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Contelligent is a component-based Web Content Management
solution. This system is based on the convenience of the
students to communicate with the resources provided by the
distance learning section of the university.

This project is aimed to provide services to students over

Internet, each student is given with a unique id and as the
student logs on into the system he will be given access to
anonymous number of sections.

The different sections that are involved in this system are:

1. Lecture notes
2. Assignment
3. Exam Time table
4. Previous Exam Question papers
5. Library

The services provided by these sections are:

Lecture notes section deals with the notes of all the

professors in the college depending on the subject they deal
with. These notes are divided based on the subject,
particular professor and on particular year and course.

Assignments section is further divided into two sections

namely assignment and repeat assignment. The difference is
that assignment deals with the assignments for fresh
students who are doing them for the first time and repeat
assignment are for the students who are doing the
assignment as a repeat.
Exam Time Table section gives the information of the
examination timetable of a course. This section is
updated accordingly.

Previous Exam Question Papers, This section gives a list of all the
previous question papers to give an idea to the student of how a
question paper will be. This section is also placed at the end of the
system like all the sections.

Library is a special section. This section deals with all the

books in the library and their management. This section
further divided based on the different categories like
computers, business, finance, and accounts…. The status of
the book i.e. if that particular book is available or not is

The system uses 2 different types of users 1. administrator

2. Normal user (student) 3. Faculty 4. Corporate User
er 2

The entire project has been developed keeping is of the

Distributed client server computing technologies mind. The
specifications have been normalized by 3NF to eliminate all
the anomalies that may arise due to the database transaction
that are executed by the administrator. The user interface is
browser specific to give distributed accessibility for the
overall system. The internal database has been selected as
MySQL. The basic objectives of table have been exploited to
provide higher consistency and reliability for the data
storage. The MySQL was a choice as it provides the
constructive of Relational criteria for higher-level reliability
and security. The total front end was dominated using HTML
standards applied with the dynamism of Java server pages.
The communication client was applied using the servlets and
Java Beans at all proper levels high-level care was taken to
check that the system manages date consistency with proper
business validation.
Manual Process

Manual Register
check for the
Physically required task
Visits the
 Examination
Registration of
Student The course
Manual Register
check for the
required task

As the above diagram represents the student has to make a

manual momentum under the organization to complete all
the tasks associated to the completed standards and
strategies. This process is time and effort consuming. Under
these circumstances the system is more flat and essential,
until proper initiation has been adopted. The system does
not care to maintain the specific history unless and until it is
regarded with high-level responsibility.

Why the New system?

With the new system the following activities gets more


1. T h e s t u d e n t , f a c u l t y o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c a n v i e w o f
access the information virtually from anywhere of the
College promises.

2. The faculties have the flexibility of providing the

student with all that material and information that is
3. The information related to exam and assignments are
ported at the convenience of the faculties.

4. The students can gain hands on information related to

the examination and assignments on which he need to
get scheduled.

5. T h e s t u d e n t s n e e d n o t s h u t t l e t h e m s e l v e s a r o u n d t h e
administrative office for the sake of examination.

6. The information can be managed in a standardized

database, which can always serve the process of search
much easier and faster.

7. T h e s t u d e n t s c a n v i e w t h e m a t e r i a l f o r h i s s e m e s t e r
subjects and download them.

8. The Students and administration can have a plan of

action for the campus placements that can take place in
near future as per the academic schedules.

The involvement of colleges in the current electronic publishing revolution

with their role in the publishing revolution of the 15th century, and throws
some light on the low take up of content management systems (CMS) in the
college sector.

A publishing revolution on the Web?

Just three or four years ago the Web community was getting used to the
idea that the way we would work in future would be radically different from
the way we work now. The world of coalface flat file html markup would
begin to disappear in favour of collaborative working, managed workflow,
document versioning, on the fly pages constructed out of application
independent xml chunks, site management tools and push-button
publishing via multiple formats - html, xml, pdf, print, etc. Text appearing
in more than one context would be stored in a central repository and
repurposed according to particular requirements.

In the UK Higher Education sector, this doesn't seem to have happened.

Worldwide in the university sector, it doesn't seem to have happened. Site
management tools are being used here and there, and there are now
decent text editors both available and widely used - this means that Web
Editors are no longer expected to deal with basic markup chores all day
every day. Some sites put together pages on the fly, using SSIs or ASP
chunks. There are sites, which interface with backend databases to provide
user requested data in a user-friendly format. However you will have to look
hard for a Higher Education sector site which uses all of these techniques
and which yokes them together with collaborative working and managed
workflow. Higher Education is not using content management systems as a
matter of course, and is not making use of the most sophisticated systems
In other words, whatever publishing model underlies the development and
maintenance of large scalable Web services in the Higher Education sector,
it isn't fully realised in the technology used to deliver the services. Much of
what is delivered via the Web still involves a good deal of manual activity.

This halfway house position isn't a place where Web Managers and Editors
want to be. So it is quite odd that this is where we are, among a
community, which has been so intimately involved in the early development
of the Web.

It is not easy to explain how the HE community in the UK in particular has

found itself in the position where its Web pages are the product of a
sophisticated cottage industry. This article will attempt to cast some light on
the reasons behind the current position in the university sector, and to
suggest some ways in which the community might seek to move forward.

The Technology behind the new publishing revolution

Are content management systems available? Are they available in numbers

from different software houses? Are they available in a form customizable
for use by Higher Education institutions? The answer is ‘yes’ to each of
these questions. We might ask how long content management systems
have been around, since if they are new on the block, this might explain
why academia isn't using them. The answer is, at least in terms of Web
publishing, quite a long time. They weren't always called content
management systems, but they always were designed as publishing tools.
And they began to have the capacity to publish to the Web by (at the latest)
the second half of 1996.

Content Management Systems are - arguably - close equivalents of the

tools of the publishing revolution of the 15th century, in that they are
publishing tools, which revolutionize both the assembly and the delivery of
information. One major difference between this and the earlier technology,
of great importance, is that the current revolution depends heavily on the
separation of content from its appearance and layout. This allows the
possibility of customized text delivery according to user requirement (either
within or outside the institution running the system), on the fly and without
human intervention. For organizations such as the modern university, with
its central administration surrounded by semi-autonomous faculty and
departmental units, all requiring to deal with the same body of information,
content management systems offer huge potential benefits in terms of the
streamlining of the administration, and the timeliness and accuracy of the
institution's published information. Content management systems use
application independent markup formats (SGML, XML etc), which means
that, for example, a text presented in a Gothic Blackletter typeface can as
easily be adapted to another font and presentation style. Text is stored and
maintained in one place, and published to wherever it is required (perhaps
the apotheosis of the15th century dream). These tools are already used to a
large extent in the commercial publishing community, and to a lesser extent
in industry.

Contelligent is a private domain web content manager, which is being

developed for a distance learning centre / college . The contelligent acts as
a information kiosk for students and lecturers. It acts as a bridge of
communication between the students, lecturers and the administration. The
application helps in improving the communication standards between the
different domains existing in the organization. The overall advantage of the
system is empowered by decreasing the latency that arises while operating
through the manual process. The actual application decreases the
overheads that exist on the job schedules among the lecturers and the
administration. The Contelligent helps in adjusting and arranging the
operational standards in the maintenance of information related to their
students and examinations, the lecturers and their assigned job. The
administrators can handle all the operational based information with respect
to the transactional state that may arise in completing the application
procedures that take place while the system is functioning.
The actual purpose in designing the system is to make the organizational
process to get speed up. The management can have the expected
information at its bay at any instance. much easier and information
availability at the hand. The system not only becomes false proof and
higher levels of satisfaction prevail at the side of the student, and
administrators. The application is also security oriented and gets associated
with in the system, as the general structure of accessibility is fairly

The students can just get on to the contelligent to know any such
information that is of importance to their academics. The students can also
have referential information related to the normal structure of their courses,
semesters and time tables of the examination .The contelligent also
provides the accessibility towards the provision of old question paper and
their answers along with the academic material that is given by the

The total contelligent has been planned to be associated through the

conceptual constant of the Java network and databases technologies, the
concept handles the late trends that are set for higher data transfer rates
optimized bandwidth utilizations of the network by using the technologies
like java beans & Servlets the web content is applied through dynamism
with oriental usage of Java server pages at various stages.

The contelligent also maintains the specifications of the library catalog of all
the books that are available in the college, making the students and the
much easier to check for the existing titles in the library before hand.

Over the last few years the debate over protection, or lack thereof, of
copyrighted works has flourished. Proposals on how to reimburse the
creators of these works range from strict proprietary encryption locks to
new business models that rely on revenue streams from ancillary products.
Each new proposal points out the shortcomings of previous.

Schemes and highlights the benefits of its own solution. However, no

consistent framework exists for analyzing the different solutions. In this
paper, we analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the various solutions.
Specifically, we look at CMS based systems, extensions to CMS to support
fair uses, monitor and-charge schemes, compulsory licensing schemes and
alternative business models. From this comparison, we extract important
dimensions such as technical feasibility, incentives to cheat, burden of
monitoring, privacy, and the feasibility of legal enforcement. Our main
contribution is to provide a framework from which current and future
proposal may be evaluated.

Digital Information as a “Public Good” Economists sometimes refer to

certain goods as public. This does not imply that they are in the public
domain as defined by intellectual property law. Rather, a public good is a
product or service that has two properties. First, it is non-rival, which
simply means that consumption by one person doesn’t limit consumption of
the next. Second, it is non-excludable, implying that once the product
exists, the benefit cannot be limited to those that have paid for it.

Ideas and information captured in physical media traditionally fall into some
middle ground. While the information itself certainly has the characteristics
of a public good, the physical media that it is tied to is rival and excludable.
This gives rise to business models involving the sale of physical artifacts
whose only value is the embedded information such as books, CDs and
DVDs. These business models have taken a serious blow with the
introduction of information in digital form combined with communications
media such as the Internet. The question at hand is whether or not it is
possible to devise a scheme under which money can be transferred from
those consuming information goods to the providers of the same.

We use the characteristics of a public good to distinguish between the

following classes of proposals to compensate intellectual property rights
• The first approach is to make the product rival. Solutions in this
category use CMS copy protection to make sharing of information goods
hard (or impossible).
• The second approach is to make the product excludable. This includes
watermarking schemes that allow owners to monitor who is using the
product in order to charge for its use and to pursue those who don’t pay.
• A final approach is to accept that a product is a public good that is non-
rival and non-excludable. This category of solutions relies on financing
through a general collection system (such as levy or tax schemes) or on
revenues from alternative business models and voluntary contributions.

