Pushing to the Front

Pushing to the Front, by Orison Swett Marden

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[Frontispiece: Orison Swett Marden]

Pushing to the Front BY ORISON SWETT MARDEN

"The world makes way for the determined man."

PUBLISHED BY The Success Company's Branch Offices PETERSBURG, N.Y. ---- TOLEDO ---- DANVILLE

OKLAHOMA CITY ---- SAN JOSE

COPYRIGHT, 1911, By ORISON SWETT MARDEN.

FOREWORD This revised and greatly enlarged edition of "Pushing to the Front" is the outg rowth of an almost world-wide demand for an extension of the idea which made the original small volume such an ambition-arousing, energizing, inspiring force. It is doubtful whether any other book, outside of the Bible, has been the turni ng-point in more lives. It has sent thousands of youths, with renewed determination, back to school or college, back to all sorts of vocations which they had abandoned in moments of d iscouragement. It has kept scores of business men from failure after they had gi ven up all hope. It has helped multitudes of poor boys and girls to pay their way through colleg e who had never thought a liberal education possible. The author has received thousands of letters from people in nearly all parts of the world telling how the book has aroused their ambition, changed their ideals and aims, and has spurred them to the successful undertaking of what they befor e had thought impossible. The book has been translated into many foreign languages. In Japan and several other countries it is used extensively in the public schools. Distinguished educ ators in many parts of the world have recommended its use in schools as a civili zation-builder. Crowned heads, presidents of republics, distinguished members of the British an d other parliaments, members of the United States Supreme Court, noted authors, scholars, and eminent people in many parts of the world, have eulogized this boo k and have thanked the author for giving it to the world. This volume is full of the most fascinating romances of achievement under diffi culties, of obscure beginnings and triumphant endings, of stirring stories of st ruggles and triumphs. It gives inspiring stories of men and women who have broug ht great things to pass. It gives numerous examples of the triumph of mediocrity , showing how those of ordinary ability have succeeded by the use of ordinary me ans. It shows how invalids and cripples even have triumphed by perseverance and will over seemingly insuperable difficulties. The book tells how men and women have seized common occasions and made them gre at; it tells of those of average ability who have succeeded by the use of ordina ry means, by dint of indomitable will and inflexible purpose. It tells how pover ty and hardship have rocked the cradle of the giants of the race. The book point s out that most people do not utilize a large part of their effort because their mental attitude does not correspond with their endeavor, so that although worki ng for one thing, they are really expecting something else; and it is what we ex pect that we tend to get. No man can become prosperous while he really expects or half expects to remain

poor, for holding the poverty thought, keeping in touch with poverty-producing c onditions, discourages prosperity. Before a man can lift himself he must lift his thoughts. When we shall have lea rned to master our thought habits, to keep our minds open to the great divine in flow of life force, we shall have learned the truths of human endowment, human p ossibility. The book points out the fact that what is called success may be failure; that w hen men love money so much that they sacrifice their friendships, their families , their home life, sacrifice position, honor, health, everything for the dollar, their life is a failure, although they may have accumulated money. It shows how men have become rich at the price of their ideals, their character, at the cost of everything noblest, best, and truest in life. It preaches the larger doctrin e of equality; the equality of will and purpose which paves a clear path even to the Presidential chair for a Lincoln or a Garfield, for any one who will pay th e price of study and struggle. Men who feel themselves badly handicapped, crippl ed by their lack of early education, will find in these pages great encouragemen t to broaden their horizon, and will get a practical, helpful, sensible educatio n in their odd moments and half-holidays. Dr. Marden, in "Pushing to the Front," shows that the average of the leaders ar e not above the average of ability. They are ordinary people, but of extraordina ry persistence and perseverance. It is a storehouse of noble incentive, a treasu ry of precious sayings. There is inspiration and encouragement and helpfulness o n every page. It teaches the doctrine that no limits can be placed on one's care er if he has once learned the alphabet and has push; that there are no barriers that can say to aspiring talent, "Thus far, and no farther." Encouragement is it s keynote; it aims to arouse to honorable exertion those who are drifting withou t aim, to awaken dormant ambitions in those who have grown discouraged in the st ruggle for success. THE PUBLISHERS.

CONTENTS CHAPTER I. THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY II. WANTED--A MAN III. BOYS WITH NO CHANCE IV. THE COUNTRY BOY V. OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE VI. POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS VI I. HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE VIII. YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--W HAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? IX. ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES X. WHAT CAREER? XI. CHOO SING A VOCATION XII. CONCENTRATED ENERGY XIII. THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM XIV. " ON TIME," OR, THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS XV. WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO XVI. PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET XVII. If YOU CAN TALK WELL XVIII. A FORTUNE IN GO OD MANNERS XIX. SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS XX. TACT OR COMM ON SENSE XXI. ENAMORED OF ACCURACY XXII. DO IT TO A FINISH XXIII. THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE XXIV. NERVE--GRIP, PLUCK XXV. CLEAR GRIT XXVI. SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICU LTIES XXVII. USES OF OBSTACLES XXVIII. DECISION XXIX. OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS F ACTOR XXX. SELF-HELP XXXI. THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT XXXII. RAISING OF VALUES X XXIII. PUBLIC SPEAKING XXXIV. THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES XXXV. GETTING A ROUSED XXXVI. THE MAN WITH AN IDEA XXXVII. DARE XXXVIII. THE WILL AND THE WAY XX XIX. ONE UNWAVERING AIM XL. WORK AND WAIT XLI. THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS XLII. THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE XLIII. EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YO URSELF XLIV. THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE XLV. STAND FOR SOMETHING XLVI. NATURE'S LITTLE BILL XLVII. HABIT--THE SERVANT,--THE MASTER XLVIII. THE CI

GARETTE XLIX. THE POWER OF PURITY L. THE HABIT OF HAPPINESS LI. PUT BEAUTY INTO YOUR LIFE LII. EDUCATION BY ABSORPTION LIII. THE POWER OF SUGGESTION LIV. THE CU RSE OF WORRY LV. TAKE A PLEASANT THOUGHT TO BED WITH YOU LVI. THE CONQUEST OF PO VERTY LVII. A NEW WAY OF BRINGING UP CHILDREN LVIII. THE HOME AS A SCHOOL OF GOO D MANNERS LIX. MOTHER LX. WHY SO MANY MARRIED WOMEN DETERIORATE LXI. THRIFT LXII . A COLLEGE EDUCATION AT HOME LXIII. DISCRIMINATION IN READING LXIV. READING A S PUR TO AMBITION LXV. WHY SOME SUCCEED AND OTHERS FAIL LXVI. RICH WITHOUT MONEY

ILLUSTRATIONS Orison Swett Marden . . . . . . . . . . Frontispiece House in which Abraham Lincoln was born Ulysses S. Grant William Ewart Gladstone John Wanamaker Jane Addams Thomas Alva Edison Henry Ward Beecher Lincoln studying by the firelight Marshall Field Joseph Jefferson [Transcriber's note: Jefferson was a prominent actor during th e latter half of the 1800's.] Theodore Roosevelt Helen Keller William McKinley Julia Ward Howe Mark Twain

PUSHING TO THE FRONT CHAPTER I THE MAN AND THE OPPORTUNITY No man is born into this world whose work is not born with him.--LOWELL. Things don't turn up in this world until somebody turns them up.--GARFIELD. Vigilance in watching opportunity; tact and daring in seizing upon opportunity; force and persistence in crowding opportunity to its utmost of possible achieve ment--these are the martial virtues which must command success.--AUSTIN PHELPS.

"I will find a way or make one." There never was a day that did not bring its own opportunity for doing good tha t never could have been done before, and never can be again.--W. H. BURLEIGH. "Are you in earnest? Seize this very minute; What you can do, or dream you can, begin it." "If we succeed, what will the world say?" asked Captain Berry in delight, when Nelson had explained his carefully formed plan before the battle of the Nile. "There is no if in the case," replied Nelson. "That we shall succeed is certain . Who may live to tell the tale is a very different question." Then, as his capt ains rose from the council to go to their respective ships, he added: "Before th is time to-morrow I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." His quick eye and daring spirit saw an opportunity of glorious victory where others saw o nly probable defeat. "Is it POSSIBLE to cross the path?" asked Napoleon of the engineers who had bee n sent to explore the dreaded pass of St. Bernard. "Perhaps," was the hesitating reply, "it is within the limits of possibility." "FORWARD THEN," said the Little Corporal, without heeding their account of appa rently insurmountable difficulties. England and Austria laughed in scorn at the idea of transporting across the Alps, where "no wheel had ever rolled, or by any possibility could roll," an army of sixty thousand men, with ponderous artiller y, tons of cannon balls and baggage, and all the bulky munitions of war. But the besieged Massena was starving in Genoa, and the victorious Austrians thundered at the gates of Nice, and Napoleon was not the man to fail his former comrades i n their hour of peril. When this "impossible" deed was accomplished, some saw that it might have been done long before. Others excused themselves from encountering such gigantic obst acles by calling them insuperable. Many a commander had possessed the necessary supplies, tools, and rugged soldiers, but lacked the grit and resolution of Bona parte, who did not shrink from mere difficulties, however great, but out of his very need made and mastered his opportunity. Grant at New Orleans had just been seriously injured by a fall from his horse, when he received orders to take command at Chattanooga, so sorely beset by the C onfederates that its surrender seemed only a question of a few days; for the hil ls around were all aglow by night with the camp-fires of the enemy, and supplies had been cut off. Though in great pain, he immediately gave directions for his removal to the new scene of action. On transports up the Mississippi, the Ohio, and one of its tributaries; on a li tter borne by horses for many miles through the wilderness; and into the city at last on the shoulders of four men, he was taken to Chattanooga. Things assumed a different aspect immediately. A master had arrived who was equal to the situat ion. The army felt the grip of his power. Before he could mount his horse he ord ered an advance, and although the enemy contested the ground inch by inch, the s urrounding hills were soon held by Union soldiers. Were these things the result of chance, or were they compelled by the indominab le determination of the injured General? Did things adjust themselves when Horatius with two companions held ninety thou sand Tuscans at bay until the bridge across the Tiber had been destroyed?--when Leonidas at Thermopylae checked the mighty march of Xerxes?--when Themistocles,

off the coast of Greece, shattered the Persian's Armada?--when Caesar, finding h is army hard pressed, seized spear and buckler, fought while he reorganized his men, and snatched victory from defeat?--when Winkelried gathered to his heart a sheaf of Austrian spears, thus opening a path through which his comrades pressed to freedom?--when for years Napoleon did not lose a single battle in which he w as personally engaged?--when Wellington fought in many climes without ever being conquered?--when Ney, on a hundred fields, changed apparent disaster into brill iant triumph?--when Perry left the disabled Lawrence, rowed to the Niagara, and silenced the British guns?--when Sheridan arrived from Winchester just as the Un ion retreat was becoming a rout, and turned the tide by riding along the line?-when Sherman, though sorely pressed, signaled his men to hold the fort, and they , knowing that their leader was coming, held it? History furnishes thousands of examples of men who have seized occasions to acc omplish results deemed impossible by those less resolute. Prompt decision and wh ole-souled action sweep the world before them. True, there has been but one Napoleon; but, on the other hand, the Alps that op pose the progress of the average American youth are not as high or dangerous as the summits crossed by the great Corsican. Don't wait for extraordinary opportunities. Seize common occasions and make the m great. On the morning of September 6, 1838, a young woman in the Longstone Lighthouse, between England and Scotland, was awakened by shrieks of agony rising above the roar of wind and wave. A storm of unwonted fury was raging, and her parents cou ld not hear the cries; but a telescope showed nine human beings clinging to the windlass of a wrecked vessel whose bow was hanging on the rocks half a mile away . "We can do nothing," said William Darling, the light-keeper. "Ah, yes, we must go to the rescue," exclaimed his daughter, pleading tearfully with both father and mother, until the former replied: "Very well, Grace, I will let you persuade me, though it is against my better judgment." Like a feather in a whirlwind the little boat was tossed on the tumultuous sea, but, borne on the blast that swep t the cruel surge, the shrieks of those shipwrecked sailors seemed to change her weak sinews into cords of steel. Strength hitherto unsuspected came from somewh ere, and the heroic girl pulled one oar in even time with her father. At length the nine were safely on board. "God bless you; but ye're a bonny English lass," said one poor fellow, as he looked wonderingly upon this marvelous girl, who tha t day had done a deed which added more to England's glory than the exploits of m any of her monarchs. "If you will let me try, I think I can make something that will do," said a boy who had been employed as a scullion at the mansion of Signer Faliero, as the st ory is told by George Cary Eggleston. A large company had been invited to a banq uet, and just before the hour the confectioner, who had been making a large orna ment for the table, sent word that he had spoiled the piece. "You!" exclaimed th e head servant, in astonishment; "and who are you?" "I am Antonio Canova, the gr andson of Pisano, the stone-cutter," replied the pale-faced little fellow. "And pray, what can you do?" asked the major-domo. "I can make you something th at will do for the middle of the table, if you'll let me try." The servant was a t his wits' end, so he told Antonio to go ahead and see what he could do. Callin g for some butter, the scullion quickly molded a large crouching lion, which the admiring major-domo placed upon the table. Dinner was announced, and many of the most noted merchants, princes, and noblem en of Venice were ushered into the dining-room. Among them were skilled critics of art work. When their eyes fell upon the butter lion, they forgot the purpose for which they had come in their wonder at such a work of genius. They looked at

the lion long and carefully, and asked Signer Faliero what great sculptor had b een persuaded to waste his skill upon such a temporary material. Faliero could n ot tell; so he asked the head servant, who brought Antonio before the company. When the distinguished guests learned that the lion had been made in a short ti me by a scullion, the dinner was turned into a feast in his honor. The rich host declared that he would pay the boy's expenses under the best masters, and he ke pt his word. Antonio was not spoiled by his good fortune, but remained at heart the same simple, earnest, faithful boy who had tried so hard to become a good st one-cutter in the shop of Pisano. Some may not have heard how the boy Antonio to ok advantage of this first great opportunity; but all know of Canova, one of the greatest sculptors of all time. Weak men wait for opportunities, strong men make them. "The best men," says E. H. Chapin, "are not those who have waited for chances b ut who have taken them; besieged the chance; conquered the chance; and made chan ce the servitor." There may not be one chance in a million that you will ever receive unusual aid ; but opportunities are often presented which you can improve to good advantage, if you will only act. The lack of opportunity is ever the excuse of a weak, vacillating mind. Opportu nities! Every life is full of them. Every lesson in school or college is an oppo rtunity. Every examination is a chance in life. Every patient is an opportunity. Every newspaper article is an opportunity. Every client is an opportunity. Ever y sermon is an opportunity. Every business transaction is an opportunity,--an op portunity to be polite,--an opportunity to be manly,--an opportunity to be hones t,--an opportunity to make friends. Every proof of confidence in you is a great opportunity. Every responsibility thrust upon your strength and your honor is pr iceless. Existence is the privilege of effort, and when that privilege is met li ke a man, opportunities to succeed along the line of your aptitude will come fas ter than you can use them. If a slave like Fred Douglass, who did not even own h is body, can elevate himself into an orator, editor, statesman, what ought the p oorest white boy to do, who is rich in opportunities compared with Douglass? It is the idle man, not the great worker, who is always complaining that he has no time or opportunity. Some young men will make more out of the odds and ends of opportunities which many carelessly throw away than other will get out of a w hole life-time. Like bees, they extract honey from every flower. Every person th ey meet, every circumstance of the day, adds something to their store of useful knowledge or personal power. "There is nobody whom Fortune does not visit once in his life," says a cardinal ; "but when she finds he is not ready to receive her, she goes in at the door an d out at the window." Cornelius Vanderbilt saw his opportunity in the steamboat, and determined to id entify himself with steam navigation. To the surprise of all his friends, he aba ndoned his prosperous business and took command of one of the first steamboats l aunched, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. Livingston and Fulton had a cquired the sole right to navigate New York waters by steam, but Vanderbilt thou ght the law unconstitutional, and defied it until it was repealed. He soon becam e a steamboat owner. When the government was paying a large subsidy for carrying the European mails, he offered to carry them free and give better service. His offer was accepted, and in this way he soon built up an enormous freight and pas senger traffic. Foreseeing the great future of railroads in a country like ours, he plunged int

o railroad enterprises with all his might, laying the foundation for the vast Va nderbilt system of to-day. Young Philip Armour joined the long caravan of Forty-Niners, and crossed the "G reat American Desert" with all his possessions in a prairie schooner drawn by mu les. Hard work and steady gains carefully saved in the mines enabled him to star t, six years later, in the grain and warehouse business in Milwaukee. In nine ye ars he made five hundred thousand dollars. But he saw his great opportunity in G rant's order, "On to Richmond." One morning in 1864 he knocked at the door of Pl ankinton, partner in his venture as a pork packer. "I am going to take the next train to New York," said he, "to sell pork 'short.' Grant and Sherman have the r ebellion by the throat, and pork will go down to twelve dollars a barrel." This was his opportunity. He went to New York and offered pork in large quantities at forty dollars per barrel. It was eagerly taken. The shrewd Wall Street speculat ors laughed at the young Westerner, and told him pork would go to sixty dollars, for the war was not nearly over. Mr. Armour, however, kept on selling, Grant co ntinued to advance. Richmond fell, pork fell with it to twelve dollars a barrel, and Mr. Armour cleared two millions of dollars. John D. Rockefeller saw his opportunity in petroleum. He could see a large popu lation in this country with very poor lights. Petroleum was plentiful, but the r efining process was so crude that the product was inferior, and not wholly safe. Here was Rockefeller's chance. Taking into partnership Samuel Andrews, the port er in a machine shop where both men had worked, he started a single barrel "stil l" in 1870, using an improved process discovered by his partner. They made a sup erior grade of oil and prospered rapidly. They admitted a third partner, Mr. Fla gler, but Andrews soon became dissatisfied. "What will you take for your interes t?" asked Rockefeller. Andrews wrote carelessly on a piece of paper, "One millio n dollars." Within twenty-four hours Mr. Rockefeller handed him the amount, sayi ng, "Cheaper at one million than ten." In twenty years the business of the littl e refinery, scarcely worth one thousand dollars for building and apparatus, had grown into the Standard Oil Trust, capitalized at ninety millions of dollars, wi th stock quoted at 170, giving a market value of one hundred and fifty millions. These are illustrations of seizing opportunity for the purpose of making money. But fortunately there is a new generation of electricians, of engineers, of sch olars, of artists, of authors, and of poets, who find opportunities, thick as th istles, for doing something nobler than merely amassing riches. Wealth is not an end to strive for, but an opportunity; not the climax of a man's career, but an incident. Mrs. Elizabeth Fry, a Quaker lady, saw her opportunity in the prisons of Englan d. From three hundred to four hundred half-naked women, as late as 1813, would o ften be huddled in a single ward of Newgate, London, awaiting trial. They had ne ither beds nor bedding, but women, old and young, and little girls, slept in fil th and rags on the floor. No one seemed to care for them, and the Government mer ely furnished food to keep them alive. Mrs. Fry visited Newgate, calmed the howl ing mob, and told them she wished to establish a school for the young women and the girls, and asked them to select a schoolmistress from their own number. They were amazed, but chose a young woman who had been committed for stealing a watc h. In three months these "wild beasts," as they were sometimes called, became ha rmless and kind. The reform spread until the Government legalized the system, an d good women throughout Great Britain became interested in the work of educating and clothing these outcasts. Fourscore years have passed, and her plan has been adopted throughout the civilized world. A boy in England had been run over by a car, and the bright blood spurted from a severed artery. No one seemed to know what to do until another boy, Astley Coo per, took his handkerchief and stopped the bleeding by pressure above the wound. The praise which he received for thus saving the boy's life encouraging him to

and do his work? If he can. Is he equal to the emergency? Can he fill the great surgeon's pl ace. His opportunity confronts him. and still current there. Longfellow seized his opportunity and gave to the world 'Evangeline. For ages astronomers had been familiar with the rings of Saturn. and learned valuable lessons about the relative strength of tubes and rods of equal diameters. but Laplace saw that. Fields. but when Archimedes observed the fact. in the dispersion of the Acadians." says Arnold. as he watched a lamp left swinging by accident in the cathedral at Pisa. when moved. sways back and fort h until friction and the resistance of the air bring it to rest. Everybody knew how steadily a suspended weight. a nd from their mute testimony he added a valuable chapter to the scientific histo ry of Creation. saw in the regularity of those oscillations the useful principle of the pendulum. and he said to him. after long waiting. He experimented with the straw of his cell. or the E xile of the Acadians. moreover. will you let me have it for a poem?' To this Hawthorne consented. There was not a sailor in Europe who had not wondered what might lie beyond the Western Ocean. After dinner the friend said. but the boy Galil eo. he is suddenly confronted with his first criti cal operation. yet no one cons idered this information of the slightest practical importance. and patient study and experiment. The great surgeon is away. open hearts will nev er want for worthy objects upon which to bestow their gifts. open hands will nev er lack for noble work to do. although no one had made use of his knowledge that the body displace s its exact bulk of liquid. but Newton was the first to realize that they fall to the earth by the same law which holds the planets in their courses and preve nts the momentum of all the atoms in the universe from hurling them wildly back . Innumerable apples had fallen from trees. and passed her life in waiting and seeking for him. 'I have been trying to persuade Hawthorne to write a story based upon a legend of Acadia. "The time comes to the young surgeon. was separated from her lover. E ven the iron doors of a prison were not enough to shut him out from research. they are the sole remaining visi ble evidences of certain stages in the invariable process of star manufacture. a nd only found him dying in a hospital when both were old. not to trea t the subject in prose till Longfellow had seen what he could do with it in vers e. open ears will never fail to detect the cries of those who are perishing for assistance. however irreg ular in shape." Are you prepared for a great opportunity? "Hawthorne dined one day with Longfellow.' Longfellow wondered t hat the legend did not strike the fancy of Hawthorne. Time is pressing. "when. but it remained for Columbus to steer boldly out into an unknown sea and discover a new world. the foremost of his day. Life and death hang in the balance. He and it are face to face.--the legend of a girl who." said James T. Shall he confess his igno rance and inability. "and brought a friend. or step into fame and fortune? It is for him to say. Everybody had noticed the overflow when a solid is immersed in a vessel filled with water. he is the one of all others who is wanted. instead of being exceptions. he perceived therein an easy method of finding the cubical contents of objects. often hitting heedless men on the hea d as if to set them thinking.become a surgeon.'" Open eyes will discover opportunities everywhere. with him from Salem. 'If yo u have really made up your mind not to use it for a story. and promised. and regarded t hem merely as curious exceptions to the supposed law of planetary formation.

He who improves an opportunity sows a seed which will yield fruit in opportunit y for himself and others." says a Latin author. "Opportuni ty. In an hour and a hal f after he said." But what is the best opportunity to him who cannot or will not use it? "It was my lot. 'Lay by me till morning. Avenues greater in number.' his vessel. cannot be overtaken. Read the story of any successful m an and mark its moral. but of what avail was the bitterness of his self-reproa ch when his last moments came? How many lives were sacrificed to his unintellige nt hopefulness and indecision! Like him the feeble. and which had wings on its feet. but the discharges of Heaven's artillery were seen and heard only by the eye and ear of terror until Franklin.to chaos. the sea rolling high. went down. Every one who has labored honestly in the past has aid ed to place knowledge and comfort within the reach of a constantly increasing nu mber. "What is its name?" asked a visitor in a studio. such was the heavy roll of the sea. simply because they improved opportunities common to the whole human race. when shown. until too late they le . The night was closing in. there are a hundre d now." Captain Herndon appreciated the value of the opportunity he had neglected when it was beyond his reach. "Why is its face hidden?" "Because men seldom know hi m when he comes to them. told thousands of years ago by Solomon: "Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings. And of trades." "Why has he wings on his feet?" "Because he is soon go ne. these men are considered great. o ne whose face was concealed by hair. the sluggish. wider in extent. 'Had you not better send your passengers on board directly?' I asked. to the edu cated youth. but. energetic and able mechanic. to the office boy and to the clerk--avenues through which they can reap greater successes than ever before within the reach of these classes in the history of the world. for he stood before five ki ngs and dined with two.' cri ed Captain Herndon. not Jupiter himself can catch her again. but I hailed the cr ippled steamer and asked if they needed help. stand open to the sober. 'Will you not lay by me until morning?' replied Captain Herndon. by a simpl e experiment. you may hold her. 'I am in a sinking condition. and the purpos eless too often see no meaning in the happiest occasions. "I tried to lay by him." This proverb is well il lustrated by the career of the industrious Franklin. with its living freight. A little while ago there were only three or four professi ons--now there are fifty. 'I wi ll try. if y ou seize her by the forelock. and I never saw the steamer again.' I answered 'but had you not better send your passengers on board now?' 'Lay by me till morning. I cou ld not keep my position. and thunder had jarred the ears of men since th e days of Adam.' again shouted Captain Herndon. among many gods. "to fall in with the ill-fated steamer Cent ral America. Like many others. where there was one. abundant as air and water. Lightning had dazzled the eyes. proved that lightning is but one manifestation of a resistless yet controllable force." said a shipmaster. easier of access than ever before e xisted. if suffered to escape. "behind she is bald." replied the sculptor. in the vain attempt to call their attention to the all-pervading and tremendous energy of electricity. The captain and crew and most of the passengers found a grave in the deep." "Opportunity has hair in front. but at night. frugal. and once gone.

He stopped to put on his overcoat. swinging an empty lantern in front of an imaginary t rain. was exceedingly popu lar with all the railroad men. "a right hand. that I had!" of th e unfortunate brakeman. Such people are always a little too late or a little too early in everything th ey attempt. and a little behindhand. That is the way the habit is acquired. "Oh. smilingly. they were late for school. and now." said John B. . they think that if they had only gone yesterday they would have obtained the situation.accommodation train. whose criminal indulgence brought disaster to many lives . "They have three hands apiece. In a horrible minute the engine of the ex press had telescoped the standing train. and if any one remonstrated. that I had! Oh. Between two stations the train came to a quick halt. that I had not!" is the silent cry of many a man who would give life itself for the opportunity to go back and retrieve some long-pas t error. He "took the world easy. The express is due. Gough. moved leisurely down the track. They remember plenty of chances to make money. and r eply. T he conductor hurried to the rear car. rear brakeman on the ---. Later on. and un punctual in their home duties. They cannot seize their opportunity . "Oh. and slyly sipped occasional draughts f rom a flat bottle. but the next day he was found in a barn. I'm all right. for he was eager t o please and always ready to answer questions." "All right. Then he took another sip from the flat bottle to keep the cold out. they see how to improve themselves or help others in the future. Don't you worry. Soon he became quite jolly. Then he r an for the curve.arn the old lesson that the mill can never grind with the water which has passed . a left hand. Joe. "Don't stop a minute. but perceive no opportunity in the present. and an express was due in a few minutes upon the same track. and the shrieks of the mangled passenge rs mingled with the hissing escape of steam. He had not gone ten paces before he heard the puffing of the express. w hen responsibility claims them. and crying. and his train was delayed." said Joe. he had disappeared. and there is no sadder sound in that sad place than the unceasing moan. or know how to make it some other time than now. Wait till I get my overcoat. The brakeman laughed and said: "There's no hurry. But he did not realize the full r esponsibility of his position." The conductor answered gravely. Joe Stoker. he would give one of his brightest smiles. The engine had blown out i ts cylinder head. too. and ordered Joe back with a red light. and afterwards to an asylum. "Oh. whistling. but it was too late. when they asked for Joe. that I had!" He was taken home. or they can probably get one to-morrow. in such a good-natured way that the friend would think he had over-estimat ed the danger: "Thank you. Joe complai ned of extra duties because of the storm. that I had!" or "Oh." One evening there was a heavy snowstorm. delirious. Then he slowly gras ped the lantern and. The conductor then hurried forward to the eng ine." and occasionally tipple d. but the conductor and engineer of the train were both vigilant and anxious. The passengers liked him. But the brakeman did not go at once." As boys.

"which are worth more than years. earnest." The trouble with us is that we are ever looking for a princely chance of acquir ing riches. or clear his path to success. Make it. then. or worth." says Dean Alford.--make it as the shepherd-boy Ferguson made his when he calculated the distances of the stars with a handful of glass beads on a string. Don't wait for your opportunity. There is no proportion between spaces of time in importance nor in value. have made their chances of s uccess. how can you sit with folded hands. each mo ment brings us to the threshold of some new opportunity. or fame. as Napoleon made his in a hundred "impossible" situations." CHAPTER II WANTED--A MAN . leads on to fortune. "is simply an occasion which sums up and brings to a result previous training. seize. the hour When fortune smiles. And we must take the current when it serves. with human nature so constit uted that often a pleasant word or a trifling assistance may stem the tide of di saster for some fellow man. M ake it. A stray. Make it. knowl edge without study. But bravely bear thee onward to the goal. as all leaders of men. Or lose our ventures. Nor pause. but industry makes the com monest chances golden. And t his all-important moment--who can tell when it will be upon us?" "What we call a turning-point. wherein all the experience of the past is garnered for yo ur inspiration. Young men and women. We are expecting mastery without apprenticeship. taken at the flood."There are moments. Which. why stand ye here all the day idle? Was the land all occup ied before you were born? Has the earth ceased to yield its increase? Are the se ats all taken? the positions all filled? the chances all gone? Are the resources of your country fully developed? Are the secrets of nature all mastered? Is the re no way in which you can utilize these passing moments to improve yourself or benefit others? Is the competition of modern existence so fierce that you must b e content simply to gain an honest living? Have you received the gift of life in this progressive age. We are dazzled by what Emerson calls the "shallow Americanism" of the day. and their leader paused for Divine help. in war and in peace. persistent endeavor we find our highest go od. Nor shrink aside to 'scape the specter fear." "'Tis never offered twice. Make it as George Stephenson made his when he mastered the ru les of mathematics with a bit of chalk on the grimy sides of the coal wagons in the mines. We can not help it." With the world full of work that needs to be done. "There is a tide in the affairs of men. Omitted. and with countless noble examples to encourage us to dare and to do. that they go forward. asking God's aid in work for which He has already given you the necessary faculties and strength? Even when the Chosen People supposed their progress checked by the Red Sea. merely that you may increase by one the sum total of purely anim al existence? Born in an age and country in which knowledge and opportunity abound as never b efore. "Wherefore criest thou unto me? Speak unto the c hildren of Israel." says Arnold. Golden opportunities are nothing to laziness. though p leasure beckon from her bower. and riches by credit. unthought-of five minutes may contain the event of a life. the Lord said. all the voyage of their life Is bound in shallows and in miser ies. and duty points the way. Accidental circumstances are nothin g except to men who have been trained to take advantage of them. with our own faculties so arranged that in honest.

Not faiths with rigid eyes. You have him at hand. when a crowd collected around him. .--ALEXANDRE DUMAS. A thousand pulpits vacant in a single religious denomination. a man who. in one direction at least. and to respect others as himself. charac ter and manhood. Want ed. whose nerves are brought to the ir acutest sensibility. every occupation. keen. or mutilate his manhood. a man who is well balanced. and not one-sided in his development." Over the door of every profession." Wanted. if one wills it. Diogenes sought with a lantern at noontide in ancient Athens for a perfectly ho nest man. Wanted. a man who is symmetrical. cripple. though he is dominated by a mighty purpose. broad. Not wealth in mountain piles. and. who will not allow the over-development of one faculty to stunt or paralyze his other facult ies. "Hear me. Wanted. sensitive. and scour in vain. who does not take half views of things. How to constitute one's self a man? Nothing harder. and also of the crying need of good men. O men". warp. men. whose brain is cultured. a man "who. no stunted ascetic. will not permit one great faculty to dwarf. a ma n who sees self-development. a man who has the courage of his convictions. to hate all vilene ss." All the world cries. whose heart is tende r. if one knows not how to will it. a man who will not lose his individuality in a crowd. In the market place he once cried aloud. a man who is broad. whose eyes are alert. the world h as a standing advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. but whose pas sions are trained to heed a strong will." Wanted. This man. a man who prefers substance to show. . microscopic. Wanted." though all the world say "Yes. . Not even the potent pen."Wanted. who has not sent all the energies of his being into one narrow specialty and allowed al l the other branches of his life to wither and die. who is not afraid to say "No. who is not cursed with some little defect o f weakness which cripples his usefulness and neutralizes his powers. a thousand preach ers standing idle in the market place. and sought in vain. nothing easier. who has learned to love all beauty. is full of life and fire. of the largeness of the opportunit ies of the age. a man who mixes common sense with his th eories. the servant of a tender conscience. a man who is larger than his calling. true. every calling. every-day life. whether of nature or of art." The world wants a man who is educated all over. and one who regards his good name as a priceless treasure. education and culture. not pygmies. who does not let a college education spoil him for practical. men: Not systems fit and wise. Wanted. magnanimous. Not power with gracious smiles.--it is you. he said scornfully: "I called f or men. Wanted. whose ha nds are deft. it is I. Wanted. while a thousand church committees scour the land for men to fill those same vacant pulpits. Wanted. incisive. discipline and drill. who considers it a low estimate o f his occupation to value it merely as a means of getting a living. Where is the man who will save us? We want a man! Don't lo ok so far for this man. it is each one of us! . is a suff icient indication. in his occupation. a man of courage who is not a coward in any part of his nature.

The audience could not hear and call ed "Louder. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases . Let hi m first be a man. says. "According to the order o f nature. Natur e has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our destination con cerning society. turned out into the world saplings instead of stalwart oaks. helpless instead of self-supporting. To live is the profession I would teach him." But there is something higher than being a Bapt ist." A little. animated with the bounding spiri ts of overflowing health? It is a sad sight to see thousands of students graduated every year from our gr and institutions whose object is to make stalwart. As Emerson says. As we stand upon the seashore while the tide is coming in. Nature. is he rich? i s he committed? is he well-meaning? has he this or that faculty? is he of the mo vement? is he of the establishment? but is he anybody? does he stand for somethi ng? He must be good of his kind." Montaigne says our work is not to train a soul by itself alone. " Rousseau. One great need for the world to-day is for men and women who are good animals. too. To endure the strain of our concentrated civilization. Although there are millions out of e mployment. and yet everywhere we see the advertisement: "Wanted--A Man. if I do not succeed in that. ailing man can not develop the vigor and strength of cha racter which is possible to a healthy. but to train a man. not. yet it is almost impossible to find just the right man in almost any department of life. the coming man and woman must have good bodies and an excess of animal spirits. and that is being a man." "Get up higher. men being equal. cheerful man. snarling. it is true he will be neither a soldier. all that the commo n sense of mankind asks. and there is an inherent protest or contempt for preventable de ficiency. nor a body by i tself alone. then recedes. "memory-glands " instead of brainy men." he replied. robust. That is all that Talleyrand. I can succeed in nothin g. the pulpit. short doctor of divinity in a large Baptist convention stood on a ste p and said he thanked God he was a Baptist. self-supporting men. Talleyrand's question is ever the main one. nor a divine. he will be always found in his place. or the bar. a lawyer. independent. I must make myself a man. "To be a Bap tist is as high as one can get. and for some time none that follows comes up to its mark. leaning instead of erect. one wave reaches up the beach far higher than any previous one. "So many promising you ths. but after a while the whole sea is there and .The whole world is looking for such a man. and never a finished man!" The character sympathizes with and unconsciously takes on the nature of the bod y. When I have done w ith him. and whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man can not be badly pre pared to fill any of those offices that have a relation to him. What more glorious than a magnificent manhood." some one said. There is an inheren t love in the human mind for wholeness. weak instead of strong. sickly instead of robust. It matters littl e to me whether my pupil be designed for the army. "I can't. When Garfield as a boy was asked what he meant to be he answered: "First of all . demands that man be ever at the top of his condition. a demand that man shall come up to the h ighest standard. A peevish. in his celebrated essay on education. their common vocation is the profession of humanity.

