through 7), 1965. 5, Federal Aviation Administration, “Aireraft Data,” FAA Advisory Circular A C 150/5825-5 and 5A, 1968, 6. Lawton, Warren L., “Static Load Contact Pressure Patterns Under Airplane Tires,” Proceedings, Highway Research Board, 1957. 7. National Highway Users Conference, "State Motor Vehicle Size and We ton, DG. (published annually). he Laws,” Washing-