The three classes of solutions present different challenges from the

standpoint of incentive compatibility. They also differ with respect to cost
and enforceability, and who bears the burden of each. For example, DRM
systems that artificially make a product either excludable or rival invite
circumvention activities by end users (who realize that, if they could
remove the technical barriers, the product is neither excludable nor rival).
In compulsory licensing schemes, which tax users independently of their
actual consumption, there is less incentive for users to cheat. However this
scheme invites another problem. If the disbursement of funds to rights
holders is based on the observed consumption of their products, rights
holders now have a strong incentive to bias the observed traffic in their
favor. With either solution, there is one party that will have to be monitored
for cheating unless technical barriers are put in place that cannot be
circumvented, an unrealistic assumption. In section 2, we summarize the
general and specific proposals that have been made for compensating rights

In section 3, we analyze how the different solutions fare in areas such as

technical feasibility, incentives to cheat, burden of monitoring, efficiency,
privacy and fair use. Finally, we present our conclusions in section


In this section, we compare and contrast the proposals for compensating

rights holders along the following dimensions: technical feasibility,
incentives to cheat, burden of monitoring, efficiency of collection and
distribution of funds, privacy, fair use, feasibility of legal enforcement and

Technical Feasibility A number of security researchers have commented on

the technical futility of copy protection and CMS .One cryptographer has
stated that CMS approaches will never be successful because “all digital
copy protection schemes can be broken and, once they are the breaks will
be distributed” Other security researchers are more optimistic that CMS
models can have more success by focusing on risk management and the
ability to adapt to security compromises

All of the attacks that traditional CMS systems are vulnerable to also apply
to the CMS extension proposals. While the CMS extension proposals aim to
provide better support for fair use, they acknowledge that it is impossible to
create a CMS system that will allow all fair uses. A fundamental technical
challenge is how to create exceptions that are flexible enough to allow
legitimate fair uses, but not so flexible that they can be exploited as
loopholes by infringes. The centralized key escrow scheme proposed by
Burk & Cohen would be an enormous technical undertaking. Many of the
technical criticisms of key escrow systems in general also apply to this
proposal .For example, a centralized key repository creates a very high
value target and introduces many new vulnerabilities and threats regarding
the improper disclosure of keys. Due to the large number of users and
copyrighted works, such a system would be extraordinarily complex to
administer and extremely costly to implement. Sobel’s monitoring and
charging scheme is also infeasible to implement securely. It is simply too
easy for users to alter digital fingerprints and watermarks, especially given
that they have a strong incentive to do so. For example, users may easily
be able to remove the mark, or to place a watermark from one work into
another. Another simple attack is for users to encrypt their files to prevent
detection of the watermark. It would be difficult (or impossible) for the ISP
to differentiate between legitimately encrypted content and encrypted
copyrighted content without banning encryption entirely. The main technical
challenge in the compulsory licensing schemes is how to track digital copies
of content. Fisher suggests two approaches to tackle this problem. The first
is for the creators to imbed digital watermarks into copies of their work,
which could then be tracked and replicated in each copy of the original
work. Unfortunately, as discussed above, the watermarking approach is
subject to a number of attacks that may make such a plan infeasible.
Fisher’s second approach relies upon the existence of a centralized
registration system, which would require artists to register their work in
exchange for a unique serial number for that work. Again, Fisher does not
provide any details for how the serial number would be tracked. One
possibility is to embed the serial number as a watermark, but this is subject
to the problems discussed above. Any centralized registration service of this
type will be an enormous technical undertaking. Even if watermarking
systems were impossible to defeat, both the monitor-and-charge schemes
and the compulsory licensing schemes are subject to “distributed” cheating
attacks, where the consumption of a good is artificially in-flated across a
large number of (real or illegitimate) users. These types of attacks are
challenging to detect, and any usage monitoring or sampling scheme must
be designed with this in mind.
er 3
Technical Descriptions:


The total number of databases that were identified to build

system is 14. The major parts of the databases are
categorized as administration components and students and
faculty’s components. The administration components are
useful is managing the actual master data that may be
necessary to maintain the consistency of the system. These
databases are purely used for the internal organizational
needs and necessities.

The students and faculty’s components are designed to

handle to transactional states that arise upon the system
whereas students or faculty can make a visit onto the portal
for the sake of the information related to semesters,
examinations fees, Library Books and Corporate details. The
students and faculty’s components are scheduled to accept
parametrical information from the uses as per the system
To provide flexibility to the users the interface has been
developed keeping graphical user interface concept in mind,
associated through a browser specific interface. The GUI’S at
the top level have been categorized as

 Administration users interface

 Students users interface

 Faculties User Interface

 Corporate User Interface

The Administration users interface concentrate on the
consistent in that is practically part of organizational
actuaries and which needs proper authentication for date
collation. These interfaces to the visitors with all the
transactional states lute date in date deletion and date
updation only with the Date search capabilities.

The students or faculties user interface helps the ordinary

website visitors in transactions the required services that
are provided upon the site. The faculties can manage their
own information in a customized manner as per their

Number of Modules

Students Module: This module manages all that information

related to the students, who got enrolled into the system.
The students association towards the particular course and
the examination schedules. In this Module we give the
flexibility to the user in viewing the subjects in a semester
and his personal information. They can also view for any
notifications from the corporate. Student is also given
privilege of accessing their account information and changes
the passwords for the security reasons. He can view the
material (notes) posted by the faculty for his semester
subject and download it.

Faculties Module: This module manages the information

that is specific to the faculties. The module also integrates
itself to the courses to which he is responsible and the
subjects on which he is being deputed. The module also
manages itself to maintain integration with the faculties’
details and he can post the new assignments which will be
displayed to the students and student can submit the
assignment after seeing this. It allows the faculty to post
the lecturer notes related to a subject he is dealing.

Corporate Information Management Module: The Module

maintains the details of the corporate companies that are
interested to provide placements to students in this campus
through campus placements. The portal maintains the list of
all the corporate sectors that are available and also provides
the facilities for registering them selves onto the database of
this site for their future endeavors. The Students and the
faculties as well as the management can have a fair glance
of information regarding all the corporate sectors and guide
their students regarding the essentials and necessities of job
placements. It allows the companies to post the notification
details which will be displayed to the students.

Administrator Module: This module deals with

administrative strategies of the organization, which involve
checking out the student’s registrations, their admission
details, and authenticating them to access the information
from the system.. This module is mainly designed to provide
the validation check at the administration level for every
event generated at the front-end level. It allows to manage
different branches, courses, semester in a branch, subjects
in a semester, designations. It also allows to open and close
student admissions and faculty admissions at an interval of
time. After that it allows to add students and faculties. Using
the can manage the books information in the library. He
can post the information in the examination branch.
Required Hardware:

 Pentium IV Processor.

 256 MB RAM.

 80 GB Hard Disk space.

 Ethernet card with an Internet and Internet


Required Software

 Windows 2000/ XP operating system.

 Internet explorer 5.0 and Netscape


 MySQL Server.

 Java/J2EE.

 Web Server as Tomcat.


(i) Technical Feasibility

The system is self-explanatory and does not need any extra

sophisticated training. The system has been built by
concentrating on the graphical user interface concepts; the
application can also be handled very easily with a novice
user. The overall time that a user needs to get trained is
less than 15 minutes.
The system has been added with features of menu driven and
button interaction methods, which makes the user master as
he starts working through the environment. As the software
that were used in developing this application are very
economical and are readily available is the market the only
time that is lost by the customer is just installation time.

ii) Financial Feasibility

Time Based: As the operations upon the system grow the

net size of the database records increases beyond the
control of the manual system. The information search upon
the domain takes unbound time to retrieve any data that
dates back to older times. The systems latency increases as
the information collection gets accumulated. To make the
process much faster and data retrieval to be smoother the
database takes the charge. At this stage the system has
grater overhead with data collection and higher importance
of data search, the system maintains its consistency as and
when the system is operated.

The above manual process when initiated through the web

portal will always gives the user faster accessibility towards
data representation and retrieval from the system. The
system makes the entire organization to have proper
communication at proper time removing the overhead of
manual communication standards. The administration at the
top level in the organization can have data at demand with a
formula of 24*7*365 a year concept. The system eliminates
the hurdles that exist in the manual system.

Cost Based:
If the physical system is established through a manual
process. There is much need of stationary that has to be
managed and maintained as files, the overall system once
implemented as a intranet based web application not only
saves the time but also eliminates the latency that can exist
within the system, and saves the cost of stationary that is
an unforeseen overhead within the system.

From Faculties View:

The system helps the faculties as follows:

1. The assignments schedules once prepared

need not be transferred or team ported
manually to all the students individually.

2. T h e f a c u l t i e s n e e d n o t p r e p a r e t h e m a t e r i a l o f
the semester subjects. Once they are uploaded
onto the site.

3. T h e f a c u l t i e s n e e d n o t p r e p a r e t h e a s s i g n m e n t s
manually and distribute it to all the students.

4. The administrations can take good time in

guiding the faculties regarding all the academic

er 4
activities within no time.
SRS Document:

Intended Audience And Reading Suggestions

The document is prepared keeping is view of the academic
constructs of my Bachelors Degree / Masters Degree from
Distance Learning campus as partial fulfillment of my
academic purpose the document specifies the general
procedure that that has been followed by me, while the
system was studied and developed. The general document
was provided by the industry as a reference guide to
understand my responsibilities in developing the system,
with respect to the requirements that have been pin pointed
to get the exact structure of the system as stated by the
actual client.

The system as stated by my project leader the actual

standards of the specification were desired by conducting a
series of interviews and questionnaires. The collected
information was organized to form the specification
document and then was modeled to suite the standards of
the system as intended.

Document Conventions:

The overall documents for this project use the recognized

modeling standards at the software industries level.
• ER-Modeling to concentrate on the relational
states existing upon the system with respect to
• The Physical dispense, which state the overall data
search for the relational key whereas a
transactions is implemented on the wear entities.
• Unified modeling language concepts to give a
generalized blue print for the overall system.
• The standards of flow charts at the required states
that are the functionality of the operations need
more concentration.

Scope of The Development Project:

Database Tier: T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s a p p l i e d b y a d o p t i n g t h e
MySQL Enterprise versions. SQL is taken as the standard
query language.