Not starred and spangled courts. what though a man could cover a continent with his title-deeds. come to have almost unl imited credit and the confidence of everybody who knows him. Not bays an d broad-armed ports. with a bosom that n ever throbs with fear of exposure. Only one complete man has yet evolved. Tall men sun-crowned. and ever master of himself. His whole charact er will be impressionable. feel that the eyes of the world are upon him that he must not deviate a hair's breadth from the truth and right. and knowing. Men who have honor-men who will not lie. Men who can stand before a demagogue And scorn his treach erous flatteries without winking. He will a bsorb into himself not the weakness. for his famous portrait of a perfect woman which en chanted the world. sturdy trees. and in private thinking. like George Peabody. that every appointment shall be kept with the strictest faithfu lness and with full regard for other men's time. compared with conscious rectitud e. All the ages have been trying to p roduce a perfect model. Men who possess opinions and a will. No: men. or den. there a forehead and there a nose. And crush the tyrant while they rend the chain.beyond it. WILLIAM JONES.-. He will be a man raised to the highest power. that every promise he makes shall be redeeme d to the letter. Men whom the spoil s of office cannot buy. ANON. brake. with a heart that might be turned inside out and disclose no stain of dishonor? To have done no man a wrong. Such wood can be turned into a mast. studying the fairest points of beaut iful women. Prevent the long-aimed blo w. So now and then there comes a man head and shoulders above his fello w men. not the follies. within arm's length of what is not your own. If the youth should start out with the fixed determination that every statement he makes shall be the exact truth. As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude. Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride. physical man-timber. dare maintain. with a face that never turns pale at the accuser's voice. Time and patience develop the sapling into the tree. if he should hold his reputatio n as a priceless treasure. many in one. and after a while even the av erage man will overtop the highest wave of manhood yet given to the world. to walk and live. A time like this demands Strong minds. With powers as far above dull brutes endued In forest. high-minded men. But it must become timber first. experience. moral. the sapling child is developed into hardy menta l. His sensibility will not be deadened or blunted by violation of Nature's laws. but the strength and the v irtues of other types of men. What are palaces and equipages. Thick wa ll or moated gate. education. So through di scipline. with nothing between your desire and its gratification but the in visible law of rectitude. equipoised. great hearts. can be fashioned into a piano or an exquisite carving. he would. He w ill be a self-centered. Tough timber must come from well grown. The first requisite of all education and discipline should be man-timber. rich navies ride. So the coming man will be a composite.Men who their duties kno w. Apelles hunted over Greece for many years. getting here an eye. God give us men. Man is the only great thing in the universe. true fait h and ready hands: Men whom the lust of office does not kill. who live above the fog I n public duty. unseduced. But know their rights. Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned. . here a grace and there a turn of beauty. What constitutes a state? Not high-raised battlement or labored mound. Where. showing that Nature has not lost her ideal. if he should take su ch a stand at the outset. The best of us ar e but prophesies of what is to come.--this is to be a man. to have put your signature to no paper to which the purest angel in heaven might not have been a n attesting witness. or an ocean with his commerce. laughing at the storm. and will respond to the most delicate touches of Natu re.

"There is no fear of my starving. turnips." said the deaf boy." "Oh. "my papa can put your papa and ever ybody's papa into the newspaper." chimed in the daughter of an editor. He ha d become the great sculptor Thorwaldsen. his parents had not even a penny to spare. but it i s the north wind that lashes men into Vikings. There can be no doubt that the captains of industry to-day. and I know how to prevent hunger. for he can do as he likes with the paper. and his name ended in "sen. if I could be one of them!" thought a little boy peeping through the crack of the door. it is the soft. This sketch is adapted from a story by a poor Danish cobbler's son. and early adversity is often a blessi ng. another who se name did not keep him from becoming famous.--SETH LOW. once the very boy who thought it so gre at a privilege to peep at them through a crack in the door as they played. And those whose names end with 'sen. It is not every calamity that is a curse. filled with all kinds of beautiful and val uable objects. and the fields.--OUIDA. and sometimes kills the very soul within us.'" she added." "But my papa can buy a hundred dollars' worth of bonbons. my papa says. Poverty is very terrible. We must put our arms akimbo. B ut no. His first book was written in the workhouse." angrily exclaimed the daughter of the rich merchant Petersen. they also. and the loftiest and strongest trees spring heavenward among the rocks. which is a very high office. but hearten us in our future struggl es. All sorts of people are afraid of him. There they met the owner.--GERMAN PROVERB. "Can y our papa do that?" "Yes.CHAPTER III BOYS WITH NO CHANCE In the blackest soils grow the fairest flowers. by permission of the cook for whom he had been turning the spit. so as to keep these 'sen' people at a great distance. and make the elbows quite pointed. Surmounted difficulties not only teach. . too? The hedges furnish blackberries and nu ts. when hungry. Cannot I do so. "we are i n the midst of plenty. G. Kitto." The poor deaf boy with a drunken father. and give them away to children. The Hottentots subsist a long time on nothing but a little gum. using that term in its broadest sense. a hayrick will make an excellent bed. who was thought capable of nothing bet ter than making shoes as a pauper. HOLLAND.--Hans Christian Andersen. father. "can never be anything at all. 'Tis a common proof. begging to be taken from the poorhouse and allowed to struggle for an education. tie a ligature around their bodies. luscious south wi nd which lulls them to lotus dreams. That lowliness is young ambition's ladder! SHAKESPEARE. Poverty is the sixth sense.--SHARPE.--J. are men who began life as poor boys." said a pretty little girl at a children's party in Denmark. "my father is Groom of the Chambers." Years afterwards when the children of the party had become men and women. some of them went to see a splendid house. became one of the greatest Biblical scholars in the world. "I am a child of the court.

On his knees." but he was also a slave of the Genius of Art. in the presence of the assembled multitude. his life. "this woman knows the sculptor. but to my side bring the youth. a determined expression in her eyes. and I am the minister of the law. and he wor shiped it with rapt adoration. new skill. and even the praise of Pericles. he proceeded with his glorious but dangerous task. "O Aphrodit e!" she prayed. go to the cellar beneath our house. The works of the great masters were there. but I will furnish light and food. When the law was enacted he was engaged upon a group for whic h he hoped some day to receive the commendation of Phidias. I am the culprit. and guarded and attended by his sister. from day to day. but with black eyes that beam ed with the flashing light of genius. felt the blow as deeply as her brother. far more beautiful th an the rest. his soul. as a writer tells the story in Kate Field's "Washingto n. gratefully and proudly. Not to the dungeon. forgive and save the maid! She is my sister. high enthroned child of Zeus. It is dark." And there. that Apollo.Creon was a Greek slave. but was silent. rising. exciting at the same time no little envy among rival artists. it is her devotion to art that will i mmortalize her. and flinging himself befor e him exclaimed: "O Pericles. She was informed of the penalty of her c onduct. my patron. About this time all Greece was invited to Athens to behold an exhibit of works of art." To the cellar Creon went." "As I live. and other renowned men stood near him. Heralds repeated the ques tion. a nswering his prayers. my queen. to the dungeon with the slave." cried the officers. Phidias. he had prayed for f resh inspiration. but now. but she will not tell his name. "To the dungeon. at whose shrine I have daily laid my offerings. had directed his hand and had breathed into the figures th e life that seemed to animate them. the greatest sculpto r living. then! Can it be the work of a slave?" Amid great commotion a beautiful maiden with disarranged dress. to be now my friend. Continue your work.--now." said Pericles." As he spoke a youth with flowing hair. The display took place in the Agora. all the gods seemed to have d eserted him. was dragged into th e Agora. the hands of a slave. He believed. Socrates. we ar e sure of it. and with closed lips. "immortal Aphrodite. the gods will be friend us. It was after the repulse of the great Persian inv ader. the friend of my brother!" Then to her brother she said: "O Creon. "Who is the sculptor of this group?" None could tell. At his side was Aspasia. What was to be done? Into the marble block before him Creon had put his head." Cleone was questioned. and a law was in force that under penalty of death no one should espouse a rt except freemen. rushed forward. But one group. "A mystery. If Athens lives in the memory and affections of men. Sophocles. my goddess. "Behold that group! Apo llo decides by it that there is something higher in Greece than an unjust law.--challenged univer sal attention. but her lips remained closed. day and night . "Then. "This woman. Cleone. Beauty was his god. no!" said Pericles. h is heart." The indignant crowd interrupted him and cried. his devoted sister. Aspasia placed the crown .--a group that Apollo himself must have chiseled. emaciated. disheveled hair . Take the maid to the dungeon. "the law is imperat ive. but there was no answer. Pericles presided. T he highest purpose of law should be the development of the beautiful. The group is the work of my hands.

going into scores of buildings and asking if they wanted "a ha nd". drove a team. "I was born in poverty. I lef t my home at ten years of age. I know what it is to travel weary mi les and ask my fellow men to give me leave to toil. In the first month aft er I was twenty-one years of age. The latter had no id ea that a country greenhorn could set type for the Polyglot Testament on which h . His journey of s ix hundred miles had cost him but five dollars. With hi m. He ground every circumstance of his life into material for success. and I want to help him all I c an. just as the sun was rising. His quaint appearance led many to think he was an escaped apprentice. and asked the foreman for a job at seven. rode on a canal boat to Albany. Dress up a little. which she held in her hands. with whom he had moved from Vermont to Western Pennsylvania. rec eiving a month's schooling each year. and. but "no" was the invariable reply. and served an apprenticeship of eleven years. and at the same t ime. Before eight years had passed. Sterret of the Erie "Ga zette" for substitute work. wealth and immortality were the sure reward of the man who could distinguish himself in art. and was to receive one hundred and thirty-five from Judge J. I know what it is to ask a mother for bread when she has none to give. he resolved to seek his fortune in New York City. I never spent the sum of one dollar for pleasure. and. . Wilson determined never to lose an opportunity for self-culture or self-adv ancement. every occasion was a great occasion. on the brow of Creon.of olives. Mass. she tenderly kissed Creon's affectionate and devot ed sister. with tow-colored hair. a yoke of oxen and six sheep.. For days Horace wandered up and down the streets. "Don't go about the town any longer in that outlandish rig. Horace. to learn the cobbler's trade. in the Massachusetts Legislature. my father is on a new place. Let me give you an order on the store. He retained but fifteen dollars and gave the rest to his father. No other country ever did so much to encourage and inspire struggling meri t. he walked sixty miles through the woods to Buffalo. descended the Hudson in a barge." Horace Greeley looked down on hi s clothes as if he had never before noticed how seedy they were. literature. which brought me eighty-four dollars. The whole trip cost him but one dollar and six cents. He was nea rly twenty-one. August 18. He we nt through Boston that he might see Bunker Hill monument and other historical la ndmarks. In Greece." said Vice-President Henry Wilson. a pale face and whining voice. and cut m ill-logs. In a year he was the head of a debating club at Natick. or war. at the end of eleven years of hard wo rk. counting every penny from the time I w as born till I was twenty-one years of age. and fo r whom he had camped out many a night to guard the sheep from wolves. and reached New York. . amid universal plaudits." He had spent but six dollars for personal expenses in seven months. and replied: "Y ou see Mr." He was at the door at five o'cloc k Monday morning. and received the magnificent sum of six dollars for the month's work! Each of t hese dollars looked as large to me as the moon looks to-night. that men might k now that the way to honor is open to all. The Athenians erected a statue to Aesop. . "Want sat by my crad le. M. He found board over a saloon at two dollars and a half a week. 1831. he made hi s great speech against slavery. Sterrett. although tall and gawky. I rose in the morning before daylight and worked hard till after dark. Few men knew so well the value of spare moments. Slinging h is bundle of clothes on a stick over his shoulder. who was born a slave." Mr. He seized them as tho ugh they were gold and would not let one pass until he had wrung from it every p ossibility. I went into the woods. over one hundred miles distant. One Sunday at his boarding-place he heard that pri nters were wanted at "West's Printing-office. Twelve years l ater he stood shoulder to shoulder with the polished Sumner in Congress. He managed to read a thousand good books before he was twenty-one--w hat a lesson for boys on a farm! When he left the farm he started on foot for Na tick.

1835. Greeley started "The Log-Cabin . but recommended two young printers. whatever his mistakes. But on this p aper at a penny per copy he made no money." the best weekly paper in the United States. but its completion was finally marked by the opening at the corner of Broadway and Ann Street of the most complete newspaper establishment t hen known. It was a paper whose editor. He always refused to lower the wages of his employees even when e very other establishment in Philadelphia was doing so. such as "Kane's Arctic Expedition. began the work of making a really great daily newspap er. and as soon as he had saved a few hundred dollars as a clerk in a bookstore. his friends could not dissuade him from buying it. To start it he borrowed a thousand dollars and printed f ive thousand copies of the first number. a discussion arose in r egard to the meaning of a painting representing some scene in the mythology or h istory of Greece. but said: "Fix up a case for him and we'll see if he can do anyt hing. That night Horace showed a proof of the largest and most correct day's work that had then been done. who formed partnership with Bennett. The demand for the "Tribune" grew faster than new machinery coul d be obtained to print it. His next venture was "The New York Tr ibune. and there seemed no end to his industry. It was an up-hill job. W hen Harrison was nominated for President in 1840. Bennet hired a small cellar in Wall Street. Seeing that the discussion was growing warm. and the paper entered upon a career of remark able prosperity. fresh and c risp. Neither labor nor expense was spared in o btaining prompt and reliable information on every topic of general interest. doing all the work except the printing. which was the key-note of the suc cess of a boy who started with "no chance": "Nihil sine labore. to the astonishment of everybody. who had saved a few hundred dollars by hard labor and strict economy for fourteen years. he objected to the new-comer and told the fo reman to let him go when his first day's work was done. furnished it with a chair a nd a desk composed of a plank supported by two barrels. In 1835 he asked Horace Greeley to join him in starting a new daily paper. he had great determination and indomitable energy. It was difficult to give them all away. nearly a century and a half ago. He made "great hits" in some of the works he pub lished. One of the first things to attract the attention on entering George W. He founded the "New Y orker. lowered the advertising rates. Steadily the young man struggled towards his ideal. the host turned t o one of the waiters and asked him to explain the picture. giving the news. In ten years he was a partner in a small printing-office. he began business as a publisher. He began with six hundred subscribers. and was only know n as a clever writer for the press. and there. until his paper was famous for giving the curr ent history of the world as fully and quickly as any competitor." When the proprietor came in.00 a week ever hope to own such a great paper? However. and of the "Pennsylvanian" a little later. He doubled the subscription price. and th e "Herald" was started on May 6. from an ever-widening area." It was his earl y ambition to own the "Philadelphia Ledger" and the great building in which it w as published. a lways tried to be right. the profits sometimes amounting to over four hundred thousand d ollars a year." price one cent." He had a keen sense of what would pl ease the public. with a cash capital to pay expenses for t en days. the "New York Herald. a thing then unknown in America. but it was not profitable. At a banquet in Lyons. Childs' private office in Philadelphia was this motto." which reached the then fabulous circulation of ninety thousand. and often much more thoroughly and far more promptly. and in 1864 the dreams of his boyhood fou nd fulfilment. and increased the list to eleven thousan d in six weeks.elp was needed. of t he "Globe" in 1832. but how could a poor boy working for $2. as all its predecessors were party organs. In spite of the fact that the "Ledger" was losing money every day. Greatly to the surpri . James Gordon Bennett had made a failure of his "New York Courier" in 1825." Greeley declined.

The smooth sand beach of Lake Erie constituted the foolscap on which. y et he had true mettle in him. blazing bright before the sugar-house. and cri ed like a child. but so hungry as to be ha rdly able to endure life. I was as tall as I am now. "I learned grammar when I was a private soldier on the pay of sixpence a day. the sap having been gathered and the wood cut before dark.' by the light o f which.se of the company. I remember in this way to have a history of the French Revolution. "under such circumstances could encounter and overcome this task. alas! a great sum to me. and well I may! that upon one occasion I had. R. P. when I pulled off my clothes at night. as he experimented and studied in the attic of the apot hecary-store where he worked. whistling. in the hours o f their freedom from all control. and I had to rea d and write amidst the talking. in winter it was rarely that I could get any evening light but that of the fire. library at years William Cobbett had followed the plow. a barefoot boy with no chance. and then enlisted in an infantry During his first year of soldier life he subscribed to a circulating Chatham. and bawling of at least half a score of the most thoughtless of men. "I have studied in many schools. I had no moment of time that I could call my own. At night you had only to feed the kettles an d keep up the fires. Spencer. and that. "If I. I buried my head in the miserable sheet and rug." Well had he profited by poverty's lessons. Think not lightly of the farthing I had to giv e. and only my turn. or that of the guard-bed. That farthing was. To buy a pen or a sheet of p aper I was compelled to forego some portion of my food.' Such. ink. too. read every book in it. and th e task did not demand anything like a year of my life. a bit of board lying on my lap was my writing-table. the most beautiful e xposition of graphic art. though in a state of hal f starvation. which I had des tined for the purpose of a red herring in the morning. laughing. so plain and convincing that it at once settled the dispute. for want of other material. and began to study. and I had great health and great exercise. was my seat to study in. "has found the best opportunities for mental improvement in his intervals of leisure while tending 'sap-bush. when he ran away to Lond law papers for eight or nine months. T he edge of my berth. was my own experience. after all absolutely necessary expenses. During the day we would always lay in a good stock of 'fat-pine. f or. addressin g the waiter with great respect. and to have obtained a better and more enduring knowledge of its events and horr ors and of the actors in that great national tragedy than I have received from a . Jean Jacques Rousseau. "In what school have you studied. a youth to find any excuse for its non-performance?" Humphrey Davy had but a slender chance to acquire great scientific knowledge. and bottles co ntribute to his success. I found that I had lost my half-penny." replied the young servant: "but the school in which I studied longest and learne d most is the school of adversity. all Europe soon rang with the fame of the w ritings of the greatest genius of his age and country. and he made even old pans." But Cobbett made even his poverty and hard circumstances serve his all-absorbin g passion for knowledge and success. now and then. Monsieur?" asked one of the guests. "Many a farmer's son. at any rate. The w hole of the money not expended for us at market was twopence a week for each man . the servant gave a clear concise account of the whole subject . can there be in the whole worl d. singing. even. Monseigneur. of that. I passed many a delightful night in reading. or paper. copied regiment. I had no money to purchas e candles or oil. although then but a poor waiter. For eight on. is there. my knaps ack was my bookcase. I remember. kettles. perfected the e ssential principles of the Spencerian system of penmanship." says Thurlow Weed." said he. for pen. made shift to have a half-penny in reserve.

" He did this. 9 lines Polish. as the trusted friend and adviser of Seward. Edward Everett said of the manner in which th is boy with no chance acquired great learning: "It is enough to make one who has good opportunities for education hang his head in shame. and. 60 lines Hebrew. 10 lines Bo hemian. not an inch above you. which he borrowed. and read of what wonderful mechanism God gave you in your hand. and thus prepare myself for a final examination. In a diary kept at Worcester. who are the poets of the country. Theodore rose very early the next m orning." The barefoot Christine Nilsson in remote Sweden had little chance.ll subsequent reading. June 18. I remember. "Well done. Tuesday. walked through the dust ten miles to Harvard College. but she won the admiration of the world for her wondrous power of song. "The proudest moment of my life. Horace Mann. combined with rare w omanly grace. who are the strong merchants of the countr y. Mark my words. but he saw from the boy's earnest face that he had no ordin ary object in view." says Dr. "I am not going to stay there. shoeless. Theodore. "was when I had first gai ned the full meaning of the first fifteen lines of Homer's Iliad. too. All his odd moments had been hoarded." and for his nobl e work in the service of humanity. "Let me say in regard to your adverse worldly circumstances. but while blowing the bellows. "that you are on a level now with those who are finally to succeed . are such entries as these. Sum ner. 8 lines Syriac. "No outfit. June 20 . 30 Danish.--mightiest in the church an d state.--are now on a level with you. "but. June 19. but he felt that he must have it. 25 lines Hebrew." Elihu Burritt 's father died when he was sixteen. 11 hours' forging. and presented hims elf for a candidate for admission." He mastered 18 languages and 32 dialects. when his son came home late at night and told of his successful examination. Chase. got money to study for two years at Harvard. at odd times." "May I have a holiday to-morrow. and Elihu was apprenticed to a blacksmith in his native village of New Britain. how happy I was in being able to borrow the books of a Mr. I cannot afford to keep you there!" "True. it was a pleasure for him to recall his e arly struggles and triumphs among the rocks and bushes of Lexington. in . where he was graduated with h onor. Conn. when. father?" asked Theodore Parker one August afte rnoon.--"M onday. no capital to start with? Young man. He had been unable to attend school regularly since he was eight years old. he would solve mentally diff icult problems in arithmetic. his influence for good was fel t in the hearts of all his countrymen. headache. You will find that those who are then the millionaires of this country. I shal l study at home. Garrison. which he sent to Boston. who are the great philanthropists of the country. my feet swaddled in remnants of rag carpet." said Theodore. 40 pages Cuvier's 'Theory of the Earth. and so got the money to buy that coveted Latin dictionary. go down to the library and get some books. whither he went some ten years later to enjoy its library privileges. father." said Elihu Burritt. The poor Lexington millwright looked in surprise at his youngest son. my boy!" said the millwright. which will give me a diploma. for reading useful b ooks. and had reviewed his lessons again and again as he followed the plow or worked at other tasks. Years after. 10 hours' forging. He became eminent as the "Learned Blacksmith. and Wendell Phillips. also. and granted the request. for it was a busy time. 11 hours' forging.' 64 pages Fren ch. who are the orators of the count ry. One book he could not borrow. He had to work at the forge for ten or twelve hours a day. and in straightene d circumstances. and think of it thirty years from now. after a two-mile tramp through the snow. 15 names of stars. Keyes. but he had managed to go three months each winter . Wednesday. by teaching school as he grew o lder. Talmage to young men. so on summer mornings he rose long before the sun and picked bushel aft er bushel of berries.

and in the process of the scientist's expulsion added a resounding box upon the ear. A young man can't set out in life with much less chance than when he sta rts his "daily" for a living. the h eartrending scenes at the auction blocks. and aristocracy. in a little upstairs room. wealth. a noble friend in the North. Daniel Manning who was President Cleveland's first campaign manager and afterwa rds Secretary of the Treasury. so did David B. he said he had always been a total abstai ner and singularly moderate in everything but work. He had walked four h undred miles on his way to Tennessee to increase his subscription list. John G. Hill. He was arrested and sent to jail. who had suffere d long and patiently. Equipped? W the God of the whole universe coul A newsboy is not a very promising candidate for success or honors in any line o f life. or influence. in your ear.your foot. with no money. He was n o ordinary young man. in your eye." ask some doctor to take you into t you have read about. Benjamin Lundy. The sight of the slave-pens along the principal streets. He had already begun to dabble in chemistry. Yet the man who more than any other is responsible for the industrial regeneration of this continent started in life as a newsboy on the Grand Trunk Railway. statesmen. he started to prosecute his work more earnestly in Baltimore. "He was imprisoned for his opinion when he was twenty-four. friends. without distinction of creed or p olitics! What chance had they against the prejudices and sentiment of a nation? But these young men were fired by a lofty purpose. Whittier. New York seems to have been prolific in enterprising newsboys. In the first issue of his paper. With William Lloyd Garrison. and they were thoroughly in e arnest. Thomas Alva Edison was then about fifteen years of a ge. had already started in Ohio a paper called "The Genius of Universal Liberty." in the very first issue: "I will be as harsh as truth. promptly ejected the youthful devotee. There followed a serie s of unearthly odors and unnatural complications. although she early taught him to hate oppression. The conductor. What nonsense for two uneducated and unknown youths who met in a cheap boarding -house in Boston to array themselves against an institution whose roots were emb edded in the very constitution of our country. After forty-nine days of imprisonment he was set free. started out as a newsboy with apparently the worl d against him." In Boston. he wrote to Henry Cl ay. Garrison urged an immediate emancipation. twenty miles. the train rounded a curve. the poorest young man is equipped as only d afford to equip him. churches. One day. He had confronted a nation in the bloom of his youth. One of them. When rec ently asked the secret of his success. every month. begging him to release Garrison by paying the fine. and called down upon his head the wrath of the entire community. Wendell Phillips said of him. and never aga capital to start with. and which was upheld by scholars. and had fitted up a small itine rant laboratory." and had carried the entire edition home on hi s back from the printing-office. of vessel-l oads of unfortunates torn from home and family and sent to Southern ports." Read the declaration of this poor young man with "no chance. was so touched at the news that. resolved to devote his life to secure the freedom of these poor wretches. being too poor to furnish the money himself. as uncomprom . made an impression on Garrison never t o be forgotten. Gar rison started the "Liberator. Edison passed through one dramatic situation after another--always mastering it --until he attained at an early age the scientific throne of the world. as he was performing some occult experiment. and the bottle of sulphuric acid broke. and the young man whose mother was too poor to send him to schoo l. and then he dissecting-room and illustrate to you what in commit the blasphemy of saying you have no hy. So did Thurlow Weed.

sleeping. eating. "When I heard the gentleman lay down the principles which plac e the murderers of Lovejoy at Alton side by side with Otis and Hancock. and I will be heard. He learned French by rising early and studying while his companions slept." and asked him to ascertain the n ame of the publisher. an d culture of Massachusetts arrayed itself against the "Abolitionists" so outrage ously. that s ome one had sent him a copy of the "Liberator." What audacity for a young m an. The boy earned his living by watching a neighbor's sheep. with the world against him! Hon. He found Mr. his supporters a few persons of all colors and little influence. but had no chance to attend school until he was ten years old. his only auxiliary a negro boy. and we will never rest until the Corn-Laws are repealed. He was soon sent out in a gig as a comm ercial traveler. and printing in this "obscure hole. heroic conflict . with Qui ncy and Adams. and in the old "Cradle of American Liberty" the wealth. About this time Richard Cobden. a young lawyer of great promise. by President Lincoln. I am in earnest. even in far California. where he was abused. for his wife was lying dead in the house. Hayne. and must be suppressed. t he earth should have yawned and swallowed him up. wrote to Otis. an emancipated slave deli vered the address of welcome. I w ill not retreat a single inch. His father had died leaving nine children almost penniless. Bright in great grief. to see the s tars and stripes unfurled once more above Fort Sumter. W hen the war was ended. mayor of Boston. I would advise you to come with me. and replied in such a speech as was never before heard in Faneuil Hall. no longer chattels in appre ciation presented Garrison with a beautiful wreath of flowers. At fifteen he en tered his uncle's store in London as a clerk." said Richard Cobden. on soil consecrated by the prayers of the Puritans and the blood of patriots. Garrison was invited as the nation's guest. The drama culminated in the shock of civil war." The whole nation was wrought to fever heat. The legislature of Georgia offered a reward of five thousand dollars for his arrest and conviction. Robert Y. I will not excuse. and. "where wives. "I thought those pictured lips would have broken into voice to rebuke the recre ant American. Between the Northern pioneers and Southern chivalry the struggle was long and f ierce. asked to be lifte d upon the high platform. power." Cobden could no longer see the poor man' . A clergyman named Lovejo y was killed by a mob in Illinois for espousing the cause. and his two daughters.ising as justice. "There are thousands of homes in England at this moment. and children are dying of hunger." The Governors of one or two States set a price on the editor's head. and allowed to write home only once in three months. died in London. that a mere spectator. Now. mothers. pointing to their portraits on the walls. another powerful friend of the oppressed." had set the world to thinking. when the first par oxysm of grief is passed. The Vigilance Associatio n of South Carolina offered a reward of fifteen hundred dollars for the arrest a nd prosecution of any one detected circulating the "Liberator. hal f starved. Garrison and his coadjutors were denounced everywhere. He was sent to a boarding-school. He called upon John Bright to enlist his aid in fighting the terrible "Corn-Law s" which were taking bread from the poor and giving it to the rich. of South Carolina." said Wendell Phillips. while defending his p rinting-press. after thirty-five years of untiring. Otis replied that he had found a poor young man printing " this insignificant sheet in an obscure hole. For the sentiments that he has uttered. the slanderer of the dead." But this poor young man. I will not equivocate.

and was en gaged to clean instruments and take them to and from the lecture-room. not long after.--a question between the working millions and the aristocracy. no other man did so much to give the laborer a shorter day. During the frightful famine. "The time will come when you will hear me. who became Prime Minister of Egypt four thousand years before . until h e stood a master. who carried new spapers about the streets to loan to customers for a penny apiece. and in those days the do ors of the higher schools were closed to such as he. Michael could scarcely trust his eyes as he read the note. When binding the Encyclopa edia Britannica." When Sir Humphry Davy was asked what was his greatest discovery. up through the upper classes." Jewish blo od flowed in his veins and everything seemed against him. Disraeli. which cut off two millions of Ireland's population in a year. and by energy I can overcome greater obstacles. and began to experiment. He was appointed professor at the Royal Academy of Woolwich. he develop ed his safety-lamp and experimented with dangerous explosives. where he was drilled o nly in the "three R's. aided by the Irish famine. He watche d eagerly every movement of Davy." But he used every spare moment to study without a teache . a ch eaper loaf. who become Lord Beaconsfield. up through the middle classes.--for it was hunger that at last ate through those stone walls of protection. John Bright was more pow erful than all the nobility of England. In the morning he called as requested. his mighty eloquence. the "mill-boy of the slashes. "I am not a slave. he simply said. "This is not a par ty question. but he remembered the example of Joseph. He summoned courage to w rite the great scientist and sent the notes he had taken of his lecture. Sir Humphry Davy's carr iage stopped at his humble lodging." The time did come." John Bright himself was the son of a poor working man. England's great Prime Minister. Tyndall said of him. as with a glass mask over his face. Over a stable in London lived a poor boy named Michael Faraday." "What has been done can be done again.--secured the r epeal of the law in 1846." They formed the "Anti-Corn-Law League. but the great Quaker heart of this resolute youth was touched with pity for the millions of England's and I reland's poor. Henry Clay. ridiculed. I am not a captive. better. "He is the greatest experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. He procured a glass vial. He pushed his way up through the low er classes. "for men of all parties are united upon it.s bread stopped at the Custom-House and taxed for the benefit of the landlord an d farmer. and he could not re st until he had read it." said he. an added shilling. It is a pantr y question. hissed down in the House of Commons. Bright said: "There is not in Great Britain a poor man's home that has not a bigger." said the boy with no chance. Except p ossibly Cobden. who was Prime Minister to the greatest despot of the world five centuries before the birth of Christ. Rebuffed. scorned. too." which. and a few simple articles. just as Michael was about to retire. self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social pow er. and took him to hear Sir Humphry Davy lecture on chemistry. and cheaper loaf through Richard Cobd en's labors. an old pan. Michael studied a nd experimented. and became the won der of the age in science. and a servant handed him a written invitatio n to call upon the great lecturer the next morning. Mr. A customer became interested in the boy. his eyes caught the article on electricity. and it was not long before this poor boy with no chance wa s invited to lecture before the great philosophical society. The whole aristocracy trembled before hi s invincible logic. and the bo y with no chance but a determined will swayed the scepter of England for a quart er of a century. He was appren ticed for seven years to a bookbinder and bookseller. and he threw his whole soul into this great reform." was one of seven children of a widow too poor to send him to any but a common country school. One nig ht. starving under the Corn-Laws. and that of Daniel. and his commanding character. he replied "Michael Faraday.

with hemlock sticks for pipes. who had played the oboe for his meals. its orbit a nd rate of motion. George was taking his machine to pieces. through a telescope made with his own hands. his library locked up by the Jesuits. because it took a longer time to hea t at the forge. See Kepler struggling with poverty and hardship. "The Forge. and of the rings and satellites of Saturn. her understu . While the other hands were playing games or loafing in liquor shops during the holidays. he stood in th e tower of St. For seventeen years he works calmly upon the demonstration of the great principles that planets revolve in ellipses. "When I found that I was black. Charlotte Cushman resolved to place herself in the front rank as an actress. even in such characters as Rosalind and Queen K atherine. Even when totally blind." How slender seemed the chance of James Sharples. Imagine the surprise of the Royal Society of England when the poor unknown Hers chel sent in the report of his discovery of the star Georgium Sidus. those who had loafed and played called him lucky. and so force men to look below my skin. cleaning it. which he propped up against the chimney. t hat a line connecting the center of the earth with the center of the sun passes over equal spaces in equal times. When he had become famous as a great inventor of improveme nts in engines. This boy with no chance became one of the world's greatest as tronomers. Mark's Cathedral and discovered the satellites of Jupiter and the phases of Venus. he kept constantly at w ork. The boy with no ch ance. but the engine was his teacher. his books burned in public by order of the state. with his father for fireman.r. had with his own hands made the tel escope through which he discovered facts unknown to the best-equipped astronomer s of his day. He would walk eighteen miles to Manchester and back after a hard day's work to buy a shilling's worth of artist's materials. studying it. all the terrors of the Inquisition could not keep this feeble man of threescore years and ten from muttering to himself. "I resolved to live as i f I were white. The boy who had learned to speak in a barn. and Miss Cushman. and he a faithful student. but he often rose at three o'clock to copy book s he could not buy. so great was his eagerness for scientific research that he p roved by a straws in his cell that a hollow tube is relatively much stronger tha n a solid rod of the same size. He could neither read nor write. and in after years he was a king among self-made men." When thrown into prison. When compelled on bended knee to publicly renounce his heretical doctrine that the earth moves ar ound the sun. Without a charm of face or figure. became one of the greatest of American orators and statesmen. and he could thus have many spare minutes to study the precious book. He devoted his lei sure hours for five years to that wonderful production. and that the squares of the times of revolutio n of the planets above the sun are proportioned to the cubes by their mean dista nces from the sun." copies of w hich are to be seen in many a home. George had to watch cows for a neighbor. He had ground two hundred specula before he could get one perfect. George Stephenson was one of eight children whose parents were so poor that all lived in a single room. with the sun at one focus. At seventee n he had charge of an engine. "Yet it does move." said Alexandre Dumas. when his parents compelled him to go to a medical school? Yet while Venice slept. but he managed to get time to make engines of clay. He was a great miser of spare mom ents and used every one as though he might never see another. with only a cow and a horse for an audience. The star actress was unable to perform. What chance had Galileo to win renown in physics or astronomy. He would ask fo r the heaviest work in the blacksmith shop. and making ex periments in engines. and himself exiled by public clamor. the celebrated blacksmith arti st of England! He was very poor.

before the twenty-seventh day o f the month. another a physician. He was so eager to study that sometimes he would keep it up until his brain refused to work. write. and cipher a little. hard. friendless. the whittling Scotch lad of Glasgow. but on h is way home it struck a sunken wreck and sank just as he reached shallow water. incurable disease. she flinched not a pa rticle. Altho ugh poor. But no. harrow. "I have learned to live with my trouble. His first year's practice brought him but nine sh illings. and so on had far the largest patronage of any boatman in the harbor. ten acres of rough. he had grit and determination. the worst on his father's far m. Lord Eldon might well have pleaded "no chance" when a boy." He left his home in France when ten years old. who wished to increase their facilities for carryin g foreign mails. stony land. On his seventeenth birthday he bought the boat. "Young man. yet he was bound not to give up. and was bound to make his way in the world. He at once began again. The poor mother educated her boys as best she could. she would lend him the amount he wished. He fulfilled his contract by night so that he mig ht run his ferry-boat between New York and Brooklyn by day. but he learned to read. and well done. That night she held her audience with such grasp of intellec t and iron will that it forgot the absence of mere dimpled feminine grace. the voluminous "Coke upon Littleton" amo ng others. at an advanced age. but they brought neither honor nor profit until he was consulted by Burns & McIvor. no ticed that each boy came to school only one day out of three. Stephen Girard had "no chance. What a lesson for boys who plead "no chance" as an excuse for wasted liv es! Sam Cunard. and came to America as a cabin boy.dy. In after years. he left to his thirteen children one of the largest fortunes in America. The boy who gave his parents all his day earnings and had half of what he got a t night. and that all wore the same pantaloons. but quietly said. a Northern girl. and plant with corn. but had no money. and unknown before. The teacher. Before the appointed time the work w as done. when he would tie a wet towel about his head to enable h im to keep awake and to study. was worth thirty thousand dollars at thirty-five. for he was too poor to go to school or even to buy books. He wished to buy a boat . her reputation was made. your bread and butter's cut for life. His great ambition was to get on and succeed . The model of a steamship which Sam whittled out for them was ca refully copied for the first vessel of the great Cunard Line. He often worked all night. One be came a professor in a Southern college. When Eldon was leaving the chamber the Solicitor tapped him on the shoulder and said. when physicians told her she had a terrible. During the War of 1812 he was awarded the Government contract to carry provisions to the military stations near the metropolis. But Cornelius Vanderbilt was not the boy to give up. wrought many odd inventions wi th brain and jack-knife. took her place. his mother told hi m if he would plow. but could affo rd only one pair of trousers for the three." The boy with "no chanc e" became Lord Chancellor of England. He rose at four o'clock in the morning and copied law books which he borrowed. and became the sta ndard type for all the magnificent ships since constructed by the firm. and one of the greatest lawyers of his age . when the curtain fell upon her first p erformance at the London theater. an d in three years saved three thousand dollars. and the third a cle rgyman." A poor colored woman in a log-cabin in the South had three boys. To discourage him from following the sea. and when he died. She was so anxious to give them an e ducation that she sent them to school by turns. The new Testament and the speller were Cornelius Vanderbilt's only books at sch ool.

and then in the night. Behold this long. To reach the starting-point of the poorest white boy. At Nantucket he was given an opportunity to speak at an anti-slavery meeting. P. lank. Henry E. began his career upon the stage in the hu mble part of the hind legs of a cow. returning in time to go into the f ield at dawn. He fled from slavery at twenty-one. but cannot buy. he walked forty-four miles to proc ure the precious volumes. In another log-cabin. There was no work. he turned to gold everything he touched. build ing his homely log-cabin. and in that capacity showed great executi ve ability. he had to climb as far as the dista nce which the latter must ascend if he would become President of the United Stat es. and worked as a stevedore in New York and New Bedford. He was sent to Europe to lecture. and willingness to risk his life to save strangers sick with the deadly yellow fever. he would study with all his might. a poor widow is holding a boy e ighteen months old. for he had no teacher. are traits of character well worthy of imitation. and read one hundred pages while returning. and he was pledged before his birth to pay his master's debts. John Wanamaker walked four miles to Philadelphia every day. N. The boy grows. and worked in a boo kstore for one dollar and twenty-five cents a week. He edited a paper in Ro chester. Midas like. his public spirit at times of national need. when she wo uld walk twelve miles to be with him an hour. without floor or windows. and then no limits could be placed to his career.at any cost. and who emancipated four million s laves. He next worked in a clothing store at an advance of twenty-five cents a week. with which he purchased his freedom. awkward youth. and afterwards conducted the "New Era" in Washington. and won the friendship of several Englishmen. For severa l years he was Marshal of the District of Columbia. without schooling. in the backwoods of Ohio. who gave him $750. and became one of the wealthiest merchants of Philadelphia. felling trees on the little claim. Edmonia Lewi s. Barnum rode a horse for ten cents a day.. or teacher. But somehow. Prejudice against her race and sex did not deter the colored girl. unnotice d by his master. and made so favorable an im pression that he was made agent of the Anti-Slavery Society of Massachusetts. His good fortune consisted simply of untiring perseverance and a right heart. Dixey. to help his mother. or books. He saw his mother but two or three times. Abraham Li ncoln inherited no opportunities. but his thoroughness in all he did. that he would no t undertake. the well-known actor. teaching himself arithmetic and grammar in the evening by the light of the fireplace. or o rdinary opportunities. His abnormal love of money cannot be commended. T. He put to shame thousands of white boys. Every spare hour is spent in studying the books he has borrowed. and the rules of the plantation forbade slaves to learn to read and write. Fred Douglass started in life with less than nothing. Wh ile traveling from place to place to lecture. who won the admiration of mankind by his homely practical wisdom while President during our Civil War. from struggling upward to honor and fame as a sculptor. he managed to learn the alphabet from scraps of paper and paten t medicine almanacs. It was a boy born in a log-cabin. however hard and disagreeable. went North. and in a few years we find him chopping wood and til ling the little clearing in the forest. He had no chance to study. He was appointed PostmasterGeneral by President Harrison in 1889. for he did not own his ow n body. and acquired nothing by luck. At sixteen he gladl . Y. and wondering if she will be able to keep the wolf from her little ones. In his eagerness to kn ow the contents of Blackstone's Commentaries. From this he went up and up un til he became one of the greatest living merchants.

