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51972020 Pb ln ti - Wikipedia téng Viet ‘WIKIPEDIA Ph6 dién tw Bach Khoa toan thy mé Wikipedia Pho di dai tat ca cdc tan $6” c6 thé c6 ciia bare xa dign ti] "Phé dign ta" caa mét d6‘i tugng 1A phan bd” dic trung cua bite xa dign ti phat ra hode hap thu bi cde d6 i tugng cu th tir kéo dai tir ta°n sé” tha’p ding cho lién lac vé tuyé‘n hién dai toi bite xa gamma ¢ cud i bude song nga n(ta-nsd cao), do dé phé dién tir bao phi cdc bude sng tir hang ngan km dé‘n mét pha’n kich cd cia mét nguyén tir. Ly do cho dié*u nay 1a vi phd dign tir duge nghién e‘ru rat nhié'u ding cho kinh quang phé ding dé phan tich vat cha‘t.2! Gisi han cia buée s6ng dai 1a kich thuéc cia ban than va tru, han cia buée séng nga‘n la trong ving lan can cia d6 dai Planck,!3) mac da vé> nguyén ta‘c phé Ja vé han va lién tue. Dai pho Co sé ly luan Cac kiéu birc xa Tan sé vé tuyén Viba Birc xa terahertz Buc xa héng ngoai Birc xa nhin thay (4nh sang) Anh sang cy tim Tia X Tia gamma Xem thém Tha m khao Lién két ngoai Lich su tps wikipedia. orghwielPnd trén dai tan s6 va bur Bidu dd phd aign te, ci thudc tinh khae nhau g khac nhau 8 51872020 Phd ain ty - Wikipedia éng Viet Trong lich st, anh sang chi duge bié’t dé’n 1 mot phan cia phé dién tu. Nguéi Hy Lap cé dai céng nhan CLASS FREQUENCY «WAVELENGTH — BIERGY 4nh sng truyé n theo duéng thang va nghién cau mot 300EHz | 1pm 1.24Mev s6° thuée tinh cia nd, bao gém ca phan xa va Khiie 30EHz | 10pm 124keV xa. Qua nhié’u nam nghién ciru lién tue vé- anh sing 3EH2 | 100pm | 12.4kev va trong thé” ky 16, 17 da c6 nhimg ly thuyé“t mau 300PHz | inm 1.24 keV thuan coi anh sing cé tinh cha't song hay hat. Anh 30PHz | 10nm 124 eV sang lin dau tién duge lién ket véi dign tt vao nim 3PHz |100nm | 124ev 1845 khi Michael Faraday nhn thay nh sng phan 300TH | tum 124ev ding véi tir rung. Phat hign dau tién ve" tinh cha’t 30TH: | 10 yum 124 eV song dign tir cia anh sing 1 vio nim 1800, khi - B haa thoi 3THz | 100um | 12.4mev William Herschel phat hign ra anh sang ho“ng ngoai. - Be ee tbas 3 ane 300 GHz | 1mm 1.24mev ng da nghién cim nhigt 4 mau sic khde nhau o x é 4 - 30 GHZ icm 124peV bang cach di chuyén mét nhiét ké” qua énh sang bi r aiey chia qua mét lang kinh. Ong nhén tha’y ri ng nhigt erst, | 2cm ihe 6 cao nha’t 1a khi vuot qué mau dé, Ong dua ra gia 300 MHz J 1m 1.24 ev thuyé’t ¢6 ‘anh sang’ ma ma“t ngudi khdng thé nhin 30MHz | 10m 124nev thay. Nam 1801, Johann Ritter nghién ciru 6 phia 3MHz | 100m l24nev da°u kia ciia quang phé va tha y ring cé ‘cdc tia hoa 300 kHz | 1 km 1.24 nev hoe’ cing ¢6 hanh vi tuong ty, nhung xa hon nita, tia 30kHz | 10km 124 pev sng 6 thé nhin thay mau cyc tim. Sau dé ho déi tén 3kHz | 100km | 12.4pev thanh bie xa cye tim. Trong thap nién 1860 James 300Hz | 1Mm 1.24 pev Maxwell nghién citu truéng dign ti va phat hign 30 Hz 10 Mm 124 fev ching truyé’n é gan van tc anh sang. Ong da dua 3Hz 100mm | 12.4fev ra 4 phwong trinh vi phan dé giai thich mé i twong oy