User Tier: T h e use interface is developed is a browses

specific environment to have distributed architecture. The
components are designed using HTML standards and Java
server pages power the dynamic of the page design.

Data Base Connectivity Tier

The communication architecture is designed by concentrated

on the standards of servlets and EJB.The database
connectivity is established using the Java Database

Role Of MySQL In Database

MYSQL 8i is one of the many database services that plug into

a client / server model. It works efficiently to manage
resources, a database information, among the multiple
clients requesting & sending.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

SQL is an inter-active language used to query the database

and access data in database. SQL has the following features:

1. It is a unified language.

2. It is a common language for relational


3. It is a non-procedural language.
What is a Relational Database Management System?

A relational database management system (RDBMS) can

perform a wide array of tasks. It acts as a transparent
interface between the physical storage and a logical
presentation of data. It provides a set of more or less
flexible and sophisticates tools for handling information.
User can use this tool to:
 Define a database
 Query the database
 Add, edit and delete data
 Modify the structure of database
 Secure data from public access
 Communicate within the networks
 Export and Import data

Because it gives so much control over data, a relational

DBMS can also save as the foundation for products that
generate application and extract data.

A Database Management system may be called fully

relational if it supports:

 Relational Databases and

 A language that is at least as powerful as

the relational algebra


E.F.Codd specified a set of rules that an RDBMS has to do following

12 rules

Information rule: All information in a relational database

including table names, column names, and domain names is
represented explicitly by values in tables. With this design speed and
productivity will be improved.
1. Guaranteed access rule: using a combination of table name, a
primary key value and a column name can access Every piece of data
in a relational database. With this productivity is improved since
there is no need to resort to using physical pointers of address and
provides data independence.
2. Systematic treatment of null values: The RDBMS distinguishes
between blanks nulls in records and handles such values in consistent
manner that produces correct answers on comparison and
calculations. With these users can distinguish results of
queries/operations that involve nulls, zeroes and blanks.
3. Active on-line catalog based on the relational model: The
description of a database and its contents are database tables and
therefore can be queried on-line via the database language. With this
the DBA’s productivity is improved since the changes are common in
catalog to all tables for all queries and reports.
4. Comprehensive data sub-language rule: An RDBMS language
supports definitions of tables/views. Query and update data, integrity
constraints, authorizations, definitions of transactions. With this user
productivity is improved since there is a single approach for all
database operations.
5. View updating rule: Any view that is theoretically updateable can
be updated using RDBMS. With this data consistency is ensured since
changes in the underlying tables are transmitted to the view their
6. High-level insert, update and delete: The RDBMS supports
insertion, updating deletion at al table level. With this the
performance is improved by optimizing the path for execution.
7. Physical data independence: The execution of adhoc requests and
application programs are not affected by the changes in the physical
data access methods. With this DBA can make changes in application
programs or adhoc requests.
8. Logical data independence: Logical changes in tables and views do
not require changes in the application programs or in the format of
adhoc requests. With this databases can change and grow without
changes in applications.
9. Integrity independence: Since constraints are stored in system
catalog, they can be changed without changing application program.
With this maintenance costs are reduced since only system catalog
need to be changed.
10. Distribution independence: Application programs and adhoc
requests are not affected by changes in the distribution of physical
data. With this system reliability will be improved since application
programs will work even if the programs and dare are shifted.
11. Non-Subversion rule: If the RDBMS has languages that access a
record of a time it cannot be used to bypass integrity. With this data
integrity is achieved since the system catalog is musts
a. Code defined a relationally complete set of operations taking
one or more relation as their operands. The operators are two
groups: the traditional set of operators union, intersection,
difference and Cartesian product and the special operators
selection, projection, join and division.
b. A fully relational DBMS has to support the above operations.

The MySQL Environment

MySQL is modular system that consists of the SQL database and several
functional programs. MySQL tools have four kinds of works:

 Database management
 Data access and manipulations
 Programming
 Connectivity
Database Management Tools

This is usually (known as RDBMS by MySQL) includes the core programs of

MySQL’s database management system, the MYSQL database with its
associated tables and views, which are stored in the MySQL’s data
dictionary and a group of helpful activities. The data dictionary sores
information related to every facet of database system. User names, user
access rights, table storage information and auditing data for the disaster
recovery are all stored in the data dictionary.

Data Access and Manipulations

All of MySQL’s data access and manipulation tools are firmly based on ANSI
standard SQL. In MySQL, the tools that a user will use to access and
manipulate data, has well as to design or use applications. Each provides
separate point of entry and unique speech to the MySQL system.
MySQL provides a SQL command set that is close to the ANSI standard
MYSQL has added extensive report-formatting commands to
extend the direct SQL language our capabilities and to delay the
needs for alternative report formatting techniques. Statistical,
Arithmetic string date/time functions are also included.

MYSQL has with limitation. The Single-user does not include all of the tools
available on the hardware platforms. Also. MYSQL is relatively
expensive and more complex than more single user, PC-basis
database managers. MYSQL delivers a comprehensive package
that allows for unlimited growth.

MySQL Gives You Security and Control MYSQL has several features that
ensure the integrity of user database. I f an interruption occurs in
processing, a rollback can rest the database to a point before the
disaster. If a restore is necessary, MYSQL has a roll forward
command for creating a database to its most recent save point.
MySQL provides users with several functions for serving data.
Grant and Revoke commands limited access to information down
to the row and column levels. Views are valuable future for
limiting access to the primary tables in the database.

MySQL Performs Competitively

MYSQL has been constantly improved to perform competitively on the
largest database because RDBMS has been hampered by a repetition for
slow access time. MYSQL had to prove itself continuously and so the unique
feature of clustering techniques for storing data on the disk or another
performance gained. Additional functions help control complex database
installations. The active data dictionary, which automatically update and
logs modification to the database provide documentation data off loading
form the modification process. Finally, MYSQL stores the DBMS kernel in
extended memory, so more main memory is available for the application.
Fourth Generation Languages
The fourth generation languages were created to overcome the problem of
third generation languages, and these 4GL’s are generally referred to as
high productivity languages.

Objectives Of Fourth Generation Languages

To speed up the application building process

 To make the application building process

 To minimize the debugging problems

 To generate bug free code from high level of expressions

of requirements.

 To make languages easy to use and understand

All these make the end users solve their own problems and pit computers to
Characteristics of Fourth Generation Languages
 Simple Query facilities/ language

 Complex query and updating language

 Report generators

 Graphic languages

 Decision support languages

 Application generations

 Specification language

 Very high level language

 Parameterized application language

 Application language

Properties of Fourth Generation Languages

♦ Easy to use

♦ Employees a database management system


♦ Requires significantly fewer instructions than

third generation language
♦ Intelligent default assumptions make abort
what the use wants possible

♦ Easy to understand and maintain

♦ Enforces and encourages structured code

♦ Subset can learnt not by non-technical users

in a short period
Client Server
Over view:

With the varied topic in existence in the fields of computers, Client Server is
one, which has generated more heat than light, and also more hype than
reality. This technology has acquired a certain critical mass attention with
its dedication conferences and magazines. Major computer vendors such as
IBM and DEC; have declared that Client Servers is their main future market.
A survey of DBMS magazine reveled that 76% of its readers were actively
looking at the client server solution. The growth in the client server
development tools from $200 million in 1992 to more than $1.2 billion in

Client server implementations are complex but the underlying concept is

simple and powerful. A client is an application running with local resources
but able to request the database and relate the services from separate
remote server. The software mediating this client server interaction is often
referred to as MIDDLEWARE.

The typical client either a PC or a Work Station connected through a

network to a more powerful PC, Workstation, Midrange or Main Frames
server usually capable of handling request from more than one client.
However, with some configuration server may also act as client. A server
may need to access other server in order to process the original client

The key client server idea is that client as user is essentially insulated from
the physical location and formats of the data needs for their application.
With the proper middleware, a client input from or report can transparently
access and manipulate both local database on the client machine and
remote databases on one or more servers. An added bonus is the client
server opens the door to multi-vendor database access indulging
heterogeneous table joins.
What is a Client Server
Two prominent systems in existence are client server and file server
systems. It is essential to distinguish between client servers and file server
systems. Both provide shared network access to data but the comparison
dens there! The file server simply provides a remote disk drive that can be
accessed by LAN applications on a file-by-file basis. The client server offers
full relational database services such as SQL-Access, Record modifying,
Insert, Delete with full relational integrity backup/ restore performance for
high volume of transactions, etc. the client server middleware provides a
flexible interface between client and server, who does what, when and to

Why Client Server

Client server has evolved to solve a problem that has been around since the
earliest days of computing: how best to distribute your computing, data
generation and data storage resources in order to obtain efficient, cost
effective departmental an enterprise wide data processing. During
mainframe era choices were quite limited. A central machine housed both
the CPU and DATA (cards, tapes, drums and later disks). Access to these
resources was initially confined to batched runs that produced departmental
reports at the appropriate intervals. A strong central information service
department ruled the corporation. The role of the rest of the corporation
limited to requesting new or more frequent reports and to provide hand
written forms from which the central data banks were created and updated.
The earliest client server solutions therefore could best be characterized as

Time-sharing changed the picture. Remote terminal could view and even
change the central data, subject to access permissions. And, as the central
data banks evolved in to sophisticated relational database with non-
programmer query languages, online users could formulate adhoc queries
and produce local reports with out adding to the MIS applications software
backlog. However remote access was through dumb terminals, and the
client server remained subordinate to the Slave\Master.
Front end or User Interface Design

The entire user interface is planned to be developed in browser specific

environment with a touch of Intranet-Based Architecture for achieving the
Distributed Concept.

The browser specific components are designed by using the HTML

standards, and the dynamism of the designed by concentrating on the
constructs of the Java Server Pages.

Communication or Database Connectivity Tier

The Communication architecture is designed by concentrating on the

Standards of Servlets and Enterprise Java Beans. The database connectivity
is established by using the Java Data Base Connectivity.

The standards of three-tire architecture are given major concentration to

keep the standards of higher cohesion and limited coupling for effectiveness
of the operations.

Features of The Language Used

In my project, I have chosen Java language for developing the code.