" In the spring he had forty-eight dollars. Our city civilizatio n is always in a process of decay. He engaged board. and li ght of a carpenter at one dollar and six cents a week. with the privilege of wor king at night and on Saturdays all the time he could spare. With five chances on each hand and one unwavering aim. the finest physical and me ntal fiber in the world. neither men nor demons can keep him down. "The little gray cabin appears to be the birthplace of all your great men. which is e ver flowing cityward. if he is dominated by a resolute purp ose and upholds himself. where in two years he is graduated with h onors. When he retur ned the next term he had but a sixpence in his pocket. save upon the mercy of God and their own energies. and when he returned to school he boarded himself at an expense of thirty-one cents a week. The inspirat ion of such an example is worth more to the young men of America than all the we alth of the Astors. When the term closed. T wenty-seven years from the time he applied for a chance to ring the bell at Hira m College. and who buffeted the billows of fate wit hout dependence. Garfield became President of the United States. no boy. The following winter he taught school at twelve dollars a month and "b oard around. in a few generations. is rapidly deteriorated by the softening. One of our great men says that one of the most unfortunate phases of modern civ ilization is the drift away from the farm. Among the world's greatest heroes and benefactors are many others whose cradles were rocked by want in lowly cottages. It would soon become so foul and degenerate as to threaten the physical and mora l health of city dwellers. to pay his way while studyin g there." sai d an English author who had been looking over a book of biographies of eminent A mericans. There is bread and success for every youth under the American flag w ho has energy and ability to seize his opportunity. become emasc ulated and effeminate were it not for the pure. Soon we find him in Williams College. fuel. crystal stream of country youth flowing steadily into and purifying the muddy. stamina and sturdy qualities e ntirely disappear in two or three generations of city life. and the Goulds. It matters not whether the b oy is born in a log-cabin or in a mansion.y accepts a chance to drive mules on a canal towpath. He had arrived on a Saturday and planed fifty-one boards that day. ne ed despair. CHAPTER IV THE COUNTRY BOY The Napoleonic wars so drained the flower of French manhood that even to-day th e physical stature of the average Frenchman is nearly half an inch below what it was at the beginning of Napoleon's reign. the Vanderbilts. he had paid all expenses and had three doll ars over. and this he put into the contribution box at church the next day. until the superior virility. devitalized stream of city life. His vivid imagination clothes it with Arabian Nights possibilities and joys. emasculating inf luences of the city. James A. the drift of country youth to the cit y which has an indescribable fascination for him. and would. His first term at Geauga Seminary cost him but seventeen dollars. The country in America to-day is constantly paying a similar tribute to the cit y in the sacrifice of its best blood. Soon he applies for a chan ce to sweep floors and ring the bell of an academy. He reaches the State Senate at twenty-six and Congress at thirty-three. however poor. The country seems tame and common . This great stream of superb country manhood. washing. its best brain. for which he received one dollar and two cents.

Just as sculpture was once carried to such an extreme that pillars and beams we re often so weakened by the extravagant carvings as to threaten the safety of th e structure. are. the pure air and sunshine. Nearly everything that confronts him from morning till night is a rtificial. that imparts solidit y. so the timber in country boys and girls. enduring. he begins to deteriorate. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-br ed. the mountains. mountains and valleys. the grit which c haracterize men who do great things in this world. when brought to the city. He has not become weakened and softened b y the superficial ornamental. ha s greater courage. The sturdy. courage and all the qualities which make for manhood and womanhood. the stamina. all of wh ich will help to make him a giant when he comes to compete with the city-bred yo uth. the miracle of the growing crops are every moment registering their mighty potencies in his con stitution. more moral stamina. stamina. His muscles are harder. We are under the perpetual influence of the suggestion of our surroundings. forced to think for himself. takes on artificial conditions. If power is not absorbed from the soil. And there is a reason for all this. He sees hardly anything that God made. hardy qualities. vigorous. the thought a little mo re supple. What comes from the artificial conditions of the city is weakening. substantial. the brawn. The whole tendency of life in big cities is toward deterioration. He develops be tter all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. th e skin may be a little fairer. but less vigorous. the solidity and t he reliability of country-bred men and that of those in the city. the valleys. and this calls out his ingenuity and inventiveness. re liable. but it is not so healthy. There is a very apprecia ble difference between the physical stamina. is often overcarved and adorned at the cost of strength. The muscles may be a little more delicate but they are softer. virility. The very granite hills. In other words. aside from the faces and forms of human beings. to so ften. It is not natural f or human beings to live far from the soil. strength and power. It is Mother Earth and country life t hat give vitality. decorative influences of city life. with power. The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. What we get from the country is solid. robustness and vigor. ener . as a rule. He can not rid himself of its fascination until he tastes its emptiness.place after his first dream of the city. Much of what we call the best society in our cities is often in an advanced pro cess of decay. T here seems to be a close connection between robust character and the soil. We are largely copies of our environment. the brain vigor. One of the greatest boons that can ever come to a human being is to be born on a farm and reared in the country. He can not know the worth of the country and how to appre ciate the glory of its disadvantages and opportunities until he has seen the sha m and shallowness of the city. City people rarely live really normal lives. the h ills. putting iron into his blood and stamina into his character. The average country-bred youth has a better foundation for success-building. The city-bred youth sees and hears almost nothing that is natural. with pleasure. To him it is synonymous with opportunit y. forcefulness. substantial character when his eyes and ears bring him only sig hts and sounds of artificial things? A vast sea of business blocks. sky-scrapers and asphalt pavements does not generate character-building material. physical and mental stamina reach their maximum in those who live close to the soil. How can a man b uild up a solid. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qua lity. The moment a man becomes artificia l in his living. his flesh firmer. country bred. as do the natural objects in the country. the brooks. man-made. it certainly comes from very near it.

It is hard for the city-bred youth to resist the multiplicity of allur ements and pleasures that bid for his attention. he lacks depth. which we oft en see so marked in the young man from the country. the country boy is constantly developing his muscular system. often reading them over and o ver again. that unless a youth is made of unusual stu ff he will yield to the persuasion of the moment and follow the line of least re sistance. is in the midst of a perpetual miracle. These exciting. he is not so rapid in his movements. This training develops instinctive courage. magazines and periodicals and gives no real thought to any. If the wagon or plow breaks down it must be repaired on the spot. the chores which we hated as boys. can read continuously for an entire evening on one s ubject. His perceptions are not so quick. the rocks which we despised. diverting. and will oft en read the best literature without absorbing any of it. mixing and flinging out to the world the gorgeous colorings and marvelous perfumes of the r ose and wild flower! No city youth was ever in such a marvelous kindergarten. Hi s health is better. his thought action is slower and he does n ot have as much polish. strong success qu . while the city youth. He must make the implements and toys which he can not afford to buy or procure. The farm is a great gymnasium. And this magnificent pan orama is changing every instant. tempting conditions of city life are not conducive t o generating the great master purpose. The city youth has too many things to divert his attention. he reads them with much better results. to deny himself and turn a deaf ear to the appeals of his associates and tie himself down to self-improvement w hile those around him are having a good time. it is true. a superb manual training school. softening. The fact is that there is such a diversity of attractions and distractions. the one unwavering life aim. as a r ule. on the other hand. Such a multiplicity of objects appeals to him that he is often superficial. having very lit tle diversion after supper. but. he nce. and he lacks continuity of thought and application. but he is better balanced generally. adjust and repair all sorts of machin ery and farm utensils. Is it n ot wonderful to watch the chemical processes in nature's laboratory. He gets more exercise. we have found were the very things which educated us. he is not so superficial as the city boy. constantly calling upon the youth's sel f-reliance and inventiveness. His even ings are much more broken up than those of the country boy. The dearth of great libraries. the stamina. often without the proper tools. For one thing. sees so many books that in most instances he cares very little for them. who. more time to think and to reflect. His reading is comparatively superficial. His ingenuity and inventiveness are constantly exercised. wh ere perpetual creation is going on in such a vast multitude of forms. nature's kindergarten. the cumulative force. in the midst of newspapers and libraries. H e can not open his eyes without seeing a more magnificent painting than a Raphae l or a Michael Angelo could have created in a lifetime. The country youth. which developed our power and made us practical. of temptation and amusement in the city. He must run. He has been forced to do a great variety of work and this has developed corresponding m ental qualities. The country boy does not read as many books as the city boy. his min d is perpetually drawn away from his subject. which a re developed in the simple life of the soil. He glances through m any papers. Nor do city-bred youths stor e up anything like the reserve power. There is a miracle going on in every growing blade of grass and flower.vating. The drudgery of the farm. books and periodicals is one reason why the coun try boy makes the most of good books and articles.

so superbly equipped with physical and mental stamina. in the sunset. Plowing. what wonderful mysteries. should be in s uch demand when he comes to the city? Is it any wonder that he is always in evid ence in great emergencies and crises? Just stand a stamina-filled. and what is seen by the ordinary mind. that he heads the banks. There is a peculiar quality of superiority which comes from dealing with realit ies that we do not find in the superficial city conditions. and yet what marvels of skill. This marvelous reserve power which he stores up in the country will come out i n the successful banker. washed-out city youth. It has been found tha t the use of tools in our manual training schools develops the brain. and makes him a resourceful man. What a perpetual inspiration. cans exactly the right size. statesman. Ho w marvelous is Nature's growing of fruit. develops in the country boy much greater lung power than is developed in the city youth. should take such pre-eminence. Think of the difference between what a Ruskin sees in a landscape and the impression conveyed to his brain. or business man. he is forced to think for himself. hoeing. merchant. and his brain-fiber partakes of the same superior qu ality. what miracles of coloring are spread everywhere in nature. with no noise of factories. strengthen s the deficient faculties and brings out latent powers. for example! How she packs the concent rated sunshine and delicious juices into the cans that she makes as she goes alo ng. storing up energy in his brain and m uscles which later may be powerful factors in shaping the nation's destiny or wh ich may furnish backbone to keep the ship of state from floundering on the rocks . The country boy is constantly thrown upon his own resources. what marvels of beauty. the ordinary person who has little or no imagination and whose esthetic faculties h ave scarcely been developed! We are immersed in a wilderness of mysteries and marvelous beauties. Miracles i nnumerable in grass and flower and fruit are performed right before our eyes. the great mercantile houses? It is this peculiar. The life-giving oxyg en. Is it any wonder that the boy so trained in self-reliance. an d his outdoor work tends to build up a robust constitution. de liciousness and beauty? What interrogation points. when they have really never seen the marvelous pict ures painted by the Divine Artist and spread in the landscape. everything he does on the farm gives him vigor and strength. in the glory of flowers and plant life. People s ave money for years in order to go to Europe to visit the great art centers and see the famous masterpieces. whichever way he turns! Where does all this tremendous . his flesh firmer. self-reliant country boy beside a pale. His muscles ar e harder. mow ing. he is always using tools. soft. It is human nature to exaggerate the value of things beyond our reach. this superior stamina and mental caliber. that makes the stuff that rises to t he top in all vocations. make things. and this call s out his ingenuity and makes him self-reliant and strong.alities. without a particle of waste. indescribable something . what wit-sharpeners are ev er before the farmer boy. breathed in great inspirations through constant muscular effort. He is constantly bottling up forces. This is one of the reasons why he usually develops better all-round judgment and a more level head than the city boy. Is it any wonder that the country-bred boy is nearly always the leader. The farm-reared boy is i n the best manual training school in the world and is constantly forced to plan things. Self-reliance and grit are oftenest country-bred. no hammering of tins! The miracles are wrought in a silent laboratory. leakage or evapora tion. not a sound is heard. lawyer. stamina-less. right at their very doors. confronting us on every hand! We see them almo st every day of our lives and they become so common that they make no impression upon us.

that it requires fine-grained sympathetic talent. modify a nd change the flavor of fruits and vegetables to our liking! Think what it must mean to be a magician in the whole vegetable kingdom. ar tificial life in the city! Everything in the country tends to set the boy thinki ng. and often dissipation. the perfume of flowers. We are commencing to real ize that it takes a high order of ability and education to bring out the fullest possibilities of the soil. are all mysteries that set him thinking and to wondering at the creative processes which are working on every hand. But the searchlight of science h as revealed in it possibilities hitherto undreamed of. We are now finding that agriculture is as great a science as astronomy. life. And what healt h there is in it all! How hearty and natural he is in comparison with the city b oy. and that Nature will give us almost anything when we know enough to treat her intelligently. The very temptation in the city to turn night into day is of itself health-unde rmining. perfumes. to live an artificial. refreshing sleep. as contrasted with the cramped. Think of what it mea ns to go into partnership with the Creator in bringing out larger. the sunsets. He is not inculcated with snobbish ideas. the growing animals on th e farm. wheat. purposeless li fe. as a means provided by nature for living-getting for those who were not good fo r much else. the beauty. that the size of all fruits and vegetables and flo wers is just a matter of sufficient understanding. The time was when the boy who gave no signs of genius or unusual ability was co nsigned to the farm. The science of agriculture is fast becoming appreciated and is more and more re garded as a high and noble calling. the mountains. stamina-dissipating and character-weakening. Mr. will be able to produce at will any shade or color he wishes. to call out his dormant powers and develop his latent forces. grander produ cts from the soil. the hills. the valleys. wisely and sympa thetically. a dignified profession. Then again. changing colors. Everything in the great farm kindergarten teaches him sincerity. like L uther Burbank. the brook s. fruit and vegetables come from? There seems to be no l oss to the soil. and that i gnorant men have been getting an indifferent living from their farms simply beca use they did not know how to mix brains with the soil. to enlarge. who is tempted to turn night into day. simplicity and honesty. plea sure seeking. and the brilliant boy was sent to college or to the city to make a career for himself. flavors. The history of most great men shows that there is a disadvantage in having too . the delicious freedom of it all. and yet. Farming was considered by many people as a sort of degrading occupa tion desirable only for those who lacked the brains and education to go into a p rofession or some of the more refined callings. The trees. While the city youth is wasting his precious energy capital in late hours. and even to vary the size. species! Almost anything is p ossible when one knows enough and has heart and sympathy enough to enter into pa rtnership with the great creative force in nature. mor e life on every hand! Wherever he goes he treads on chemical forces which produc e greater marvels than are described in the Arabian Nights. to be able to co-operate with that divine creative force. But we are now beginning to see that man has made a botch of farming only because he looked upon it as a sort of humdrum occupation. Burbank says that the tim e will come when man will be able to do almost anything he wishes in the vegetab le kingdom. The country youth does not learn to judge people by the false standards of wealth a nd social standing. what a marvelous growth in everything! Life. the country youth is storing up power and v itality. away from the distracting influence and enervating excitement of city life. he is being recharged with physical force by natural. and al most any flavor in any fruit.increase of corn.

one moment opportune. TOWNSEND. to know the history of his country? Whence came that passion to devour the dry statutes of Indiana. Knows also how to watch and work and stand On Life's broad deck alert. Had he not felt that imperious "must" calling him. of only a small fraction of which he could get even a superficial knowledge. as a young girl would devour a l ove story? Whence came that all-absorbing ambition to be somebody in the world. Where in all the annals of history is there another record of one born of such poor parentage and reared in such a wretched environment." replied the great statesman and jurist. self-unfoldment? If he had been born and educated in luxury. to serve his country with no selfish ambition? Had his father been rich and well -educated instead of a poor man who could neither read nor write and who was gen erally of a shiftless and roving disposition. no opportunities. One Once. one night.many advantages. all opportunities to him . big with fate. his ch aracter would probably have been soft and flabby in comparison with what it was. When the great clock of destiny strikes Now! MARY A. in a land where thousands of poor boys become rich men.--DISRAELI. where this poor boy scarcely ever saw any one who knew anything of books. One freighted hour. From Opportunity's extended h and. And ready for the passing instant's boon To tip in favor the uncertain beam. thin k of a youth who would do what Lincoln did to overcome his handicap? CHAPTER V OPPORTUNITIES WHERE YOU ARE To each man's life there comes a time supreme. happy he who. Ah. one morning. brought up in an atmosphere of books. "There is always room at the top. or one noon. to rouse his ambition and to stimulate h im to self-education? Whence came that yearning to know the history of men and w omen who had made a nation. One rift through which s ublime fulfillments gleam. whence would have come the motive which led him to struggle for selfdevelopment. "There are no longer any good chances for young men. who do not want to walk even a few blocks to school. in balance 'twixt Too Late. the prod of necessity spurri ng him on. One space when fate goes tiding with the stream. where newsboys go to Congress." complained a youthful law student to Daniel Webster. No chance.--GEORGE ELIOT. would he have had that insatiable hunge r which prompted him to walk twenty miles in order to borrow Blackstone's "Comme ntaries" and to read one hundred pages on the way home? [Illustration: House in which Abraham Lincoln was born] What was there in that rude frontier forest. Too Soon. and at th e prow To seize the passing moment. so hungry for an education that he would walk nine miles a day to attend a rude frontier school in a log cabin! What would th e city boys of to-day. and where those born in the lowest stations attain the highest positions? The world is all gates. knowing how to wait. which the w aves of time wash away into non-entity. What is opportunity to a man who can't use it? An unfecundated egg. The secret of success in life is for a man to be ready for his opportunity when it comes. there is no likelihood that Lincol n would ever have become the powerful man he was. Who can tell what the consequences would have been had Lincoln been born in New York and educated at Harvard? If he had been reared in the midst of great libra ries. One day. who ever rose to such eminence? Imagine a boy of to-day.

to ge t money to pay his passage to other mines. gardens of flowers. explained to him how the world was ma de. and. ragged cloak to make a hood. Hundreds of years ago there lived near the shore of the river Indus a Persian b y the name of Ali Hafed. or gold. or west. in possibilities all about us. "I want to be rich and place my children on thrones. where he thought he could get rich.who will use them. that steps up an cloak $3500 Many of us who think we are poor are rich in opportunities. Years afterward she washed the of the Peabody Institute. and anxiously asked him where he could find a mine of diamonds. He decided to go into the coal-oil busines s. and in m eeting common every-day wants. He sold his farm for $200." said the priest. Some Brazilian shepherds organized a party to go to California to dig gold. but thinks he can do better somewhere else. and concluded to sell out and get into a more profitable business. He was contented and happy. But. and took along a handful of translucent pebbles to play checkers with on the voyage. an extensive farm. Early the next morning he woke the priest who had been the cause of his u nhappiness. P rofessor Agassiz once told the Harvard students of a farmer who owned a farm of hundreds of acres of unprofitable woods and rocks. sitting before the fire. but did not know it. Aft er arriving in San Francisco. He lived in a cottage on the river bank. silver. the man who bought his farm discovered upon it a great flood of coal-oil. and supposed it was stolen from the pocket of her cloak. and with a m ine of diamonds he could purchase a kingdom. and how the first beams of sunlight condensed on the earth's surface into di amonds. He had plenty of money and everything th at heart could wish. and with that all wealth van ishes." A Baltimore lady lost a valuable diamond bracelet at a ball. which the farmer had previously ignorantly tried to d rain off. when lo! in the lining of the she discovered the diamond bracelet. The richest gold and silver mine in Nevada was sold by the owner for $42. and engaged in his new business two hundred mile s away. "We look too high For things close by. and experimented for a long t ime. They hastened back to Brazil." "All you have to do is to go and search until you find them. if we could only se e them. Only a short time after. in faculties worth more than diamond brac elets. and after they had thrown most of the pebbles away . and miles of forest. In our large Eastern cities it has been found that at least ninety-four o ut of every hundred found their first fortune at home. "But where shall I go?" asked the poor farmer. orchards of fruit. they discovered that they were diamonds. like Bunyan's Pilgrim in the dungeon of Giant Despair's castle. that with a handful he could buy a province. One evening a priest of Buddha visited him. or near at hand. worn-out. "Go anywhere. He h ad a wife and children. She cut old. from which he could get a grand view of the beautiful country stretching away to the sea. "Wha t do you want of diamonds?" asked the astonished priest. We depend too much u pon outside assistance. During all her poverty she was worth . fields of grain. The old priest told that a drop of sunlight the size of his thumb was worth mor e than large mines of copper. He had been touched with discontent. that with one of them he could bu y many farms like his. he studied coal measures and coal-oil deposits. east." "How shall I know when I have found the . and was no long er a rich man. who had the key of deliverance all the time with him but had forgotten i t. pondering how to get money to buy food. we fail to rely wholly upon the ability to advance all that is good for us wh ich has been given to the weakest as well as the strongest. Ali Hafed listened. only to find that the mines from which the pebbles had been gathered had been taken up by other prospectors and sold to the government. north. It is a sorry day for a young man who can not see any opportunities where he is. south.

First find out what the world needs and then supply the want." said Emerson. The discontented man sold the farm for what he could get. and went to search for the covete d treasure. Frances Willard. as scraps of lea ther. When his money was all gone and starvation stared him in the face. but found no diamonds. "Has Ali Hafed returned?" "No. poor Ali Hafed thr ew himself into the tide and was drowned." answered the priest. There is scarcely a thing which contributes to the welfare and comfort o f humanity. The man who bought his farm was a cont ented man. and pleased with its brilliant hues took it into the ho use. Lincoln. through Palestine and Egypt. Find it. That is but a stone. he wander ed for years. "nor is that a diamond. although it is not so easy as formerly to obta in great distinction in the old lines. in those white sands you will find diamonds. Over the mountains of Arabia. ashamed of his folly and of his rags. But to succeed you must be prepared to seize and improve the opportunity when it comes. He picked up a pebble. took the money he had at interest. so some men will get a fortune out of the commonest and meanest things. Scarcely a boy or g irl will read these lines but has much better opportunity to win success than Ga rfield. An invention to m ake smoke go the wrong way in a chimney might be a very ingenious thing. New openings are as easy to find as ever to those who do their best. Wilson. iron filings.place?" "When you find a river running over white sands between high mountain r anges. and dug in his own garden." said the farmer. instead of going abroad in search for wealth. the past life. for the entire farm abounded in the ri chest of gems. While his camel was drinking in t he garden one day. "The world is no longer clay. "Here's a diamond! here's a diamond!" he shouted in great excitement. an ar ticle of clothing or of food. The patent office at Washington is full of wonde . and competition has so greatly increased. So the famous diamond beds of Golconda were discovered. Remember that four things come not back: the spo ken word. and did not believe in going a way from home to hunt for diamonds or success. fill it. Franklin. which would do his drudgery and leave him to develop th e God-given powers within him." Thousands of men have made fortunes out of trifles which others pass by. and t housands of others had. Had Ali Hafed been content to remain at home. who made the most of his surroundings. he noticed a flash of light from the white sands of the brook . a kitchen utensil. that is not capable of an improvement in which the re may be a fortune. scarcely an article of household furniture. There is power lying latent everywhere waiting fo r the observant eye to discover it. slag." They went into the ga rden and stirred up the white sand with their fingers. Opportunities? They are all around us. Forces of nature plead to be used in the service of man. and the neglected opportunity. He had no sooner entered the room th an his eye caught that flash of light from the stone. he would have been one of the richest men in the world. As the bee gets honey from the same flower from which the spider gets poison. and men have got to hamme r out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows. put it on the shelf near the fireplace. the sped arrow. left his family with a neighbor. and behold. other diamond s more beautiful than the first gleamed out of it. "but rather iron in the hands of its workers. because the standard has advanced so much . the more new ones are thereby created. but it would be of no use to humanity. It is one of the paradoxes of civilization that the more opportunities are util ized. cotton waste. The old priest of Buddha who had filled Ali Hafed with the fatal discontent cal led one day upon the new owner of the farm. You have your own special place and work. as lightning for ages tried to attract his attention to the gre at force of electricity. and forgot all about it. Harriet Beecher Stowe. from which others get only poverty and f ailure.

Edison began his experiments in a baggage car o n the Grand Trunk Railroad when a newsboy. No doubt many artists had noticed the fine quality of the mar ble. But Michael Angelo still sa w an angel in the ruin. and he had introduced his famous resolution against the unjust taxation of th e American colonies. Stewart. hacked. i f he is good for anything he will do it directly.. spoiled . asking for employment at the Royal Instituti on. and regretted that it should have been spoiled. the young David. After that he made it a rule never to buy anything which the publ ic did not want. and with his chisel and mallet he called out from it one of the finest pieces of statuary in Italy. and became rich. the great inventor of the m arine chronometer. A. while the father has been working on u seless inventions. He was always dreaming of some far-off greatness. lost eighty-seven cents. If this be treason. began his great fortune by making toy wagons in a horse s hed. wh ich can be riveted into the leather. the eyelets of whose shoes pulled out. the founder of Clark Universit y of Worcester.. make the most of it. and thrown away. he has been attending my lectures. John Harrison. A Maine man was call ed in from the hayfield to wash clothes for his invalid wife. People thought he would f ail. but in his first case he showed that he had a wonderful power of oratory." The great natural philosopher. T. The great things of the world have not been done by men of large means. "I will make a metallic lacing hook. Farquhar made umbrellas in his sitting-room. Michael Angelo found a piece of discarded Carrara marble among waste rubbish be side a street in Florence. J. In one of his first speeches upon this resolution he uttered thes e words. and ha ve struggled for years amid want and woe. invented clippers. Mass. I t then first dawned upon him that he could be a hero in Virginia. in buying buttons and thread which shoppers did not call for. he invent ed the washing machine. but not one in hundreds is of use to the in ventor or to the world. thought he could make an improvement on s hears for cutting hair. Parts of the fir st steamboat ever run in America were set up in the vestry of a church in Philad elphia by Fitch. The first model dry-dock was made in an attic. a good-for-nothing farmer. with his daughter's help. which were prophetic of his power and courage: "Caesar had his Brutus. McCormick began to make his famous reaper in a grist-mill. and George the Third--may profit by their exampl e. wrote. said to himself. Charles the First his Cromwell. and wants me to give him employm ent at the Royal Institution--what can I do?" "Do? put him to washing bottles. Patrick Henry was called a lazy boy. unti l he sold enough to hire a loft. Finding the method slow and laborious." He was then so poor that he had to borrow a sickle to cut grass in front of his hired tenement. A man who was suffering terribly wit h toothache felt sure there must be some way of filling teeth which would preven t their aching and he invented the method of gold filling for teeth. Ericsso n began the construction of the screw propellers in a bathroom. and made a fortune. and he failed a s a merchant. but who could not affo rd to get another pair. he rose steadily until he became one of the brilliant orato rs of America. An observing man. if he refuses he is good for n . Faraday. "Here is a letter from a young man na med Faraday. as a boy. N. and never though t he could be a hero among the corn and tobacco and saddlebags of Virginia. when a young man. to Humphry Davy. He became a very rich man. when he put out his shingle. and so prospered. which some unskilful workman had cut. who was the son of a blacksmith. An observing barber in Newark. From the time the Stamp Act was passed and Henry was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesse s.rful devices of ingenious mechanism. Clark. began his career in the loft of an old barn. Davy consulted a friend on the matter. The cotton-gin w as first manufactured in a log cabin. He had never reali zed what it was to wash before. when his ca pital was one dollar and a half. He s tudied law for six weeks. And yet how many families have been impoverished.

are now inviting them to enter." Never before were there such grand openings. One man goes through life without seeing c hances for doing anything great. We can not all of us perhaps make great discoveries like Newton. "America is another name for opportunities. perpetual hymn? HARR IET WINSLOW. "He is the greates t experimental philosopher the world has ever seen. A new era is dawning for them. unattained and dim. leaving the visi on of his life unrealized. . can make a fortune. Hundreds of occupations and professions. What chance had the young girl. He wants co mforts. and a nam e which will never perish from the earth. which led to a professorship at the Royal Academy at Woolwich. such opportunities. This poor girl did not need to go to London to see the nobility. seize then the hour When Fortun e smiles and Duty points the way. to distinguish herself. Our whole history appears like a last effort of divine Providence in behalf of the human race. while another close beside him snatches from th e same circumstances and privileges opportunities for achieving grand results. improve any methods which men use. He obeyed. Eternity itself cannot restore the loss struck from the minute.--ANCIENT POET." He became the wonder of his age in science. Tyndall said of this boy with no chance. For the far-off. are not known to the world. Wh ile the beautiful. by seizing common occasions and making the m great. You will find that millions have the same wants. and culture. living on those barren lighthouse rocks alone with her aged parents? But while h er brothers and sisters. supply any demand of comfort. when in a dream he was bidden to carve his Madonna fr om a block of oak wood which was destined for the fire. for that is the stuff life is m ade of. Especially is this true for girls and young women. or paint immortal pictures like an Angelo or a Raphael. education. study yourself and your own wants. but did her best where duty had placed her." Why thus longing. Grace Darling.--FRANKLIN. when they really lie hi dden in the common logs that we burn. Any man wh o can supply a great want of humanity. The safest business is always connected with man's prime necessities. Many of us lose great opportunities in life by waiting to find sandalwood for our carvings.othing. Right at home she had won fame which the regal heirs might envy. If you want to get rich. CHAPTER VI POSSIBILITIES IN SPARE MOMENTS Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time. He must have clothing and dwelling. He was about to give up in despair. Faraday. There is a legend of an artist who long sought for a piece of sandalwood. or contribute in any way to their well-being. But we can all of us make our lives sublime. who moved to the cities to win wealth and fame. they came to the lighthouse to see her. and produced a masterpiece from a log of common firewood. he must eat. thus forever sighing. out o f which to carve a Madonna. she became more famous than a princess. Ediso n." But the boy who could experiment in the attic of an apothecary shop wit h an old pan and glass vials during every moment he could snatch from his work s aw an opportunity in washing bottles. all around thee lying Offers up its low. She did not wander away into dreamy di stance for fame and fortune. "The golden opportunity Is never offered twice. which were closed to them only a few years ago. Opportunities? They are everywhere. such chances. facilities of all kinds for pleasure. and Thompson.

in the United States Mint at Philadelphi a. The proprietor was call ed. "All that I have accomplished." "One dollar and a half. "and I could better have taken that price then than a dollar and a half now. "but then I remember. "and I could have better afforded to take a dollar than to leave my w ork. Franklin in?" "Yes. No reward is offered. and now doth time waste me. "One dollar." echoed the lounger. tell me your lowest price for this book." and chasms of waiting fo r unpunctual persons. Time-wasters are everywhere. expect to." replied the clerk. Believe me when I tell you that thrift of time will repay you in after life wit h a usury of profit beyond your most sanguine dreams." said Franklin coolly." said Franklin. and left the sto re. On the floor of the gold-working room." said Elihu Bu rritt. took his book. are thus saved." The man silently laid the money on the counter." "True. fa ct by fact. two golden hours." said the clerk. that you can take for that book?" "One dollar and a quarter. he d emanded: "Well. The would-be purchaser looked over the books on sale a while longer. into either wealth or wisdom. Lost! Somewhere between sunrise and sunset. And if ever I was actuated by ambition. I want to see him. "can't you take less than that?" "One dollar is the price. Mr. and then i nquired: "Is Mr. persevering process of a ccretion which builds the ant-heap--particle by particle. thought by thought. he was alwa . "What is the price of that book?" at length asked a man who had been dawdling f or an hour in the front store of Benjamin Franklin's newspaper establishment. having received a salutary lesson from a master in the art of transmuting ti me." "Yes.--INSCRIPTI ON ON A DIAL AT OXFORD. and the stranger asked: "What is the lowest. half hours. at will." replied Franklin." "I have been wondering how Ned contrived to monopolize all the talents of the f amily. but. and the fine particles of gold-dust." was the prompt rejoinder. unexpected holidays.Periunt et imputantur. He who hoards and turns to account all odd minutes. wishing to end a parley of his own seeking.--GLADSTONE." The man seemed surprised. So every successful man has a kind of network to catch "the raspings and parings of existence. you offered it yoursel f for a dollar and a quarter. "he is very busy in the pr ess-room. come now.--SHAKESPEARE. and that waste of it will make you dwindle alike in intellectual and moral stature beyond your darkest rec koning. "A dollar and a half! Why.--the hours perish and are laid to our charge. gaps "between times." said a brother." "Well. or hope to accomplish.--HORACE MAN N. achieves results which astonish those who have not mastere d this most valuable secret. patient. its highest and warmest aspi ration reached no further than the hope to set before the young men of my countr y an example in employing those invaluable fragments of time called moments. I wasted time. your clerk asked me only a dollar just now. when we were at play. thousands of dollars' yearly. Franklin. found in a brown study after listening to one of Burke's speeches in Parliament. those leavings of days and wee bits of hours" which most people s weep into the waste of life. each set with six ty diamond minutes." persisted the man. "One doll ar and a quarter! Why." was the answer. "O ne dollar. for they are gone forever. there is a wooden lattice-work which is taken up when the floor is swept. "has been and will be by that plodding.

In Dante's time nearly every literary man in Italy was a hard-working merchant. At one time he wrote to a friend. wrote her great masterpiece. while waiting for his coffee to boil." in the midst of p ressing household cares. it's only five minutes or ten minutes till mealtime. Beecher read Froude's "England" a little each day while he had to wait for dinner. yet all her life has been subject to interruptions which would have disc ouraged most women from attempting anything outside their regular family duties. if we do not use them. he devoted all his leisure to experiments. physician. when her child ren were in bed and whenever she could get a spare minute. they are borne silently away. never to return. "Oh. While Michael Faraday was employed binding books. Wisely was it said that lost wealth may be regained by industry and economy. found time to read scientific books. lost knowledge by study. Oh. or soldier. Madame de Genlis. Marion Harland has accomplished wonders. what should we of common abili ties not resort to. and had to write his sublime poetry whenever he could snatch a few minutes from a busy life. might have insured your success. too. Hugh Miller.ys at work. judge. Secretary of the Commonwealth. we become less and less able to turn them to account. but. Galileo was a surgeon . but if we failed to accep t those that were brought yesterday and the day before. that I could purchase at a cheap rate some of our modern gentlemen's spare hours--na y. to save the precious moments from oblivion? What a rebuke is such a life to the thousands of young men and women who throw away whole months and even years of that which the "Grand Old Man" hoarded up even to the smalles t fragments! Many a great man has snatched his reputation from odd bits of time which others. She has glorified the commonplace as few other women have done. until the ability to appreciate and utilize them i s exhausted. if impr oved. The author of "Paradise Lost" was a teacher. "Time is all I require." The days come to us like friends in disguise. Each successive morning new gifts are brought. who wonder at their failure to get on. composed severa l of her charming volumes while waiting for the princess to whom she gave her da ily lessons. John Stuart Mill did much of his be st work as a writer while a clerk in the East India House. lost health by temperance and medicine. Burns wrote many of his most beautiful poems while working on a far m. throw away. but l ost time is gone forever. If a genius like Gladstone carried through life a little book in his pocket les t an unexpected spare moment slip from his grasp." Oh. and she has been able to do this by ec onomizing the minutes to shape her novels and newspaper articles. persisting for years unt il the work was done. "Uncle Tom's Cabin. when companion of the future Queen of France. S ecretary of the Lord Protector. stat esman. Longfellow translated the "Inferno" by snatches of t en minutes a day. days. out of broken fragme nts of time which many of us throw away! The very hours you have wasted. while working hard as a stone-mason. and write the lessons learned from the blocks of stone he handled. the power of ceaseless industry to perform miracles! Alexander von Humboldt's days were so occupied with his business that he had to . Harriet Beecher Stowe. bringing priceless gifts from an unseen hand. But wha t monuments have been built up by poor boys with no chance. there's no time to do anything now. Though she has done s o much. yet to the improvement of his spare moments the world owes some of its greates t discoveries." is one of the commonest expressions heard in the family.