gyi quan nay, Nhimg phuong trinh nay dy dodn nhié'u tn s6° cia séng dién tir truyé’n véi van td°c anh —_—y= Tia gamma MIR Gitta h8ng ye Ta 58 ca0 séng. Dé chimg minh cée phwong trinh cia Maxwell, nes Meo tan sé nim 1886 Heinrich Hertz da ché tao mot ¢6 may dé x= TiaX cima Se ahh tao va phat hign s6ng vo tuyé’n. Ong cé thé quan sat thay ching truyé n 6 vin to’c anh sdng va ¢6 thé bi phan xa va khuc xa. Trong mét thi nghigm sau 46, éng EU SX=TiaXmém Séng vo tuyénLF= Tan sé thdp irngoai EHF=Tansé — VLF=Tan sé rét da tao ra va do duge vi sng. Nhiing s6ng méi nay di engin cuckycao—thdp mé duéng cho cdc phat minh nhu dién bio khéng day NUV=Tirngoai_ SHF= Tan sé VF/ULF= Tan sé va v6 tuyé’n. Nam 1895 Wilhelm Rontgen phat hign = 98 siéu cao tiéng noi mot loai bire xa méi Khi dang lam mot thi nghi¢m. Ong ‘Anh san UHF= Tan sé goi dé tia X va nhan tha’ y ching cé thé truyé n xuyén a cure cao siéu thdp qua co thé ngudi, nhung lai bi cdc vat chat dic phan NIR= Héng VHF= Tan sé rat ELF= Tan sé oye xa, vi dy nhu xuong. Sau nay tia X duge ung dung rat —_ngoai gan cao ky thép nhié"u trong linh vue y hoc. Phan cud ‘i cing cita pho Freq=Tan sé dign tir duge dié'n day voi vie phat hién ra tia gamma. Nam 1900 Paul Villard nghién ciru phéng xa. Da u tién dng nghi ra ng ching la cdc hat tuong tu nhu cdc hat alpha va beta. Tuy nhién, nam 1910 Ernest Rutherford do bude song cia ching va tha y ra ng ching la sng dién ti. Dai phé Song dign tir thuéng duge mé ta boi ba tinh cha’ t vat ly ba’t ky sau: tan so” S, bude song A, hoje ning lugng photon E. Dai ta’n sd’ tir 2.4 x 103 Hz (1 GeV tia gamma) xué‘ng tan sd plasma cuc bé cia méi ‘trudmg giita cdc nguyén tir bi ion héa (~1 kHz). Bude s6ng ti Ié nghich véi ta°n s6”2T do dé tia gamma c6 hips. wikipedia orghwisiPnd_ain_tr 28 sis72020 Phd alent — Wikipedia tg Viet bude séng rat ngi‘n Ia phan s6° cia kich thuée nguyén ty, trong khi cée bude s6ng cé thé dai bang vi try. Nang lugng photon ti lg thugn véi tan sd” song, do dé tia gamma c6 nding lugng cao nha ‘t (khoang meét ti electronvolt) va song va tuyé’n ¢6 ning lugng rat tha p (khoang mét femt6 electronvolt). Céc m6 i quan hé duge minh hoa ba” ng cdc phuong trinh sau: } or =, or B= 2 a day: = c= 299 792.458 m/s la van téc Anh séng trong chan khong = h=6 62 606 896(33) x 10-84 J s = 4 13 566 733(10) x 10-15 eV s la hang sé Planck,” Bat ci khi nao s6ng dign ti ton tai trong mét mdi trudng vat cha’t, thi bude song cia ching sé giam. Buse song cia bite xa dign tir, khdng bj anh huong bai mdi truéng ma chéng truyé n qua, thudng duge trich din vé" mat bude song chan khng, mac di dié’u nay khong phai lye nao eding quy dinh ré rang. Néi chung, bic xa dign tir duge phan loai thanh cdc buée song véi: song v6 tuyén, vi ba, bic xa terahertz (hay duéi mm), h6 ng ngoai, ving anh sang nhin thay, cyc tim, tia X va tia gamma. Vige bite x» EM phy thuge vao buée s6ng cia né. Khi bite xq EM tuong tac véi mét nguyén tir va phan ti, hanh vi cia né eting phy thuéc vao nang lgng trén