About Java

Initially the language was called as “oak” but it was renamed as “Java” in
1995. The primary motivation of this language was the need for a platform-
independent (i.e., architecture neutral) language that could be used to
create software to be embedded in various consumer electronic devices.
 Java is a programmer’s language.
 Java is cohesive and consistent.
 Except for those constraints imposed by the Internet
environment, Java gives the programmer, full control.
Finally, Java is to Internet programming where C was to system
Importance of Java to the Internet
Java has had a profound effect on the Internet. This is because; Java
expands the Universe of objects that can move about freely in Cyberspace.
In a network, two categories of objects are transmitted between the Server
and the Personal computer. They are: Passive information and Dynamic
active programs. The Dynamic, Self-executing programs cause serious
problems in the areas of Security and probability. But, Java addresses those
concerns and by doing so, has opened the door to an exciting new form of
program called the Applet.

Java can be used to create two types of programs

A p p lic at io ns a nd A p p let s: An application is a program that runs on our

Computer under the operating system of that computer. It is more or less

like one creating using C or C++. Java’s ability to create Applets makes it
important. An Applet is an application designed to be transmitted over the
Internet and executed by a Java –compatible web browser. An applet is
actually a tiny Java program, dynamically downloaded across the network,
just like an image. But the difference is, it is an intelligent program, not just
a media file. It can react to the user input and dynamically change.

Features Of Java Security

Every time you that you download a “normal” program, you are risking a
viral infection. Prior to Java, most users did not download executable
programs frequently, and those who did scanned them for viruses prior to
execution. Most users still worried about the possibility of infecting their
systems with a virus. In addition, another type of malicious program exists
that must be guarded against. This type of program can gather private
information, such as credit card numbers, bank account balances, and
passwords. Java answers both these concerns by providing a “firewall”
between a network application and your computer.
When you use a Java-compatible Web browser, you can safely download
Java applets without fear of virus infection or malicious intent.


For programs to be dynamically downloaded to all the various types of

platforms connected to the Internet, some means of generating portable
executable code is needed .As you will see, the same mechanism that helps
ensure security also helps create portability. Indeed, Java’s solution to
these two problems is both elegant and efficient.

The Byte code

The key that allows the Java to solve the security and portability problems
is that the output of Java compiler is Byte code. Byte code is a highly
optimized set of instructions designed to be executed by the Java run-time
system, which is called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). That is, in its
standard form, the JVM is an interpreter for byte code.

Translating a Java program into byte code helps makes it much easier to
run a program in a wide variety of environments. The reason is, once the
run-time package exists for a given system, any Java program can run on

Although Java was designed for interpretation, there is technically nothing

about Java that prevents on-the-fly compilation of byte code into native
code. Sun has just completed its Just In Time (JIT) compiler for byte code.
When the JIT compiler is a part of JVM, it compiles byte code into
executable code in real time, on a piece-by-piece, demand basis. It is not
possible to compile an entire Java program into executable code all at once,
because Java performs various run-time checks that can be done only at
run time. The JIT compiles code, as it is needed, during execution.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

Beyond the language, there is the Java virtual machine. The Java virtual
machine is an important element of the Java technology. The virtual
machine can be embedded within a web browser or an operating system.
Once a piece of Java code is loaded onto a machine, it is verified. As part of
the loading process, a class loader is invoked and does byte code
verification makes sure that the code that’s has been generated by the
compiler will not corrupt the machine that it’s loaded on. Byte code
verification takes place at the end of the compilation process to make sure
that is all accurate and correct. So byte code verification is integral to the
compiling and executing of Java code.

Overall Description

Java Source Java byte code JavaVM

Java . Class
Picture showing the development process of JAVA Program
Java programming uses to produce byte codes and executes them. The first
box indicates that the Java source code is located in a. Java file that is
processed with a Java compiler called javac. The Java compiler produces a
file called a. class file, which contains the byte code. The. Class file is then
loaded across the network or loaded locally on your machine into the
execution environment is the Java virtual machine, which interprets and
executes the byte code.

Java Architecture

Java architecture provides a portable, robust, high performing environment

for development. Java provides portability by compiling the byte codes for
the Java Virtual Machine, which is then interpreted on each platform by the
run-time environment. Java is a dynamic system, able to load code when
needed from a machine in the same room or across the planet.
Compilation of code

When you compile the code, the Java compiler creates machine code (called
byte code) for a hypothetical machine called Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
The JVM is supposed to execute the byte code. The JVM is created for
overcoming the issue of portability. The code is written and compiled for
one machine and interpreted on all machines. This machine is called Java
Virtual Machine.
Compiling and interpreting Java Source Code

Source PC Compiler Interpreter
Code (PC)
……….. Java
Byte code
Macintosh Java
……….. Compiler Interpreter
………… SPARC dent) ( Spare )


During run-time the Java interpreter tricks the byte code file into thinking
that it is running on a Java Virtual Machine. In reality this could be a Intel
Pentium Windows 95 or SunSARC station running Solaris or Apple
Macintosh running system and all could receive code from any computer
through Internet and run the Applets.

Java was designed to be easy for the Professional programmer to learn and
to use effectively. If you are an experienced C++ programmer, learning
Java will be even easier. Because Java inherits the C/C++ syntax and many
of the object oriented features of C++. Most of the confusing concepts from
C++ are either left out of Java or implemented in a cleaner, more
approachable manner. In Java there are a small number of clearly defined
ways to accomplish a given task.

Java was not designed to be source-code compatible with any other

language. This allowed the Java team the freedom to design with a blank
slate. One outcome of this was a clean usable, pragmatic approach to
objects. The object model in Java is simple and easy to extend, while simple
types, such as integers, are kept as high-performance non-objects.


The multi-platform environment of the Web places extraordinary demands

on a program, because the program must execute reliably in a variety of
systems. The ability to create robust programs was given a high priority in
the design of Java. Java is strictly typed language; it checks your code at
compile time and run time.

Java virtually eliminates the problems of memory management and

deallocation, which is completely automatic. In a well-written Java program,
all run time errors can –and should –be managed by your program.
Servlets, JSP,


The Java web server is JavaSoft's own web Server. The Java web server is
just a part of a larger framework, intended to provide you not just with a
web server, but also with tools. To build customized network servers for any
Internet or Intranet client/server system. Servlets are to a web server, how
applets are to the browser.
About Servlets

Servlets provide a Java-based solution used to address the problems

currently associated with doing server-side programming, including
inextensible scripting solutions, platform-specific APIs, and incomplete
Servlets are objects that conform to a specific interface that can be plugged
into a Java-based server. Servlets are to the server-side what applets are to
the client-side - object byte codes that can be dynamically loaded off the
net. They differ from applets in that they are faceless objects (without
graphics or a GUI component). They serve as platform independent,
dynamically loadable, plugable helper byte code objects on the server side
that can be used to dynamically extend server-side functionality.

For example, an HTTP Servlets can be used to generate dynamic HTML

content. When you use Servlets to do dynamic content you get the
following advantages:
 They’re faster and cleaner than CGI scripts
 They use a standard API (the Servlets API)
 They provide all the advantages of Java (run on a variety of
servers without needing to be rewritten).
Attractiveness of Servlets

There are many features of Servlets that make them easy and attractive to
use. These include:
 Easily configured using the GUI-based Admin tool
 Can be loaded and invoked from a local disk or remotely across
the network.
 Can be linked together, or chained, so that one Servlets can
call another Servlets, or several Servlets in sequence.
 Can be called dynamically from within HTML pages, using
server-side include tags.
 Are secure - even when downloading across the network, the
Servlets security model and Servlets sandbox protect your
system from unfriendly behavior.
Advantages of the Servlet API

One of the great advantages of the Servlet API is protocol independence. It

assumes nothing about:
 The protocol being used to transmit on the net
 How it is loaded
 The server environment it will be running in

These qualities are important, because it allows the Servlet API to be

embedded in many different kinds of servers. There are other advantages
to the Servlet API as well. These include:
 It’s extensible - you can inherit all your functionality from the
base classes made available to you.
 It’s simple, small, and easy to use.
Features of Servlets

Servlets are persistent. Servlet are loaded only by the web server
and can maintain services between requests.
 Servlets are fast. Since Servlets only need to be loaded once,
they offer much better performance over their CGI
 Servlets are platform independent.
 Servlets are extensible. Java is a robust, object-oriented
programming language, which easily can be extended to suit
your needs
 Servlets are secure.
 Servlets can be used with a variety of clients.
Loading Servlets

Servlets can be loaded from three places

From a directory that is on the CLASSPATH. The CLASSPATH of the

JavaWebServer includes service root/classes/ which is where the system
classes reside.

From the <SERVICE_ROOT /Servlets/ directory. This is *not* in the

server’s class path. A class loader is used to create Servlets from this
directory. New Servlets can be added - existing Servlets can be recompiled
and the server will notice these changes.

From a remote location. For this a code base like http: // nine.eng /
classes / foo / is required in addition to the Servlets class name. Refer to
the admin GUI docs on Servlet section to see how to set this up.

Loading Remote Servlets

Remote Servlets can be loaded by:

1. Configuring the Admin Tool to setup automatic loading of remote

2. Setting up server side include tags in .shtml files
3. Defining a filter chain configuration
Invoking Servlets

A Servlet invoker is a Servlet that invokes the "service" method on a named

Servlet. If the Servlet is not loaded in the server, then the invoker first
loads the Servlet (either from local disk or from the network) and the then
invokes the "service" method. Also like applets, local Servlets in the server
can be identified by just the class name. In other words, if a Servlet name
is not absolute, it is treated as local.
A client can invoke Servlets in the following ways:
 The client can ask for a document that is served by the Servlet.
 The client (browser) can invoke the Servlet directly using a
URL, once it has been mapped using the Servlet Aliases section
of the admin GUI.
 The Servlet can be invoked through server side include tags.
 The Servlet can be invoked by placing it in the Servlets/
 The Servlet can be invoked by using it in a filter chain.