Haw thorne's notebook shows that he never let a chance thought or circumstance escap e him." Some boys will pick up a good education in the odds and ends of time which othe rs carelessly throw away. then." Carlyle. "He has nothing to prevent him but too much idleness. on the average. One hour a day withdrawn from frivolous pursuits and profitably employed would enable any man of ordinary capacity to master a complete science. prosecuted outside of his bus y banking-hours. happy living. John Hunter. Adams complained bitterly when robbed of his time by those who had no r ight to it. Many of the greatest men of history earned their fame outside of their regular occupations in odd bits of time which most people squander. Sir Joh n Lubbock's fame rests on his prehistoric studies. resolved to devote one hour a day to study. He became one of the most noted mathematician s in the United States. as one man saves a fortune by small economies which ot hers disdain to practise. six hours a day that are. allowed himself but four hours of sleep. What a record for a boy who began his studies while working as a carpenter! John Q." What a lesson there is in Raphael's brief thirty-seven years to those who plead "no time" as an excuse for wasted lives! Great men have ever been misers of moments. He crowded his meals and sleep into as sm all compass as possible so that he might gain time for study. Consider. while others were a sleep. It would earn enou gh to pay for two daily and two weekly papers. When a child. two leading magazines. which Hunter's indust ry had collected. What young man is too busy to get an hour a day for se lf-improvement? Charles C. only his heart must be in it. research. Franklin was a tireless worker. thrown away by youn g men and women in the restless desire for fun and diversion! Every young man should have a hobby to occupy his leisure hours. like Napoleon. such as his "Improvement of Navigation" and "Smo ky Chimneys. It might be in line with his work or other wise. An Italian scholar put over his door the inscription: "Whoever tarri es here must join in my labors. If one chooses wisely. Tennyson. One hour a day would in ten years make an ignorant man a well-informed man." says Burke. something usef ul to which he can turn with delight. or eighteen large volumes in a year.pursue his scientific labors in the night or early morning. and save time. Cicero said: "What others give to p . wrote a hundred volumes. and occupation that a hobby confers will broaden character and transform the home. An hour a day might make--nay. Spenser made his rep utation in his spare time while Secretary to the Lord Deputy of Ireland. which. a useless man a benefactor to his race. over twenty-four thousand in number. Browning. Southey. has made--an unknown man a famous one. and also gained an enviable reputation in other departme nts of knowledge. An h our a day might make all the difference between bare existence and useful. and Dickens signed a remonstrance against organ-grinders who disturbed their work. and asked him if he could n ot say grace over a whole cask once for all. he b ecame impatient of his father's long grace at table. seldom idle for a minute. I have observed. Frost. the study. the celebrated shoemaker of Vermont. than any sort of employment whatsoever. In an hour a day a boy or girl could read twenty pages th oughtfully--over seven thousand pages. and at lea st a dozen good books. He wrote some of his best productions on shipboard. "fills up a man's time much more completely and leaves him less his own master. It took Professor Owen ten years to arrange and classify the specimens in Comparative Anatomy. the mighty possibilities of two--four--yes.

Goe the suddenly excused himself. and does not give a second until he withdraws the first. Mason Good translated "Lucretius" while riding to visit his patients in Lon don. Dr. Burney learned Italian and French on horseback. Caesar said: "Under my tent in the fiercest struggle of war I have always found time to think of many other things. He achieved distinction in politics." He was once shipwrecked. He made and recorded over two hu ndred thousand meteorological observations. He wrote h is famous "Requiem" on his death-bed. Dr. lazi ness has none. George Stephenson seized the moments as though they were gold. Somerville learned botany and ast ronomy and wrote books while her neighbors were gossiping and idling. and learned the com mon branches unaided while tending store. and w ould sometimes write two whole nights and a day without intermission. At eighty she published "Molecular and Microscopical Science. He learned arithmeti c during the night shifts when he was an engineer. and literature. nay. yet he was so systematic that he always seemed to have more leisure than many who did not accomplish a tithe of what he did. Darwin composed most of his works by writing his thoughts on scraps of paper wherever he happened to be. He would not stop his work long enough to sleep. As Fenelon says. Henry Kirke White learne d Greek while walking to and from the lawyer's office where he was studying. The present time is the raw material out of which we make whatever we will. President Quincy never went to bed until he had laid his plans for the next day . but seize the instant and get y our lesson from the hour." The worst of a lost hour is not so much in the wasted time as in the wasted pow er. In factories for making cloth a single broken thread ruins a whole web. Sir Humphry Davy achieved emine nce in spare moments in an attic of an apothecary's shop." upon which he was at work when the ship went down. Lincoln studied law during his spare hours while surveying. I give to t he study of philosophy. and had to swim a shore. God never gives but one moment at a time. law. Mrs. Watt learned chemistry and mathematics while w orking at his trade of a mathematical instrument-maker. Pope would often rise in the night to write out thoughts that would not come during the busy day. Mozart would not allow a mome nt to slip by unimproved. went into an adjoining room and wrote down a thoug ht for his "Faust. science." Lord Bacon's fame springs from the work of his leisure hours while Chancellor of England.ublic shows and entertainments. Dalton's industry was the passion of his life. Johnson wrote "Rasselas" in the evenings of a single week. During an interview with a great monarch. it is t raced back to the girl who made the blunder and the loss is deducted from her wa . but he carried with him the manuscript of his "Commentaries. He educated hims elf and did much of his best work during his spare moments. Do not brood over the past. Idleness rusts the nerves and makes the muscles creak. Work has system. Dr. even to mental and bodily rest. in order to meet the expenses of his mother's funeral." lest it should be forgotten. Matthew Hale wrote his "Contemp lations" while traveling on his circuit as judge. Grot e wrote his matchless "History of Greece" during the hours of leisure snatched f rom his duties as a banker. The man is yet unborn who rightly measures and fully r ealizes the value of an hour. Lord Brougham could not bear to lose a moment. Dr. or dream of the future.

"by the cultivation of every ta lent.--branches of emplo yment that pay well at Harvard.--directly connected with Harvard Unive rsity. honored. Waste of time mea ns waste of energy. Beware how you kill ti me. as elsewhere. From $700 to $1. A classmate of the writer entered coll . for half of them make an income above the average allowance of boys in small er colleges. the inflexib le purpose. They are not a poverty-stricken lot. It mea ns the waste of opportunities which will never come back. Here. and happy. Each evening is a crisis in the career o f a young man." says Edward Everett. by redeem ing time. There is scarcely one in good health who reads these lines but can be assured that if he will he may. for a young man with an ambition to do somet hing in the world to be compelled to pay his own way through school and college by hard work.000 are by no means exceptional yearly earnings of a student who is capable of doing newspaper work or tutoring. waste of vitality. defying temptation. But where does he eat his lunch at noon? Where does he go when he leaves his boarding-hous e at night? What does he do after supper? Where does he spend his Sundays and ho lidays? The way he uses his spare moments reveals his character. Time is money. There is a deep significance in the lines of Whittier:-This day we fashion Destiny. "And it is left for each. It seems a great hardship. a perpetual witness of our folly. and never be fore was there so many avenues of resource open to the strong will. howev er. indeed. Most of those who climb upward to honor and fame devote their evenings to study or work or the society of those who can help and improve them." writes a graduate. the will can usually make the way. to make himself use ful. threads of some kind follow every movement a s we weave the web of our fate. Garfield." CHAPTER VII HOW POOR BOYS AND GIRLS GO TO COLLEGE "Can I afford to go to college?" asks many an American youth who has hardly a d ollar to his name and who knows that a college course means years of sacrifice a nd struggle. But history shows us that the men who have led in the van of human progress have been. for all your future lives in it. But who shall pay for the broken threads in life's great web? We cannot thr ow back and forth an empty shuttle. The average boy of to-day who wishes to obtain a liberal education has a better chance by a hundredfold than had Daniel Webster or James A. or it may be a golden thread which will add to its beauty and luster. as a rule. It may be a shoddy thread of wasted hours or los t opportunities that will mar the fabric and mortify the workman forever. waste of character in dissipation. by watching with an eagle's eye for every chance of improvement. We cannot stop t he shuttle or pull out the unfortunate thread which stretches across the fabric.ges. "Of the five thousand persons--students. but we should not throw away an hour any more than we would throw away a dollar-bill. as there are to-day--at this hour and this moment. This day for all hereafte r choose we holiness or sin. No one is anxious about a young man while he is busy in useful work. our web of Fate we spin. self-educated. "five hundred are students entirely or almost entirel y dependent upon their own resources. The great major ity of youths who go to the bad are ruined after supper. We should not be stingy or mean with it. self-made. "There are some men that make much more. and scorning sensual pleasure.

A few serve in the university postoff ice. so as to take their degrees." A son of poor parents. by which they earn two and on e-half to three and one-half dollars a week. and do their university work in the afternoons and evenings. however. noon and night. later. At Chicago University many hundreds of plucky young men are working their way. A few find evening work in the city library. which served for study and home. and studied pe rsistently. the junior United States Senator from Indiana. Albert J. by the savings of two years' work as a farm laborer. he proceeded to Sche nectady. Beveridge. the expense of his bread-and-milk diet never exceeding fifty cents a week. as desirable that one should have t o work his own way entirely. they earn from five to ten dollars a week. which were none too low. He procured many valuable patents. To be a correspondent of city dail y papers is the most coveted occupation. A representative American college president recently said: "I regard it as. as the tax upon strength and time is likely to be s uch as to interfere with scholarship and to undermine health. He had shaped his course and worked to it. Some solicit advertisements. When summer came. and he determined to a dvance. by having several of each to ca re for.ege with about twenty-five dollars. "He made his money by advertising schemes and other publishing ventures. but only a few can obtain such position s. He believed that he could afford a college training and he got it. and. entered col lege with no other capital than fifty dollars loaned to him by a friend. they add other employments. He is now living comfortably in Cambridge. and added to his original fund of fifty dollars by taking the freshman essay prize of twenty-five dollars. earning twelve dollars a week. A few months after graduation he married. preach in small towns.000. after the firs t year. This only whetted his appetite for knowledge. Two young men made twelve hun dred dollars apiece. Several are tutors. to the construction o f iron bridges of his own design. In his junior year. he returned to work in the harvest fields and broke the wheat-cutting records of t he county. Many are waiters at clubs and restaurants. and receive twenty cents an hour. I do not regard it. but. Some a ttend to lawns in summer and furnaces in winter." . depending upon the opportunities for work . Several teach in the public schools in the daytime. It gives a reality and vi gor to one's work which is less likely to be obtained by those who are carried t hrough college. The divinity students. in this way. One of his classmates. and money earned by tutoring. When he returned to college he began to be recognized as an exceptio nal man. as this does not pay expenses. worked his way through an academy. He carried his books with him morning. not only paid his way through coll ege. As a freshman he had a hard struggle. After graduation. he turned his attention to civil engineering. in one year. His life was a success. The president of his class at Columbia University recently earned the money to pay for his course by selling agricultural implements. Scores carry daily papers. and arranged with a professor of Union College to pay for his tuition b y working. He serv ed as steward of a college club. living in Springfield. and copying done after study hours. upward of $ 3. New York. a distinct advantage that a student should have to pay his own way in part as a condition of obtaining a college education. relying wholly on himself for success. the foundation being self-reliance and integ rity. and the student's ability and adaptability. Accordingly. The ways of earning money are various. He rented a small room. and amassed a fortune. he prospered and in his last ten months of undergraduate work he cleared above his college expenses. Some dozen or more teach night school. on the whole. however. but helped to support his aged parents. One student is a member of a city orchestra. writing.

and o ne year as assistant superintendent in the Essex County Truant School. A lowly beginning is no bar to a g reat career.--and every cent of this money as well as every hour not spent in sleep throughout the four years of his college course was devoted to getting his education. High School. He worked in gardens and as a janitor for some time. doing many kinds of work. and through Dartmouth College. than his classmate who is the son of a millionai re. having a student populat ion of somewhat over forty thousand. th e great average class of our country. at Lawren ce. It is the son and daughter of the farmer. Littleton. at some of the best . For example. and the opportunities for self-help. Vt. taught distr ict schools six terms. There are many who get along o n an expenditure of from one hundred and fifty dollars to two hundred dollars pe r year. H. Statistics of expense. In an investigation conducted to ascertain exact figures and facts which a poor boy must meet in working his way through college. All these and many more from the ranks of the bright and well-trained young men who have been graduated from the colleges and universities of the country in re cent years believed--sincerely. is of great importance both to the individual and the nation. It is evident that they did not for one instant think that they could not afford to go to col lege. whose funds are small and opportunities fe w.. Meriden. Encourag ement and useful hints are offered by the experience of many bright young people who have worked their way to diplomas worthily bestowed. During his course he taught six terms as principal of a high school. None of his fellow-students did more to secure an e ducation." He would do any honest work that would bring cash. He served summers as waiter in a White Mountain hotel. In Western and Southern colleges the averages are lower. For four years Richard Weil was noted as the great prize winner of Columbia Col lege. The problem of securing a good education.. There was no hone st work within the limits of his ability that he would not undertake to pay his way.. In some of the smaller colleges the minimum expense per year is from sev enty-five dollars to one hundred and ten dollars. the average expense per year is three hundr ed and four dollars. while the maximum expense rises in but few instances above one thousand dollars. Gaius B. five hundred and twenty-nine d ollars. finally becoming hea d-waiter. and canvassed for a publishin g house one summer in Maine. and for "turning his time. and entered Dartmouth College with just money enough to p ay the first necessary expenses. eighteen well-known Western colleges and universities have a general average expense of t wo hundred and forty-two dollars per year. he ranked well in his classes. pushed a rolling chair at the Columbian Exposition. while fourteen as well-known Eastern institutions give an average expense of four hundred and forty-four dollars. and in after life. where means are limited and ti me short. Frost.. Frost was graduated at the Brattleboro. and is a young man of s olid character and distinguished attainments. Cox of Philadelphia worked his way through Kimball Academy. Chicago. The boy who works his way through college may have a hard time of i t. Isaac J. Like Mr. N. but he will learn how to work his way in life. The question of whether or not they could afford i t does not appear to have occasioned much hesitancy on their part. the mechanic and the operative.Circumstances have rarely favored great men. doggedly believed--that a college training was s omething that they must have. in a list of forty-five representative colleges and universities. N . and will often take higher ran k in school. that the republic will depend on most for good citizenship and brains in the future. attention and energy to any work that would bri ng remuneration. the average maximum expense. was port er one season at Oak Hill House. H. Mass. it was found that.

agencies for laundries. and singers. three hundred and fifty-eight dollars to one thousand and thirty-five dollars. The yearly expenditure is three hundred and twenty-five dollars. requires s tudiousness and economy in the case of assisted students.. Many students support themselves in part by waiting on table. fifty dollars to seventy-five dollar s a year: "no limits placed on habits or social privileges of recipients. a few get through on less than two hundred and fifty dollars a year. for freshmen." Many students are self -supporting. for the college year. clerks. students have chances to ear n money at tutoring. The average yearly expenditure per student is five hundred dollars. A great many students w ho know how to get on in a great city work their way through Columbia. three hundred dollars to four hundred dollars. The cost at Columbia University averages five hundred and forty-seven dollars. It has also five hundred and twelve state tuition scholarships. Brown University has over a hundred tuition scholarships and a loan fund. Bowdoin has nearly a hundred scholarships. reporters. laboratory charges. etc. and maintain good standing and conduct. no requirements except good standing. distributed or loa ned in sums of forty dollars to two hundred and fifty dollars to needy and promi sing under-graduates. private t utors. Many students support themselves in part. has one hund red tuition scholarships for other students of good character. some rooms at nominal rent. etc. The University of Pennsylvania in a recent year gave three hundred and fifteen students forty-three thousand. t otal abstainers. those above fifty dollars condit ioned on class rank. no free rooms. thirty-five per cent of the whole undergraduate body earning money. sale of books. Harvard has about two hundred and seventy-five scholarships. sixty dollars to f our hundred dollars apiece. by shorthand. "Beneficiaries must be frugal in habits. Wesleyan University remits tuition wholly or in part to two-thirds of its under -graduates. . table-waiting. some students earning money as stenographers. habits. newspaper corr espondence. washing. makes loans at low rates. Many students earn mon ey in various ways. The ave rage expenditure per year. work of one sort or another to be had by needy students. and a few wholly. typewriters. won by success in competitive ex amination. Cornell University gives free tuition and free rooms to seniors and juniors of good standing in their studies and of good habits. exclusive of clothes. The average yearly expenditure is five hundred dollars. the lowest being three hundred and eighty-seven dollars. shorthand.known Eastern institutions are full of interest: Amherst makes a free gift of the tuition to prospective ministers. large beneficiary and loan funds. yearly expenditure (exclusive of clothes . requirements. and stationery. care of buildings. It has thirty-six two-year sc holarships (two hundred dollars). Five hundred dollars a y ear will defray all necessary expenses. Loan funds are available. s ubscriptions and service). freshmen (usually) barred. membership in societies. two hundred and forty-two dollars in free scholar ships and fellowships. often remits room rent in return for services about the college buildings. is four hu ndred and fifty dollars. newspaper work. and stand ing. books. canvassers. the average expenditu re is about four hundred dollars. etc. No money loaned. Dartmouth has some three hundred scholarships." stude nts getting employment in the library or laboratories can earn about one-fourth of their expenses. railway fares. economy and total abstinence. a faculty employment committee. has some free rooms. these will be.

about six hundred dollars. A number of girls in Barnard are. Tutoring in Barnard is seldom av ailable for the undergraduates. if a girl with average intelligence and energy wishes a college educa tion." where she keeps a number of women busy ma king women's wrappers and children's dresses. runs a little "sweat shop. regular in attendance and studi ous. at least in part. three hours of service about the house.--was formerly in use at Wellesley. At city colleges. As far as I know. there are a few people who are glad to give the colleg e girls such employment.. typewriting or stenography." said Miss Mary E. Woolley. woman's dean of the college. in the families of the faculty. car fares. president of Mount Holyoke Colle ge. and in various little ways such as putting up lunches. but pin-money may be acquired in many little ways by a girl of ingenuity. fifty minutes a day of light household labor. have accomplished it by tutoring." The system of compulsory domestic service obtaining now at Mount Holyoke--where by. "have earned the money by teaching. daily. Eliza M. it is confined there to a few cottages. There is a splendid chance for girls at some of the soundest and best known gir ls' colleges in the United States. etc. like the last two mentioned. Another girl. books. she can obtain it. and newspaper work. from the lower East Side. "Most of them. and a chance to pay for room and board by giving service. She has paid all the expenses of h er education in this way. Because it is especially difficult to obtain good serv ants in this inland town. in case of worthy students. or at the most. paying for their clothes. many such students earning money for themselves. average yearly expenditure . a Russian Jewess. Smith and Vassar. typewriting. two or three hours a day. who is especially brave and in good earnest. board and lodging cost more than in the country. now. sewing. and in general it is more difficult for a girl to pay any large part of her expenses through her own efforts and carry on her college work at t he same time. worked as a chambermaid on a lake steamer last year and hurried aw ay this year to do the same. The number of girls in the University of Michigan who are paying their own way is large. It is not unusual for students to come here for two years and go away for a time. however. taking care of rooms. One young woman. in order to earn money to complete the co urse. remits all but forty do llars of term bills. thus paying for their board." "It is my opinion. With thi s sum. Some of them earn pin-money while in college by tut oring. in return for thirty. Others get room and board in the homes of professors by giving. she will pay th e coming year's expenses. Mosher. by doing what work they can find." says Dr. or a t the affiliated colleges. Typewriting is one of the favorite re sources. One student has done particularly well as agent for a firm that makes c ollege caps and gowns. . New York. A few take care of children. There are not many opportunities at Mount Holyoke to e arn large amounts of money.Yale is pretty well off now for fellowships and prizes. because the lists are always full of experienced teachers. "that. "Do any of your students work their way through?" was asked of a Bryn Mawr auth ority. Barnard and Radcliffe. summer work in libraries and offices. the girls who have earned money to pa y their way through college. executing commiss ions. however. Some lighten their expen ses by waiting on tables in boarding-houses. every student reduces her college expenses by a hundred dollars or a hun dred and fifty. Some of our most worthy graduates have done this. It is her aim to earn one hundred dollars. It has no foothold at Bryn Mawr. who can be engaged by the hour.

" Typewriting." A similar question put to a Vassar student brought the following response: "Why."Some. by dis tributing the mail. the state university has abolished all tuition fee s. which they sell here. etc. yes. a lesson. there are many wealth always having something like that done. a dollar and a half. and still others have pupils in music. on the other hand. Some of them write for the newspa pers and magazines. and by a judicious display of attr active samples she is easily tempted to enlarge her supply. In Ohio.. But to earn all of one's way in a college year. another. The lowest entire e xpenses of a year. are between four hundred and five hundred and fifty dollars. and is not often done. or send to the stores in New York. In mo st of the state universities tuition is free.'--and she earns y girls here who are to pay well for it. Then. in Poughke epsie. Beside these standard employments. Yes. in nearly every college. Former President Tucker of Dartmouth says: "The student who works his way may d . In Kansas. In many colleges there is opportunity for a girl with taste and cunning fingers to act as a dressmaker. and at the same time to keep up in all the studies. tutoring. and by selling stationery. repairer. Orders for gymnasium suits and swimming suits mean good profits . the opportunities for self-help are correspondingly more in the East. is almost impossible. West of the Alleghanies a college education is accessible to all classes. Partly by reason of the cheapness of a college education in Ohio.--to a certain extent. any girl who is at all deft in the art of sewing can make a shirt-waist without a profess ional knowledge of cutting and fitting. and sometimes a very good one receives two dollars and a half. good morals and good grit need despair of getting a college education unless there are extremely unusual reasons against the undertaking. and others by 'tutoring'. girl who has a sign on the door of her room. for the well-dressed gir l was never known to have enough pretty ones. Of course. to be sold. teaching in evening schools occasionally off ers a good opportunity for steady eking out of means. board and a room can be had for twelve dollars a month. The reign of the shirt-waist has been a boon to many. too. I know a sed. and who are willing And so this girl makes a large sum of money." was the reply. assistance rendered in library or laboratory or office. Every youn g man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college edu cation is out of the question. Two girls may pay part of their expe nses by taking charge of the library. Yet several are able to pay half their way. Yet if the total cost is less in the West. while the average expenditure of the students does not exceed two hundre d dollars per annum. that state now sends more students to college than al l of New England. aturdays. too. "but not many. the college fees are five dollars a year. evenings and S "There are other girls who are agents for two of the great manufacturers of cho colate creams. and most of the denominational colleges demand fees even lower than were cust omary in New England half a century ago. for example. "The girl that plays the piano for the exercises in the gymnasium is paid for t hat. there are a great many girls who manage to pay most of their expense s. and some of the girls paint and make fancy articles. This amount includes positively everything. No boy or girl in America to-day who has good health. too. and general refurnisher to students with gene rous allowances. Those who 'tutor' receive a dollar .--'Dresses pres a good deal of money. furnish help to many a girl who wishes to help herself.

and algebra. against the wishes of my employer. except that it must be by my own ef forts. My sala ry was doubled. although I think that I should have made a successful store keeper. I need not say that I do not regret that early decision. I recited in Latin. The greater part of its patronage is from p oor men. to get my preparation for college. Dartmouth College . young men of to-day! Thirty dollars a year for working from seven in the morning until ten at night! But I was glad to get the place.--a village of about one thousand inhabitants. at Charlottetown. I merely wanted to get in to a village. I began to attend the village high school. But my mind was made up. and to me. I was getting on swimmingly. At the end of the year I entered the competitive examination for a scholarship in Prince of Wales College. I had only one year to do it in." The opportunities of to-day are tenfold what they were half a century ago. "I did not know how I was going to do this. I determined to go to college. Poverty under mos t of the conditions in which we find it in colleges is a spur. from facts that have fa llen under my observation. I went to a larger store in the same town. and there was the possibility of failure in the end. On th e other side was my hope of obtaining an education. "From the time I began working in the store until to-day. and during all the years of my boyhood I never received a penny that I did not earn myself. My money wou ld not last longer than that. It seems litt . and offered to double my pay if I would stay in the store. I had small hope of winning it. Think of that. I would not turn back. "The scholarship I had won amounted to only sixty dollars a year. I should say. where I was to receive sixty dollars a year and my board. and that was all the money I had in the world. "With my capital of eighty dollars. all on the same day. I hadn't definite plans as to my future. on the Island. For my first year's work I was to receive thirty doll ars and my board. my preparation had been so hasty and incomplete. "When I told my employer of my plan. I had saved about eighty dollars from my store-keeping. and for the next forty weeks I studied harder than I ever had before or have since. because I had made up my mind that I wanted to get a better educati on. In one side was the certainty of one hu ndred and twenty dollars a year. that a larger percentage of Dartmouth men have risen to distinction than those of almost any other American college. I knew that it involved hard work and self-denial. "My father got me a place in the nearest town. he tried to dissuade me from it. "That was the turning-point in my life. Form er President Schurman of Cornell says of his early life: "At the age of thirteen I left home. At the end of my first year. I think. and the sons of poor men. and to earn some money. "I kept this place for two years. Remember what one hundred and twenty dollars meant on Prince Edward Isl and. Greek. or he may be seriously handicapped both by his necess ities and the time he is obliged to bestow on outside matters. furnishes a good example. It was a start in the world. and then I gave it up. and the little village was like a city to my country eyes. He pointe d out the difficulties in the way of my going to college.o it with ease and profit. I found that I had not only won the scholarship f rom my county. and the prospect of promotion as fast as I dese rved it. but stood first of all the competitors on the Island. I have always support ed myself. a poor boy who had never possessed such a sum in his life. But when the result was announced. I have seen the s ons of rich men lead in scholarship. Without examining the statistics.--Summerside.

but the poor country boy from Prince Edward Island was again s uccessful. which squared my accounts for the year. who had once met the bri lliant young Canadian. and saw in this offer his opportunity. but with this difference: that firs t success was essential. The others I could have done without. $8. . I waited on table at a $4 boarding-house all of my sophomore year. The scholarship paid five hundred dollars a year for three years. received a scholarship of $70. In 1886. he lea rned of a scholarship in the University of London offered for competition by the students of Canadian colleges. which to the boy who earnestly wants to go to college are of the most pertinent interest: "I entered college with $8. $55 fro m gifts.50. My current expenses during my freshman year were $4.76. President White. which. of course. that the winning of it was the greatest success I ever have had. and. but I can say now. he was ca lled to Dalhousie University. In his senior year." For two years young Schurman attended Prince of Wales College. Schurman's fellow-students in Acadia says that he was remarkable chi efly for taking every prize to which he was eligible. through the offer of the Hibbard Soci ety. Schurman became deeply interested in the study of philosophy. without it I could not have gone on. borrowed $70. he taught a country school for a year. with all of which I just covered expenses. including. in 1892. He tried the examination and won the prize. The honor men of the great English Universities like Oxford and Cambridge were among the competitors. $10. I earned during the yea r. During the three years in the University of London. Schurma n became dean of the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell. Schurman. after nearly thirty years. al so earned full board waiting upon table.. spending less than one hundred dollars during the entire college year. received $70 for a scholarship.57 for voluntary subsc riptions. if it had been necessary.24 for sundries. Nova Scotia. room. the full value of board. recei ved from the college a scholarship of $60. $15 for railroad fares. The expenses for the year. At that time he was only thirty-eight years of age. called him to that position. and borrowed $150. Aft erward.55 for books. excepting $40 due on tuition. A way was opened for him.le enough. He lived on his scholarship and what he could earn by keeping books for one of the town storekee pers. Mr. "In my junior year I engaged a nice furnished room at $60 per year. of a traveling fellowship with two thousand dollars a year. During the year I earned $60. $23. By clerical work. in London. and then went to Acadia College i n Nova Scotia to complete his course. then a Doctor of Philosophy. and tuition. I have had other rewards. and decided that he had found in it his l ife-work. Dr. to mo st persons.50 per week. in competition with the brightest students in the larger Cana dian colleges. at Halifax. would seem immeasurably greater. and an additional gift of $20. Two years later. The expenses of the sophomore year were $394. Beside s this I spent $10. At the end of his course in Germany.42 in my pocket. etc. Soon afterward. returned to Acadia College to become a teacher there. and gifts amounting t o $12. which I agr eed to pay for by work about the house. A well-known graduate of Amherst college gives the following figures. including board. when a chair of philosophy was established at Cornell. Mr. and earned half board. when th e president's chair became vacant.50. The young student in Acadia was ambitious to continue his stud ies in England. I earned $37. greatly to the surprise of the others. he was placed at the head of the great univer sity.45 for clothing. He was eager to go to Germany to study under the great leaders of phil osophic thought. "During the next summer I earned $100. were $478. One of Mr. retaining my old room at $1 pe r week. borrow ed $190. $87.20.

Everywhere it is the educated. who made shoes in an alms-house. Tutoring. etc . If Henry Wilson. pushing ah ead of those who have greater capabilities. Never was ignorance placed at such a disad ." says Franklin. took a prize of $25. of which (counting scholars hips as earnings) I earned $1. Throughout the senior year I retaine d the same room. could manage to read a thousand good books before his time had expi red. and so was enabled to graduate without financial embarrassment. if the po or deaf boy Kitto. founders. under the American f lag. On all sides we see men with small minds. and old almanacs. Many of them c ome from the country and from factory towns." Twenty-five of the young men graduated at Yale not long ago paid their way enti rely throughout their courses.. and mail carriers were numbered among the twenty-five. But having secured a good position as teacher f or the coming year.708. the whole world is hunting for a man who can do things. "Wanted--a man. It is true gol d. Never before was there such a demand for the trained man. "no man can take it away from him. bicycle agents . if the slave Frederick Douglass. The expenses of the senior year. a trained thinker who can do whatever he undertakes a lit tle better than it has ever before been done. the trained man. A large number come from the farms of the West. the man whose natural ability has been enlarged. under the same conditions as the previous year. superbly trained. I was permitted to give my note for the amount I could not r aise. The money that a student earns for his own education does enrich his life. It is said that unearned money does not enrich. "The total expense for the course was about $1. Many of these students are paying for their education by money earn ed by their own hands. where is the boy or girl to-day. earned by clerical work. $40. on a plantation where it was almost a crim e to teach a slave to read. It seemed as if they left untried no avenue for e arning money. but who are only half educated. secured a scholarship of $70. and painters. enhanced one hund redfold by superior training. who cannot get a fair education and escape the many disadvantages of ignora nce? "If a man empties his purse into his head. the man who can do a thing s uperbly well. tutoring. copying. newspaper work. and received full board. In a certain district in Boston there are ten thousand students. drummers. but who are well educated." No m atter how many millions are out of employment. posters on barns. and positions as clerks were we ll-occupied fields." CHAPTER VIII YOUR OPPORTUNITY CONFRONTS YOU--WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? Never before was the opportunity of the educated man so great as to-day. often gets the place when a man with many untrai ned or half-trained talents loses it. could manage from scraps of paper. working early and late on a farm with scarcely any opportuniti es to go to school. could become the greatest Bi blical scholar of his age. machinists. $496. An investment in knowledge always pays the best interest. Every young man or woman should weigh the matter well before concluding that a college education is out of the question. I waited on tab le all the year. that is wanted. bound out until he was twenty-one for only a yoke of oxen an d six sheep. to learn the alphabet and lift himself to eminence."During the following summer I earned $40. receive d a gift of $35. borrowed $40.64 were necessarily heavi er than these of previous years. A on e-talent man.157. At the door of every vocation is a sign out.

"How much can I get for my picture?" "How much ro yalty for my book?" "How much can I get out of my specialty. The song of the money-siren to-day is so persistent. refine. the fatal germ will spread through their whole natures. selfish ideals. which the graduate needs to be cautioned agains t more than the money madness which has seized the American people. so entrancing. so also the dangers and temptations which beset him were never before so gre at. so overwhel ming that it often drowns the still small voice which bids one follow the call t hat runs in his blood. sordid. to prostitute his education. sordid level. so numerous. . to coin his ability into dollars. perhaps. the college graduate. is measured largely by h ow many dollars it will bring. so astounding. that it takes a strong. Whichever way you turn. finer instincts and nobler desires. the trained young man or w oman answer it? The dollar stands out so strongly in all the undertakings of life that the idea l is often lowered or lost. money-making germ. which nearly everybody worships in some form or other.vantage as to-day. While the opportunities awaiting the educated man. the soul's wings are weighted down with gold. go out from the schools. that day on which is born in him the selfish. after a few years. Educated rascality is infinitely more of a menace to societ y than ignorant rascality. the dollar-mark will swing info your vision. inoculating thei r ambition with its vicious virus. as to-da y. art. Never before was such pressure brought to bear on the trained youth to sell his brains. my profession. and. more dangerous. How will the graduate. and the unive rsities. The most unfortunate day in a youth's career is that one on which his ideals be gin to grow dim and his high standards begin to drop. the colleges. for nothing else is more fatal to the development of the higher. that is indicated in the very structure in his brain. There is nothing else. A man's genius. the artistic suffers. their fair college vi sion will fade. The commercial spirit tends to drag everything down to its dead. Every year. A liberal education only renders a rascal more dishon est. what he stands for. even when the cal l in one to do something which bears little relation to money-making speaks very loudly. with their diplomas. The commercial prizes held up to him are so dazzling. It is the subtle menace which threatens to poison the graduate's ambition. Tens of thousands of young people just out of school and college stand tiptoe o n the threshold of active life. my b usiness?" "How can I make the most money?" or "How can I get rich?" is the great interrogation of the century. full of expectancy. so insidious. their yearnings for something higher will gradually die and be r eplaced by material. Wealth with us multiplies a man's power so tremendously that everything gravita tes toward it. full of h ope and big with promise. on his entrance into practical life were never before so great and so numerous as to-d ay. thousands of young men and young women graduate full of ambition an d hope. will tempt you on every hand. All education which does not elevate. but many of them will very quickly catch the money con tagion. to face for the first time the practical world. with high ideals and glorious visions. T he money-god. vigorous character to resist their temptation. and ennoble its recipient is a cu rse instead of a blessing. which so often warps and wrenches the who le nature out of its legitimate orbit.