méi lugng tit (photon) ma n6 mang theo. Quang phé cé thé phat hién mét ving lén phé EM hon dai anh sang nhin tha’ y tu goo nm dé‘n 700 nm. MG6t phong thi nghiém quang phé théng thuong 6 thé phat hién bude song tir 2 nm téi 2500 nm. Thong tin chi tié t vé> tinh chat vat ly cua dd i tuong, khi hay tham chf ngdi sao ciing cé thé thu duge nhé loai thié’t bj nay. Kinh quang phé duge ding rong rai trong vat I hoc thién thé. Vi dy, rat nhié-u nguyén tir hydro phat ra mot photon s6ng vo tuyé n c6 bude song 21,12 cm. Ngoai ra, tan sO” 30 Hz va tha p hon c6 thé tgo ra va rt quan trong trong nghién ci cdc sao tinh van nha‘t dinh!®! va tan sé° cao nhu 2.9 x 1027 Hz d& duge phat hién tir cdc ngué “n vat ly thién van.{91 Co so ly luan Buc xa dign tir tuong tac voi kigu tuong tac c6 thé kh4c nhau ma né cé ve IA hop ly dé tham chié’u téi cdc kiéu bite xq khae nhau. D6 ng théi, c6 mét su lién tuc g6-m tat ca cdc "loai khac nhau" cua bite xa dign tw. Vi vay ching ta xem xét phé, nhung phan chia dya trén su tuong tac voi vat chat khéc nhau. it cha'‘t theo nhing each khc nhau trong cdc phan khéc nhau eiia phé. Cae hips. wikipedia orghwisiPnd_ain_tr 3 51972020 hb ign ti - Wikipedia téng Viet Ving phé Tuong tac chinh v6i vat chat Tap hgp dao dong cila céc séng mang trong khéi lwgng Ion vat chat (dao dong plasma). Mot vi du la Vo tuyén ap dac tia of n dao ding cila cae dién tir trong mét anten. Viba t6i hing ‘ anta taeaia Dao dong plasma, quay phan tir Can héng ngoai_| Chuyén déng phan tir, dao dong plasma (chi trong kim loai) ‘Anh séngnhin Kich thich phan tu electron (gdm e cdc phan tir sc t6c durgc tim thdy trong veng mac eta ngudi), thay dao dng plasma (chi trong kim loai) Tia cue tim Kich thich cdc dign tir héa tr clia nguyén tir va phan tr, gdm cd sy day dig ti ra (higu ing quang aién) TiaX Kich thich va dy cde ign tt 6i nguyén tir ra ngosi,higu ting Compton (cho ha nguyén tt) Phéng nang long ciia cdc dién tir I6i trong cc nguyén t6 nang, hiéu ting Compton (cho tat c& Tia gamma nnguyén ti), kich thich hat nhan nguyén te, gdm ca phan ly hat nan Tia gamma Tao ra cp hat-phan hat. 6 mite nang long rAt cao, mét photon cé thé tao ra mat tran mua cac hat indng Iwong cao_| va phan hat nang lgng cao Khi tung tac véi vat chat. Cac kiéu bic xa p xé’p thanh C&c kiéu bie xa dign tir duge z ‘ ] : i i F 3 Bang phan chia cac bic xa séng dién tir/anh sangl"9) so [ames (TA an sc song | Tansé (tz) | Nina lwong » han Te Buée séng Tan sé (Hz) Nang wong ee 124 keV - 300+ = “orn Tiagamma $0.01nm — =30EHz | 124 : wy 0,01nm- | 30EHz-30 w flaw Tiax 9.01 aoe 124 eV-124 keV etm " 10.nm - 30 PHz- 790 - " Tia te ngoai 380 nm THz 3.3eV-124eV i 10pm Anh sang 380 nm- 790 THz - we = nhin thay 700 nm. 430 THz TeV -3.3 eV seonwne-~ xo Tia hng 7oOnm= | 430THz- 1.24 meV- 1.7 iw i ngoai 4mm 300GHz come] ou Viba 1mm 300GHz- | 1.7 eV-1.24 j wy oe met 300MHz | meV dee tm tmm- | 300GHz- | 12.4 feV-1.24 some on Radio 100000 km | 3 Hz meV iy) J Su phan loai nay theo thir ty ting da°n cia buée song, d6 . 