JavaScript is a script-based programming language that was developed by

Netscape Communication Corporation. JavaScript was originally called Live
Script and renamed as JavaScript to indicate its relationship with Java.
JavaScript supports the development of both client and server components
of Web-based applications. On the client side, it can be used to write
programs that are executed by a Web browser within the context of a Web
page. On the server side, it can be used to write Web server programs that
can process information submitted by a Web browser and then updates the
browser’s display accordingly

Even though JavaScript supports both client and server Web programming,
we prefer JavaScript at Client side programming since most of the browsers
supports it. JavaScript is almost as easy to learn as HTML, and JavaScript
statements can be included in HTML documents by enclosing the statements
between a pair of scripting tags


<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = “JavaScript”>

JavaScript statements

Here are a few things we can do with JavaScript:
 Validate the contents of a form and make calculations.
 Add scrolling or changing messages to the Browser’s status
 Animate images or rotate images that change when we move
the mouse over them.
 Detect the browser in use and display different content for
different browsers.
 Detect installed plug-ins and notify the user if a plug-in is
We can do much more with JavaScript, including creating entire application.
JavaScript Vs Java

JavaScript and Java are entirely different languages. A few of the most
glaring differences are:

 Java applets are generally displayed in a box within the web

document; JavaScript can affect any part of the Web document
 While JavaScript is best suited to simple applications and
adding interactive features to Web pages; Java can be used for
incredibly complex applications.
There are many other differences but the important thing to remember is
that JavaScript and Java are separate languages. They are both useful for
different things; in fact they can be used together to combine their

 JavaScript can be used for Sever-side and Client-side scripting.

 It is more flexible than VBScript.
 JavaScript is the default scripting languages at Client-side since
all the browsers supports it.
Hyper Text Markup Language

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the languages of the World Wide Web
(WWW), allows users to produces Web pages that include text, graphics and
pointer to other Web pages (Hyperlinks).

HTML is not a programming language but it is an application of ISO

Standard 8879, SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language), but
specialized to hypertext and adapted to the Web. The idea behind Hypertext
is that instead of reading text in rigid linear structure, we can easily jump
from one point to another point. We can navigate through the information
based on our interest and preference. A markup language is simply a series
of elements, each delimited with special characters that define how text or
other items enclosed within the elements should be displayed. Hyperlinks
are underlined or emphasized works that load to other documents or some
portions of the same document.
HTML can be used to display any type of document on the host computer,
which can be geographically at a different location. It is a versatile language
and can be used on any platform or desktop.
HTML provides tags (special codes) to make the document look attractive.
HTML tags are not case-sensitive. Using graphics, fonts, different sizes,
color, etc., can enhance the presentation of the document. Anything that is
not a tag is part of the document itself.
Basic HTML Tags :
<! -- --> Specifies comments
<A>……….</A> Creates hypertext links
<B>……….</B> Formats text as bold
<BIG>……….</BIG> Formats text in large font.
<BODY>…</BODY> Contains all tags and text in the HTML
<CENTER>...</CENTER> Creates text
<DD>…</DD> Definition of a term
<DL>...</DL> Creates definition list
<FONT>…</FONT> Formats text with a particular font
<FORM>...</FORM> Encloses a fill-out form
<FRAME>...</FRAME> Defines a particular frame in a set of
<H#>…</H#> Creates headings of different levels
<HEAD>...</HEAD> Contains tags that specify information
about a document
<HR>...</HR> Creates a horizontal rule
<HTML>…</HTML> Contains all other HTML tags
<META>...</META> Provides meta-information about a
<SCRIPT>…</SCRIPT> Contains client-side or server-side script
<TABLE>…</TABLE> Creates a table
<TD>…</TD> Indicates table data in a table
<TR>…</TR> Designates a table row
<TH>…</TH> Creates a heading in a table


 A HTML document is small and hence easy to send over the

net. It is small because it does not include formatted
 HTML is platform independent.
 HTML tags are not case-sensitive.

Java Database Connectivity

What Is JDBC?

JDBC is a Java API for executing SQL statements. (As a point of interest,
JDBC is a trademarked name and is not an acronym; nevertheless, JDBC is
often thought of as standing for Java Database Connectivity. It consists of a
set of classes and interfaces written in the Java programming language.
JDBC provides a standard API for tool/database developers and makes it
possible to write database applications using a pure Java API.
Using JDBC, it is easy to send SQL statements to virtually any relational
database. One can write a single program using the JDBC API, and the
program will be able to send SQL statements to the appropriate database.
The combinations of Java and JDBC lets a programmer write it once and run
it anywhere.

What Does JDBC Do?

Simply put, JDBC makes it possible to do three things:
 Establish a connection with a database
 Send SQL statements
 Process the results.

JDBC versus ODBC and other APIs

At this point, Microsoft's ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) API is that
probably the most widely used programming interface for accessing
relational databases. It offers the ability to connect to almost all databases
on almost all platforms.

So why not just use ODBC from Java? The answer is that you
can use ODBC from Java, but this is best done with the help
of JDBC in the form of the JDBC-ODBC Bridge, which we will
cover shortly. The question now becomes "Why do you need
JDBC?" There are several answers to this question:
1. ODBC is not appropriate for direct use from Java because it uses a C
interface. Calls from Java to native C code have a number of
drawbacks in the security, implementation, robustness, and
automatic portability of applications.
2. A literal translation of the ODBC C API into a Java API would not be
desirable. For example, Java has no pointers, and ODBC makes
copious use of them, including the notoriously error-prone generic
pointer "void *". You can think of JDBC as ODBC translated into an
object-oriented interface that is natural for Java programmers.
3. ODBC is hard to learn. It mixes simple and advanced features
together, and it has complex options even for simple queries. JDBC,
on the other hand, was designed to keep simple things simple while
allowing more advanced capabilities where required.
4. A Java API like JDBC is needed in order to enable a "pure Java"
solution. When ODBC is used, the ODBC driver manager and drivers
must be manually installed on every client machine. When the JDBC
driver is written completely in Java, however, JDBC code is
automatically installable, portable, and secure on all Java platforms
from network computers to mainframes.

Two-tier and Three-tier Models

The JDBC API supports both two-tier and three-tier models for
database access.
In the two-tier model, a Java applet or application talks directly to the
database. This requires a JDBC driver that can communicate with the
particular database management system being accessed. A user's SQL
statements are delivered to the database, and the results of those
statements are sent back to the user. The database may be located on
another machine to which the user is connected via a network. This is
referred to as a client/server configuration, with the user's machine as the
client, and the machine housing the database as the server. The network
can be an Intranet, which, for example, connects employees within a
corporation, or it can be the Internet.

Application Client machine

JDBC DBMS-proprietary

DBMS server
Another advantage is that when there is a middle tier, the user can employ
an easy-to-use higher-level API which is translated by the middle tier into
the appropriate low-level calls. Finally, in many cases the three-tier
architecture can provide performance advantages.

Java applet or Client machine

Html browser (GUI)
CORBA calls

Server (Java)
e rSv- pe r ompar icehtianrey
JDBC (bup s irnoet s
osc oLlo g i c )



Until now the middle tier has typically been written in languages such as
C or C++, which offer fast performance. However, with the introduction of
optimizing compilers that translate Java byte code into efficient machine-
specific code, it is becoming practical to implement the middle tier in Java.
This is a big plus, making it possible to take advantage of Java's
robustness, multithreading, and security features. JDBC is important to
allow database access from a Java middle tier.
JDBC Driver Types
The JDBC drivers that we are aware of at this time fit into one of four
 JDBC-ODBC bridge plus ODBC driver
 Native-API partly-Java driver
 JDBC-Net pure Java driver
 Native-protocol pure Java driver

If possible, use a Pure Java JDBC driver instead of the Bridge and an
ODBC driver. This completely eliminates the client configuration required by
ODBC. It also eliminates the potential that the Java VM could be corrupted
by an error in the native code brought in by the Bridge (that is, the Bridge
native library, the ODBC driver manager library, the ODBC driver library,
and the database client library).

What Is the JDBC- ODBC Bridge?

The JDBC-ODBC Bridge is a JDBC driver, which implements JDBC
operations by translating them into ODBC operations. To ODBC it appears
as a normal application program. The Bridge implements JDBC for any
database for which an ODBC driver is available. The Bridge is implemented
as the

Sun.jdbc.odbc Java package and contains a native library used to

access ODBC. The Bridge is a joint development of Innersole and Java Soft.

Java Server Pages (Jsp)

Java server Pages is a simple, yet powerful technology for creating and
maintaining dynamic-content web pages. Based on the Java programming
language, Java Server Pages offers proven portability, open standards, and
a mature re-usable component model .The Java Server Pages architecture
enables the separation of content generation from content presentation.
This separation not eases maintenance headaches; it also allows web team
members to focus on their areas of expertise. Now, web page designer can
concentrate on layout, and web application designers on programming, with
minimal concern about impacting each other’s work.

Features of JSP


Java Server Pages files can be run on any web server or web-enabled
application server that provides support for them. Dubbed the JSP engine,
this support involves recognition, translation, and management of the Java
Server Page lifecycle and its interaction components.


It was mentioned earlier that the Java Server Pages architecture can include
reusable Java components. The architecture also allows for the embedding
of a scripting language directly into the Java Server Pages file. The
components current supported include Java Beans, and Servlets.

A Java Server Pages file is essentially an HTML document with JSP scripting
or tags. The Java Server Pages file has a JSP extension to the server as a
Java Server Pages file. Before the page is served, the Java Server Pages
syntax is parsed and processed into a Servlet on the server side. The
Servlet that is generated outputs real content in straight HTML for
responding to the client.

Access Models:
A Java Server Pages file may be accessed in at least two different ways. A
client’s request comes directly into a Java Server Page. In this scenario,
suppose the page accesses reusable Java Bean components that perform
particular well-defined computations like accessing a database. The result of
the Beans computations, called result sets is stored within the Bean as
properties. The page uses such Beans to generate dynamic content and
present it back to the client.
In both of the above cases, the page could also contain any valid Java code.
Java Server Pages architecture encourages separation of content from

Steps in the execution of a JSP Application:

1. The client sends a request to the web server for a JSP file by giving
the name of the JSP file within the form tag of a HTML page.

2. This request is transferred to the JavaWebServer. At the server side

JavaWebServer receives the request and if it is a request for a jsp file
server gives this request to the JSP engine.
3. JSP engine is program which can understands the tags of the jsp and
then it converts those tags into a Servlet program and it is stored at
the server side. This Servlet is loaded in the memory and then it is
executed and the result is given back to the JavaWebServer and then
it is transferred back to the result is given back to the JavaWebServer
and then it is transferred back to the client.

JDBC connectivity
The JDBC provides database-independent connectivity
between the J2EE platform and a wide range of tabular data
sources. JDBC technology allows an Application Component
Provider to:

 Perform connection and authentication to a database


 Manager transactions

 Move SQL statements to a database engine for

preprocessing and execution

 Execute stored procedures

 Inspect and modify the results from Select


The generated application is the first version upon the system. The overall
system is planned to be in the formal of distributed architecture with
homogeneous database platform. The major objective of the overall system
is to keep the following components intact.