What a contrast that high and noble thing which the college diploma stands for presents to that which many owners of the diploma stand for a quarter of a centu ry later! It is often difficult to recognize any relationship between the two. The influences that will surround you when you leave college or your special tr aining school will be as potent to drag you down as those that cause the young I ndian to revert to barbarism. The shock you will receive in dropping from the at mosphere of high ideals and beautiful promise in which you have lived for four y ears to that of a very practical. whatever distinction you may acquire in your career. When you plunge into the swim of things. and it lives in yo ur ideal. who are so transformed by the inspiring. There is something infinitely better than to be a millionaire of money. Then dies the man. as that of gentleman. as you stand tiptoe on the threshold of active life? Will you smite the block and shatter it into an unshapely or hideous piece. tending to deteriorate your standards. like a great block of pure white marble. But the graduate whose training. You can not divorce them. and tha t is to be a millionaire of brains. They become Indian s again. You hold the chisel and mallet--your ability. Whatever degrees you carry from school or college. will ever be qui te so noble. American-Indian graduates. powerful influences will be opera tive in your life. their fine manners. The educated man ought to be able to do something better. They soon begin to shed their polish. no title will ever mean quite so much. misses the best thing that a college education can impart. of culture. the Indian blanket replaces their modern dres s. There is coupled with it a responsibility which you can not shirk without paying the penalty in a shriveled . "A keen and sure sense of honor. their impro ved language. who are actuated only by sordid. unless you are made of superior stuff. whose education counts for anything ought to b e able to resist the shock. the woman in you. and they gradually drift back into their former barbarism. to withstand all temptations. Shall it be angel or devil? What are your ideals. very quickly begin to change under the deteriorating influences operating upon them when they leav e college. fortunate graduate.You will need to be constantly on your guard to resist the attack of this germ. your educa tion--in your hands. Your future. a millionaire of character--a gentleman. of gra ce and beauty. and general culture." The graduate who has not acquired thi s keen and sure sense of honor. selfish aims. of helpfulness to one's fellows. sordid materiality will be a severe test to your character. stand s untouched before you. cold. Money-making can not compare with man-making. your manhood. "is the finest result of college life. this thing that stamps the gentleman." says Ex-President Eliot. or will you call out a statue of usefulness. A libe ral education greatly increases a man's obligations. lower your ideals. There is something in the block for you. and encoarsen you generally. a statue which will tell the unborn generations the story of a no ble life? Great advantages bring great responsibilities. uplifting i nfluences of the schools and colleges which are educating them that they are sca rcely recognizable by their own tribes when they return home. of Harvard Universit y. After you graduate and go out into the world. you will be constantly thrown into con tact with those of lower ideals. something higher than merely to put money in his purse.

who has h ad the inestimable advantage of a liberal education. so divinely endowed. The world has a right to expect that wherever there is an e ducated. What shall we think of a man who has been endowed with godlike gifts. you have no right to suppress it. to de moralize. will be an artist and not an artisan. and he is expected to look up. "There goes a man. whatever it may be. and a narrow field of usefulnes s." The world has a right to expect that the graduate. not to grovel. so superbly equipped. the possible glory of life. it simply m eans that you have a great commission to do something out of the ordinary for yo ur fellows. instead of as a beacon to guide them into port? We imprison the burglar for breaking into our houses and stealing. who uses his light as a decoy to lure his fellows on the r ocks and reefs. It has a right to expect that a man who has learned how to use skilfully the tools of life. low practises. If you have received a message which carries freedom for people enslaved by ign orance and bigotry. and force you possess. cramping influence of avarice. Your education means an in creased obligation to live your life up to the level of your gift. your superior opportunity. much is expected. who has not had similar advantages. Your duty is to deliver your message to the world with all the man liness. grasping career: t hat he will be free from the sordidness which often characterizes the rich ignor amus. . what shall we think of this man. th at he will not stop growing. not down. The educated man has gotten a glimpse of power.soul. to help to emancipate them from ignorance and drudgery. uses it t o demoralize. it is justified in expecting that he will raise the standard of intelligence in his community. Society has a right to look to the collegian to be a refining. that he will illustrate in his perso nality. who has ability to ameliora te the hard conditions of his fellows. to mislead. It is more of a disgrace for a college graduate to grovel. an inspiration to those who have n ot had his priceless chance. who employs his talents in the book he writes. who. wi ll haunt him. to aspire. vigor. Your superior training has given you a glimpse of the higher life. to debauch. his finer culture. It has a right to expect that he will not be a victim of the narrowing. will not turn his back on it. to drag them down. than for a man who has not had a liberal education. having once faced the light and felt its power. We cannot help feeling that it is worse for a man to go wrong who has had all t he benefits of a liberal education. the higher half. in the picture he paints. trained man people should be able to say of him as Lincoln said of Walt Whitman. than it is for one who has not had glimpses of higher things. th at he will not be a slave of the dollar or stoop to a greedy. that he will not disgrace his alma mater which has given him his superior chance in life and opened wide for h im the door of opportunity." A great man has said that no man will be content to live a half life when he ha s once discovered it is a half life. because the other half. uplifting force in his community. a warped conscience. because where much is give n. to stoop to mean. a stunted mentality. its significance is that yo u should light up the way for the less fortunate. in his business. If you have the ability and have been given superior opportunities. instead of using his education to lift his fellow men. of grander things. a special message for humanity. If the torch of learning has been put in your hand. but what sha ll we do with the educated rascal who uses his trained mind and all his gifts to ruin the very people who look up to him as a guide? "The greatest thing you can do is to be what you ought to be.

should have no place in your program. it should als o make him a practical man. of a higher grade. The trouble with most of us is that we do not keep our eyes on the model. The world has a right to expect better results from the work of the educated ma n. misunderstan dings. aimless. sordid methods." While an education should develop all that is highest and best in a man. the man who has discovered only a small part of himself.Never lose sight of your college vision. "Pretty good. There ar e thousands of college-bred men in this country. which will be dinned into your ears w herever you go. Regard the very suggestion that you shall coin your education. the worst. Only what you can use of your education will benefit you or the world. Knowledge is power only when it can be made available. that can be tr anslated into power. that your knowledge does not possess you. the perfect ideal of his work. practical. finer type of man hood. something finer. constitutes the only education worthy of the name. and better quality. "An artistic success. y our high ideals into dollars. "Keep your eye on the model. Low ideals. as an insult. Be sure that you possess yo ur knowledge. "If the highest thing in me will not bring success. has learned how to focus his faculties so that he can bring the whole man to his task. that you lower your standards. It is a disgrace for a man with a liberal education to botch his work. half-hearted endeavors . don't watch your hands. prostitute your edu cation by the practise of low-down. After the withdrawal of a play that has been only a short time on the stage. to make available for working pur ." The mission of the trained man is to show the world a higher. but a financial failure. cannot. The knowledge that can be utilized. slipshod work. a stuffed memory d oes not make an educated man. You should be able to demonstrate that the man with a diploma has learned to use the tools of life skilfully. if you cannot bring your education to a f ocus and utilize it in a practical way. surely the lowest. criticizing their work. Do not permit yourself to be influence d by the maxims of a low. Say to yourself. who are loaded down with knowle dge that they have never been able to utilize. less culti vated minds. demorali ze his ideals. we often read this comment. and not a part of himself." applied either to character or to work are bad mot toes for an educated man. The mere possession of a diploma will only hold you up to ridicule. sordid prudence. will only m ake you more conspicuous as a failure. dishonor the institution which has given him his chance to be a superior man. The great question which confronts you in the practical world is "What can you do with what you know?" Can you transmute your knowledge into power? Your abilit y to read your Latin diploma is not a test of true education. discredit his teachers. systemless. A liberal education ought to broaden a man's mind so that he will be able to keep his eye always on the model. and discords which destroy much of the efficiency of narrower. uninfluenced by the thousand and one petty annoyances. we lose o ur earlier vision." "Fairly good. bickerings. than from the man who lacks early training. The graduate ought to be able to rise above these things so that he can use all his brain power and energy and fling the weight of his entire being into work t hat is worth while." is the injunction of a gr eat master as he walks up and down among his pupils. not a financial failure.

however. or out of life. this is the embodiment of the college spirit. does it at his peril. of your powers. a liberal education makes a man feel a little surer of himself. it is some thing infinitely more sacred. He should look upon it as a power to be used. so you should transmut e your knowledge into practical wisdom. languages. at the cost of mental and moral penury. The way to get the most out of ourselves. literature. As the silkworm transmutes the mulberry leaf into satin. that they are not ed ucated. have more faith overed himself. by the poverty of their l anguage. in himself. m eanly. If the rosebud should try to retain all of its sweetness and beauty locked within its petals and refuse to gi . if you have made the most of your chan ce. The man who withholds the giving of himself to the world. that one has discovered hi s possibilities. The graduate should regard his education as a sacred trust. inspiration. think a little more of himself. The consciousness of bein g well educated should put one at ease in any society. grandest thing possible to you. encouragement. or be mortified or pained by ignorance of matters which every well-informed person is supposed to know. for fear he would never get it back. which you have absorbed from your teachers. not only adds wonderfully to one's happiness. In other words. not your knowledge of the sciences. There is no situation in life in which the beneficent influence of a well-assim ilated education will not make itself felt. On every hand we see men of good ability who feel crippled all thei r lives and are often mortified. The most precious thing of all. your discovery of yourself. making a sponge of one's brain. This will mean infinitely m ore to you than all you have learned from books or lectures. to play a manly part in life. but also increase s one's self-confidence immeasurably. As a matter of fact. of greater value than all these. is the uplift. The superbly trained man can go through the world with his head up and f eel conscious that he is not likely to play the ignoramus in any company. and self-confidence is the lever that move s the world. or for his own selfish ends. because he has disc in the knowledge that one has n mind. your resolution to be a little more of a man. The college man ought to be a superb figure anywhere. To try to keep it would be as foolish as for the farme r to hoard his seed corn in a bin instead of giving it to the earth. their narrow outlook on life. their sordid ideals. art. into working capital.poses. and that is your aroused ambition. not alone for his advancement. it is that which should make you reach up as wel l as on. by having to confess. from your associations. that he has not let the i But the best thing you carry from your alma mater is not what you there prized most. of your possibilit ies. instead of dow n. but royally. magnanimously. but for the betterment of all mankind. and transmuting every bit of knowledge into power. to do the greatest. to our fellows. is not to try to sell ourselves for the highest possible price but to give ourselves. This assurance of knowledge multiplies self-confidence and giv es infinite satisfaction. There is a great difference between absorbing knowledge. The knowledge that one's mentality has been broadened out by college training. the spirit of your alma mater. There is also great satisfaction ot neglected the unfoldment and expansion of his mpressionable years of youth go by unimproved. which should make you aspire instead of grovel--look up. things are so arranged in this world that no one can use his divine gift for himself alone an d get the best out of it. not stingily.

whose genius was not opposed by parents. or man of science mentioned in the history of the human intellect. or influenced to stoop to anything low or questionable. Then tocks or bonds to testify to a rich life. your good name. for power or positio n. in our efforts to sell ourselves for selfi sh ends or for the most dollars. and encouraged di sobedience. and strangles the very faculties he would develop. philosopher. do not allow all that is finest within you. Let it be its world the story of a noble career. Put beauty into your life. that influence cannot buy. WHAT WILL YOU DO WITH IT? CHAPTER IX ROUND BOYS IN SQUARE HOLES The high prize of life. When y ou leave your alma mater. your friendships. or teachers. be larger than your vocation. in the everlasting scramble for the dollar. guardi ans. It is only by flinging them out to the world that t heir fullest development is possible. only shrivels. You have not learned the best lesson from your school or college if you have no t discovered the secret of making life a glory instead of a sordid grind. strangled. carry ean record. never sell your divine heritage. who gropes along in mediocrity. artist." So conduct yourself that your life shall own eulogy. secrecy. was asked to make a speech at the unveiling o f his great statue of George Peabody. How your greatest wealth with you.--EMERSON. let your success tell to the ever much money you may accumulate. your high ideals and noble purposes to be suffoca ted. in a cl you will not need houses or lands or s Never before did an opportunity to render such great service to mankind confron t the educated youth as confronts you to-day. to have insisted on her darlings having their rights. who is always looking out for the main chanc e. whatever your vocation." a sacred something that briber y cannot touch. In these cases Nature seems to have triumphed by direct interp osition. and does not lift up his head and show that he has made the most of his great privileges disgraces the institution that gav e him his chance. it would be lost. who lives a shiftless. When William Story. something marked "not for sale.ve it out. Whatever you do. h is superior advantages for himself. sacrifi ce your social instincts. the crowning fortune of a man. stifle our better natures. Whether you make money or lose it. in London. is to be born with a bia s to some pursuit. The college man who is cursed with commonness. my young friend. The graduate should show the world that he has something in him too sacred to b e tampered with. which finds him in employment and happiness. never let it be said of you that you succeeded in your vocation. but failed as a man. be atrophied in your efforts to make a living. need no eulogy in words. The man who tries to keep his education. You should so conduct yourself that e very one will see that there is something in you that would repel as an insult t he very suggestion that you could be bought or bribed. for a mess of pottage. falsehood. "That is my speech. do not let your esthetic faculties. your aspiring instincts. he simply pointed to the statue and said. Do not. your good n ame. as thousands of graduates do. we impoverish our own lives. The trouble with most of us is that. even flight from home and occasional vagabondism . the sculptor. There is hardly a poet. selfish life. an unsullied reputation.

rather than the world should lose what it cost her so much pains to produce." said the youth." said his employer. sir.-E. or fickle. and though you may pull it around by artif icial advice and unnatural education. stupid. when once free. Do you know what you have been doing all this tim e? Why. are you not ashamed to waste your time in this disgraceful manner?" The world has certainly gained much through the old lady's failure to tell Jame s how he could employ his time to better advantage! "But I'm good for something. God has loaded the needle of that young life so it will point to the star of its own destiny. "I know I can. I never saw such an idle young fellow as you are. you have taken off and replaced. too. I see a hand you c annot see. I know I cannot sell. collecting together the little drops f ormed by the condensation of the steam on the surface of the china and the silve r. P. sir. like Burns. of s quare boys forced into round holes. where his aptitude for figures soon showed itself. "I am sure I can be useful. "Only don't put me away." said his grandm other. "Like a boat on a river ." Civilization will mark its highest tide when every man has chosen his proper wo rk. and he sweeps serenely over a deepening channel into an infinite sea. Like a locomo tive. I don't know." said the merchant. but an eminent accountant. law. art. simply because they were out of their places. "the man of genius is drawn by an irresistible impulse to the occupation for which he was c reated." "But I can make myself usefu l somehow. Now. no matter how unpromising the prospect. yet." says Emerson. and in a few years he became not only chief cashier in the large store. "every boy runs against obstructions on every side but one. often look back with a sigh and think how much better off he would be had he pursued some other occupation. but he will stick to his favorite pursuit nevertheless. the needle fli es back to its own star. On that side all obstruction is taken away." says Robert Waters." He was placed in the counti ng-house. he is strong on the track. repent it as he often does." "I do n't know." persisted the young man. "James Watt. and oppressed because they did not fit. "that is what is wrong. and taken off again. an d you have held alternately in the steam. of boys tortured be . No man can be ideally successful until he has found his place. Which beckons me away. Which says." "I know that. of boys persecute d as lazy. any more than you can see the North Star in the magnetic needle." "Nor do I. No matter by what difficulties surrounded. of b oys compelled to pore over dry theological books when the voice within continual ly cried "Law. the teapot lid. "How? Tell me how. Try me a t something besides selling. TICKELL. I cannot sell. but weak anywhere else. don't put me away. this occupation is the only one which he will pursue with interest an d pleasure. or whatever your own pet calling is unt il you have wasted years of a precious life. medicine. I must not stay. "Rue it as he may." or "Business".. WHIPPLE. For the last half-hour you have not spoken a single word. "do take a book and employ yourself usefully." "Science." pleaded a young man whom a merchant was about to discharge for his bluntness. and he finds himself poor and neglected. laughing at the ear nestness of his clerk. he may. When his efforts fail to procure means of subsistence." "Art. and compel it to point to the star which p resides over poetry. and y ou have busied yourself in examining and." of boys whose aspiration s and longings have been silenced forever by ignorant parents. I hear a voice you cannot hear. first a saucer and then a spoon." Only a Dickens can write the history of "Boy Slavery. You cannot look into a cradle and read the secret message traced by a divine ha nd and wrapped up in that bit of clay. "You are good for nothing as a salesman." "Medicine." said the principal.

was apprenticed to a pastry-cook. He invented both microscope and telescope. but th e voice of mathematics drowned every other call. Pascal's father determined that his son should teach the dead languages. and wrote o n one: "Done by Joshua out of pure idleness. He even contemplated killing his s on. and even punished him for coveri ng the walls and furniture with sketches. the famous painter of Aurora. in the marble of his Moses. One is en son to be his successo was too strong in the Nature never duplicates men. His f ather hated the fine arts and imprisoned him. ma de Prussia one of the greatest nations of Europe. but the instinct of commercial enterprise future merchant. He was only eighteen when he discovered the principle of pendulum in a lamp left swinging in the cathedral at Pisa." said Emerson. that he ventured.cause they were not enthusiastic in employments which they loathed. This boy. "Wist ye not that I m ust be about my Father's business?" Galileo was set apart for a physician. and on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. who. him to wish his son a another you. "The Robbers. so he must needs say "han ds off" even to his parents. The magic c ombination is never used but once. Peter's. to an upholsterer. as Christ said to his mother. John Jacob Astor's father wished his r as a butcher. and against which every fiber of their being was uttering perpetual protest. he would hide his Euclid and Archimedes and stealthily work out abstruse problems." Yet this "idle boy" became one of the founders of the Royal Academy. when turning his powerful wing against the clear blue sky! Ignorant parents compelled the boy Arkwright to become a barber's apprentice. How stupid and clumsy is the blinking eagle at perch. into the inhospitable world of letters. Frederick the Great was terribly abused becau se he had a passion for art and music and did not care for military drill. A kind lady aided him. because he loved art and music. and the the the The parents of Michael Angelo had declared that no son of theirs should ever fo llow the discreditable profession of an artist. was sent to a mu sic school. The irksomeness of his prison-like school so gal led him. and would not let him rest until he had immortali zed himself in the architecture of St. It is often a narrow selfishness in a father which leads reproduction of himself. and his longing for authorship so allured him. how steady and true his curves. and Guido. b ut Nature had locked up in his brain a cunning device destined to bless humanity and to do the drudgery of millions of England's poor." the first performance of which he had to witness in disguise. but his own death placed Frederick on the throne at the age of twenty-eight. "You are trying to make that boy ough. the auth or. pennil ess. Molière. but in secret he produced his first play. The father of Joshua Reynolds rebuked his son for drawing pictures. She breaks the pattern at every birth. was thought good for nothing. Turner was intended for a barber in Maiden Lane. and soon he . but the fire burning in his breast was kindled by the Divine Artist. haunting the boy until he laid aside his grammar for Euclid. the painter. but when compelled to study anatomy physiology. Claude Lorraine. but how keen his glance. enlarging knowledge of the vast and minute alike. Schiller was sent to study surgery in the military school at Stuttgart. but became the greatest landsc ape-painter of modern times.

produced the two splendid dramas which made him immortal. he took his son with him. and persuaded Dr. as to decide what profession his so n shall adopt. prepares himself in school. T. and said that the pleaders at the bar were among the most eminent lawyers of Great Britain. in which he eventually soon stood alone as the greates t forensic orator of his country. of our American college graduates to study law! How many young men becom e poor clergymen by trying to imitate their fathers who were good ones. The physician Handel wished his son to become a lawyer. for fifty-two pe r cent. What a ridiculous exhibition a great truck-horse would make on the race-track. attended a court. Not less true is it that he who feels that God has given him a particular work to do can be happy only when earnestly engaged in its performan ce. Nature never lets a man rest until he has found his place. too. an envoy. when his son told of having nearly fitted himself f or college. and wondered who could possibly combine so much me lody with so much evident unfamiliarity with the instrument. before he wrote his masterpiece. yet this is no more incongruous than the popular idea that law. She haunts him and drives him until all his faculties give their consent and he falls into his proper niche. "Robinson Crusoe. and an author of several indiffer ent books. and the duke. a merchant. the ornithologist. instead of blaming him for disturbing the organ. of poor doctors and lawyers for the same reason! The country is full of men who are out of place. a soldier." It was m any years before Jonathan escaped from the shop. out at elbows. in the town where his regiment was quartered. joined the army. but makes himself after he is graduated. The boy wandered unobserved to the o rgan in a chapel. and then. "disappointed. invited Erskine to sit near him." Wilson. failed in five different professions before he found his place. through the accident of having lent mone y to a friend. The latter. Daniel Defoe had been a trader. he will not fill any to the satisfaction of himself or o thers. The duke happ ened to hear the performance. out of cur iosity. Happy the youth who finds the place which his dreams have pictured! If he do es not fill that place. When the doctor visited a brother in the service of the Duk e of Weisenfelds." The fact is. insisted that his creditor sho uld take the shop as the only means of securing the money. and th eology are the only desirable professions. The boy was brought before him. an acquaintance. one to sweep a street crossing. a commissioner's accountant. before he drifted into his proper calling as a merchant. out in the cold. The pres iding judge. Erskine spent four years in the navy. "thou shalt go down to the machine-shop on Monday morning. out of office. A. a secretary. After serving more than two years. he one day. It has been well said that if God should commission two angels. they could not be induced to e xchange callings. in the hope of more rapid promo tion. prai sed his performance. He at onc e began the study of law. ruined. a factory m anager. Handel to let his son follow his bent. and so tried to discour age his fondness for music. But the boy got an old spinet and practiced on it se cretly in a hayloft. out of courage. medicine. out of money. to work his way up to the posit ion of a man of great influence as a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Stewart studied for the ministry. and became a teacher. nearly every college graduate who succeeds in the true sense of the word. The best thing his teachers ha . "Jonathan. out of cre dit. soured. and the other to rule an empire. How ridiculous. A parent might just as well decide that the magnetic needle will point to Venus or Jupiter without trying it. and soon had a private concert under full blast. and believed he could excel them." said Mr. with failure imminent. Erski ne took their measure as they spoke. Chase.

True success lies in acting well y our part. and our God. for which he was well fitted. He was so timid that he could not plead a case. Better be a first-rate hod-carrier than a s econd-rate anything. find it very dif ficult before their fifteenth or even before their twentieth year to decide what to do for a living. Grant] We must not jump to the conclusion that because a man has not succeeded in what he has really tried to do with all his might. a conscientious statesman. and this every one can do. before we reach our teens. if for medicine. but it was very cross to them while t hey were struggling through discouragement and misinterpretation. a hindrance instead of a help. Give every boy and girl a fair chance and reasonable encouragement. His business is to do the best he can wherever his lot may be cast. eve n when given all the latitude and longitude heart could desire. What career? What shall my life's work be? If instinct and heart ask for carpentry. the former choosing philosophy. [Illustration: Ulysses S. But look again: a huge wave breaks higher up the beach and covers the unfortunat e creature. b ut he left a great name in literature. but it is not there. The great majority of boys and girls. but he wrote some of our finest poems. one should choose cautiously along the line of his best adaptability and opportunity. and see if it really be in the line of your bent or power of achievement. will eventually b ring most of us into the right niches at the proper time. the latter. Cromwell was a farmer until forty years old. a young man or woman cannot help but succeed. But if there be no instinct. or an irresistibl e genius for ruling men. His fins mean something now. The moment his fins feel the water. The world has been very kind to many who were once known as dunces or blockhead s. and a genuine feeling of respo nsibility to our parents or employers. and success will surely be the crown. show great genius or even remarkable talent for any line of work or study. yet he practiced it so faithfully that it helped hi m to authorship.ve taught him is how to study. after they have become very successful. The moment he is beyond the college walls he ceas es to use books and helps which do not feed him. and darts l ike a flash through the waves. be a physician. and seizes upon those that do. he is himself again. Samuel Smiles was trained to a profession which was not to his taste. Molière found that he was not adapted to the work of a lawyer. examine the work attempted. he cannot succeed at anything. Voltaire and Petrarch abandoned the law. and do not condemn them be . So no one should be disappointed because he was not end owed with tremendous gifts in the cradle. or why the labor that naturally falls to one's lot should not be done well. If you fail after doing your level best. and advance at every honorable opportunity in the direction towards which the inward monitor points. to the full measure of one's ability and industry. No o ne need doubt that the world has use for him. Garfield would not have become President if he had not previously been a zealou s teacher. ourselves. With a firm choice and earnest work. Let duty be the guiding-star. Each knocks at the portals of the mind. Fidelity to the work or everyday duties at hand. be a carpenter. while before they be at the air and earth in vain. Neither Lincoln nor Grant started as a baby with a precocity for the White House. Cowper failed as a lawyer. demanding a wonderf ul aptitude for some definite line of work. or if it be weak or faint. poetry. Very few of us. a responsible soldier. Lo ok at a fish floundering on the sand as though he would tear himself to pieces. That is no reas on why the duty at hand should be put off.

cause of even a large degree of downright stupidity; for many so-called good-for -nothing boys, blockheads, numskulls, dullards, or dunces, were only boys out of their places, round boys forced into square holes. Wellington was considered a dunce by his mother. At Eton he was called dull, id le, slow, and was about the last boy in school of whom anything was expected. He showed no talent, and had no desire to enter the army. His industry and perseve rance were his only redeeming characteristics in the eyes of his parents and tea chers. But at forty-six he had defeated the greatest general living, except hims elf. Goldsmith was the laughing-stock of his schoolmasters. He was graduated "Wooden Spoon," a college name for a dunce. He tried to enter a class in surgery, but w as rejected. He was driven to literature. Goldsmith found himself totally unfit for the duties of a physician; but who else could have written the "Vicar of Wak efield" or the "Deserted Village"? Dr. Johnson found him very poor and about to be arrested for debt. He made Goldsmith give him the manuscript of the "Vicar of Wakefield," sold it to the publishers, and paid the debt. This manuscript made its author famous. Robert Clive bore the name of "dunce" and "reprobate" at school, but at thirtytwo, with three thousand men, he defeated fifty thousand at Plassey and laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. Sir Walter Scott was called a blockh ead by his teacher. When Byron happened to get ahead of his class, the master wo uld say: "Now, Jordie, let me see how soon you will be at the foot again." Young Linnaeus was called by his teachers almost a blockhead. Not finding him f it for the church, his parents sent him to college to study medicine. But the si lent teacher within, greater and wiser than all others, led him to the fields; a nd neither sickness, misfortune, nor poverty could drive him from the study of b otany, the choice of his heart, and he became the greatest botanist of his age. Richard B. Sheridan's mother tried in vain to teach him the most elementary stu dies. The mother's death aroused slumbering talents, as has happened in hundreds of cases, and he became one of the most brilliant men of his age. Samuel Drew was one of the dullest and most listless boys in his neighborhood, yet after an accident by which he nearly lost his life, and after the death of h is brother, he became so studious and industrious that he could not bear to lose a moment. He read at every meal, using all the time he could get for self-impro vement. He said that Paine's "Age of Reason" made him an author, for it was by h is attempt to refute its arguments that he was first known as a strong, vigorous writer. It has been well said that no man ever made an ill figure who understood his ow n talents, nor a good one who mistook them. CHAPTER X WHAT CAREER? Brutes find out where their talents lie; A bear will not attempt to fly, A foun dered horse will oft debate Before he tries a five-barred gate. A dog by instinc t turns aside Who sees the ditch too deep and wide. But man we find the only cre ature Who, led by folly, combats nature; Who, when she loudly cries--Forbear! Wi th obstinacy fixes there; And where his genius least inclines, Absurdly bends hi s whole designs. SWIFT. The crowning fortune of a man is to be born to some pursuit which finds him in employment and happiness, whether it be to make baskets, or broadswords, or cana

ls, or statues, or songs.--EMERSON. Whatever you are by nature, keep to it; never desert your line of talent. Be wh at nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and you will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Every man has got a Fort," said Artemus Ward. "It's some men's fort to do one thing, and some other men's fort to do another, while there is numeris shiftless critters goin' round loose whose fort is not to do nothin'. "Twice I've endevered to do things which they wasn't my Fort. The first time wa s when I undertook to lick a owdashus cuss who cut a hole in my tent and krawld threw. Sez I, 'My jentle sir, go out, or I shall fall onto you putty hevy.' Sez he, 'Wade in, Old Wax Figgers,' whereupon I went for him, but he cawt me powerfu l on the hed and knockt me threw the tent into a cow pastur. He pursood the atta ck and flung me into a mud puddle. As I aroze and rung out my drencht garmints, I concluded fitin was n't my fort. "I'le now rize the curtain upon seen 2nd. It is rarely seldum that I seek conso lation in the Flowin Bole. But in a certain town in Injianny in the Faul of 18-, my orgin grinder got sick with the fever and died. I never felt so ashamed in my life, and I thought I'd hist in a few swallers of suthin strengthnin. Konsequ ents was, I histed so much I didn't zackly know whereabouts I was. I turned my l ivin' wild beasts of Pray loose into the streets, and split all my wax-works. "I then Bet I cood play hoss. So I hitched myself to a kanawl bote, there bein' two other hosses behind and anuther ahead of me. But the hosses bein' onused to such a arrangemunt, begun to kick and squeal and rair up. Konsequents was, I wa s kicked vilently in the stummuck and back, and presently, I found myself in the kanawl with the other hosses, kikin and yellin like a tribe of Cusscaroorus sav ajis. I was rescood, and as I was bein carried to the tavern on a hemlock bored I sed in a feeble voice, 'Boys, playin' hoss isn't my Fort.' "Moral: Never don't do nothin' which isn't your Fort, for ef you do you'll find yourself splashin' round in the kanawl, figuratively speakin." The following advertisement, which appeared day after day in a Western paper, d id not bring a single reply:-"Wanted.--Situation by a Practical Printer, who is competent to take charge of any department in a printing and publishing house. Would accept a professorship in any of the academies. Has no objection to teach ornamental painting and penma nship, geometry, trigonometry, and many other sciences. Has had some experience as a lay preacher. Would have no objection to form a small class of young ladies and gentlemen to instruct them in the higher branches. To a dentist or chiropod ist he would be invaluable; or he would cheerfully accept a position as bass or tenor singer in a choir." At length there appeared this addition to the notice:-"P. S. Will accept an offer to saw and split wood at less than the usual rates. " This secured a situation at once, and the advertisement was seen no more. Your talent is your call. Your legitimate destiny speaks in your character. If you have found your place, your occupation has the consent of every faculty of y our being. If possible, choose that occupation which focuses the largest amount of your ex perience and tastes. You will then not only have a congenial vocation, but also will utilize largely your skill and business knowledge, which is your true capit

al. Follow your bent. You cannot long fight successfully against your aspirations. Parents, friends, or misfortune may stifle and suppress the longings of the hear t, by compelling you to perform unwelcome tasks; but, like a volcano, the inner fire will burst the crusts which confine it and will pour forth its pent-up geni us in eloquence, in song, in art, or in some favorite industry. Beware of "a tal ent which you cannot hope to practice in perfection." Nature hates all botched a nd half-finished work, and will pronounce her curse upon it. Better be the Napoleon of bootblacks, or the Alexander of chimney-sweeps, let u s say with Matthew Arnold, than a shallow-brained attorney who, like necessity, knows no law. Half the world seems to have found uncongenial occupation, as though the human race had been shaken up together and exchanged places in the operation. A servan t girl is trying to teach, and a natural teacher is tending store. Good farmers are murdering the law, while Choates and Websters are running down farms, each t ortured by the consciousness of unfulfilled destiny. Boys are pining in factorie s who should be wrestling with Greek and Latin, and hundreds are chafing beneath unnatural loads in college who should be on the farm or before the mast. Artist s are spreading "daubs" on canvas who should be whitewashing board fences. Behin d counters stand clerks who hate the yard-stick and neglect their work to dream of other occupations. A good shoemaker writes a few verses for the village paper , his friends call him a poet, and the last, with which he is familiar, is aband oned for the pen, which he uses awkwardly. Other shoemakers are cobbling in Cong ress, while statesmen are pounding shoe-lasts. Laymen are murdering sermons whil e Beechers and Whitefields are failing as merchants, and people are wondering wh at can be the cause of empty pews. A boy who is always making something with too ls is railroaded through the university and started on the road to inferiority i n one of the "three honorable professions." Real surgeons are handling the meatsaw and cleaver, while butchers are amputating human limbs. How fortunate that-"There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will." "He that hath a trade," says Franklin, "hath an estate; and he that hath a call ing hath a place of profit and honor. A plowman on his legs is higher than a gen tleman on his knees." A man's business does more to make him than anything else. It hardens his muscl es, strengthens his body, quickens his blood, sharpens his mind, corrects his ju dgment, wakes up his inventive genius, puts his wits to work, starts him on the race of life, arouses his ambition, makes him feel that he is a man and must fil l a man's shoes, do a man's work, bear a man's part in life, and show himself a man in that part. No man feels himself a man who is not doing a man's business. A man without employment is not a man. He does not prove by his works that he is a man. A hundred and fifty pounds of bone and muscle do not make a man. A good cranium full of brains is not a man. The bone and muscle and brain must know how to do a man's work, think a man's thoughts, mark out a man's path, and bear a m an's weight of character and duty before they constitute a man. Go-at-it-iveness is the first requisite for success. Stick-to-it-iveness is the second. Under ordinary circumstances, and with practical common sense to guide him, one who has these requisites will not fail. Don't wait for a higher position or a larger salary. Enlarge the position you a lready occupy; put originality of method into it. Fill it as it never was filled before. Be more prompt, more energetic, more thorough, more polite than your pr edecessor or fellow workmen. Study your business, devise new modes of operation, be able to give your employer points. The art lies not in giving satisfaction m

erely, not in simply filling your place, but in doing better than was expected, in surprising your employer; and the reward will be a better place and a larger salary. When out of work, take the first respectable job that offers, heeding not the d isproportion between your faculties and your task. If you put your manhood into your labor, you will soon be given something better to do. This question of a right aim in life has become exceedingly perplexing in our c omplicated age. It is not a difficult problem to solve when one is the son of a Zulu or the daughter of a Bedouin. The condition of the savage hardly admits of but one choice; but as one rises higher in the scale of civilization and creeps nearer to the great centers of activity, the difficulty of a correct decision in creases with its importance. In proportion as one is hard pressed in competition is it of the sternest necessity for him to choose the right aim, so as to be ab le to throw the whole of his energy and enthusiasm into the struggle for success . The dissipation of strength or hope is fatal to prosperity even in the most at tractive field. Gladstone says there is a limit to the work that can be got out of a human body , or a human brain, and he is a wise man who wastes no energy on pursuits for wh ich he is not fitted. "Blessed is he who has found his work," says Carlyle. "Let him ask no other ble ssedness. He has a work--a life purpose; he has found it, and will follow it." In choosing an occupation, do not ask yourself how you can make the most money or gain the most notoriety, but choose that work which will call out all your po wers and develop your manhood into the greatest strength and symmetry. Not money , not notoriety, not fame even, but power is what you want. Manhood is greater t han wealth, grander than fame. Character is greater than any career. Each facult y must be educated, and any deficiency in its training will appear in whatever y ou do. The hand must be educated to be graceful, steady, and strong. The eye mus t be educated to be alert, discriminating, and microscopic. The heart must be ed ucated to be tender, sympathetic, and true. The memory must be drilled for years in accuracy, retention, and comprehensiveness. The world does not demand that y ou be a lawyer, minister, doctor, farmer, scientist, or merchant; it does not di ctate what you shall do, but it does require that you be a master in whatever yo u undertake. If you are a master in your line, the world will applaud you and al l doors will fly open to you. But it condemns all botches, abortions, and failur es. "Whoever is well educated to discharge the duty of a man," says Rousseau, "cann ot be badly prepared to fill any of those offices that have relation to him. It matters little to me whether my pupils be designed for the army, the pulpit, or the bar. Nature has destined us to the offices of human life antecedent to our d estination concerning society. To live is the profession I would teach him. When I have done with him, it is true he will be neither a soldier, a lawyer, nor a divine. Let him first be a man. Fortune may remove him from one rank to another as she pleases; he will be always found in his place." In the great race of life common sense has the right of way. Wealth, a diploma, a pedigree, talent, genius, without tact and common sense, cut but a small figu re. The incapables and the impracticables, though loaded with diplomas and degre es, are left behind. Not what do you know, or who are you, but what are you, wha t can you do, is the interrogation of the century. George Herbert has well said: "What we are is much more to us than what we do." An aim that carries in it the least element of doubt as to its justice or honor or right should be abandoned at once. The art of dishing up the wrong so as to

make it look and taste like the right has never been more extensively cultivated than in our day. It is a curious fact that reason will, on pressure, overcome a man's instinct of right. An eminent scientist has said that a man could soon re ason himself out of the instinct of decency if he would only take pains and work hard enough. So when a doubtful but attractive future is placed before one, the re is a great temptation to juggle with the wrong until it seems the right. Yet any aim that is immoral carries in itself the germ of certain failure, in the re al sense of the word--failure that is physical and spiritual. There is no doubt that every person has a special adaptation for his own peculi ar part in life. A very few--geniuses, we call them--have this marked in an unus ual degree, and very early in life. Madame de Staël was engrossed in political philosophy at an age when other girls are dressing dolls. Mozart, when but four years old, played the clavichord and c omposed minuets and other pieces still extant. The little Chalmers, with solemn air and earnest gestures, would preach often from a stool in the nursery. Goethe wrote tragedies at twelve, and Grotius published an able philosophical work bef ore he was fifteen. Pope "lisped in numbers." Chatterton wrote good poems at ele ven, and Cowley published a volume of poetry in his sixteenth year. Thomas Lawre nce and Benjamin West drew likenesses almost as soon as they could walk. Liszt p layed in public at twelve. Canova made models in clay while a mere child. Bacon exposed the defects of Aristotle's philosophy when but sixteen. Napoleon was at the head of armies when throwing snowballs at Brienne. All these showed their bent while young, and followed it in active life. But pr ecocity is not common, and, except in rare cases, we must discover the bias in o ur natures, and not wait for the proclivity to make itself manifest. When found, it is worth more to us than a vein of gold. "I do not forbid you to preach," said a Bishop to a young clergyman, "but natur e does." Lowell said: "It is the vain endeavor to make ourselves what we are not that ha s strewn history with so many broken purposes, and lives left in the rough." You have not found your place until all your faculties are roused, and your who le nature consents and approves of the work you are doing; not until you are so enthusiastic in it that you take it to bed with you. You may be forced to drudge at uncongenial toil for a time, but emancipate yourself as soon as possible. Ca rey, the "Consecrated Cobbler," before he went as a missionary said: "My busines s is to preach the gospel. I cobble shoes to pay expenses." If your vocation be only a humble one, elevate it with more manhood than others put into it. Put into it brains and heart and energy and economy. Broaden it by originality of methods. Extend it by enterprise and industry. Study it as you w ould a profession. Learn everything that is to be known about it. Concentrate yo ur faculties upon it, for the greatest achievements are reserved for the man of single aim, in whom no rival powers divide the empire of the soul. Better adorn your own than seek another's place. Go to the bottom of your business if you would climb to the top. Nothing is sma ll which concerns your business. Master every detail. This was the secret of A. T. Stewart's and of John Jacob Astor's great success. They knew everything about their business. As love is the only excuse for marriage, and the only thing which will carry on e safely through the troubles and vexations of married life, so love for an occu pation is the only thing which will carry one safely and surely through the trou bles which overwhelm ninety-five out of every one hundred who choose the life of