0 1a die trang cia kidu bite xa.l2) Trong khi dé néi chung, digu 46° phan loai 1& chinh xéc, trong thye t” thuing 6 mét s6” ché ‘ng chéo gitia cdc kiéu nang lugng dign tir lan can. Vi du, séng v6 tuyé’n SLF 6 ta n s6° 60 Hz cé thé thu duge va nghién ciu béi cde nha thién vin hoe, hoge c6 thé dua vao day nhu dong dign. Phan bigt tia X va tia gamma dya vio ngud"n bite xa: tia gamma duge tao ra tir sy phan r& hat nhin hog hat nhn khée va cde qué trinhhat/duéi hat nhan, trong khi tia X duge tao béi qua trinh chuyén doi dign tir lién quan Phé dign tir hips. wikipedia orghwisiPnd_ain_tr 48 51872020 Phd ci ty - Wikipedia éng Viet dé‘n cac electron bén trong nguyén tir c6 nang Ivong cao.l44I42Il31 Noi chung, chuyén déi hatt nhan c6 nhié’u nang lugng hon chuyén déi dign ti, tia gamma cé nhié’u nang hong hon tia X, nhung cé nhimg trang hop ngoai Ié vin t6'n tai, Ba’ng céch twong ty véi chuyén déi dign tit, chuyén déi hat nhan ngoai lai ceding tao ra tia X, dit ning hong cia chting 6 thé vugt qué 6 méga electronvén (0,96 pJ),/4] trong khi nhié“u chuyén doi het nhan khée (77 chuyén doi c6 nang luong 10 keV (1,6 £J)) lai c6 nang hong tha p (vi dy chuyén déi hat nhan cia thorium-229 sinh ra n&ng long 1a 7,6 eV (1,22 aJ)) va n&ing lugng it hon 1 trigu lan so véi tia X ngoai lai, cdc photon phat ra vin duge goi IA tia gamma do ngué’n gé c hat nhan cia chiing.5! Ngoai ra cdc ving quang phé cia bite xa dign tir cu thé phu thuéc hé quy chié“u (do dé dich Doppler 46“i v6i anh sang), nén bie xa EM ma mét quan sat nam trong mét ving cia quang phé cé thé xua t hién téi mot quan sat chuyén déng véi mot phan dang ké vin t6’c anh sdng do i voi quan sat dau tién cing 1a m6t pha’n khée cia quang phé. Vi dy, hay xem xét bite xa phong vi song vai try. N6 duge tao ra khi vat chat va bite xa tach riéng, bang cdch kich thich nguyén tir hydro téi trang thai co ban. Nhing photon tir chuyén déi chuéi Lyman, duge dat trong phan tia eye tim (UV) cia phé dign tir. Bay gid bite xa nay di qua di dich chuyén dé vii tru dé dua n6 vao ving vi ba cia quan phé, rd i quan sat chuyén déng cham (so véi van toc anh sang) d6‘i véi vi tru. Tuy nhién, voi cae hat chuyén déng edn van t6c anh sang, birc xa nay sé cé chuyén dich xanh trong phan con lai. Cac proton tia vai try nang long cao nha’t di chuyén nhu vay, trong pha n cdn lai cia hé quy chié’u, bie xa nay duge dich chuyén xanh thanh tia gamma nang lugng cao, tuong tac véi proton dé tgo ra c§p rang buge quark-phin quark (pion). Day la giéi han GZK. Tan sé vé tuyén Bai chi tié’t: Tan s6” v6 tuyén, Phé v6 tuydn, va Song v6 tuyé“n Song v6 tuyé“n thudng ding céc anten cé kich thuée thich hyp (nguyén nguyén tae cong huéng), voi bude s6ng khée nhau, tir ing trim mét t6i khoing 1mm. Ching duge ding dé truyé“n di ligu, qua dié ‘Truyé'n hinh, dign thogi di déng, mang khéng day va v6 tuyé’'n nghigp du dé'u ding song vo ché tuyé‘n. Vige diing phé vo tuyé’‘n duge quy dinh bai cdc chinh phi théng qua vige phan bé tan sd’. Song v6 