System consistencySystem integrity Overall security of data Data

reliability and Accuracy User friendly name both at administration and
user levels Considering the fact of generality and clarity To cross check
that the system overcomes the hurdles of the version specific standards

Overall Description

Product Perspective

The software application has been developed to act as a

bridge between the students and faculties, faculties and
administration. The manual latency that exists in the system
is eliminated and also the job scheduling standards becomes
very faster within the system.

The basic structure of the system.

 Maintain and manage the information of all the

students who got admitted into the College with
respect to a particular course structure

 Maintains and manage the information of all the

faculties who are actually authenticated and
authorized to act as student guides, and the
respective subjects they handle.

 Maintains and manage the information of all the

registered courses and subjects as approved by the
academic council.

 Maintain and manage the information of the unique

semesters and their start and end times.
 Maintains and manage the examination details along
with the schedule of the examination timetable.

 Maintain and manage the student’s examination

registration and their schedules of exam attendance
and the results of the student’s exam.

Project Plan

 Maintain and manage the fee payments details of the

students for their academic purposes and

 Maintain and manage the faculty based material and

the previous question papers along with the answers.

 Maintain and manage the faculty assignments and

marks details.

Product Functions

The major function that product executes are divided into two

 Administration Management Module

 Students Management Module

 Faculties Management Module

 Corporate Management Module

Administrative Functions

The functions take care of the actual data interpretation standards at

the level of the Administrative officer area. All these transactions that need
consistency function the system existence. All the master table transaction
with respect to then data insertion, deletion and updation are totally
managed by the system administrators.
The generic information maintained by the administrator is:

1. Students information management

2. Faculties information management

3. Courses and subjects information management

4. Student and courses information management

5. Students management and maintenance

6. Examination and results maintenance

7. Fee payments maintenance.

8. Corporate Registration

9. Library Catalog Management.

User Interface Functions:

The general function that are taken care of at the user level area are,
the students can cross check their information regarding the academic
and examination fee payments. The students can access the faculties
material and the generic information that is necessary for them with
respect to their assignments. The faculties can cross verify the
information related to the courses for which they are incharge and the
subject that are taken care of as the responsibility withing that

Project Plan
The total project consists of seven modules, which are practically as follows:

 Students information module

 Faculty information module

 Courses information module

 Semester and examination information module

 Assignments module

 Notes management module.

 Corporate Management Module.

 Library Catalog Management Module.

The description for all the above modules has been provided in detail in the
previous sections.

Number of Databases: The project consists totally 25 database tables,

which are as follows:
• Student Master
 Faculty Master
 Course Master
 Department Master
 Designation Master
 Subject Master
 Course subject master
 Semester master
 Exam timetable master
 Student Login
 Admin Master
 Stu_Notifi_Master
 Student_Certificate_Master
 Corporate Master
 Corporate Login
 Notification Master
 Faculty Login
 Catalog
The detailed description of the above entities will be provided in the coming

External and Internal Interfaces

The total numbers of external interfaces are, found to be none for the
project under the actual analysis phase. The total number of internal
interfaces is all the basic entities that were identified and detailed in the
previous section.
er 5
• The entire system is projected with a physical diagram which
specifics the actual storage parameters that are physically
necessary for any database to be stored on to the disk. The
overall systems existential idea is derived from this diagram.

• The relation upon the system is structure through a conceptual

ER-Diagram, which not only specifics the existential entities but
also the standard relations through which the system exists and
the cardinalities that are necessary for the system state to

• The UML is provided to have an idea of the functional

functionalities that are achieved through the system. The system
depicts the input and out put standards at the high level of the
systems existence.


• The entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) depicts the relationship

between the data objects. The ERD is the notation that is used
to conduct the date modeling activity the attributes of each
data object noted is the ERD can be described resign a data
object descriptions.

• The set of primary components that are identified by the ERD


 Data object  Relationships

 Attributes  Various types of indicators.

• The primary purpose of the ERD is to represent data objects

and their relationships.




Sem. ve

Student Ca
Course n
Master Ha Master

ent Sem.
Faculty Department
Master For

Wor Works Can

ks For
For Have


For Master


Faculty Master Can Subject Master hav

prepar Can
e Assign

Belon Question Paper

To Belon

Exam Master Can Course Master


Belon gs
gs To

hav Notes Master
Unified Modeling Language Diagrams

• The unified modeling language allows the software engineer to

express an analysis model using the modeling notation that is
governed by a set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules.

• A UML system is represented using five different views that

describe the system from distinctly different perspective. Each
view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows.

• User Model View

i. This view represents the system from the users


ii. The analysis representation describes a usage scenario

from the end-users perspective.

Structural model view

 In this model the data and functionality are arrived from
inside the system.

 This model view models the static structures.

Behavioral Model View
 It represents the dynamic of behavioral as parts of the
system, depicting the interactions of collection between
various structural elements described in the user model
and structural model view.

Implementation Model View

 In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the

system are represented as they are to be built.

Environmental Model View

In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which

the system is to be implemented are represented.

UML is specifically constructed through two different domains they are

 UML Analysis modeling, which focuses on the user
model and structural model views of the system.
 UML design modeling, which focuses on the
behavioral modeling, implementation modeling and
environmental model views.
Use Case Diagrams

Use cases model the system from the end users point of view, with the
following objectives

 To define the functional and operational requirements of the

system by defining a scenario of usage.

 To provide a class and unambiguous description of how the

end user and the system interact with one another.

 To provide a basis for validation testing.

UML Diagrams:
Usecase Diagram:

The actors in the following system are

 Students

 Faculties

 Administration



Student Exam



(a) High level Diagram

Login <<Uses>> username
& password

Fee <<Uses>> payment
payments type ID,

 <<U
Student Apply for
exam Validate Exam
ID, Subject ID,
Fee payment
status, exam
Check exam <<Uses>>

Access <<Uses>>
status, valid
materials student

Change <<Uses>> Confirm the

old password

(b) Elaborated Diagram


Course &

Faculty Subject



(a) High level diagram

Login <<Uses>> username
& password

Enquire for
the course

 <<U
s es>>

Faculty Enquire for

the subject

Post <<Uses>>
Send to
Post <<Uses>>

Post the
Display the
exam and <<Uses>> information
on console

Change the <<Uses>> Confirm the

password old password

(b) Elaborated Diagram


New Course

New subject

Designing a
plan for a


(a) High level Diagram

Raise a new Validate
faculty <<Uses>> username
registration & password

Raise a new

 Raise a new <<U


s es>>
Administrator registration

Raise a
Send to
Raise a
semester <<Uses>>
plan for
the course

(b) Detailed Diagram

Class Diagrams:

Faculty Information

This collaboration depicts the actual association among the faculties,

and their respective departments and designations. The information
related to the faculties departments and designations is provided
through referential standards upon designation master and
department master.
- Faculty_No : Number
- Fac_Name : Varchar2
- Fac_Addr : Varchar2
- Fac_Phone : Number
- Fac_EmailID : Varchar2
- Fac_DOB : Date
- Fac_DOJ : Date
- Fac_Dept_ID : Varchar2
- Fac_Desig_ID : Number
- Fac_Login_Name : Varchar2

- Insert ()
- Delete ()
- Update ()
- Search ()
- Validate_Dept_ID ()
- Validate_Desig_ID()

- Desig-ID: Number
- Desig-Name: Varchar2
- Desig-Descr: Varchar2
- Insert ()
- Update ()
- Delete ()
- Search ()
Department Master
- Dept-ID : Number
- Dept-Name : Varchar2
- Dept-desc : Varchar2
- H-Desig-ID :Number
- Insert ()
- Update ()
- Delete ()
- Search ()
- validate-Desig()
Course Subject Information

This collaboration specifies the integrity among the courses and subjects
that are provided by the university, course subjects are relationally
associated through course master and subject master. The subject master
is relationally associated through subject select master


-Course_ID : Number
-Subject_ID : Number

-Validate_Course ()

Course Master Subject Master

-Course-ID: Number -Subject-ID: Number
-Course-Name: Varchar2 -Subject-Name: Varchar2
-Course-Descr: Varchar2 -Sub-Long-Name: Varchar2
-Course-Sh-Name:Varchar2 -Subj-Desc: Varchar2
-Course-Fees:Number -Sub-sele-ID:Number
-Insert () -Insert ()
-Update () -Update ()
-Delete () -Delete ()
-Search () -Search ()

Course Master
-Course-ID: Number
-Course-Name: Varchar2
-Course-Descr: Varchar2
-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()
3) Semester Examination Information

The basic collaboration shows the information collaboration between the

declared examinations. The examination master is relationally associated to
the specific semester and course master entities.


-Exam-ID : Number
-Exam-Name : Varchar2
-Exam-Type : Varchar2
-Exam-Start-Date : Number
-Exam-End-Date : Varchar2
-Exam-Fee : Date
-Semester-Id : Number
-Course-Id : Number

-Insert ()
-Delete ()
-Update ()
-Search ()
-Validate- Semester ()
-Validate_Course ()

Course Master
-Course-ID: Number
-Semester-ID : Number -Course-Name: Varchar2
-Semester-Typ : Varchar2 -Course-Descr: Varchar2
-Semester-Start-Date : Date -Course-Sh-Name:Varchar2
-Semester-End-Date : Date -Course-Fees:Naumber
-Insert () -Insert ()
-Delete () -Update ()
-Update () -Delete ()
-Search () -Search ()
4) Exam Time Table Information

The specific collaboration specifically standardizes the relational strategies

that functionally arise whenever the examination schedules are disclosed
within the university. It is relationally collaborated with examination master,
subject master students master and student exam master.