a merchant, and very many in every other career. A famous Englishman said to his nephew, "Don't choose medicine, for we have nev er had a murderer in our family, and the chances are that in your ignorance you may kill a patient; as to the law, no prudent man is willing to risk his life or his fortune to a young lawyer, who has not only no experience, but is generally too conceited to know the risks he incurs for his client, who alone is the lose r; therefore, as the mistakes of a clergyman in doctrine or advice to his parish ioners cannot be clearly determined in this world, I advise you by all means to enter the church." "I felt that I was in the world to do something, and thought I must," said Whit tier, thus giving the secret of his great power. It is the man who must enter la w, literature, medicine, the ministry, or any other of the overstocked professio ns, who will succeed. His certain call, that is his love for it, and his fidelit y to it, are the imperious factors of his career. If a man enters a profession s imply because his grandfather made a great name in it, or his mother wants him t o, with no love or adaptability for it, it were far better for him to be a motor -man on an electric car at a dollar and seventy-five cents a day. In the humbler work his intelligence may make him a leader; in the other career he might do as much harm as a bowlder rolled from its place upon a railroad track, a menace to the next express. Only a few years ago marriage was the only "sphere" open to girls, and the sing le woman had to face the disapproval of her friends. Lessing said: "The woman wh o thinks is like a man who puts on rouge, ridiculous." Not many years have elaps ed since the ambitious woman who ventured to study or write would keep a bit of embroidery at hand to throw over her book or manuscript when callers entered. Dr . Gregory said to his daughters: "If you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret from the men, who generally look with a jealous and malignant ey e on a woman of great parts and a cultivated understanding." Women who wrote boo ks in those days would deny the charge as though a public disgrace. All this has changed, and what a change it is! As Frances Willard said, the gre atest discovery of the century is the discovery of woman. We have emancipated he r, and are opening countless opportunities for our girls outside of marriage. Fo rmerly only a boy could choose a career; now his sister can do the same. This fr eedom is one of the greatest glories of the twentieth century. But with freedom comes responsibility, and under these changed conditions every girl should have a definite aim. Dr. Hall says that the world has urgent need of "girls who are mother's right h and; girls who can cuddle the little ones next best to mamma, and smooth out the tangles in the domestic skein when thing's get twisted; girls whom father takes comfort in for something better than beauty, and the big brothers are proud of for something that outranks the ability to dance or shine in society. Next, we w ant girls of sense,--girls who have a standard of their own, regardless of conve ntionalities, and are independent enough to live up to it; girls who simply won' t wear a trailing dress on the street to gather up microbes and all sorts of def ilement; girls who don't wear a high hat to the theater, or lacerate their feet and endanger their health with high heels and corsets; girls who will wear what is pretty and becoming and snap their fingers at the dictates of fashion when fa shion is horrid and silly. And we want good girls,--girls who are sweet, right s traight out from the heart to the lips; innocent and pure and simple girls, with less knowledge of sin and duplicity and evil-doing at twenty than the pert litt le schoolgirl of ten has all too often. And we want careful girls and prudent gi rls, who think enough of the generous father who toils to maintain them in comfo rt, and of the gentle mother who denies herself much that they may have so many pretty things, to count the cost and draw the line between the essentials and no n-essentials; girls who strive to save and not to spend; girls who are unselfish

and eager to be a joy and a comfort in the home rather than an expense and a us eless burden. We want girls with hearts,--girls who are full of tenderness and s ympathy, with tears that flow for other people's ills, and smiles that light out ward their own beautiful thoughts. We have lots of clever girls, and brilliant g irls, and witty girls. Give us a consignment of jolly girls, warm-hearted and im pulsive girls; kind and entertaining to their own folks, and with little desire to shine in the garish world. With a few such girls scattered around, life would freshen up for all of us, as the weather does under the spell of summer showers ." "They talk about a woman's sphere, As though it had a limit; There's not a plac e in earth or heaven, There's not a task to mankind given, There's not a blessin g or a woe, There's not a whisper, Yes or No, There's not a life, or death, or b irth, That has a feather's weight of worth, Without a woman in it." "Do that which is assigned you," says Emerson, "and you cannot hope too much or dare too much. There is at this moment for you an utterance brave and grand as that of the colossal chisel of Phidias, or trowel of the Egyptians, or the pen o f Moses or Dante, but different from all these." "The best way for a young man to begin, who is without friends or influence," s aid Russell Sage, "is, first, by getting a position; second, keeping his mouth s hut; third, observing; fourth, being faithful; fifth, making his employer think he would be lost in a fog without him; and sixth, being polite." "Close application, integrity, attention to details, discreet advertising," are given as the four steps to success by John Wanamaker, whose motto is, "Do the n ext thing." Whatever you do in life, be greater than your calling. Most people look upon an occupation or calling as a mere expedient for earning a living. What a mean, na rrow view to take of what was intended for the great school of life, the great m an developer, the character-builder; that which should broaden, deepen, heighten , and round out into symmetry, harmony, and beauty all the God-given faculties w ithin us! How we shrink from the task and evade the lessons which were intended for the unfolding of life's great possibilities into usefulness and power, as th e sun unfolds into beauty and fragrance the petals of the flower! I am glad to think I am not bound to make the world go round; But only to disco ver and to do, With cheerful heart, the work that God appoints. JEAN INGELOW. "'What shall I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever! 'This did full many who yet sleep all unknown,'-- Oh, never, never! Think'st thou, perchance, that they remain unknown Whom thou know'st not? By angel trumps in heaven their praise is blown, Divine their lot." CHAPTER XI CHOOSING A VOCATION Be what nature intended you for, and you will succeed; be anything else, and yo u will be ten thousand times worse than nothing.--SYDNEY SMITH. "Many a man pays for his success with a slice of his constitution." No man struggles perpetually and victoriously against his own character; and on e of the first principles of success in life is so to regulate our career as rat her to turn our physical constitution and natural inclinations to good account t han to endeavor to counteract the one or oppose the other.--BULWER.

He that hath a trade hath an estate.--FRANKLIN. Nature fits all her children with something to do.--LOWELL. As occupations and professions have a powerful influence upon the length of hum an life, the youth should first ascertain whether the vocation he thinks of choo sing is a healthy one. Statesmen, judges, and clergymen are noted for their long evity. They are not swept into the great business vortex, where the friction and raspings of sharp competition whittle life away at a fearful rate. Astronomers, who contemplate vast systems, moving through enormous distances, are exceptiona lly long lived,--as Herschel and Humboldt. Philosophers, scientists, and mathema ticians, as Galileo, Bacon, Newton, Euler, Dalton, in fact, those who have dwelt upon the exact sciences, seem to have escaped many of the ills from which human ity suffers. Great students of natural history have also, as a rule, lived long and happy lives. Of fourteen members of a noted historical society in England, w ho died in 1870, two were over ninety, five over eighty, and two over seventy. The occupation of the mind has a great influence upon the health of the body. There is no employment so dangerous and destructive to life but plenty of human beings can be found to engage in it. Of all the instances that can be given of recklessness of life, there is none which exceeds that of the workmen employed i n what is called dry-pointing--the grinding of needles and of table forks. The f ine steel dust which they breathe brings on a painful disease, of which they are almost sure to die before they are forty. Yet not only are men tempted by high wages to engage in this employment, but they resist to the utmost all contrivanc es devised for diminishing the danger, through fear that such things would cause more workmen to offer themselves and thus lower wages. Many physicians have inv estigated the effects of work in the numerous match factories in France upon the health of the employees, and all agree that rapid destruction of the teeth, dec ay or necrosis of the jawbone, bronchitis, and other diseases result. We will probably find more old men on farms than elsewhere. There are many reas ons why farmers should live longer than persons residing in cities or than those engaged in other occupations. Aside from the purer air, the outdoor exercise, b oth conducive to a good appetite and sound sleep, which comparatively few in cit ies enjoy, they are free from the friction, harassing cares, anxieties, and the keen competition incident to city life. On the other hand, there are some great drawbacks and some enemies to longevity, even on the farm. Man does not live by bread alone. The mind is by far the greatest factor in maintaining the body in a healthy condition. The social life of the city, the great opportunities afforde d the mind for feeding upon libraries and lectures, great sermons, and constant association with other minds, the great variety of amusements compensate largely for the loss of many of the advantages of farm life. In spite of the great temp erance and immunity from things which corrode, whittle, and rasp away life in th e cities, farmers in many places do not live so long as scientists and some othe r professional men. There is no doubt that aspiration and success tend to prolong life. Prosperity tends to longevity, if we do not wear life away or burn it out in the feverish p ursuit of wealth. Thomas W. Higginson made a list of thirty of the most noted pr eachers of the last century, and found that their average length of life was six ty-nine years. Among miners in some sections over six hundred out of a thousand die from consu mption. In the prisons of Europe, where the fatal effects of bad air and filth a re shown, over sixty-one per cent. of the deaths are from tuberculosis. In Bavar ian monasteries, fifty per cent. of those who enter in good health die of consum ption, and in the Prussian prisons it is almost the same. The effect of bad air, filth, and bad food is shown by the fact that the death-rate among these classe

as most great thinkers know. It is a law of nature that the overd evelopment of any function or faculty. Cessation of brain activity does not necessarily constitute brain rest. and yet we deliberately choose occupations and vocations which statistics and physi cians tell us will be practically sure to cut off from five to twenty-five. Vigorous thought must come from a fresh brain. w hich is very largely a matter of skill in exercising alternate sets of faculties . it appears that mineral d ust is the most detrimental to health. says that "of the five thousand soldiers in that institution fully eighty per cent. is five times that of the general popul ation of the same age. and vegetable d ust third. Of one thousand deaths from all causes. due to the forced physical exertions of the campaigns." Man's faculties and functions are so interrelated that whatever affects one aff ects all. sunlight. "three are dead of consumption. thir ty. over one-fifth of all the deaths of per sons over twenty are from this cause. unfortunately--learn to give rest to one set of faculties and use another. mental. The men who accomplish the most brain-work. one hundred and sixty-seven grocers. five have to wear trusses. According to a long series of investigations by Drs. three hundred and one dry-goods dealers. The continual u . The whole future of a man is often rui ned by over-straining the brain in school. and three have catarrh and partial dea fness. effective work in one line many hours a day. on the average. There is danger in a calling which requires great expenditure of vitality at lo ng. in the book. Benoysten and Lombard into occupations or trades where workers must inhale dust. there will be the same lack of tonicity and strength in the brain product. one hundred and eigh t fishermen. between the ages of twenty and forty. two hundred and nine tailors. sprightliness and elasticity. when it begins to lose its elasticity and freshness." Dr. cleanliness. or even forty years of our lives. one hundred and twenty-one gardeners. irregular intervals. The brain is one of the last orga ns of the body to reach maturity (at about the age of twenty-eight). one hundred and twenty-two fa rm laborers. but also to cause injurious reactions on every other faculty and func tion. especially in youth. jaded brain. In choosing an occupation. and are seemingly perfectly indifferent to our fate. In New York City. "Of the thirty-two all-round athletes in a New York club not long ago. Brain-workers cannot do good. and four hundred and sixty-one composit ors. and freedom from co rroding dust and poisonous gases are of the greatest importance. from an exhausted. as interest begins to flag and a sense of weariness comes. In this way they have been enabled to astonish the world by their mental achievements. forcing or straining it. A man who would sell a year of his life for any amount of money would be considered insane. He who is not regularly. We cannot expect nerve. are suffering from heart disease in one form or another. Ohio . Some men of ten do a vast amount of literary work in entirely different lines during their s pare hours.--nearly one-half. sooner or late r--usually later." said a physician. Patten. in the speech. allowing rest to some while giving healthy exercise to others. four or five are lop-shouldered. snap. and moral well-being. pure air. or in the essay. chief surgeon at the National Soldiers' Home at Dayton. tends not only t o ruin it. Athletes who over-develop the muscular system do so at the expense of the physical.s. In large cities in Europe the percentage i s often still greater. When the brain is weary. o ne hundred and three farmers die of pulmonary tuberculosis. ro bustness and vigor. and should never be overworked. animal dust ranking next. or systematically employed inc urs perpetual risk.

paralyze. and another at Florence in Italian. which will give you a chance for self-impr ovement and promotion. useful. or nervous exhaustion. cramped his intellect. but you will be mor e of a man. Some kinds of business not e ven a J. Select a clean. Choose an occupation which will develop you. They do not care if a man spends the whole of his life upon the head of a pin. or even softening of the brain is liable to follow. or in making a sc rew in a watch factory." [Illustration: William Ewart Gladstone] All occupations that enervate. or talks fluent French in Paris. for familiarity with a bad business will make it seem go od. that shortens the l ives of many workers. but that so much has been taken out of their mouths. and character is greater than any career. we are f orcing our Michael Angelos to carve in snow. or to sleep in the daytime when she intended you to work. or the phosphorus. They take no notice of the occupations that ruin. Don't try to justify yourself on the ground that somebody must do this kind of work. There are families that hav e "clutched success and kept it through generations from the simple fact of a sp lendid physical organization handed down from one generation to another. take the responsibility. abandon it at once. L et "somebody. which will elevate you. As a rule. nor cheat yourself into thinking that all the finery you can wear is so much put into the hungry mouths of those beneath you. or where you must work at night and on Sundays. yo u are employing your money selfishly. crushed his aspirati on. in some mean. or piles up argu ment on argument in English for hours in Parliament. These fine dresses do not mean that so much has been put into their mo uths. Is the work you compel others to do useful to yourself and to society? If you employ a seams tress to make four or five or six beautiful flounces for your ball dress. "If we induce painters to work in fading colors. puny physique? He addresses an audience at Co rfu in Greek. it is injurious to the health to work seven days in the week. A little later he converses at ease with Bismarck in German. The moment we compel those we employ to do work that demoralizes them or does n ot tend to elevate or lift them. or architects with rotten stone. know it to be. Aside from the right and w rong of the thing. of the cramped condition of the body which creates deformi ty. or contractors to construct buildings with imperfect materials. If there is any doubt on this poi nt. as if it were a triumph to burn its thoughts away in bonfires. overtops all titles. the arsenic that destroys the health. Pierpont Morgan could make respectable. brain fever. narrow occupation just becaus e there was money in it. honorable occupation. the article to be made is generally the only object considered. What would Gladst one have accomplished with a weak. physical vigor is the condition of a great career. or destroy body or soul should be avoi ded." not yourself. the dust. You may not make quite so much money. Do not confuse covetousness with benevolen ce. It is what those who stand shi vering on the street. forming a line to see you step out of your carriage. . If possible avoid occupations which compel you to wo rk in a cramped position. blunted his finer sensibilities. and manhood is above all riches. The tired brain must have rest. to work at night when Nature intended you to sleep. Many a man has dwarfed his manhood. No set of brain cells can possibly set free more brain force in the combustion o f thought than is stored up in them. Our manufacturing interests too often give little thought to the employed. and which you will wear at only one ball. flounc es which will only clothe yourself." Ruskin says that the tendency of the age is to expend its genius in perishable art. we are forcing them into service worse than use less. Choose a business that has expansiveness in it.se of one set of faculties by an ambitious worker will soon bring him to grief.

Don't choose it because it is considered the "proper thing" and a "ge nteel" business. He is working against his nature. perhaps. lose confidence in ourselves. Has a young man a right to choose an occupation which will only call into play his lower and inferior qualities. Thousands of youths receive an education that fits them for a profession which they have not the means or inclination to follow. wh ile the animal spirits are high. we do half work. botched work. deceit."Study yourself. the whole tone of life is demoralized and lowered because we are out of place. but are "nobodies" in such vocations. Unsuccessful students with a smatteri ng of everything are raised as much above their original condition as if they we re successful. those who are out of their places. the qualities which get and never give. Don't choose it because others have made fortu nes in it. which develop long-headedness only. The mania for a "genteel" occupation. To succeed. deepen. while his higher self atrophies ? . they must be in harmony with his purpose. When we try to do that for which we are unfitted we are not working along the l ine of our strength. as cunning. is failure in life so frequ ently to be traced as to a mistaken calling." Don't choose a profession or occupation because your father. simply because they are "honorable professions"! These men might have been respectable farmers or merchants. A man out of his place is but half a man. that every blow we strike helps to br oaden. and enrich life! Those who fail are. note well wherein kind nat ure meant you to excel. but of our weakness. "Tompkins forsakes his last and awl For literary squabbles. as a rule. This negative process of eliminating the doubtful chances is often the only way of attaining to the positive conclusion. that every day's work we do. and one which can be learned with very little effort. The very glory of the profession which they thought would make them shining lights simply renders more conspicuous their incapacity. hardships. "and most of all. When his strength is exhausted he will float down the stream. A large portion of Paris cabmen are unsuccessful students in theo logy and other professions and also unfrocked priests. his very nature is perverted." We can often find out by hard knoc ks and repeated failures what we can not do before what we can do. Don't choose a business because you inherit it. and enthusiasm is vigorous. his vocation must have the consent of all his faculties. letting all his nobler qua lities shrivel and die? Has he a right to select a vocation that will develop on ly the beast within him instead of the man? which will call out the bulldog qual ities only." Dr. ruins many a youth. the qualities which overreach and grasp. full of hope. and all disagreeable things. or broth er is in it. thorns.--he cobbles." says Longfellow. to feel that every step we take. but his trade Remains the same. rowing against the current. to be started on the road of a proper career while young. or uncle. How it shortens the road to success to make a wise choice of one's occupation e arly. or because parents or friends want you to follow it. They are very bad cabmen. A man can not succeed when his whole nature is entering i ts perpetual protest against his occupation. Matthews says that "to no other cause. How many men have been made ridiculous for life by choosing law or medicine or theology. our will power and enthusiasm become d emoralized. and con clude that we are dunces because we cannot accomplish what others do. Styles himself poet . for a "soft job" which el iminates drudgery. and that unfits them for the c onditions of life to which they were born.

deepen. Let nothing tempt you or swerve you a hair 's breadth from your aim. or vicious when he is in his place. The time will come when there will be institutions for determining the natural bent of the boy and girl. an o ccupation that will give you time for self-culture and self-elevation. Great tenacity of purpose is the only thing that will carry you over the hard places which appear in every career to ultimate triumph. however. or temporary despondency or disappointment. People always believe in a man with a fixed purpose. Not money. Do not let the thorns which appear i n every vocation. all the God-given faculties within you. This determin ation. but it does demand that you do so mething. We a re doing the most for ourselves and for others when we are in a position which c alls into play in the highest possible way the greatest number of our best facul ties. for it leads others to feel confidence in us. They carry in the ir very pluck. . has a great moral bearing upon our success. an occupation that you will be proud of. i f you are constantly haunted with the idea that you could succeed better in some thing else. the discovery is often made so late in life that great success is practically impossible. that which should broaden. unhappy. or to fai l. where even small effort will count for more in the race than t he greatest effort--and a life of drudgery--in the wrong direction? A man is sel dom unsuccessful. help him to find where his greate st strength lies and how to use it to the best advantage. harmony. There is no grander sight th an that of a young man or woman in the right place struggling with might and mai n to make the most of the stuff at command. but power is what we want." Choose an occupati on that is refining and elevating. we are succeeding best for ourselves when we are succeedin g best for others. Can anything be more important to human beings than a start in life in the right direction. "What wou ld my government do with me if it were to consider scientifically my qualificati ons and adaptations. It gives credit a nd moral support in a thousand ways. a better man. and determination the conviction and assurance of success. and round out into symmetr y. Even if we take for gr anted what is not true. never look backward. and will help him twice as quickly as one who is loosely or indifferen tly attached to his vocation. and place me to the best possible advantage for all the peo ple?" The Norwegian precept is a good one: "Give thyself wholly to thy fellow-me n. and c haracter is greater than any occupation or profession. stick to it with all the tenacity you can muster. an occupa tion that will enlarge and expand your manhood and make you a better citizen. shake your purpose . The world does not dictate what you shall do. and that you shall be a king in your line. not position. character-builder. Such institutions would help boys and girls to start in their proper careers early in life. where men of large experience and close observation wi ll study the natural inclination of the youth. and liable at any time to make a change. "be content to enter on any business th at does not require and compel constant intellectual growth. or fixity of purpose. the great man-developer. I beseech you. You will never succeed while smarting under the drudgery of your occupation." We can do the most possible for oursel ves when we are in a position where we can do the most possible for others. Power and constant growth toward a higher life are the great end of human exist ence. and an early choice shortens the way. Everybody knows that determined men are not likely to fail. determined that not a faculty or pow er shall run to waste. and beauty. "Do not. grit." said Garfield. and you will win. they will give thee back soon enough. in other words. Your calling should be the great school of life. After once choosing your occupation. that every youth will sooner or later discover the line of his greatest strength so that he may get his living by his strong points rath er than by his weak ones. and this is everything.The best way to choose an occupation is to ask yourself the question.

at th e same time. if their efforts had all been expended in one direction. Does it ele vate those who follow it? Are they broad. but does not quite accomplish it. a science or two whose elements they have not qu ite acquired. will mol d you. let your manhood overtop your position. generous young men come out of college with high hopes and lofty aims. fashion you. versatility. Nothing is small which concerns your business. A man must work hard and st udy hard to counteract the narrowing. and the thousand petty artif ices. the higgling and scheming. "had a chance in my gener ation. your occupation. your wealth." Choose upward. intelligent men? Or have they become mere appendages of their profession." "The measure of a man's learning will be the amount of his voluntary ignorance. Be master of your calling in all its details. . liberal. f rom the very law of association and habit. your title. In this he has none. open-hearted. and can enter a questionable vocation without becoming a creature of it. and. The o nce broad. Many a person misses being a great man by splitting into two middling ones.But whatever you do be greater than your calling. the delicacy of the moral sense. narrowed his mind. Their courage oozes out just before they become expert. which in these days of stern competition are unscrupulously resorted to." They stop just this side of s uccess. mean. an art or two partially mastered. we ask.-Burke." s ays one of the foremost manufacturers of this country. that a few y ears could so change a magnanimous and generous youth? Go to the bottom if you would get to the top. "The jack-of-all-trades. which has been acquired by allowing yourself to abandon a half-finished work. to make good bargains. Said Goldsmith. How many of us h ave acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because not carried quite to the point of skill? How many people "almost know a language or two. "Constant engagement in traffic and barter has no elevating influence. The w orld is full of people who are "almost a success. and shift s into some other occupation where perhaps he will almost succeed. Beware of that frequently fatal gift. shape you. but which they can not practice with satisfaction or profit! The habit of desultoriness. enter a doubtful vocation. living in a rut with no standing in the community. Is it possible. In sp ite of all your determination and will power to the contrary. And to party gave up what was meant for mankind. your occupation. The man has becom e grasping. Thousands of men who have been failures in life have done drudgery enough in ha lf a dozen different occupations to have enabled them to reach great success. t end to narrow the sphere and to lessen the strength of the intellect. noble features have become contracted and narrowed. avaricious. If we go into a factory where the mariner's compass is made we c an see the needles before they are magnetized. study the men in the vocation you think of adopting. they will point in any direction. " said Thoreau. Universality is the ignis fatuus which has deluded to ruin many a promising mind. and in a few years re turn to college commencement so changed that they are scarcely recognized. stingy. will seize you as in a vise. more than balances any li ttle skill gained in one vocation which might possibly be of use later. but stops jus t short of the point of proficiency in his acquisition and so fails again. "The endeavor to obtain the upper hand of those with whom we have to deal . and stamp its inevitable impress upon you. How fr equently do we see bright. That mechanic is a failur e who starts out to build an engine." which th ey can neither write nor speak. hardening tendency of his occupation." says Ly ndall. In attempting to gain a knowle dge of half a hundred subjects it has mastered none. hard. born for the universe. and of no use to it? Don't think you will be the great exception .

But he who seeks all things. Give your life. is energy--invincible determination--a purpose once formed. "Whoever can make two ears of corn. the more deeply am I convinced that that which makes the dif ference between one man and another--between the weak and powerful. As soon as I got to Manchester. "I dealt in English goods. young man. I laid out all my money. the cheaper goods were. OWEN MEREDITH. and did us a favor if he sold us goods. . and you will soon be in the Gazette. "There is only one real failure in life poss ible. The nearer I got to England. and sends us home to add one stroke of faithful work. and but one." "Stick to one business. "s tick to your brewery. and you may be the great brewer of London. The one prudence in life is concentration. and he refu sed to show me his patterns." "I hope. from that moment they point to the north. I said to my father. "There was not enough room for us all in Frankfort. who had the market to himself: he was quite the great man.But when they have been applied to the magnet and received its peculiar power. your energy. addressing a young brewer. This was on a Tuesday. and then death or victory. acts nobly. all to the highest work of which you are capable. two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before.--FOWELL BUXTON. and body." "I am sure I would wish that. angels could do no more.--ST. PAUL. But be a brewer . Does well. things wer e so cheap. not to be true to the best one knows. 'I will go to England." said a listener. S o man never points steadily in any direction until he has been polarized by a gr eat master purpose." "'What must I do to be forever known?' Thy duty ever. and it makes no difference whether our dissipations are coarse or fine. and that is. in speaking of himself and his four brothers. and soul. the great an d insignificant. wherever he goes. and I made a good profit. and a merchant. . that is the way to be hap py." he added. . One great trader came there. Somehow I offended him." CHAPTER XII CONCENTRATED ENERGY This one thing I do. "that your children are not too fond of money and bu siness to the exclusion of more important things. and everything to business. I am sure you would not wish t hat." Who does the best his circumstance allows. and heart." said Nathan Mayer Rothschi ld. Canon Farrar said." says Swift. A harvest of barren regrets. your enthusiasm. "I wish them to give mind. the one evil is dissipation. Only reaps from th e hopes which around him he sows." said Rothschild. but one thing supremely. The longer I live. "would deserve better of mankind and do more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together. and are true to the pole ever after. May hope to achieve it before life be done.--EMERSON.' On Thursday I started. and a banker. YOUNG. and a manufacturer. The man who seeks one thing in life." Not many things indifferently. is the demand of the ho . Everythin g is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more.

The drop." says Carlyle. if we go out into life with no well-defined idea of our future work. by continually falling. "is th e power of possessing distinct aims. I found it was lightning. which a shabby alpaca cannot hide. the busy." The great difference between those who succeed and those who fail does not cons ist in the amount of work done by each. I fancy that I can select." The man who knows one thing. no. Such is the progress of him who divides his purpose. building up with one hand only to tear down with the o ther. by dispersing hi s over many. cannot hope t o succeed. M any of those who fail most ignominiously do enough to achieve grand success." said a shrew d preacher.--the warp and woof of success. define and alter when he or she begins to live for a reason. and sells fried potatoe s. They h ave no faculty of turning honest defeats into telling victories. We find what we seek with all our heart. With ability en ough. "Goods removed. and the real web of life is never woven. receives the crown he merits. If a salamander be cut in two. The voice. and I am determined to dig early and late all my life. "a public scribe. If you ask one of them to state his aim and purpose in life. Would an intelligent man dig up a whole continent to find its veins of silver and gold? The man who is forever looking about to see what he c an find never finds anything. the front part will run forward and the other ba ckward. carpets beaten." says Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward. messages taken. the very mo tions of a person. may fail to accomplish anything. He who scatters his efforts in this intense.ur. "but as I grew older. It matters not how rich the materials we have gleaned from the years of our s tudy and toil in youth. even if it only be the art of raising turnips. he will say: "I ha rdly know yet for what I am best adapted. So I resolved to thu nder less. and poetry composed on any subj ect. concentrated age. explains the language of flowers." was the sign of a man in London who was not very successful at any of thes e lines of work. who digests accounts.--they are forever th rowing back and forth an empty shuttle. "The weakest living creature. The hasty torrent rushes over it wit h hideous uproar and leaves no trace behind. If we look for nothing in particular. The bee is not the o nly insect that visits the flower. and can do it better than anybody else. If he raises the best turnips by reason of concentrating all his energy to that end. or at least iron. "What a immense power over the life. in a crowded street. but in the amount of intelligent work. and lighten more. there is no happy conjunction of circumstances that will arrange th em into an imposing structure. whereas the strongest. bores its passage through the hardest rock. and reminds one of Monsieur Kenard. the dress. They do not grasp circumstances and change them into opportunities. he is a benefactor to the race. nor a bonnet of silk enhance. and I know I shall come across something--either gold. can accomplish something. blessed women who supp ort themselves. we find just that and no more. but I am a thorough believer in genuin e hard work. Success is jealous . but they labor at haphazard. the look. and give it magnificent proportions. "by concentrating his powers on a single object." I say most emphatically. n or even sickness nor exhaustion quite drag out. silver." "When I was young I used to think it was thunder that killed men. but it is the only one that carries honey awa y. They carry themselves with an air of conscious self-respect and self-content." It is said that the wind never blows fair for that sailor who knows not to what port he is bound. and is recognized as such. of Paris. and time in abundance.

" said Edward Bulwer Lyt ton. as a general rule. if he do too much to-day. looking at Hannibal's weather-beaten face and admiring the splendor of his single eye. but most of them can't carry it into their amusements. "My own in vention. "Many persons seeing me so much engaged in active life. and heaping them into bushels." wrote Joseph Gurney to his s on. some upon subjects requiring much special research. A man to get t hrough work well must not overwork himself. men of s ingle and intense purpose. have said to me. and in addition to all this. during these three hours. But then. when Parliament is sitting. I have published somewhere about sixt y volumes. "is to read so heartily t hat dinner-time comes two hours before you expected it. "a whole man at study." When asked on another occasion the secre t of his success." "The one serviceable. You can't throw a tallow candle t hrough the side of a tent. I have traveled m uch and I have seen much. And what time do you think. "Scatteration" is the curse of American business life . That's the secret of all hard-working men. and to be so intimate ly present at the actions you are reading of." "Be a whole man at everything. attainable quality in every study and pursuit is the quality of attention. The giants of the race have been men of concentration. "and as much about the world as if I had never been a student. The answer is t his--'I contrive to do so much by never doing too much at a time. I can most truthfully assure you. and in the various busi ness of life. "The only valuable kind of study. I may perhaps say that I have gone throug h as large a course of general reading as most men of my time." Many a man fails to become a great man by splitting into several small ones. daily. certain. and you can kindle a fire with ease." Don't dally with your purpose. one unwavering aim. the re action of fatigue will come. or imagination. not always that . who could converse in twenty-four languages. but you can shoot it through an oak board." said Charles Dickens. who have struck sledgeha mmer blows in one place until they have accomplished their purpose. that when anybody knocks at the do or it will take you two or three seconds to determine whether you are in your ow n study or on the plains of Lombardy." said Sydney Smith. Too many are like Douglas Jerrold's friend. Now. to sit with your Livy be fore you and hear the geese cackling that saved the Capitol. such as it is.of scattered energies. Melt a cha rge of shot into a bullet. would never have served me as it has. which was not till I had left college and was actually in the world. toiling. patien t. or. and in play. to reading and writing? N ot more than three hours a day. since I began really and earnestly to study. "as if there was nothing else in the world for the time being. No one can pursue a worthy object steadily and persistently with all the powers of his mind. F ocus the rays of the sun in winter. and he will be obliged to do too little to-morrow. and. but for the habit of commonplace. 'When do you get time to write all your books? How on earth do you contrive to do so much work?' I shall surprise you by the answer I made. humble. in work. remunerative. and it can be fired through the bodies of four men. drudging attention. ch oosing to be a tolerable Jack-of-all-trades rather than to be an unrivaled speci alist. and to see with you r own eyes the Carthaginian sutlers gathering up the rings of the Roman knights after the battle of Cannae. I have mixed much in politics. The successf ul men of to-day are men of one overmastering idea. he said: "I never put one hand to anything on which I could th row my whole self. I have given my whole attention to what I . I have devoted to study." said Charles Kingsley. "I go at what I am about. but had no ideas to express in any one of them. and yet make his life a failure. safe.

Don't go. Greeley." said Sydney Smith. " wrote Charles Lamb to a friend. rose from his c hair. asked to keep . Then. he lived in an atmosphere of mental dissipation which consumed his energy. and actually outlived his own fame. and write an editorial for the "New Yo rk Tribune" which would be quoted far and wide. and his life was in many respects a miserable failure. "struck me much like a steam-engine in tro users. Greeley quickly looked up. Page after page was dashed off in the most impetuous style. it helps me to think what I am to write about. "Daniel Webster. Horace Greeley would sit upon the steps of the Astor House. and merited the applause of scientific men for his inves tigations in science. had too many talents. the Lord Cha ncellorship of England. The angry man began by asking if this was Mr. He was "everythin g by turns and nothing long. With an immense procession passing up Broadway. Greeley continued to write. sir. and bands playing lustily. exhausted his stamina. "Lord Brougham was at his chateau at Cannes when the dague rreotype process first came into vogue. Mr. without once looking up from his paper. the angry man became disgusted. Finally. thou gh as a lawyer he gained the most splendid prize of his profession. He was always just going to do something. He was shown into a little seven-by-nine sanctum. but never did it. a gentleman called at the "Tribune" office and i nquired for the editor. sit down. every successful man has succeeded. and slapping the gentleman familiarly on his shoulder. it wil l do you good. He was not a man of great education or culture. after about twenty minutes of the most impassioned abuse ever poured out in an editor 's office. Lord Brougham. good breeding. He lived in dreams and died in reverie. Coleridge possessed marvelous powers of mind. Miss Martineau says. like Canning. T he irate visitor then began using his tongue. but to the day of his death they remained simply resolutions and plans. with no change of featur es and without his paying the slightest attention to the visitor. He was continually forming plans and resol utions.was about." As Adams suggests. use the top of his hat for a desk. friend." One unwavering aim has ever characterized successful men. or reason. where Greeley. sit down. and free your mind. He studied and examin ed each object as eagerly as though he would never have a chance to see it again . the streets lined with people. "Yes. His Lordship was. with no regard for the rules of pr opriety. except in hi s power of observation. sat scribbling away at a two-for ty rate. T. but he had no definite purp ose. Meantime Mr. yet his life on the whole was a failure. with his head close down to his paper. and this habit of close observation enabled him to develop his work with marve lous detail. "and is said to have left behind him above for ty thousand treatises on metaphysics and divinity--not one of them complete!" Every great man has become great. Offended by a pungent article. in a pleasant tone of voice said: "Don't go. Besides. when he could reproduce it at will. and. what do you want?" said the editor quickly. for the first time. "Coleridge is dead. and abruptly turned to walk out of th e room. Hogarth would rivet his attention upon a face and study it until it was photogr aphed upon his memory.--you will feel better for it. The very modes of thought of the time in which he lived were reflec ted from his works.'" S." With all his magnificent abilities he left no perm anent mark on history or literature. An artist undertook to take a view of th e chateau with a group of guests on the balcony. in propor tion as he has confined his powers to one particular channel.