tuyé’n cé thé dugc tao ra dé mang thong tin bang cach thay déi mét su ké’t hgp cua bién dd, tan s6" va pha cua song véi mét dai ta’n sO”. Khi bire xa EM c6 tée dng tsi mot day din, n6 ghép thanh cap voi day din, truyé’n di cing day dan va gay ra mot dong dign cim img trén bé- mat cia day dan 46 ba ng cach kich thich cde dién tir cia vat ligu day din, Higu img nay duge si: dung trong cdc anten (higu img bé” mit). Viba Bai chi tié“t: Viba Ta nsé’ siéu cao (SHF) va ta 'n sé” cye ky cao (EHF) cia vi ba nam phia sau song vé tuyé‘n. Vi ba la song thudng 1a nga‘n dé dé sir dung cdc 6 ng dan song kim loai hinh 6’ng cé duéng kinh hgp ly. Nang, luong vi ba dugc tao ra véi cAc dén klystron va magnetron, va bi ng di6‘t ban din nhu c4c did t Gunn IMPATT. Vi ba dugc ha’ p thu bei cdc phan tir cé mé-men wong cuc trong chit ling. Trong mét sO” 16 vi song, higu img nay gidp cho thite Sn néng lén. Buc xa vi ba euong d6 tha’ p ding trong Wi-Fi. Bic xa terahertz Bai chi tié“t: ire xa terahertz hips. wikipedia orghwisiPnd_ain_tr 5 51972020 Pb ln ti - Wikipedia téng Viet 2 Bite xa terahertz 14 m6t ving ciia phé gitta vi ba va hd ng ngoai xa. Cho dé’n ga’n day, nhimg nghién ctru vé> bire xa nay méi duoc thye hign nhié u, img dung cho hinh anh va théng tin lién lac. Cae nha khoa hoc da img dung cOng nghé terahertz cho. quan ddi, song ta’ s6- cao duge ding dé vo higu hoa thié’t bj dign ti cia d6‘i phuong.16) Birc xa hong ngoai ee aie at Hé sé truyén khi quyén Trai Dat (hay 4 chan) voi cdc Bai chi tié’t: Bice xa h6 ng ngoai ven kl cy y J use séng khae nhau ctia bite xa dién tr Phan h6"ng ngoai cia phé dign tir nam trong dai tan 300 GHz (1 mm) téi 400 THz (750 nm). No 6 thé duge chia thanh 3 phan nh = Héng ngoai xa, tir 300 GHz (1 mm) t6i 30 THz (10 um). Phan thap hon cia dai tan nay cé thé duge goi Ia vi ba, Bure xa nay thuéng bj hap thy béi ché d6 quay trong cae phan ter khi, chuyén dong phan itr trong chat léng va bai phonon trong chat ran. Nude trong khi quyén Trai Dat céing hat thy rat manh dai tn nay. Tuy nhién van cd mét vai buéc séng nhat dinh trong dai tin nay dung cho thin van hgc. Dai buéc séng khoang 200 ym tdi vai mm thudng dug goi lA ha-mm trong thién van hoc, nén héng ngoai xa dug dat vao bude séng dui 200 ym = Héng ngoai gitva, tir 30 t6i 120 THz (10 t6i 2,5 um). Cc vat thd néng (bite xa vat thé den) cé thé bire xa manh trong dai tan nay. Né bi hap thy béi cdc dao déng phan tu. = Héng ngoai gan, tir 120 t6i 400 THz (2.500 t6i 750 nm), Qué trinh vat ly 66 lién quan cho dai tn nay twong ty nhu anh sang nhin thay. Birc xa nhin thay (anh sang) Bai chi tié“t: Phé tha’y duge ‘Trén tan sO” hé ng ngoai la Anh séng nhin thay duge. Day la dai tan ma mat trai va cde ngoi sao khée phat ra bie xa cia hting va quang pho va mat nguéi nhay cim nha’t. Anh séng nhin thay duge (va anh sang can hé ‘ng ngoai) thudng bj ha p thy va phat ra bai cée dign tir trong phan ti va nguyén ti di chuyén tir mét mite nang hong nay sang mite ning lrgng kh4e. Anh séng nhin tha’ y véi mt ciia ching ta thye su la mét phn ra‘t nhé cia phé dién ti. Mét ca u v6 ng cho thay phan nhin tha’ y duoc cia phé dign tr; tia hé ‘ng ngoai nam o ngay duéi mau dé cén tia cue tim nim 6 ngoai mau tim. Anh sang cuc tim Bai chi tié hie ngoai ‘Tié’p theo trong dai tan sd” 1a tia cwe tim (UV). Bite song cua phé nhin tha y duge nhung dai hon nhié“u so véi tia X. tia UV nga‘n hon so véi mau tim trong TiaX Bai chi tié (6 ng nhw dai trén cia UV, né eiing cé tinh ion héa. Tuy nhién, do ning lrgng cao tac déng téi vat cht nhé higu ing Compton. hips. wikipedia orghwisiPnd_ain_tr ee 51972020 Pb ln ti - Wikipedia téng Viet Tia gamma Bai chi tié“t: Tia gamma J Tia gamma n&’m sau tia X, do Paul Villard phat hign vao nim 1900. Day la cée hat photon nhié'u nang Iwgng nha’t. Ding nhié'u trong § thién van hoc. a Xem thém a a ‘ozone Uhm) = Cira sé khi quyén 6 krgng ham nha ota tia UV Hn = Tia vi tru quan oe i tg scone ce = Bure xa ion hoa = Tang 6z6n = Nang Iwgng bire xa = Bang tan V = Bang tan W Tha m khao 1. 4 “Imagine the Universe! Dictionary” (http:/imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/dict_ei.htmi#em_spectrum). 2,92446¢ Mehta, Akul. “Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopy” (http://phar maxchange. info/press/2011/08/introduction-to-the-electromagnetic-spectrum-and-spectroscopy/). Pharmaxchange.info. Truy cap ngay 8 thang 11 nam 2011 3. 8 U. A. Bakshi, A. P. Godse (2009). Basic Electronics Engineering (http://books.google.com/books?id =n0RMHUQUUY4C). Technical Publications. tr. 810. ISBN 978-81-8431-580-6. Truy cap ngay 16 thang 10 nam 2011 4. * What is Light? (http://cbst ucdavis. edu/education/courses/winter-2006-IST8A/ist8a_2006_01_0Slig ht.pdf) — UC Davis lecture slides 5. “ Glenn Elert. “The Electromagnetic Spectrum, The Physics Hypertextbook” (http://hypertextbook.co miphysics/electricity/em-spectrum/). Hypertextbook.com. Truy cap ngay 16 thang 10 nam 2010. 6. “ “Definition of frequency bands on” (http:/www.vit.ivfrequency/bands.html). Vit.it. Truy cap ngay 16 thang 10 nam 2010, 7. 4 Ban mAu:CODATA2006 8. 4 J, J. Condon and S. M. Ransom. "Essential Radio Astronomy: Pulsar Properties” (http://www.cv.nra 0.edu/course/astr534/Pulsars.html). National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Truy cap ngay 5 thang 1 nam 2008. 9.“ A. A. Abdo va dang nghiép (2007). “Discovery of TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Region of the Galaxy’. The Astrophysical Journal Letters 658: 33. Bibcode:2007Apu...658L...33A (htt pilladsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ApJ...658L..33A). arXiv:astro-ph/0611691 (https://arxiv.org/abs/astro -ph/0611691). doi: 10, 1086/513696 (https://dx.doi.org/10. 1086%2F513696). 10. * Haynes, William M. bién tap (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (An ban 92). CRC Press. tr. 10.233. ISBN 1-4398-5511-0. 