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Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation with HVAC Hardware

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY UTILIZATION


ASSOCIATED WITH
OIL & GAS DEVELOPMENT

June 12, 2007


United Technologies Corporation

A US$47B Company (2006)

Carrier
Otis

Pratt & Whitney


UTC Fire & Security Sikorsky

Hamilton Sundstrand

Research Center

UTC Power 5 continents


Global 19 countries
Sales
United Technologies Corporation

Within UTC, a unique synergy was achieved...

UTC Research Center Carrier


– Technology – Heating, Cooling
Advancement & Refrigeration

UTC Power
– OnSite Solutions

leading to the development and introduction of


a New CHP Technology Solution…
PureCycle® Derivative Concept

PureCycle® “reverses” air conditioning cycle

Air
Cooling Electricity
conditioner

Fuel Fuel
Combustion Emissions Cost
Cost

PureCycle®
Heat Power Electricity
System
HVAC Component Synergy

Turbine Generator – Carrier 19XR2™


Vapor Compression Cycle (VCC) Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)
Heat Out Heat In

Condenser Vapor Generator

Comp Motor Pump Turbine Generator


Expansion Valve
Power In Power Out
Evaporator/Cooler Condenser

Heat In Heat Out

Required Modifications
Diffuser Impeller Nozzle Impeller

TRANSMISSION
TRANSMISSION

Motor Generator
INLET EXIT

Oil Pump Oil Pump INLET


EXIT
19 XR225 Centrifugal Compressor 19 XR225 Radial Expansion Turbine
Modular Carrier Components

Turbine Generator – Carrier 19XR2™


Adaptation of Existing Hardware - Compressor vs. Turbine Operation

IMPELLER PIPE IM PELLER PIPE


WHEEL DIFFUSER WHEEL AS DIFFUSER
TURBINE AS
ROTOR TURBINE
NOZZLE

Centrifugal Compressor Operation: Radial Expansion Turbine Operation:


Cut-away Of Compressor Impeller Cut-away Of Turbine Rotor
(Spinning Clockwise) (Spinning Counter-clockwise)
and Diffuser and Nozzle Block
(Radial Out-Flow Compressor) (Radial In-Flow Turbine)

Impeller, nozzle and shroud – only conversion required


Modular Geothermal Power Plant

UTC UTC
Generator Turbine
UTC
Power Electronics UTC Supplier
Pump Inverter

• Modular Plug-n-play
• Multiple units for
larger plants UTC Supplier
• Rapidly Deployable Control Panel

UTC
Evaporator

Pump
• 16 Week Lead time
• >95% Availability UTC
Condenser

PureCycle® 225 KW Geothermal power plant

* 90% UTC high volume off the shelf components


Organic Rankine Cycle

PureCycle® Geothermal Power Plant

Geothermal Hot Water In – Power Out


PureCycle® Geothermal System

Hot Liquid Evaporator – Cold Liquid Condenser


Equivalent emissions reduction

Avoided emissions for a 1.0 MW system

Annual Avoided CO2 Annual Avoided NOx


Emissions Emissions

Tons Equivalent Tons Equivalent


acres of forest* number of cars**

PureCycle® 225’s
(95% availability)
6,045 1,270 10.80 570

Wind
(25% availability) 1,585 335 2.86 150

Solar
(14% availability) 885 185 1.60 85

* Each acre of forest assumed to absorb 1.3 tons Carbon/acre/year (Ref: International Panel on Climate Change)
** Each car assumed to generate 38 lbm/NOx/year (Ref: US EPA)
Assumes full heat utilization
PureCycle® Potential Markets

UTC Power is experiencing market traction in geothermal arena

Oil & Gas markets extends geothermal potential


Chena Hot Springs
Geothermal Demonstration

• Commissioned July, 2006 – 1st unit


• 2nd unit in November 06
• <165’F geothermal temp
• 99.4% Availability
Chena Hot Springs Performance

8/23/07
250

200
Extremely stable operation: OILSUMPP (psia)
150 Pressures OILP (psia)
• Cold temp affects gross power. EVAP_P (psia)

• Hot temp doesn’t vary. 100 PUMPEXP (psia)


COND_P (psia)
• 99.4% availability 50

Averaged values – 8/23/07 0


CondEWT (F) 41.64 0:00:00 4:48:00 9:36:00 14:24:00 19:12:00 0:00:00
CondLWT (F) 49.88
EvapEWT (F) 162.97 180
EvapLWT (F) 131.88 160
EvapP (psia) 217.45 OIL_TSAT (°F)
140
CondP (psia) 62.80 EVAPTSAT (°F)
PumpKW (kW) 20.36 120 OILT (°F)
GenKW (kW) 196.09 WINDT (°F)
100 Temperatures LIQLINET (°F)
RefFlow (#/s) 23.22 80
TsatEvap (F) 131.40 CONDEWT (°F)
60 EVAPEWT (°F)
TsatCond (F) 52.30
EVAPLWT (°F)
EvapGPM (gpm) 488.55 40
CONDLWT (°F)
CondGPM (gpm) 1666.98 20

0
0:00:00 4:48:00 9:36:00 14:24:00 19:12:00 0:00:00
Top Level Assembly

ESTIMATED DRY CONDENSER


WEIGHT = 10,000 kg
(22,000 LBS)

ELECTRONICS

3.2m MAX
(10’- 4”)

TURBINE

EVAPORATOR

5.1m
2.1m (16’- 10”)
(7’- 5”)
Raser Technologies

(3) 10.0 MW – (135) 225 KW units


4/12/07
Raser Technologies

10 MW – on up
• Modular Plug-n-play
• Multiple units for
larger plants
• Rapidly Deployable
• 16 Week Lead time
• High Availability
• Expand w/ resource

• “Speed – to – Market”
PureCycle® Value Proposition Summary

• Current Geothermal Market


• Off-the-shelf production… “16 week lead-time…”
• Low to moderate temps… “new opportunities…”
• Bottom existing plants… “under - utilized…”
• Low cost modular skid… “minimize installed costs…”
• Rapid deployment… “speed to market (mo’s not yr’s)...”
• Full remote control… “no equipment operators…”
• Full service contracts… “5 yr schdled - unschdled”
• Multi-unit plant… “scalable power blocks…”
• Deploy based on resource… “not financing…”
• Extreme statistical availability…“in the nines…”

• Future for PureCycle® ~ nominal 1.0 MW class unit


• Target Production… “Beginning of 2009”
• Continue ramp 225 KW… “Expand production”
• Oil & Gas proof… “Demo sites”
• UTC Long term capabilities… “1,500 / shift… (3) Factories…”
Thank you.
Halley K. Dickey
Sales Manager
Geothermal Business Development
909.838.6235
Halley.Dickey@UTCPower.com

Solving Tomorrow’s Challenges with Today’s Technology