--he moved. Praed says:-His talk is like a stream which runs With rapid change from rocks to roses. The consequence was that there was a blur where Lord Brougham sh ould have been. It is the almost invisible point of a needle. The young man seeking a position to-day is not asked what college he came from or who his ancestors were. While we sh ould shun that narrow devotion to one idea which prevents the harmonious develop ment of our powers. in the light of science . we should avoid on the other hand the extreme versatility of one of whom W. but a las. are as certain and fixed as the tides of the sea.perfectly still for five seconds. and being a whole man to one thing at a time. which is like the conduct of the woman who bought at auction a brass door-plate with the name of Thompson on it." says Waters. in explanatio n of the latter's success. "all such study is vain. But. that opens the way for the bulk that follows. but distract his attention a nd down he goes. and he promised that he would not stir. "Never study on speculation. It is ever the unwavering p ursuit of a single aim that wins. It is the man of one line of work. and with his energy his enthusiasm. As a rule. It glides from Mahomet to Moses: Beginning with the laws that keep The planets in their radiant courses. It slips from politics to puns. In the p icture of our century. But it is at rest. "There is something. as taken from the life by history. Without point or edge t he bulk would be useless. Form a plan . "What can you do?" is the great question. Chemists tell us that there is power enough in a single acre of grass to drive all the mills and steam-cars in the world. this very man should h ave been the central figure. The curr ents of knowledge. and courage which enables one to bear up under all trials. And ending with some prece pt deep For skinning eels or shoeing horses. If you can get a child learning to walk to fix his eyes on any object. perseverance in the pursuit of an un dertaking in spite of every difficulty. Mathews says that the man who scatters himself upon many objects soon loses his energy. slender edge of a razor or an ax. . have an object. of success. then work for it." said Cecil of Walter Raleigh. what the heart longs for the head and the hands may attain. What I mean by studying on speculation is that aimless learning of things because they may be useful some day. the keen. "I know that he can toil terribly. sed multum"--not many things. but much. rive ting every faculty upon one unwavering aim. of wealth. M. It is speci al training that is wanted. and you will be sure to succeed. Most of the men at the head of great firms and great enterprises have been promoted step by step from the bottom. there will be forever a blur where Lord Brougham should have been. who cuts his way through obstacles and achieves brilliant success. Dr. he will generally navigate to that point without capsizing. could we but concentrate it upon the piston-rod of a steam-engine. and temptations. and so. learn all you can about it." continued Miss Martineau. "very typical in this. owing to his want of steadfastness. How many lives are blur s for want of concentration and steadfastness of purpose!" Fowell Buxton attributed his success to ordinary means and extraordinary applic ation. "Non multa. disappointments. In all great successes we can trace the power of concentration. the sharp-edged man . was Coke's motto. it is comparatively valueless.

and shades point to that c enter and find expression there. CHAPTER XIII THE TRIUMPHS OF ENTHUSIASM.000 years. has a purpose stamped upon it which unmist akably points to the crowning summit of all creation--man. but the needle. "but on such occasions I seem to be unconscious of the external world.--PHILLIPS BROOKS. The arrow shot from the bow does not wander around to see what it can hit on its way. So in every well-balanced life. Let us ever glory in something. So all along the path of life other luminaries will beckon to lead us from our cherished aim--from the course of truth and duty. I lose all sense of personal i dentity. the stars twinkle to it. Since the shuttle of creation shot for the first time through chaos. there is one grand central purpo se. for. design has marked the course of every golden thread. not only for a day. every fl ower. giving all the figures equal prominence. in which all the subordinate powers of the soul are brought to a focus. the meteor beckons. So he wrapped his bedclothes around the clay image. The labor we delight in physics pain.thinking it might be useful some day!" Definiteness of aim is characteristic of all true art. the North Star. The magnetic needle does not point to all the lights in the heavens to see which it likes be st. Young men are often told to aim high. The sun dazzles. nothin g left to chance. Wholly engrossed by the subject before me.--SHAKESPEARE. and our interest in all that would enrich and beautify our life. but fo r a century. alone. money. and try to win its affections." . but flies straight to the mark. but let no moons w hich shine with borrowed light. He is the genuine artist who makes the greatest va riety express the greatest unity. no matter how v ersatile in endowments or how broad in culture.--LOWELL. but we must aim at what we would hit. In the morning he was found dead. but never guide. A g eneral purpose is not enough. of time. distant beyond human comprehension. He is not the greatest p ainter who crowds the greatest number of ideas upon a single canvas. who develops the leading idea in the central f igure. for all practical purposes of man stationary." s aid Henry Clay. it is plain that the truth. whatever it may be. They all attract it. no meteors which dazzle. Let us beware of losing our enthusiasm. In the Galérie des Beaux Arts in Paris is a beautiful statue conceived by a sculp tor who was so poor that he lived and worked in a small garret. every atom even. points steadily to the No rth Star. and makes all the subordinate figures. He knew that if the water in the interstices of the clay should freeze. but when a man makes a gift of his daily life and practise. lights. all things else are comparatively easy to give away. Every leaf. When his clay mo del was nearly done. and with a finger that never errs in sunshine or in storm. while all the other stars must course with untiring tread around their great centers through all the ages. Words. and other hands gave it enduring form in ma rble. has taken possession of him. but his idea was saved. every crystal. or of surrounding objects. turn t he needle of our purpose from the North Star of its hope. moves with stately sweep on its circuit of more than 25. The only conclusive evidence of a man's sincerity is that he gives himself for a principle. and str ive to retain our admiration for all that would ennoble. the beautiful lines would be dist orted. true to its instinct. a heavy frost fell upon the city. "I do not know how it is with others when speaking on an important question. and where they will find fit expression. In nature we see no waste of energy.

" says Emerson. in some effectual degree. " replied Mozart. he writes because he ca n't help it. not only in those who are brilliant. "until it gets a president who takes it to bed with him."A bank never becomes very successful. There was neither brandy nor flesh needed to feed them. "Pooh. in every boy. and even persecution." Enthusiasm gives the otherwise dry an d uninteresting subject or occupation a new meaning. so I did. but they were temperance troops. established a larger empire t han that of Rome. and all the powers of heart and mind she possessed were enthusiasti cally devoted to self-improvement. They were miserably equipped. was found an overmatch for a troop of cavalry." said the boy. privations. In some sense and in some degree." said the great composer. As the young lover has finer sense and more acute vision and sees in the object of his affections a hundred virtues and charms invisible to all other eyes.--when I was dressing. an unknown Hungarian." Gladstone said that what is really desired is to light up the spirit that is wi thin a boy. When one has the spirit of a composer. is an example. If they have only the good will. spirit-driven by the plots and characters in his stori es which would not let him sleep or rest until he had committed them to paper. taken twenty-one standards. "These Frenchmen are not men. "Herr Capellmeister. there is in every boy the material of good work in the world. fifty- ." "Every great and commanding moment in the annals of the world. " is the triumph of some enthusiasm. when I was doing my hair. The Caliph Oma r's walking-stick struck more terror into those who saw it than another man's sw ord. The victories of the Arabs after Mahomet. Dickens says h e was haunted." said the Austrians in consternation. or who seem to be dull. miserably fed." It was enthusiasm that enabled Napoleon to make a campaign in two weeks that wo uld have taken another a year to accomplish. but in those who are s tolid. they fly. so a man permeated with enthusiasm has his power of perception heightened and his v ision magnified until he sees beauty and charms others cannot discern which comp ensate for drudgery. They conquered Asia and Africa and Spain on barley. His characters haunted him day and night. O n one sketch he shut himself up for a month. not only in those who are quick. "Well. and when he came out he looked as h aggard as a murderer. "you must wait. In less than a week she had become popular and independent. The women fough t like men and conquered the Roman men. I pursued it everywhere. reached by running up three octaves from low D. possessed. who . h orsed on an idea. and even in those who are dull. in a few years. the dulness will day by day clear away and vanish completely und er the influence of the good will. " I've been chasing it for a month. The naked Derar. in his firs t Italian campaign. They did they knew not what. Gerster. and at last I found it on the toe of a shoe that I wa s putting on." says a noted financier. how shall I begin?" as ked a youth of twelve who had played with great skill on the piano. had gained six victories. In fifteen days Napoleon. I've worked hard enough for it. made fame and fortune sure the first night she a ppeared in opera. pooh." said Malibran when a critic expressed h is admiration of her D in alt. I should like to compose something." "But you began when you were younger than I a m. hardships. from a small and mean beginning. Her soul was smitten with a passion for growth. "Yes. Her enthusiasm almost hypnotized her auditors. "but I never asked a nything about it. All great works of art have been produced when the artist was intoxicated with the passion for beauty and form which would not let him rest until his thought w as expressed in marble or on canvas.

"The best method is obtained by earnestness. Christopher Wren. It fixed the mariner's trembling nee dle upon its axis. Although he lived so long. He is a perfect ignora mus. until world after world swept before his vision. and was exceedingly healthy in later life." The simple. Boyd. as Charles Bell says of the hand. they will pardon many sh ortcomings." . It opened the tubes for Galileo. He worked thirty-five years upon his mas ter-piece. and the great Monument. never models statues that live." said he. and built churches and colleges at Oxford. he was so delicate as a child that he was a constant sour ce of anxiety to his parents. study. nor harnesses the forces of nature. Paul's Cathedral. but for the public good. and her belief in her great mission. man does not realiz e his strength until he has once run away with himself. "I would give my skin for the architect's design of the Louvre. H. "in which the difference betwe en half a heart and a whole heart makes just the difference between signal defea t and a splendid victory. St. unless you become a hard student. who lived more than ninety years. you find noble monuments of the genius of a man who never received instruction from an ar chitect. Enthusiasm. "want of frigat es would be found written on my heart." But his soldiers followed their "Litt le Corporal" with an enthusiasm which knew no defeat or disaster. Horace Greeley said that the best product of labor is the high-minded workman w ith an enthusiasm for his work. He al so planned for the rebuilding of London after the great fire. and it reefed the high topsail that rustled over Columbus in the morning breezes of the Bahamas. "Underneath is laid the builder of this church and city. if you seek his monument. nor rears impress ive architecture. Reader. sent a thrill of enthusiasm through th e whole French army such as neither king nor statesmen could produce. After this astonishing avalanche a discomfited Austrian general said: "This you ng commander knows nothing whatever about the art of war." said Salvini. Oh! what a great work each one could perform in thi s world if he only knew his power! But. Drury Lane Theater. "There are important cases. It has held the sword with which freedom has fought her battles . the Royal Exchange. not for himself.five pieces of cannon. nor moves the soul with poetry. There is no doing anything with him." "Should I die this minute." said Nelson at an important crisis. innocent Maid of Orleans with her sacred sword. K. study! All the genius in the world will not help you along with any art. nor the world with heroic phil anthropies. And above all." says A. and had conquere d Piedmont. had captured fifteen thousand prisoners. but those in autho rity would not adopt his splendid idea. her consecrated ban ner. wrought the statue of Memnon and hung the brazen gates of Thebes. and poised the axe of the dauntless woodman as he opened the paths of civiliza tion. n or breathes sublime music. in Temple Bar. Her zeal c arried everything before it. and first heaved the tremendous bar of the printing-press. and turned the mystic leaves upon which Milton and Shakespeare inscribed t heir burning thoughts. He built fifty-five churches in the city and thirty-six halls. "If you can impress people with the conviction that you feel what you say. when in Paris to get ideas for the restoration of St. His rare ski ll is shown in the palaces of Hampton Court and Kensington. study. Paul's Cathedral in London. Indifference never leads armies that conquer. He changed Greenwich palace into a sailor's retreat. like a bitted horse. look around!" Turn where you will in London. It has taken me years to master a single part. His great enthusiasm alone seemed to give strength to his body.

full of joy. But it is of no use.--genius. and she will understand it.There is a "go. while I would go five hundred leagues to talk with a man of genius whom I had not seen . "If it were not for respect for human opinions.' replied my companion in an excited tone. with two companions. 'and yet I wish f or once in my life to hear some really good music. mending shoes. Australia.' said the first speaker.' 'You are right. "we were walking through a narrow street of Bonn. "He is an eager. whatever it may be.' said Beethoven.' said a second voice. 'Hush!' exclaimed the great composer. " said the second. and a sobbing voice cried: 'I ca nnot play any more." said a man when asked the reason for his selection. 'what should we go in for?' 'I will play to her. almost a fanaticism for one's ideals or call ing. into t he very ideal presence whence these works have originated. 'here is f eeling. with his whole heart. 'Go in!' I remonstrated. Mole. throwing the reader of a book.' "'Let us go in. has finally extended until what used to be the peculiar str ength of a few great minds has now become characteristic of the leading nations. and a young girl leaning sorrowfully upon an old-fashion . "He makes the best of everything. The great actor Garrick well illustrated it when asked by an unsuc cessful preacher the secret of his power over audiences: "You speak of eternal v erities and what you know to be true as if you hardly believed what you were say ing yourself. It is so beautiful. Enthusiasm is the being awake. after he. bubbling over with spirits. But the influence of the United States and of Australia. where.' he continued. 'why create regrets when there is no remedy? We can sc arcely pay our rent." "He throws himself into the occasion." writes the biographer of Beethoven. His sympathies are quick as an electric flash. in praise of the man of his choice. Oh. it is utterly beyond my power to do it j ustice. who had visi ted every quarter of the world and talked with all kinds of men." a zeal. it is the tingling of every fiber of one's being to do the work that one's heart desires." Enthusiasm is that secret and harmonious spirit which hovers over the productio n of genius. suddenly pausing before a little. You do not find this in tropical countries. if a person is to succeed. 'what sound is that? It is from my Sonata in F. every man feels as if he had taken a tonic and had a new lease of life. he must be on the jump with all the ardor of his being. or the spectator of a statue. mean dwelling." that he might not leave the work until it was finished." said the third. "I would not open my window to see the Bay of Naples for the first time. a furore. vivid fellow. The papers were examined and all were found to contain the name of a prominent lawyer in Melbou rne. Hark! how well it is played!' "In the midst of the finale there was a break. that is peculiar to our American temperament and life. had written upon a slip of paper the name of the most a greeable companion he had ever met. The three were traveling correspondents of great English journals. It did not exist fifty years ago. speaking of his own most che rished acquaintance.--understanding! I will play to her. Pardon me." "When he comes into a room. It could not be found then even on the London Exchange." said Madame de Staël to M. as he opened the door and saw a young man sitting by a table. what would I not give to go to the concert at Cologne!' 'Ah! my sist er. "One moonlight evening in winter. Enthusiasm made Victor Hugo lock up hi s clothes while writing "Notre Dame. whereas I utter what I know to be unreal and untrue as if I did be lieve it in my very soul.

' he added. and left us al l in emotion and wonder. During the summer evenings her windows were generally open. I--I also ov erheard something of what you said. Then you play by ear? But where do you hear the music. 'Then you are Beethoven!' burst from the young people in delighted recognitio n. He made every tool he used in sculpture. his practice." Michael Angelo studied anatomy twelve years. I used to hear a lady prac ticing near us. gazing thoughtfully upo n the liquid stars shining so softly out of the depths of a cloudless winter sky . as he rose and turned towar d the door. Never. trembling movement. admitting a flood of brilliant moonl ight. not the need of a poor family dependent upon him. then. as if lost in thought. 'but our piano is so wretched. Farewell!' Then to me he added: 'Let us make haste back. 'I heard music and was tempted to enter. play to us once more. did I hear him play better than to that blind girl and her brother. and skin successively. The young man and woman sat as if entranced by the magical. 'I had not perceived before. 'who and what are you?' "'Listen!' replied the master.' said Beethoven hurriedly. and he played the opening bars of the Sonata in F. and we have no music. does the young lady--I--I entr eat your pardon. and then draped them. as he rose to go. si nce you frequent no concerts?' "'We lived at Bruhl for two years. 'You will come again?' asked the host and hostess in a breath. Even the ol d instrument seemed inspired. the flame of the single candle wavered. Again and again poor Bunyan m ight have had his liberty. 'Oh. chisels. He drew his figures in skeleton. elfin passage in triple time--a sort of grotesque interlude. that I may w rite out that sonata while I can yet remember it. not the love of liberty nor the spur of ambition could induce him to forego his plain preaching in public places. but the player paused. and n ot until long past the dawn of day did he rise from his table with the full scor e of the Moonlight Sonata in his hand. like the calm flow of moonlight over the earth. In p ainting he prepared all his own colors. such as files. sweet sounds that flowed out upon the air in rhythmical swell and cade nce. Then he played a sad and infinitely lovely movement. and. charming m anners disarmed envy and jealousy. but not the separation from his poor blind daughter M ary. and vag ue impulsive terror. Then came a swift agitated ending--a breathles s. fat. you would like--t hat is--shall I play for you?' "'Thank you. and would not let servants or students e ven mix them. 'Yes.' said the shoemaker. which he said was like pulling the flesh from his bones. until. added muscles. a nd went out. which carried us away on its rustling wings. like th e dance of fairies upon the lawn. and his modest. He has been called the only distinguished man who lived and died without an enemy or detractor. The shutters were thrown open. You wish to hear--that is. He had so forg . hurrying. 'how. nearly ruining his health. and pincers. during all the years I knew him.' he said. sank. This was followed by a wild. but thi s course determined his style.' We did return in haste. suddenly. yes. and his glory.' they added. 'Farewell to you.' "'No music!' exclaimed the composer.' "Beethoven seated himself at the piano.' said he. 'I will come again. flickered. Raphael's enthusiasm inspired every artist in Italy. and uncertainty. while there. and I walked to and fro outside to listen to her.ed piano. descriptive of flight. "'Wonderful man!' said the shoemaker in a low tone.--'only once more!' "'I will improvise a sonata to the moonlight. I am a musician. which crept gently over t he instrument. and give the young lady som e lessons. stammering as he saw that the girl was blind.

lest he learn the gamut? He stole midnight intervi ews with a dumb spinet in a secret attic. It was the youth Hercules that performed the Twelve Labors. perhaps unconscious tha t it is partly their own fault that they ever lost it. while among the Dakota Indians. The most irresistible charm of youth is its bubbling enthusiasm. It was the enthusiasm of conviction which enabled this poor. Enthusiastic youth . but also the love of his master's fair daughter.--no defile that has no outlet. Although he had. an English Crusader. "Pe ople smile at the enthusiasm of youth. "Almost everything that is great has been done by youth. and at nineteen gained a medal at Cambridge. "that enthusiasm which they themselves secretly look back to with a sigh. After Lincoln had walked six miles to borrow a grammar. Nor was he dishearten ed when these copies were taken from him. was taken prisoner and became a slave in t he palace of a Saracen prince." How much the world owes to the enthusiasm of Dante! Tennyson wrote his first volume at eighteen. despise d Bedford tinker to write his immortal allegory with such fascination that a who le world has read it. It is the enthusiasm of youth which cuts the Gordian knot age cannot untie. By and by he escaped and returned to England. ruined his health and could not use his eyes more than five minutes at a time for fift y years." says Charles Kingsley. "The world's i nterests are. While a student at Harvard he determined to write the history of the French and English in North America. and took to his arms a nd home his far-come princess with her solitary fond word. Only thoughts that breathe in words that burn can kindle the spark slumbering i n the heart of another. where he not only gained the confidence of his ma ster." says Dr. She knew but two words of the English language--London and Gilbert.otten his early education that his wife had to teach him again to read and write . in the hands of the young." wrote Disraeli. and believes that mankind has been waiting all th ese centuries for him to come and be the liberator of truth and energy and beaut y. but by repeating the fir st she obtained passage in a vessel to the great metropolis. The painter West began in a garret. "The most beautiful works of all art were done in youth. his fortune. Gilbert Becket. Trumbull. With a steadiness and devotion seldom equal ed he gave his life.--it forgets that there is such a thing as failure in the world. collecting material for his history. The unusual crowd drew the family to the window. he returned home and bu rned one shaving after another while he studied the precious prize." At last she came to the s treet on which Gilbert lived in prosperity. Rare consecration to a great enterprise is found in the work of the late Franci s Parkman. and then she went f rom street to street pronouncing the other--"Gilbert. but the devoted girl determined to follow him. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the high purpose formed in his youth. or t o forbid him going to school. Youth sees no darkness ahead. his all to this one great object. under God. for want of a candle churlishly denied. when Gilbert himself saw and recognized her. until he gave to the world the best history upon this subject ever writte n." says Ruskin. The boy Bach copied whole books of stu dies by moonlight. an d plundered the family cat for bristles to make his brushes. ignorant. Of what use was it to forbid the boy Handel to touch a musical instrument.

The heart rules youth. Shelley at twenty-nine. won battles at ninety-four. and died Prime Minister at eighty-one. and refused a crown at ninety-six. He became Prime Minister of E ngland the second time at seventy-five. Noah Webste r studied seventeen languages after he was fifty. What a power was Bismarck at eig hty! Lord Palmerston was an "Old Boy" to the last. The contagious zeal of an old man. The glory of age is only the glory of its enthusiasm. who is driven by his enthusiasm. and Poe lived but a few months longer. The "Odysse y" was the creation of a blind old man. Wise old Montaigne w as shrewd in his gray-beard wisdom and loving life. Peter the Hermit. Keats died at twenty-five. Unknown at forty. Byron and Raphael died at thirty-seven. Alexander was a mere youth when he rolled back the Asiatic hordes that threat ened to overwhelm European civilization almost at its birth. Cicero said well that men are like wine: age sours the bad and improves the good. was working every day. adapting the p rinciple of the pendulum to clocks. and the former had made his infl uence felt throughout England before he was twenty-four. Newton made some of his gr eatest discoveries before he was twenty-five.faces the sun. Dandolo. in spite of the torpid influence of an enfeebled body. and had taken three prizes at the Academy and gained the title of Master before he was twenty. the head. Tom Scott began the study of Hebrew at eighty-six. Defoe was fifty-eight when he published "Robinson Crusoe. Gladstone was in Parliament in early manhood. manhoo d. a month before his death. Whittier's. an age which h as been fatal to many a genius. It is said tha t no English poet ever equaled Chatterton at twenty-one. Some of Longfellow's. the Doge of Venice. Somerville finished her "Molecular and Microscopic Science" at eighty-nin e. even in the midst of his fit s of gout and colic. yet his cotton-gin opened a g reat industrial future for the Southern States. yet he made the world fee l his character. Eli Whitney was twenty-three when he decided to prepare fo r college. Luther was a triumphant reformer at twenty-five. at eightyone. Whitefield and Wesley b egan their great revival as students at Oxford. blind and feeble." Newton wro te new briefs to his "Principia" at eighty-three. "The Lives of the Poets. that he might read Dante in the original. But if enthusiasm is irresistible in youth. Grant was one of the most famous generals in history at forty-two. Humboldt completed his "Cosmos" at ninety. James Watt learned German at eighty-five . how much more so is it when carried into old age! Gladstone at eighty had ten times the weight and power that any m an of twenty-five would have with the same ideals. and Tennys on's best work was done after they were seventy. Napoleon had conque red Italy at twenty-five." Robert Hall learne d Italian when past sixty. but that old man was Homer. . and thirty when he graduated from Yale. Johnson's best work. Pitt and Bolingbroke were ministers almost before they we re men. Baco n and Humboldt were enthusiastic students to the last gasp. Their ardor is their crown. before which the languid and the passive bow. Dr. At sixty-three Dryden began the translation of the "Aeneid. Many of the world's greatest geniuses never saw forty years. G alileo at seventy-seven. rolled the chivalry of Eur ope upon the ranks of Islam. Victor Hugo wrote a tra gedy at fifteen. Plato died writing. had such an opportunity as he has to-day. it shadows all behind it. Romulus f ounded Rome at twenty. Burke wa s thirty-five before he obtained a seat in Parliament. Mrs. George Stephenson did not learn to read and write until he had reached manhood. Galileo was nearly seven ty when he wrote on the laws of motion. It is the age of young men and young women. and the respect paid to white hairs is reverence to a h eart fervent." was written when he was seve nty-eight. Wellington planned and superintended fortifications at eighty. Never before has t he young man.

1861." wrote Governor Andrew of Massachu setts to President Lincoln on May 3. namely. "Immediately on receiving your proclamation. "Lose this day by loitering--'t will be the same story tomorrow. April 15. "Who cannot but see oftentimes how strange the threads of our destiny run? Oft it is only for a moment the favorable instant is presented. or in Fortress Monroe. when it took a month of dangerous traveling to accomplish the distance we can now span in a few hours. There are critical moments in every successful life when if the mind hesitate or a ne rve flinch all will be lost. when he rallied his men only to die just before his t roops were taken prisoners." Caesar's delay to read a message cost him his lif e when he reached the senate house. not the millionth part of a second. "Delays have dangerous ends. but he lost honor. We miss it. even as the Gulf Stream softens the rigors of northern Europe. libert y. and the next m ore dilatory." .--EDWARD EVERETT. as if there were not an inch of red tape in the world. We can do as much in an hour to-day as they could in twe nty hours a hundred years ago. the Hessian commander at Trent on. "Haste. with a picture of a courier swinging from a gibbet." CHAPTER XIV.With enthusiasm we may retain the youth of the spirit until the hair is silvere d.--no. doubt thy fitness for thy work. Only a few minutes' delay." He had received a telegram for troops from Washington on Monday." Let's take the instant by the forward top. or o n their way to the defence of the Capitol. "we took up the war.--for ages and ages of wh ich it traveled that imperiled road. Post-offices were unknown." By the street of by and by one arrives at the house of never. "ON TIME." Note the sublime precision that leads the earth over a circuit of five hundred millions of miles back to the solstice at the appointed moment without the loss of one second. and letters were carried by government mess engers subject to hanging if they delayed upon the road. life! Success is the child of two very plain parents--punctuality and accuracy. and have carried on our part of it. in the spirit in which we believe the Administration and the American people intend to act. Colonel Rahl. at nine o'clock the next Sunday he said: "All the regiments demanded from Massachusetts are already either in Washington.--SHAKESPEARE. He put the letter in his pocket without reading it un til the game was finished. One of the greatest gains civilization has made is in measur ing and utilizing time. "How ages thine heart. slow days of stage-coaches.--towards youth? If not. post. and mont hs and years are lost. haste! Haste for thy life!" was frequently written upon messages in the days of Henry VIII of England. unnecessary delay was a crime. was playing cards when a messenger brought a letter stating that Washington was crossing the Delaware." OR THE TRIUMPH OF PROMPTNESS "On the great clock of time there is but one word--NOW. Even in the old.--CERVANTES.

or the neglected blow struck on the cold iron. Putting off usually means l eaving off. It was enough to send Napoleon to St. Blucher was on time. "To-morrow. the appointed work can ever be done again . never did any man or anything w ait one minute for me. but in the present. the loss of a few moments by himself and Grouchy on the fatal morning was the most significant. "do you accomplish so much." asked a man of Sir Walter Raleigh." "How. Promptness takes the drudgery out of an occupation. "To this quality I owed my extraordinary promotion in the army. I go and do it. and going to do becomes going undone. and asked when he would be ready to go." The energy wasted in postponing until to-morrow a duty of to-day would often do the work. afterwards Earl St. what next to do." said Maria Edgeworth. it might throw the wh ole universe out of harmony. The African Association of London wanted to send Ledyard." that "nick of time" whic h occurs in every battle." was the reply. too. and replied. I was ready at nine. will fail. There is not an hour of it but is trembling with destinie s--not a moment of which. a French statesman replied. was asked when he could join his ship." Napoleon laid great stress upon that "supreme moment. instruction. replied without hesitation. even if he makes occasional mistakes." Colin Campbell. Doing a deed is like sowing a seed: if not done at just the right time it will be forever out of season. to take advantage of which means victory." said he. appointed commander of the army in Ind ia. Many large firms make it a rule never to allow a letter to lie unanswered overnight." Cobbett said he owed his success to being "always ready" more than to all his n atural abilities combined." "The whole period of youth. Helena. and when th at question is answered. edi fication. once passed. to Afri ca." said Ruskin. and it has been said that among the trifle s that conspired to defeat him at Waterloo. How much harder and more disagreeable. will succee d when a procrastinator. "To-morrow morning. If a star or planet were delayed one second. it is to do work which ha s been put off! What would have been done at the time with pleasure or even enth usiasm. When asked how he managed to accomplish so much work. and in so short a time?" "When I have anything to do. and asked when he could set out. no instant force and energy." was the reply. after it has been delayed for days and weeks. ther e is no moment at all. that what may be done at any time will be done at no time. The man who always acts promptly. "There is no moment like the present. lost in the hurry and scurry o f the world. the traveler. He said that he beat the Austrians because they di d not know the value of five minutes. The s ummer of eternity will not be long enough to bring to maturity the fruit of a de layed action. The man who will not execute his resolutions when they are fresh upon him can have no ho pes from them afterward. even if he have the better judgment. "I do it simply by never po . becomes drudgery. "If I had to mount guard at ten. It is a well-known truism that has almost been elevated to the dignity of a max im. "is what to do. and to lose in hesitation means disaster. "not only so. Letters can never be answered so easily as when first received." he said. Vincent. or sunk in the slough of indolence. and Grouchy was late."The only question which I can entertain. and to chan ge the destiny of millions. the other is. and at the same time atte nd to his social duties. "is one essentially of formation. "Directly. John Jervis. They will be dissipated.

Clay." "To-morrow. To-morrow! it is a period nowhere to be found in all the hoary registers o f time. the currency of id iots. ." It was said of an unsuccess ful public man that he used to reverse this process. his favorite maxim being "n ever to do to-day what might be postponed till to-morrow. and so did the detectives. Wisdom disclaims the word. some after lunch.stponing till to-morrow what should be done to-day. There is in every person's life a crucial hour in the day. and therefore sleep as little as possible. which must be employed instead of wasted if the day is to be saved. Daniel Webster used often to answer twenty to thirty letters before breakfast." It is the devil's motto. 'Tis fancy's child. a last look at the receipts. There is only one known remedy for the victims of indecision. and some after seven o'clock in the e vening." are golden maxims. A person was once extolling the skill and courage of Mayenne in Henry's presenc e. and promises. h ow heavy it feels!' But presently he roused himself. This made all the difference between them. and folly is its fathe r. "by and by. We go to it with reluc tance." said Henry. Peter the Gre at always rose before daylight. 'My head. as were m ost of the famous astronomers of ancient and modern times. but we make up our bodies every morning to keep it late. 'I'll take it to--Pembroke--Street to--morr ow. being assured that to-morrow has some vast benefit or other in store for me. nor holds society with those that own it. Some people it attacks after dinner. "Strike while the iron is hot. Otherwise the disease is fatal to al l success or achievement. Very few people recognize the hour when laziness begins to set in. and murmured again. "You are right. he took." Charles Reade continues in his story o f Noah Skinner. who had been overcome by a sleepy languor after deciding to make restitution. Webster. To-mo rrow! 'tis a sharper who stakes his penury against thy plenty--who takes thy rea dy cash and pays thee naught but wishes. but I have always five h ours' start of him. to--morrow. and murmured. and Mayenne at about ten . the wrecks of half-finished plans and unexecuted resolutions. Washi ngton. unless perchance in the fool's calendar. "Go to--I will not hear of it. "for making my life as long as possible. Copernicus was an early riser." Henry rose at four in the morning. and baseless as the fantastic visions o f the evening. In the hours of early morning Columbus planned his voyage to Americ a. Jefferson. brokenly. A noted writer says that a bed is a bundle of paradoxes. Yet most of those who have become eminent have been early risers." Oh. wrought of such stuffs as dreams are. the defaulting clerk. hopes. It is the favorite refuge of sloth and incompetency. Bancroft at dawn." and "Make hay while the sun shines. He who hesitates is lost. Bryant rose at five. waking up from a sort of heavy d oze. how many a wreck on the road to success could say: "I have s pent all my life in pursuit of to-morrow. as it were. "he is a great captain. All history is strewn with its brilliant victims. dead. "I am." How many men have daw dled away their success and allowed companions and relatives to steal it away fi ve minutes at a time! "To-morrow. full of his penitent resolu tions." said he.' The morrow found him. We make up our minds every night to leave it early. and Napoleon his greatest campaigns. and that is prompt decision. and nearly all our leading authors in the early morning." Alfred the Great rose befo re daylight. Indecision becomes a disease and pr ocrastination is its forerunner. With most people the earl y morning hour becomes the test of the day's success. didst thou say?" asked Cotton." "But his resolutions remained unshaken. yet we quit it with regret. and Calhoun were all early risers.

and take the hours of recreation after business. God gave them a work to do. never before it. They came in just as he was rising from the table. but always ready with an excuse ." said Horace Greeley. They cannot tell what became of it." When his secretary excused the lateness of his attendance by saying that his wa tch was too slow. He rose at five." Franklin said to a servant who was always late. he began to eat without them. This was the secret of his enormous achie vements. but. After th e eighth hour in bed. but sure e nough. A fragment of their allotted time was lost. their work and their time run parallel. "At the instant when He ushered them into existence.Walter Scott was a very punctual man. their time and their work would end together. Their letters are posted the very minute a fter the mail is closed. it is one of the practical virtues of civiliz ation. as they did not arriv e at the moment appointed. but they systemati cally go about it too late." When President Washington dined at four. They do not break any engagement or neglect any duty. and the world treats him as such. They arrive at the wharf just in time to see the steamb oat off. and be mortified to find the P resident eating. as he used to say. "Gentlemen. Do instantly whatever is to be done. new members of Congress invited to din e at the White House would sometimes arrive late." Napoleon once invited his marshals to dine with him. and go to work. or an acquirement. They are never too soon." . it is his business to get up. "My cook. There is one thing that is almost as sacred as the marriage relation. Washington replied. "never asks if the visitors ha ve arrived. Very frequently seven hours is plenty. and usually too late by about the same fatal interva l. "it is now past dinner." Washington would say. and He also gave them a competence of time. "why s hould he have for their money? What is the difference between taking a man's hou r and taking his five dollars? There are many men to whom each hour of the busin ess day is worth more than five dollars. and wrought with sufficient vigor. By breakfast-time he had." Whether it be an inspiration. the one an inch shorter than the other. "Then you must get a new watch." Not too much can be said about the value of the habit of rising early. but if the hour has arrived. "If a man has no regard for the time of other men. or I anoth er secretary. he gave this counsel: "Beware of stumbling over a propensity which easily besets you from not having your time fully employed--I mean what t he women call dawdling." said Hamilton. and we will immediately proceed to business. but the work is always ten minutes in advance of the time. is practically a liar. A man who fails to meet his appointment. for just like two measuring-lines laid a longside. "I have generally found that the man who is good at an excuse is good for noth ing else. dress quic kly." said he. they come in sight of the terminus precisely as the station gates are c losing. "A singular mischance has happened to some of our friends. They are no t irregular. it has dropped out of existence. broken th e neck of the day's work. if a man is able. so much that if they began at the right moment." Some one has said that "promptness is a contagious inspiration. unless he has a good r eason.--that is. Writing to a youth who had obtained a situation and as ked him for advice. an appointment. But a good many years ago a strange misfortune befell them. Eight ho urs is enough sleep for any man.

as brevity is of wit. During the first seven years of his mercantile career." Buckner replied that circumstances compelled h im "to accept the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms which you propose. It is the best possibl e proof that our own affairs are well ordered and well conducted. In court." It was found that the clock was three minutes f ast. he was equally punctual. Every young man should have a watch which is a good timekeeper. how I do appreciate a boy who is always on time!" says H. asking for the appointment of commissioners to consider terms of capitulation. When Buckner sent him a flag of truce at Fort Donelson. . he promptly replied: "No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. and how soon you find yourself intrusting him with weightier matters! The boy who has acquired a reputation for punctuality h as made the first contribution to the capital that in after years makes his succ ess a certainty. "No. Grant decided to enlist the moment that he learned of the fall of Sumter. Punctuality is the soul of business. and is an expensive investment at any price. as ordered. I propose to m ove immediately upon your works. Many a trenchant paragraph for the "Tribune" was written while the editor was w aiting for men of leisure. is sure to win. Punctuality is said to be the polit eness of princes. A leading firm with enormous assets becomes bankrupt. The Speaker of the House o f Representatives knew when to call the House to order by seeing Mr. Adams arrived. "Oh. Adams comin g to his seat. Amos Lawrence did not pe rmit a bill to remain unsettled over Sunday." The man who. The man who is punctual. and gives othe rs confidence in our ability. Horace Greeley managed to be on time for every appointment. teaches habits of pr omptness.Blücher was one of the promptest men that ever lived. Mr." Promptness is the mother of confidence and gives credit. "Mr. tardy at some meeting. one th at is nearly right encourages bad habits. C. "How q uickly you learn to depend on him. They lack method. and a terrible railway collision occurs. Webster was never late at a recitation in school or college. and seldom accomplish much. Once a member said that it was time to begin. in congr ess. Amid the cares and distractions of a s ingularly busy life. Some men are always running to catch up with their business: t hey are always in a hurry. A conductor's watch is behind time. and give you the impression that they are late for a train. Every business man knows th at there are moments on which hang the destiny of years. like Napoleon. simply because an agent is t ardy in transmitting available funds." John Quincy Adams was never known to be behind time. and prompt to the minute. A man is stopped five minutes to hear a trivial story and misses a train or steam er by one minute. Brown. and may be depended upon. for recitations. He was called "Marshal Forw ard. If you arrive a few mom ents late at the bank. as a rule." said another. An innocent man is hanged beca use the messenger bearing a reprieve should have arrived five minutes earlier. in society. or for lectures. Adams is not in his seat. can on the instant seize the most important thing a nd sacrifice the others. One of the best things about school and college life is that the bell which str ikes the hour for rising. will keep his word. your paper may be protested and your credit ruined.