Exam Time Table

-Exam-ID : Number
-Sub-ID : Number
-Exam-Date : Date
-Exam-Time : Number

-Validate- Exam-ID ()
-Validate_sub-Id ()

Subject Master

-Exam-ID : Number -Subject-ID: Number

-Exam-Name : Varchar2 -Subject-Name: Varchar2
-Exam-Type : Varchar2 -Sub-Long-Name: Varchar2
-Exam-Start-Date : Number -Subj-Desc: Varchar2
-Exam-End-Date : Varchar2 -Sub-sele-ID:Number
-Exam-Fee : Date -Insert ()
-Semester-Id : Number -Update ()
-Course-Id : Number -Delete ()
-Search ()
-Insert () -Validate-sub-select-Id()
-Delete ()
-Update ()
-Search ()
-Validate- Semester ()
-Validate_Course ()
6) Faculty Courses and Subjects Association

Faculty Master Course Master

-Faculty-No : Number -Course-ID: Number

-Faculty-Name : Number -Course-Name: Varchar2
- Faculty -Address: Number -Course-Descr: Varchar2
- Faculty -DOB : Date -Course-Sh-Name:Varchar2
- Faculty -Phone : Number -Course-Fees:Naumber
- Faculty -Email-ID: Varchar2 -Insert ()
- Faculty -Join-Date: Date -Update ()
- Faculty-Dept-Id: Number -Delete ()
- Faculty-Desig-ID: Number -Search ()
-Faculty-Login-Name: Varchar2

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()
-Validate-Dept-Id ()
-Validate-Login-Name ()

Faculty Course Master

-Faculty-ID : Number
-Course-ID :Number

-Validate-Faculty ()
-Validate-Course ()

Subject Master

-Subject-ID: Number
-Subject-Name: Varchar2
-Sub-Long-Name: Varchar2 Faculty Subject Master
-Subj-Desc: Varchar2
-Insert () -Faculty-ID : Number
-Update () -Subject-Id : Number
-Delete ()
-Search () -Validate-Faculty ()
-Validate-sub-select-Id() -Validate-Subject()
The basic collaboration depicts the interrelations among the faculty
master, course master, subject master, faculty course master, faculty
subject master, the collaboration show the generic relationships
among the faculties and their respective responsible subjects, the
courses and the facilities who act as course in charger.
Object and Package Diagram:

Subject Course
Selection Subject

Subject Faculty
Object Assignments

Notes Exam

Subjects Students
Question Exam

Subject object Integration and interface

Designation Department Security

Faculty Faculty
Object Assignments


Faculty Faculty
Subjects Course
Sequence diagram of Lecture Notes

: Lec tureNotes : Lec tureNote : Lec tureNotes JS P :

: S tuden t
Lec tureNotes B ean NewClas s NewClas s

getNotes Lis t(S tring)

s etXXX
inc lude

Sequence diagram of Assignments

: A s s ignm ents : : A s s ignm ent A s s ignm ents JS P :

: S tudent
A s signm entsB ean NewCla ss

getA s s ignm ents Lis t



getXXX( )
Sequence diagram of Examination Time table

: : ExamBean ExamJSP :
: Student
ExamTimeTable NewClass

setXXX( )

include( )

getXXX( )
Sequence diagram of Library

Library BorrowedBook LibraryJSP

: Student


forward( )

Sequence diagram of Book Search by Name

BookSearchNa Book BookSearchNa

: Student
me meResults

setXXX( )

forward( )

getXXX( )
Sequence diagram of Book search by Category

BookSearchCat Book BookSearchCat

: Student
egory egoryResults

setXXX( )

forward( )

getXXX( )
Sequence diagram of Book borrow

BorrowBook Book BookBorrowJSP

: Student

setXXX( )

forward( )

getXXX( )
Activity Diagrams:
1. Activity diagram of an Admin Login.


Invalid User

Valid User


Student Course Library

2.Activity diagram for Different transactions in the


Invalid Student


Search by
B ooks Category Search by Name Barrow

3. Activity diagram for Different options for a

User Form


Lecturer Notes Pre v Papers Exam Time


Database Description

1. Students Master:The database practically maintains the list of

student records who are encoded into the university.

Student Master

-Stud-No : Number
-Stud-Name : Varchar2
-Stud-addr : Varchar2
-Stud-DOB : Date
-Stud-Phone : Number
-Stud-Email-ID: Varchar2
-Stud-Admin-Date: Date
-Stud-Login-Name: Varchar2
-Stud-Login-Name-States: Char

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()

2) Faculty Master: This database practically maintains the list of

all the faculties who are prescribed as designated authorities as
course in charge and subject authorities.

Faculty Master

-Faculty-No : Number
-Faculty-Name : Number
- Faculty -Address: Number
- Faculty -DOB : Date
- Faculty -Phone : Number
- Faculty -Email-ID: Varchar2
- Faculty -Join-Date: Date
- Faculty-Dept-Id: Number
- Faculty-Desig-ID: Number
-Faculty-Login-Name: Varchar2

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()
-Validate-Dept-Id ()
-Validate-Login-Name ()
3) Course Master: This entity illustrates all the unique courses that
have been identified by the university.

Course Master

-Course-Id : Number
- Course -Name : Number
- Course-Sht-Name: Varchar2
- Course -Description: Long
- Course-Fees: Number

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()

4) Department Master: This entity illustrates the information of all the

departments that exist under the university

Department Master
-Dept-Id : Number
- Dept-Name : Varchar2
- Dept-Desc : Long
- Dept-Id : Number

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()
-Validate-Desig-Id ()
5) Designation Master: This entity specifies all the unique
designation that are existing in the
organization, and all the employees are
referenced through the designation that
are included in this table only.

Designation Master

-Designation-Id : Number
- Designation-Name : Varchar2
- Designation-Desc : Long

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()

6) Subject Master: The entity includes all the information about the
subjects that have been accepted by the
academic control. Declaring the subject-Id as
primary key uniquely identifies each subject.

Subject Master
-Subject-Id : Number
- Subject-Name : Varchar2
- Subject-Long-Name : varchar2
- subject-descr :Long
- Subject-Select-Id : Name

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()
-Validate- Subject -select-Id ()
7) Subject select Master: The entity includes the subject selection
criteria for any subject that exists and
being selected under the university

Subject select Master

-Subject-sel-Id : Number
- Subject-sel-desc : Varchar2

-Insert ()
-Update ()
-Delete ()
-Search ()

8) Course Subject Master: The entity practically manages all that

information related to the relational scope
of the subjects and courses that exist in the

Course Subject Master

- Course -Id : Number

- Subject-Id: Name

-Validate-course-Id ()
-Validate- Student -Id ()
9) Student Course Master: The entity practically manages all that
information related to the students who
got registered into specific courses.

Student Course Master

- Student -Id : Number

-Course-Id :Number
- Semester-ID:Number

-Insert ()
-Validate- Subject -Id ()
-Validate- Semester -Id ()

10) Semester Master: This entity manages the unique information

related to the semesters that are managed by
the university per their almanac schedules.
Declaring semester-ID as primary key uniquely
identifies each semester.

Semester Master

- Semester -Id : Number

- Semester -Type : Varchar2
Semester-st-Date: Date
- Semester-End-Date:Date

-Insert ()
-Validate- Subject -Id ()
-Validate- Semester -Id ()
11) Examination Master: This entity manages the unique information
related to the all examinations that are
declared within the university as per the
almanac schedule.

Examination Master

- Exam-Id : Number
-Exam-Name: Varchar2
- Exam –Type-Id : Number
Sem-ID: Number
-Course-Id: Number

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate- sem -Id ()
Validate- Course -Id ()

12) Exam Time Table Master: The entity basically manages the
information related to the
examination timetable along with
the subject date and time.
Student Exam Master

- Student-No : Number
-Exam-ID :Number
-Subject-ID :Number
-Exam-Result :Char
-Exam-Marks :Number

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate-Exam-Id ()
13) Student Validate- subj-Id ()
Validate- stud-Id ()

Exam Master: The entity basically

manages the information related to the
students and their attendance upon the
examination along with the examination

Examination Master

- Exam-Id : Number
-Subject-ID :Number
-Date-of-Ex :Date
-Time-of-Ex :Date

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate- subj-Id ()
14) Fee
Payment Master: The module stores the
information related to the fee payment
details of the student.
Fee Payment Master Details

- Fee Payment-type-Id: Number

-Fee –amount: Number
-fee-payment-ID :Number

Insert ()
Validate-fee-payment-type-Id ()
Validate- payment-Id ()

15) Fee Payment Master Details: The entity practically manages all
the at data related to the fee
payment particulars of the

Fee Payment Master

- Fee Pay-Id: Number

-Fee –Date :Number
-Stud-ID :Number

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate- stud-Id ()

students who are paying the fees.

16) Fee Payment Type Master: The entity specifies the unique fee
payment types that exist under the
organization. The different fee
payment types recognized are
academic, sports, lab, and library.

17) Faculty Course Master: The entity basically responds to the

data related to the courses and
faculties association.

Fee Payment Type Master

- Faculty-Id: Number
-Course-Id: Number

- Validate-faculty-Id ()
- Validate- course-Id ()

Faculty Subject Master

- Faculty-Id: Number
-subject-Id: Number
Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- subject-Id ()
18) Faculty Subject Master: The entity basically responds to the
data related to the faculties and their
related in charge subjects.
Faculty Subject Master
- Faculty-Id: Number
-Subject-Id: Number
Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- course-Id ()

19) Question paper Master: The entity basically responds to the

data related to the Question papers
and the following assignments along
with answers that are provided by
the faculties from time to time.

Question paper Master

- question-Paper-no: Number
-subject-Id: Number
-question paper date:Date
-question paper ans:Varchar2

Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- subject-Id ()
20) Faculty Assignments Master: The entity basically responds to
the data related to the
assignments that have been
allocated nu the faculties.

Faculty Assignments

- Assignment-no: Number
-Faculty-Id: Number
-Subject-Id: Number
-Assignment date: Date
-Last-date: date
-Question -desc:long

Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- subject-Id ()

21) Student Assignments Marks Master: This entity greatly

prescribes the information storage of the
students and their assignments marks.

Student Assignment Marks Master

- Assignment-no: Number
-Student-Sub-Id: Number
-Stud-ID: Number
-Marks-awarded: number
-Comments: long
Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate-stud-Id ()
Validate- assign-no ()
22) Faculty Notes Master: This database manages the information
related to the notes or subject material
that is practically released by the

Faculty Notes Master

- Notes-Id: Number
-Faculty-Id: Number
-Subject-Id: Number
-Description: Long

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- subject-Id ()

23) Faculty Security Master: The entity manages the login standards
of the faculties.

Faculty security Master

-Faculty-Id: Number
-Pw-old: varchar2
-Pw-new: varchar2

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate-faculty-Id ()
Validate- subject-Id ()
24) Student Security Master: The entity manages the login standards
of the faculties.