11. * Feynman, Richard; Robert Leighton, Matthew Sands (1963). The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1. USA: Addison-Wesley. tr. 2-5. ISBN 0-201-02116-1 12, * L'Annunziata, Michael; Mohammad Baradei (2003). Handbook of Radioactivity Analysis (http://book S.google.com/?id=b519e100PTOC&pg=PA58&dq=gammatx-ray). Academic Press, tr, 58, ISBN 0- 12-436603-1 tps wikipedia. orghwielPnd 1 51872020 Phd ain ty - Wikipedia éng Viet 13. 4 Grupen, Claus; G. Cowan, S. D. Eidelman, T. Stroh (2005). Astroparticle Physics. Springer. tr. 109. ISBN 3-540-25312-2 14, * Corrections to muonic X-rays and a possible proton halo (http://www. slac.stanford.edu/egi-wrap/get doc/slac-pub-0335,pdf) siac-pub-0335 (1967) 15. * “Hyperphysics (see Gamma-Rays" (http:/hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu.edu/hbase/ems3.htmi##c5). Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. Truy cap ngay 16 thang 10 nam 2010 16. * “Advanced weapon systems using lethal Short-pulse terahertz radiation from high-intensity-laser- produced plasmas” (http://www. indiadaily.com/editorial/1803.asp). India Daily. Ngay 6 thang 3 nam 2005. Truy cap ngay 27 thang 9 nam 2010. Lién két ngoai = UnwantedEmissions.com (http:/www.unwantedemissions.com) Wikimedia Commons ob (US. radio spectrum allocations resource) thém hinh anh va = Australian Radiofrequency Spectrum Allocations Chart (http:/ww phuong tién truyén tai vé wacma.gov.auhwebwriradcommi/frequency_planning/spectrum_p ® Phé din tir (https://co lan/arsp-wc.paf) (from Australian Communications and Media mmons.wikimedia.org/ Authority) wiki/Category:Electrom agnetic_spectrum?usel = Canadian Table of Frequency Allocations (http://www.ic.ge.calepi c/site/smt-gst.nsfivwapj/spectallocation-08. pdf/SFILE/spectallocat ion-08.pdf) (from Industry Canada) = U.S. Frequency Allocation Chart (http:/mww.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt, html) — Covering the range 3 kHz to 300 GHz (from Department of Commerce) = UK frequency allocation table (http://www. ofcom.org.uk/static/archive/ra/topics/spectrum-strat/future/ strat02/strategy02app_b.pdf) (from Ofcom, which inherited the Radiocommunications Agency's duties, pdf format) = Flash EM Spectrum Presentation / Tool (http://www.e-motiv.nev/EM%20spectrum/) - Very complete and customizable. = How to render the color spectrum / Code (http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/optics/rendering. html ClEdiag/) - Only approximately right. = Poster "Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum" (http://uninedron.com/projects/spectrum/downloads/sp ectrum_20090210.paf) (992 kB) ang=vi). iy tir “htpsi/vi wikipedia. orgiwiindex.phptile=Phé_dién_tvéoldi Trang nay dugc siva ddi lan cudi vao ngay 23 thang 10 nam 2019 luc 03:48. Van ban éuge phat hanh theo Gidy phép Creative Commons Chi céng-Chia sé tong ty; e6 thé ép dung éiéu khodn bd sung. Véi vige siz dung trang web nay, ban chdp nha Digu khodn Si’ dung vA Quy dinh quyén riéng tv Wikipedia® la throng higu da &aing kj ciia Wikimedia Foundation, Ine., mot 18 chcie phi igi nhuan, tps wikipedia. orghwielPnd 8