Student security Master

-Student-Id: Number
-Pw-old: varchar2
-Pw-new: varchar2
-Pw-chang-date-time: Date

Insert ()
Update ()
Delete ()
Search ()
Validate- stud-Id ()
e Scripts
create table student_master

student_no varchar(15) primary key,

student_name varchar(30),

student_add_dno varchar(30),

student_add_street varchar(30),

student_add_city varchar(30),

student_dob date,

student_phone int(15),

student_email_id varchar(30),

student_admt_date date,

student_login_name varchar(30),

studnet_login_name_status varchar(30),

course_id varchar(15) references course_master(course_id)

on delete cascade

create table designation_master

designation_id varchar(10) primary key,

desigantion_name varchar(30),

desigantion_description varchar(30)

create table course_master

course_id varchar(10) primary key,

course_name varchar(30),

course_short_name varchar(30),

course_description varchar(30),
course_fee decimal


create table subject_master

subject_id varchar(10) primary key,

subject_name varchar(30),

subject_long_name varchar(30),

subject_description varchar(30),

subject_select_id varchar(30)

create table admin

usid varchar(20),

pwd varchar(20)

create table faculty_master(

faculty_id varchar(15) primary key,

faculty_name varchar(30),

faculty_add_dno varchar(30),

faculty_add_street varchar(30),

faculty_add_city varchar(30),

faculty_dob date,

faculty_phone int,

faculty_mailid varchar(30),

faculty_join_date date,

faculty_dept_id varchar(15) references

department_master(department_id)on delete


faculty_designation_id varchar(15)references

delete cascade

faculty_login_name varchar(30),

faculty_login_name_state varchar(30));
create table department_master(

department_id varchar2(10) primary key,

department_name varchar2(30),

department_description varchar2(30));
create table course_subject_master(

2 course_id varchar(15) references

course_master(course_id) on delete cascade,

3 subject_id varchar(15) references

subject_master(subject_id) on delete cascade,

4 semister_id varchar(15) references

semister_master(semister_id) on delete


5* constraint pk_cs_sbj_sem primary


create table semister_master(

2 semister_id varchar(15) PRIMARY KEY,

3 semister_type varchar(10),

4 sem_start_date date,
5 sem_end_date date); create table semister_master(








create table stu_notifi_master(notification_id varcha create
table stu_notifi_master(notification_id varchar2(15) references

notification_master( notification_id),




indended_for varchar(20),

status char(3)); r2(15) references

create table Student_certificates(

student_id varchar(15) ,

certificates varchar(40),

apply_date date,

apply_status char(3),

foreign key(student_id) references

student_master(student_id) on delete cascade)

create table corporate_master(

2 corporate_id varchar2(15) primary key,

3 corporate_name varchar2(20),

4 corporate_desc varchar2(30),

5 corporate_website varchar2(30),

6 corporate_add varchar2(40));
create table corporate_login(cid varchar2(15) references create
table corporate_login(cid varchar2(15) references

corporate_master(corporate_id) on delete cascade,

2 cuser varchar2(10),


create table notification_master(notification_id varchar2(15)
primary key,




5 indended_for varchar(20),

6 status char(3));
create table student_Login(

student_id varchar(15) references student_master(student_id)

on delete cascade,

Login_name varchar(20),

pw_old varchar(30),
pw_new varchar(30),

pw_changed_date date))

create table faculty_Login(

faculty_id varchar(15) references faculty_master(faculty_id) on

delete cascade,

Login_name varchar(20),

pw_old varchar(30),

pw_new varchar(30),

pw_changed_date date))
create table catalog(

book_id varchar(15) primary key,

book_name varchar(20),

book_author varchar(20),

book_edition varchar(10))
er 6
Program Design Language

• The program design language is also called as

structured English or pseudopodia. PDL is a generic
reference for a design language PDL looks like a
modern language. The difference between PDL and
real programming language lies in the narrative text
embedded directly within PDL statements.

The characteristics required by a design language are:

 A fixed system of keywords that provide for all

structured constructs date declaration and modularity

 A free syntax of natural language that describes

processing features.

 Date declaration facilities that should include both

simple and complex data structures.

 Subprogram definition and calling techniques that

support various nodes of interface description.

PDL syntax should include constructs for subprogram

definition, interface description date declaration techniques
for structuring, conditions constructs, repetition constructs
and I/O constructs.

PDL can be extended to include keywords for multitasking

and/or concurrent processing interrupt handling, interposes
synchronization the application design for which PDL is to be
used should dictate the final form for the design language.
er 7
Testing is the process of detecting errors. Testing performs a very critical
role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software. The
results of testing are used later on during maintenance also.

Psychology of Testing

The aim of testing is often to demonstrate that a program works by showing

that it has no errors. The basic purpose of testing phase is to detect the
errors that may be present in the program. Hence one should not start
testing with the intent of showing that a program works, but the intent
should be to show that a program doesn’t work. Testing is the process of
executing a program with the intent of finding errors.

Testing Objectives
The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors, systematically
and with minimum effort and time. Stating formally, we can say,
 Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent

of finding an error.

 A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet

undiscovered error.

 A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding

error, if it exists.

 The tests are inadequate to detect possibly present errors.

 The software more or less confirms to the quality and

reliable standards.
Levels of Testing
In order to uncover the errors present in different phases we have
the concept of levels of testing. The basic levels of testing are as
shown below…
Client Needs


System Testing

Integration Testing

Unit Testing


System Testing

The philosophy behind testing is to find errors. Test cases are devised with
this in mind. A strategy employed for system testing is code testing.

Code Testing:

This strategy examines the logic of the program. To follow this method we
developed some test data that resulted in executing every instruction in the
program and module i.e. every path is tested. Systems are not designed as
entire nor are they tested as single systems. To ensure that the coding is
perfect two types of testing is performed or for that matter is performed or
that matter is performed or for that matter is performed on all systems.
Types Of Testing

 Unit Testing
 Link Testing

Unit Testing

Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software

i.e. the module. Using the detailed design and the process
specifications testing is done to uncover errors within the boundary of
the module. All modules must be successful in the unit test before the
start of the integration testing begins.

In this project each service can be thought of a module. There are so

many modules like Login, HWAdmin, MasterAdmin, Normal User, and
PManager. Giving different sets of inputs has tested each module.
When developing the module as well as finishing the development so
that each module works without any error. The inputs are validated
when accepting from the user.

In this application developer tests the programs up as system.

Software units in a system are the modules and routines that are
assembled and integrated to form a specific function. Unit testing is
first done on modules, independent of one another to locate errors.
This enables to detect errors. Through this errors resulting from
interaction between modules initially avoided.

Link Testing

Link testing does not test software but rather the integration of each
module in system. The primary concern is the compatibility of each
module. The Programmer tests where modules are designed with
different parameters, length, type etc.
Integration Testing

After the unit testing we have to perform integration testing. The goal
here is to see if modules can be integrated proprerly, the emphasis
being on testing interfaces between modules. This testing activity can
be considered as testing the design and hence the emphasis on
testing module interactions.

In this project integrating all the modules forms the main system.
When integrating all the modules I have checked whether the
integration effects working of any of the services by giving different
combinations of inputs with which the two services run perfectly
before Integration.

System Testing

Here the entire software system is tested. The reference document

for this process is the requirements document, and the goal os to see
if software meets its requirements.

Here entire project has been tested against requirements of project

and it is checked whether all requirements of project have been
satisfied or not.

Acceptance Testing

Acceptance Test is performed with realistic data of the client to

demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. Testing here
is focused on external behavior of the system; the internal logic of
program is not emphasized.

In this project ‘Network Management Of Database System’ I have

collected some data and tested whether project is working correctly
or not.
Test cases should be selected so that the largest number of attributes
of an equivalence class is exercised at once. The testing phase is an
important part of software development. It is the process of finding
errors and missing operations and also a complete verification to
determine whether the objectives are met and the user requirements
are satisfied.

White Box Testing

This is a unit testing method where a unit will be taken at a time and tested

thoroughly at a statement level to find the maximum possible errors. I

tested step wise every piece of code, taking care that every statement in

the code is executed at least once. The white box testing is also called Glass

Box Testing.

I have generated a list of test cases, sample data. which is used to check
all possible combinations of execution paths through the code at every
module level.

Black Box Testing

This testing method considers a module as a single unit and checks the unit
at interface and communication with other modules rather getting into
details at statement level. Here the module will be treated as a block box
that will take some input and generate output. Output for a given set of
input combinations are forwarded to other modules.

Criteria Satisfied by Test Cases

1) Test cases that reduced by a count that is

greater than one, the number of additional test cases
that much be designed to achieve reasonable testing.

2) Test cases that tell us something about the

presence or absence of classes of errors, rather than
an error associated only with the specific test at hand.
er 8
er 9
User Manual

The entire application has been designed using MySQL as back end and
using the graphical features of HTML and dynamism through the JSP
provides the front end user interface.

• The customer can Interact with the website just by

providing the URL that is specified.

• The system displays the list of all items that are

practically working and ready for sale, which he can
click and select for shopping.

• Once the total number of items has been chosen, he

pushes them onto the card.

• If the customer is registered, the shopping card is

accepted; else a message is prompted which specifies
the customer to get registered.

• If the customer can get registered by clicking on the

logon button and provide the required information as

• Each time the registered customer come on to the site

he can makes use of the user name and the password
that is allocated to him.

• The administrator who is managing the actual

information should also be registered for the first
time, and they are also allocated with the user name
and password.

• The administrator has full-length privileges related to

the activities that govern the data maintenance.

• The administrator also has the privilege to manage

and maintain the authentication standards for all

• The database as it is developed by MySQL can be

installed only by using .SQL file or export and import

• Using core java and components like JSP and Java

Beans needs proper deployment as per general
specifications developed the front end as it
r 9
The entire project has been developed and deployed as per the

requirements stated by the user, it is found to be bug free as per the

testing standards that are implemented. Any specificational untraced errors

will be concentrated in the coming versions, which are planned to be

developed in near future. The system at present does not take care off the

money payment methods related to fees and all , as the consolidated

constructs need SSL standards and are critically to be initiated in the first

face, the application of the credit card transactions is applied as a

developmental phase in the coming days. The system needs more

elaborative technicality for its inception and evolution.


References for the Project Development Were Taken From

the following Books and Web Sites.

JAVA Technologies

JAVA Complete Reference

Java Script Programming by Yehuda Shiran

Mastering JAVA Security

JAVA2 Networking by Pistoria

JAVA Security by Scotl oaks

J2EE Professional by Shadab siddiqui

JAVA server pages by Larne Pekowsley

JAVA Server pages by Nick Todd


HTML Black Book by Holzner


Java Database Programming with JDBC by Patel moss.

Software Engineering by Roger Pressman