it will not be long until that gir l's employer will discover that she is not advancing his business. A few minut es often makes all the difference between victory and defeat. The outer condition of the bod y is accepted as the symbol of the inner. She will fall little by little until she deg enerates into an ambitionless slattern. clean. As a general thing an individual who is neat in his person is neat in his moral s. while outward slovenliness suggests a pearance that probably goes deeper than the clothes covering of body and comelin indicating a sanita carelessness for ap the body. "Dainty ribbons. For the apparel oft proclaims the man. CHAPTER XV WHAT A GOOD APPEARANCE WILL DO Let thy attire be comely but not costly. I can recall instances of capable stenograp hers who forfeited their positions because they did not keep their finger nails clean. A young woman who ceases to care for her appearance in minutes t detail will soon cease to please. fall away in the other. I hold that gentleman to be the best dressed whose dress no one observes. strong. for I believe that absolute cleanliness is go dliness. rich not gau dy. But self-interest clamors as loudly as esthetic or moral considerations for the fulfilment of the laws of cleanliness. SHAW. The other day a lady remarked that she went into a store to buy some ribbons. If it is unlovely. An honest.Many a wasted life dates its ruin from a lost five minutes. clean character. . Every day we see people receiving "demer its" for failure to live up to them." Of course. "Too late" can be r ead between the lines on the tombstone of many a man who has failed. The first point to be emphasized in the making of a good appearance is the nece ssity of frequent bathing. It is not to be wondered at that the Talmud places cleanliness next to godlines s. we conclude that the mind corresponds with it. neatness of attire ry care of the person. But not expressed in fancy. throu gh sheer neglect or indifference. We express ourselves first of all in our bodies. Without this he is nothing but a brute. the law will work inexorably. There are two chief factors in good appearance. strong. A daily bath insures a clean. Cleanliness or purity of soul and body raises man to the highest estate ." she said.--H. wholeso me lives and work are incompatible with low standards of personal cleanliness. wholesome condition of the skin. clean physique and a f ine. success and failur e. A young man who neglects his bath will neglect his mind. cleanliness ess of attire. "could not be handled by such soiled fingers withou t losing some of their freshness. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy.--ANTH ONY TROLLOPE.--LIVY. As a rule. or repulsive. he will quickly deterior ate in every way. High ideals and strong. A man who allows himself to become careless in reg ard to the one will. the conclusion is a just one. SHAKESPEARE. W. Usually these go together. without which health is impossible.--we ll. in spite of himself. but when she saw the salesgirl's hands she changed her mind and made her purchase elsewhere. and then. There is a very close connection between a fine. I should place it nearer still. intelligent man whom I know lost his place in a large publishi ng firm because he was careless about shaving and brushing his teeth.

a crumpled collar. This requires little more than a small amount of time and the use of s oap and water. you are appropriately dressed. a hair-cut. or slovenly. and no one can have negle cted teeth without reaping this consequence. to which a very little ammonia may be added. no matter how poor he may be. and walk to the place." [Illustration: John Wanamaker] Most large business houses make it a rule not to employ anyone who looks seedy. who dress very well and seem to take considerable pride in their personal appearance. the majority can afford to be well dressed. They do not realize that there could hardly be a worse blot on one's appearance than dirty or decaying teeth. and young women. You will be more respected by yourself and every one else with an old coat on your back that has been paid for than a new one that has not. want one whose appearance is marred by a lack of one or two front teeth. will be excused for wearing a dirty coat . s hould be a practical authority on this subject. but the slovenliness that is avoidable. The hair. and of maintaining your self-respect and integrity at all costs. Nor does he. or stenographer. and in these days . It is not the shabbiness that is unavoidable. Herbert H. four dollars for shoes. of always being scrupulously neat and cl ean. it should not be washed oftener than once a month and the ammonia may be omitted. If you are dressed according to your means. The man who hires all the salespeople for one of the largest retail stores in Chicago says: . If you can not afford to buy a whole set. should be combed and brushed regularly every day. But no one need blush f or a shabby suit. it should be washed thoroughly every two weeks with a good reli able scalp soap and warm water. Many an applicant has been denied the position he sought because of bad teeth. N o employer wants a clerk. the best counsel on the subj ect of clothes may be summed up in this short sentence. and a clean collar. too. The consciousness of makin g the best appearance you possibly can. no matter how poorly. and give you a dignity. of course. the hands. it is better to spend twenty dol lars for a suit of clothes." Simplicity in dress is its greatest charm. We all know how disagreeable it is to be anywhere near a person whose breath is bad. yet perhaps more people sin in this particular point of cleanliness than in an y other. than go with the money in t he pockets of a dingy suit. but good clothes have got many a man a good job. and the rest for a shave. or other employee about him who conta minates the atmosphere. If it is naturally oily. a nd magnetic forcefulness that will command the respect and admiration of others. Nothing can be more offensive in man or woman than a foul breath. yet neglect their teeth. For those who have to make their way in the world. when there is such an infinite variety of tasteful but inexpensive fabrics to choose from. but not costly. In the course of an address on h ow to attain success. and want a job. you can buy a file (you can get one as low as ten cents). and keep your nai ls smooth and clean. I know young men. if circumstances prevent his having a better one. or muddy shoes. if he is at all particular. "Let thy attire be comel y. that the world frowns upon . Manicure sets are so cheap that the y are within the reach of almost everyone. If the hair is dry or lacking in oily matter. who rose in a short time from a section hand on the Long I sland Railroad to the presidency of all the surface railways in New York City. or who does not make a good appearance when he applies for a posit ion. strength. or the absence of one or two in front. It is positively disgusting. No one. he said:-"Clothes don't make the man. and t he teeth. will susta in you under the most adverse circumstances. Keeping the teeth in good condition is a very simple matter . I f you have twenty-five dollars. Vreeland.Next in importance to the bath is the proper care of the hair.

lacking in dignity and impo rtance. be rejected. they may keep it. self-respect. lay a volume of meaning. Is it not a fact that the smart saleswoman is usually rather particular about her dress. Work people whose personal habits are sloven ly produce slovenly work." As the consciousness of be ing well dressed tends to grace and ease of manner. as in an Egyptian hieroglyphic. Our clothes unmistakably affect our feelings." It says:-"Wherever a marked personal care is exhibited for the cleanliness of the person and for neatness in dress. Long afterward. or s oiled attire makes one feel awkward and constrained. A well-ironed collar or a fresh glove has car ried many a man through an emergency in which a wrinkle or a rip would have defe ated him. and general fi tness for the position they extolled in the highest terms. One of those large-souled women of wealth." No young man or woman who wishes to retain that most potent factor of the succe ssful life. Apparently she posse ssed all the required qualifications. but with torn and soiled gloves. and considered herself fortunate when the trustees of the institution recomme nded to her a young woman whose tact. there is also almost always found extra carefulness as regards the finish of work done. A slovenly woman is not a fit guide for any . and faded ties? The truth of the matt er seems to be that extra care as regards personal habits and general appearance is. The young woman was i nvited by the founder of the school to call on her at once. That the same rule that governs employers in America holds in England. frayed cuffs. absolutely refused to give her a trial. as a rule. for "the character is subdued to what it is clothed in. ill-fitting. And probably what is true of the workroom is equally true of the region behind the counter. perfect manners. she replied: "It was a trifle. had established an industrial school for girls in which they received a good English education and were train ed to be self-supporting. is evide nced by the "London Draper's Record. those who are careful of their own appearance are equa lly careful of the looks of the work they turn out. or soiled garments ar e detrimental to morals and manners. when questioned by a friend as to the cause of her seemingly inexplicable conduct in refusing to en gage so competent a teacher. and yet. and self respect." says El izabeth Stuart Phelps. Applicants whose good appearanc e helped them to secure a place may often be very superficial in comparison with some who were rejected in their favor and may not have half their merit. "The consciousness of clean linen." It does not matter how much merit or ability an applicant for a position may po ssess. indicative of a certain alertness of mind. She needed the services of a superintendent and teache r. V. and half of the buttons off her shoes. which shows itself an tagonistic to slovenliness of all kinds. can afford to be negligent in the matter of dress. so shabby. but ha ving secured it. ill-fitting."While the routine of application is in every case strictly adhered to. The young woman came to me fashionably and expensively dressed. as anyon e knows who has experienced the sensation--and who has not?--that comes from bei ng attired in new and becoming raiment. but a trifle in whic h. in which our generation is rich." The importance of attending to little details--the perfection of which really c onstitutes the well-dressed man or woman--is well illustrated by this story of a young woman's failure to secure a desirable position. the fac t remains that the most important element in an applicant's chance for a trial i s his personality. "is in and of itself a source of moral strength. Mrs . he can not afford to be careless of his personal appearance. second o nly to that of a clean conscience. is aver se to wearing dingy collars. Diamonds in the rough of infinitely greater value than the polished glass of some of those w ho get positions may. without assigning any reason. Poor. occasionally. knowledge. though not possessing half the ability of the boy or girl who was turned away.

flashy. The knowledge that we are becomingly clothed acts like a mental tonic. if. The worl d accepts the truth announced by Shakespeare that "the apparel oft proclaims the man". before you have finished dressing your "blues" and your half-sick feeling will have vanished like a bad dream. t hey fall into as great a pitfall as those who think clothes are of no importance . or who. By emphasizing the importance of dress I do not mean that you should be like Be au Brummel. Very few men or women are so strong and so perfectly poised as to be unaffected by their surroundings. you take a good bath .--a Turkish bath. again and again. and planning how they can buy. who spent four thousand dollars a year at his tailo r's alone. vulgar. as well as t he truest economy. and aspirants to success should be as careful in choosing their dr ess as their companions." is offset by this wise saying of some philosopher of the c ommonplace: "Show me all the dresses a woman has worn in the course of her life. are frequently condemned by the very garb which they think makes them so irresistible. . you will fi nd yourself very quickly taking on the mood of your attire and environment." when you feel half sick and not able to work. and have no time to devote to self-culture or to fitting th emselves for higher positions. you will feel like a new person. measure the sense and self-respect o f the wearer. tawdry imitation. Nine times out of ten. Many young men and women make the mistake of thinking that "well dressed" neces sarily means being expensively dressed. The overdressed young woman is merely the feminine of the overdressed young man . taking it easy because you do not expect or wish to see anybody. who make it their chief object in life. slipshod. as a rule. At first sight. Like the dandy. the effect of which is only to make them look ridiculous. they buy some cheap. vermilion-tinted ties.young girl. office and existence consists in the wearing of clothes." Probably the applicant never knew why she did not obtain the positi on." they live to dress. Young men of this stamp wear cheap rings. that it is a duty. for the old adage: "Tell me thy company and I will tell thee what thou art. instead of l ying around the house in your old wrapper or dressing gown. except i n this seemingly unimportant matter of attention to the little details of dress. like Beau Brummel. and the man and the woman. with this erroneous idea in mind. and broad checks. and with your room all in disord er. without making your toilet. it will refuse to exert itself. or tie or coat. but experience has proved . to the neglect of their mos t sacred duty to themselves and others. it may seem hasty or superficial to judge men or women by their clothes. when you have an a ttack of the "blues. this or that expensive hat. Your mind will slip down. for she was undoubtedly well qualified to fill it in every respect. out of their limited sala ries. If they can not by any possibility afford the coveted arti cle. in view of its effect on ours elves and on those with whom we come in contact. Their style of dress bespeaks a type of character even more objectionable than that of the slovenly. that they do.--a man whose trade . The manners of both seem to have a subtle connection with their clothes. and make you r toilet as carefully as if you were going to a fashionable reception. spirit. devote most o f their waking hours to its study. too. They are loud. They devote the time that should be given to the culture of head and heart to studying their toilets. to dress as well and becomingly as our position requires and our means will allow. If you lie a round half-dressed. whom Carlyle describes as "a clothes-wearing man.--put on your best clothes. person and purse is heroically consecrated to this one object. it will become as slovenly . the English fop. On the other hand. and they love dress too much who "go in d ebt" for it. if you can afford it. which they see exhibited in so me fashionable store. and inactive as your body.--every faculty of who se soul. an d your whole outlook on life will have changed. untidily dressed person. and. An undue love of dress is worse than a total disregard of it. and almost invariably they occupy cheap positions. But I do claim. and who used to take hours to tie his cravat. From every point of view it pays well to dress well.

" says Sydney Smith. This he always put on before entering his study. "Would you change the current of your thoughts? Change your raiment. The great thing is to teac h her their proper value. every star is veiled in brightness . not even omitting his swo rd.--puts on a dainty muslin garment instead. and y ou will at once feel the effect. or shabby apparel which not o nly robs one of self-respect. Her mind runs along new channels. and make one talk well. Good clothes give e ase of manner. but also of comfort and power. which sets an audience wild at the mention of the name of a Blaine or a Linco ln. unbecoming. Her face and hands and finger nails must be spotless as the muslin which surrounds them. and it will have the effect of making her indifferent as to whethe r her hair is frowsy or in curl papers. will in some subtle way be dominated by the old wrapper. . which no biograph a great deal to do with one's success in life. Her whole prospect and hap piness in life may often depend upon a new gown or a becoming bonnet. He has put robes of beauty and glory upon all His works. It is this indescribable quality. The consciousness of being well dressed g ives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. when we remember what an effect clothes have in in citing to personal cleanliness. testifies to the influence of dress on thought. how different her looks and acts! Her hair must be becomingly arranged. every bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. which some persons have in a remarkable degre e. while inferi ority of garb often induces restraint. clean wrapper than for the wearer of the old." "How exquisitely absurd it is. which which the sculptor can not chisel. This subtle s but which no one can describe. She has much more respect for the wearer of the new. soiled one. This is not an extravagant statement.--which makes people applaud beyond the bounds of enthusiasm. the natu ralist and philosopher. Although. He decla red himself utterly incapable of thinking to good purpose except in full court d ress. It was this pec uliar atmosphere which made Clay the idol of his constituents. Let a woman. or what sort of slipshod shoes she wears. er ever put down in a book. she will find this out." Even so great an authority as Buffon." Webster and Sumner were great men." Her walk. "is good enough to go with this old wrapper. for "anything. If she has five grains of common sense. perhaps . dress of no use. There is something about ill-fitting. but they did not arouse a tithe of the spontaneous enthusiasm evoked by men like Blaine and Clay.and I will write you her biography. CHAPTER XVI PERSONALITY AS A SUCCESS ASSET There is something about one's the painter can not reproduce." she argues. It does not matter whether her face or h ands are clean or not. he never aroused any such enthusiasm as "the mill-b oy of the slashes. for instance. her manner. so as not to be at odds with her dress. Suppose she changes. "to teach a girl that beauty is of no value. Prentice Mulford declar es dress to be one of the avenues for the spiritualization of the race. has personality which eludes the photographer. And sure ly He is pleased when we provide a beautiful setting for the greatest of His han diworks. omething which every one feels. the general trend of her feelings. ev ery field blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. Every flower is dressed in richness. but they have a much larger influe nce on man's life than we are wont to attribute to them. The down-at-heel old shoes are exchanged fo r suitable slippers. One can not but feel that God is a lover of appropriate dress. don an old soiled or worn wrapper. Calhoun was a greater man. Beauty is of value." It is true that clothes do not make the man.

have b een transformed. and yet so little of this personal element adheres to his cold words in print that those who read them are scarcely moved at all. perhaps. as it were. They draw out the best that is in us. and we resolve. in measuring Kossuth's influence over the masses. and then carry the measuring li ne above his atmosphere. They unlock w ithin us possibilities of which we previously had no conception. as if a great weight which long had pressed upon us had been removed . to our larger. Indeed. "we mu st first reckon with the orator's physical bulk. They are much larger than anything they say or do. being rapidly advanced over the heads of those who are infinitely their superiors in mental endowments. We are often misled as to the position they are going to occupy from the fact that we are apt to take account merely of their ability . superb manner. The old commonplace life. impulses and longings come thronging to our minds which never stirred us before. narrowing sensation. A good illustration of the influence of personal atmosphere is found in the ora tor who carries his audience with him like a whirlwind. and sometimes even controls the destinies of nations. suddenly. and to be more than we have been in the past. and. but cou ld also make more accurate estimates concerning the future possibilities of scho olmates and young friends. and we are fired with a desire to do more than we have ever before done. whic . although meeting them.A historian says that. perhaps. Even a momentary contact with a character of this kind seems to double our ment al and soul powers. despair to h ope.--the atmosphere that eman ates from them. and disheartenment to encouragement. We can converse with such people in a way that astonishes us. and we are loath to leave the magical presence lest we lose our new-born power. we were sad and discouraged. The influence of su ch speakers depends almost wholly upon their presence. The moment we come into their presence we have a sense of enlargement. at least. Sadness gives place to joy. and magnetic qua lities. the flashlight of a potent personality of this kind has opened a rift in our lives and revealed to us hidden capabilities. A few minutes before. All at o nce life takes on a higher and nobler meaning. when. A blighting. we have caught a glimpse of higher ideals. for the first time. Certain personalities are greater than mere physical beauty and more powerful t han learning. we experience a sense of relief. With their presence. we constantly see men of m ediocre ability but with fine personal presence. with better heart and newer hope. better selves. We are unconsciously influenced by people who possess this magnetic power. Our horizon bro adens. as two great dynamos double the current which passes over th e wire. while he is delivering h is speech. with its absence of purpose and endea vor. has dropped out of sight. for the moment. Charm of personality is a divine gift that sways the strongest cha racters." If we had discernment fine enough and tests delicate e nough. On the other hand. they introd uce us. We express ourselves more clearly and eloquen tly than we believed we could. We have been touched to finer issues. to struggle to make permanently ours the forces and potentialities that have be en revealed to us. Yet this individual atmosphere has quite as much to do with o ne's advancement as brain-power or education. as if a bl ast of winter had struck us in midsummer. and do not reckon this personal atmosphere or magnetic power as a part of thei r success-capital. we could not only measure the personal atmosphere of individuals. we feel a new power stirring through all our being. we frequently meet people who make us shrivel and shrink int o ourselves. The moment they come near us we experience a cold chill.

and we haste n from it as soon as possible. which is entirely independen t of personal beauty. who feels it a privilege to have the power to do a fellow-cr eature a kindness. Of course. also. She may not be handsome. Much of the charm of a magnetic personality comes from a fine. is a very important element. It is infinitely better than money capital. and be able to do just the rig ht thing at the proper time.h seems to make us suddenly smaller. At a social gathering. it is a privilege to speak to her. perhaps the most important. the charm of sentiment vanishes and life seems to lose color and zest. which we sometim es call individuality. He will b e trusted and loved by all who come in contact with him. They are more than welcome. of possibility. He will bring encouragement to and uplift every life that touches his. that rare charm of manner which captivates all those who come within the sphere of its influence.--next to a fine manner. cultivated manne r. Good taste is also one of the elements of personal charm. In their presence there is no possibility of expansion for us. we shall find that the chief differ ence between them is that the first loves his kind. who is genuinely interested in the welfare of others. born in one. or the qualities that can be rated. We feel a decided loss of p ower. When they are near us our laudable purposes and desires shrink into insi gnificance and mere foolishness. This was notably the case with some of the women who ruled in the French salon s more absolutely than the king on his throne. As a da rk cloud suddenly obscures the brightness of a smiling summer sky. Magnetic personality is intangible. is often more powerful than the ability which can be meas ured. One of the greatest investments one can make is that of attaining a gracious ma nner. when conversation drags. Their gloomy miasmatic atmosphere chills all our natural impulses. They simply know they have it. t he entrance of some bright woman with a magnetic personality instantly changes t he whole situation. Good judgment and common sense are indispensable to those who are trying to acquire this magic power. People who possess this rare quality are frequently ignorant of the source of t heir power. If we study these two types of personality. passes over us. Wh ile it is. a gift of nature. You can not offend the tastes of others without hur ting their sensibilities. or art. undefinable uneasiness. but can not locate or describe it.--the delightful art of pleas ing. for all doors fly open to sunny . they are sought for everyw here. are largely natural gifts. and the latter does not. But we shall f ind that the man who practises unselfishness.--will be an elevating influence wherever he goes. We instinctively feel that such people have no sympathy with our aspirations. it can be cultivated to a certain extent. like poetry. This type of personalit y we may all cultivate if we will. This mysterious something. Many women are endowed with this magnetic quality. music. a nd our natural prompting is to guard closely any expression of our hopes and amb itions. . and interest is at a low ebb. Tact. The effect of their presence is paralyzing. cordiality of bearing. It is often possessed in a high degree by very plain women . their shadows are cast upon us and fill us with vague. and that strong personal magnetism which inclines all hearts toward its fortunate possessor. We could no more smile in their presence than we could lau gh while at a funeral.--even though polished manners and a gracious presence may be conspicuous by their absence. One must know exactly what to do. generosity of feeling. pleasing personalities. but everybody is attracted.

and sleep on the counter in his store with a roll of calico for his pillow. you can not overestimate the i mportance of cultivating that charm of manner. have amounte d to half so much. an d companionable. Such men are business magnets. their s agacity. he must be polite. all of which are cultivatabl e. Everything seems to point their way. and patients to the physician. It pays to cultivate popularity. perhaps. was crowded. or patients will flock to him. says: "When the R utledge Tavern. Mr. long-headedness. it will call out your success qualities. patients. his law partner. for customers. gentlemanly. as naturally as magnet s attract particles of steel. clients. when busin ess concerns go to the wall. indifferent man. I never knew a thoroughly unselfish person who was not an attractive person. and yet it is comparatively easy to cultivate . because it is made up of so many other qualities. or customers. Many successful business and professional men would be surprised.--because they are attra cted. but also in every field of life. for. customers. They ar e often a substitute for a large amount of hard work. he must keep back his bad tendencies. No person who is always thinking of himself and trying to figure out how he can ge . or influence. It makes statesmen and politicians. No matter what career you enter. Had it not been for these. and builds up character. patients. or some other disaster. agreeable. The ability to cultivate friends is a powerful aid to success. he had a passion for helping people. it bring s clients to the lawyer. no matter how able a man may be. to find what a large percentage of it is due to their h abitual courtesy and other popular qualities. where Lincoln boarded. It is worth everything t o the clergyman. for the same reason that the steel particles point toward the magnet. he is on the road to success and happi ness as well. we find that they have attractive qualities. even when they do no t apparently make half so much effort to get it as the less successful. by their likes and dislikes." But if we analyze these men closely. of making friends and holding them with hooks of steel! People are influenced powerfully by their friendships. Business moves toward them. for making himself ag reeable under all circumstances. if they shoul d analyze their success. just becaus e they had cultivated popular qualities. he w ill always be placed at a disadvantage. never repels? It is not only valuable in busines s. How many men have been able to start again after ha ving everything swept away by fire or flood. to help along wherever he could. There is usually some charm of personality about them that wins all hearts. if his personality repels. clients. Some men attract business. Somehow everybody in trouble turned to him for help. if his coarse. They will take the place of capital. it will broaden your s ympathies." This generous desire to as sist others and to return kindnesses especially endeared Lincoln to the people. In trying to be popular. which a ttract people to you. It will help you to self-expression as no thing else will. What can be more valuable than a per sonality which always attracts. To be popular.Many a youth owes his promotion or his first start in life to the disposition t o be accommodating. one must strangle selfishness. It is capital which will stand by one when panics come. It is difficult to conceive of any more delightful birthright than to be born with this personal charm. when banks fail. he would often give up his b ed. those personal qualities. develops man hood. rude man ners drive away clients. and business training would not. The power to please is a tremendous asset. Their fr iends call them "lucky dogs. Cultivate the art of being agreeable. because they had learned the art of bei ng agreeable. This was one of Lincoln's c hief characteristics. and a popular business or professional man has every advantage in the world over a col d. Herndon. It doubles success possibilities.

take infinite pains to cultiva te all the little graces and qualities which go to make up popularity. who are always looking for the easiest chair. and magnanimous. which he flings back to his listeners. The ability to bring the best that is in you to the man you are trying to reach . they would acc omplish wonders. The hardest natures can not resist these qualities any more than the eyes c an resist the sun.--who gives us his sympathy. in the hand-shake. If you would be agreeable. The whole principle of an attractive personality lives in this sent ence. People shrink from such a character. in the cordiality. It is in contact and combination only that ne w creations. stingy soul is not lovable. but he could never get it from the separate individuals any more than the chemist could get the full power from chemicals standing in s eparate bottles in his laboratory. We cannot help bein g attracted to one who is always trying to help us. to get the best seat in a car or a hall. which is unmistaka ble.t some advantage from everybody else will ever be attractive. who is always trying to make us comfortable and to give us every advantage he ca n. to make a good impression at the very first meeting. so that he could say things and do things impossible to him when alone? The power of the orator. to their sharpening our faculties. wit hout raising the least prejudice. and a keener edge put on all of his faculties. There must be heartiness in the ex pression. We may know enough. There is something about h im which arrests your prejudice. who are always wanting to be waited on first at the restaura nt or hotel. If you radiate sweetness and light. who elbow their way in front of us. On the other hand. but getting his sympathy and good will. encouragement. The secret of pleasing is in being pleasant yourself. a coarse. regardless of others. radiating hope. The narrow. We little realize what a large part of our achievement is due to others working through us. sympathetic. he first draws from his audience. or how much you may dislike to be interrupted. new forces. genero us. his intellect sharpened. We are naturally d isgusted with people who are trying to get everything for themselves and never t hink of anybody else. and this is what commands a great salary. somehow you haven't the heart to turn away the man with a pleasing personality. you must be magnanimous. It is unfortunate that these things are not taught more in the home and in the school. Who has not felt his power multiplied many times. a . brutal manner repels. we are repelled by people who are always trying to get som ething out of us. people will love to get n ear you. when we should be broad. for our success and happiness depend largely upon them. Everybody is attracted by lovable qualities and is repelled by the unlovely whe rever found. are developed. A fine manner pleases. but we give ourselves out stingily and we live narrow and reserved lives. and no matter how busy or how worried you may b e. or for the choicest bits at the table. Many of us are n o better than uneducated heathens. It is difficult to snub the man who possesses it. for we are all looking for the sunlight. in being interesting. those with great personal charm. trying to get away from the sh adows. when coming into contact with a stron g personality which has called forth hidden powers which he never before dreamed he possessed. There is a charm in a gracious personality from which it is very hard to get aw ay. If people who are naturally unsocial would only spend as much time and take as much pains as people who are social favorites in making themselves popular. is a g reat accomplishment. in the smile. Popular people. to approach a prospective customer as though you had known him for years without offending his taste.

Artists have been touched by the po wer of inspiration through a masterpiece. something which will enrich your life. and sustaining and inspiring us mentally. something which will enrich his life. that we become polished and attractive. which will enlarge and broaden your experience. the more magnanimous you are. Everybody he meets has some secret for him. If you go into social life with a determination to give it something. and esp ecially of mixing with those above us. well-rounded. But it is a fact that you can only get a great deal out of them by giving them a great deal of yourself. m ay produce a third infinitely stronger than either.nd helpfulness into our lives. which have remained dormant for the lack of exercise. finding ne w islands of power in himself which would have remained forever hidden but for a ssociation with others. because he did not cultivate his social side. narrowly. You must give much in order to get much. No man finds himself alone. the more you get in return. for calling out your best social qualities. meanly. We are apt to overestimate the value of an education from books alone. Two substances totally unlike. A man who might have been symmetrical.--the power to do an immortal thin g. the buttressing of character by association. something which will help h im on his way. something which he never knew before. or you will not get anything. About all you get from others is a reflex of the curre nts from yourself. It is astonishing how much you can learn from people in social intercourse when you know how to look at them rightly. you will not find society either a bore or unprofitable. The man who mixes with his fellows is ever on a voyage of discovery. Many an author owes his great est book. The current will not set toward you un til it goes out from you. his cleverest saying to a friend who has aroused in him latent powers which otherwise might have remained dormant. or by some one they happened to meet w ho saw in them what no one else had ever seen. or even both of those which unite. because we can always carry away somethin g of value. You will not receive if you give out stingily. . and open up new hopes and possibilities. for developing the latent brain cells. Thei r faculties are sharpened and polished by the attrition of mind with mind. When you learn to look upon every one you meet as holding a treasure. The more you rad iate yourself. the more generous of yourself. or you will receive only stingy rivule ts. to make i t a school for self-improvement. It is always a mistake to miss an opportunity of meeting with our kind. but having a chemical affinity for each other. the more you will get back. The more generously you give. generous way. but the k nowledge which comes from mind intercourse is invaluable. when you might have had great rivers and torrents of blessings. an d make you more of a man. You must give of y ourself in a whole-hearted. the more you fling yourself out to them without reserve. had he availed himself of every opportunity of touching life along all sides. brighten the ideals . which stimulate ambition. It is through social intercourse that our rough corners are rubbed o ff. Two people with a strong affinity often call into activity in each other a power which neither dreamed he possessed before. Others are his discoverers. if he can on ly extract it. the reenforcement. But you must give it something. you will not think the time in the drawing-room wasted . Book knowledge is valuable. remains a pygmy in everythin g except his own little specialty. and t he pitting of brain against brain. A large part of the value of a college education comes from the social intercourse of th e students.

by their very f rankness and simplicity. Frankness of manner is one of the most delightful of traits in young or old. who has no secrets. as a rule. were there seeking t heir fortune. large -hearted and magnanimous.The man who is determined to get on will look upon every experience as an educa tor." Bright. "Because he has a 'eart in 'im." said an Engli sh miner. Ev erybody admires the open-hearted. yet he so intrenched himself in the hearts in his community t hat no other man. We may come out all right. and to make amends for them. and that he has an ulterior purpose in view. he answered. and knew nothing of the usages of polite society. graduates of Eastern colleges. and when asked why the miners and the people in the town couldn't help liking him. In the Black Hills of South Dakota there lived a humble. They are. It he has bad qualities. Dealing with these secr etive people is like traveling on a stage coach on a dark night. however educated or cultured. if he ca n help it.--are conduci ve to the growth of the highest manhood and womanhood. There is something about th e very inclination to conceal or cover up which arouses suspicion and distrust. and may deal squarely with us. and wh o do not try to cover up their faults and weaknesses. no matter h ow good they may seem to be. The very qualities he possesses--frankness and simplicity. We cannot have the same confidence in people who possess this trait. do we get a glimpse of the real man. He was elected mayor of his town. "I recognize but one m ental acquisition as an essential part of the education of a lady or gentleman. broad and liberal! How quickly he wins our confidence! How we all like and trust him! We forgive him for many a slip or wea kness. How different the man who comes out in the open. he was a man. but we are not sure and can not trust them. and who is frank. who wo n the love and good will of everyone. his sympathies are broad and active. the people who have nothing to conceal. he's a man." . Never. They may be all right. ignorant miner. and we are ready to mak e allowances for them. strong men drawn there from different parts of the country by the gold fever. which will make his life a little more shapely and att ractive. had the slightest chance of bein g elected to any office of prominence while "Ike" was around. They inspire love and confidence. they are always in sight. we can never rid ourselves of the feeling that there is a moti ve behind his graciousness. Secretiveness repels as much as frankness attracts. because he goes through life wearing a mask. a great many able. No matter how polite or gracious a secreti ve person may be. although he coul d not speak a grammatical sentence. handsome young men. His heart is sound and true. as a culture chisel. He is a lways more or less of an enigma. namely. but there is a lurking fea r of some pitfall or unknown danger ahead of us. sunny natures. He always 'elps the boys when in trouble. "You can't 'elp likin' 'im. who reveal s his heart to us. and sent to the legislature. he said. It was all because he had a heart in him. and. He endeavors to hide every trait that is not favorable to himself. There is always a feeling of uncertainty. as in frank. You never go to 'im for nothin'. an accurate and refined use of the mother-tongue. We are uncomfortable because of the uncertainties. but none of them held the public confidence like this poor man. Eliot was president of Harvard. because he is always ready to confess his faults. He could scarcely write his name. invite the same qualities in others. CHAPTER XVII IF YOU CAN TALK WELL When Charles W.

everyo ne with whom you talk will feel the influence of your skill and charm." There is no other one thing which enables us to make so good an impression. It not only helps you to make a good impression upon stra ngers. You may be a fine singer. who has been very successful in the launching of débutant es in society. you cannot use your expertness always and everywhere as you can the power to converse well. So-and-So to dinners or receptions because she is such a good talker. It opens doors and softens he arts. Everybody wants to invite Mrs. No matter how expert you may be in any other art or accomplishment. but chatter away lightly and gayly. comparatively few people will ever see them. by the very superiority of your conversationa l ability. everyone who comes in contact with you will see your life-picture. no matter how talented you may be. it also helps you to make and keep friends. but talk . is to be the possessor of a very great accomplishment. A man who can talk well. It does not ma tter much what you say. A noted society leader. who reads. always gives this advice to her protégés. you may have a great many accomplishments which people occasionally se e or enjoy. is to say nothing themselves and listen to what others say. or how many years you may have spent in perfecting yourself in your specialty. but if you are a good converser. It helps you into the be st society. Conversation. but who cannot express himself with ease or eloquence. But if you are an artist in conversation. She enter tains. To be a good conversationalist. or without anyone guessing your special ty. It makes you interesting in all sorts of company. You may be a painter. thinks. If you are a musician. Everyone knows whether you are an artist or a bungler. you may have spent years with great masters. The temptation for people who are unaccustomed to society." There is a helpful suggestion in this advice. She may have many defects. It sends you clients. talk. listens.Sir Walter Scott defined "a good conversationalist" as "one who has ideas. unl ess you have very marked ability so that your pictures are hung in the salons or in the great art galleries. has a very great a dvantage over one who may know more than he. even though you are poor. and yet travel around the world without having an opp ortunity of showing your accomplishment. "Talk. if used as an educator. In fact. The way to learn to talk is to ta lk. who has the art of putting things in an attractive way . only comparatively few people can ever hear or appreciate your music . able to interest people. and who has therefore something to say. which you have been painting ever since you began to talk . customers. to draw them to you naturally. as the ability to converse wel l. Nothing embarrasses and bores the average man so much as a girl who has to be entertained. is a tremendous power developer. one which is s uperior to all others. and you may have a very beautiful home and a lot of property which c omparatively few people ever know about. or how much it may hav e cost you. no matter what your sta tion in life may be. but people enjoy her society because she can t alk well. and yet. esp ecially upon those who do not know us thoroughly. who can interest others immediately by his power of speech. But wherever you go and in whatever society you are. It helps you to get on i n the world. and who feel diff ident. to rivet their attenti on. Good talkers are always sought after in society. you talk. patients.

"You're talking through your hat"." and a score of other such vulgarities we often hear. a nd in public places. silly talk which demoralizes o ne's ambition. because it beg ets habits of superficial and senseless thinking. and how you say it. conci seness. "Search me". he gets on my n erves. every person with whom you converse. "I hate that man. there is such a refinement in his diction that he charms everyone who hears him speak. without an effort to express oneself with clearness. What you say. the average society small talk. and accuracy. senseless things--things which do not rise to the level of humor. you may be tortured with an unsatisfied. This is the price of all achievement that is of value. frothy. so quickly as your conversation. in coarse slang expressions. I know a business man who has cultivated the art of conversation to such an ext ent that it is a great treat to listen to him. or efficiency. saying nothing but the most frivolous. is a great pow er. mere chattering. There is no accomplishment. loud. as fine conversati on. your breedin g or lack of it. we do not take the trouble or pains to learn to talk well. or good merchants are born. Many a man owes his advancement very largely to his ability to converse well. You may be situated so t hat others are dependent upon you. slipshod speech. can help you. good phys icians. will never get hold of the best thing in a man. T he ability to interest people in your conversation. who uses good English. or commanding language. interesting. and has cultivated conversation as a fine art. Nothing else will indicate your fineness or coarseness of culture. Poor conversers excuse themselves for not trying to improve by saying that "goo d talkers are born. or to study music or art. ease. On the streets. no attainment which you can use so constantly and e ffectively. The man who has a bungling expression. All his life he has been a reader of the finest prose and poet ry. They do not think of forming a sentence . flippant. will betray all your secrets. It will tell your whole life's story. Every book you read. to mak e an effort to express ourselves with elegance. will giv e the world your true measure. not made. because in every sentence you utter you can practise the best form of expression. It lies too deep for such superficial effort. We do not read eno ugh or think enough. who knows a thing." We might as well say that good lawyers. and power. an d yet you can become an interesting talker. or gossiping. slipshod English. and you may not be able to go to school or co llege. that's the limit". his words are chosen with such exquisite delicacy. but the foolish. to hold them. "You just bet". but never can put it in logical. not made. disappointed ambition. None of them would ever get very f ar without hard work. taste. b ecause it is so much easier to do so than it is to think before we speak. Thousands of young people who envy such of their mates as are getting on faster than they are keep on wasting their precious evenings and their half-holidays.ing without thinking. Most of us express ourselves in sloppy. His language flows with such liqu id. Most of us are bunglers in our conversation. lowers one's ideals and all the standards of life. is always placed at a great disadvantage. which will give so much pleasure to your friends. on the cars. because we do not make an art of i t. limpid beauty. Few people think very much about how they are going to express themselves. as you long to. You may think you are poor and have no chance in life. you may be tied down to an iron environment. They use the first words that come to them. coarse voices are heard in light. There is no doubt that the gift of language was intended to be a much greate r accomplishment than the majority of us have ever made of it. "Well.

in these strenuous times.so that it will have beauty. but that is all there is to i t. and Elizabeth S. that it is in deed a luxury. power. no magazi nes or periodicals of any kind. Julia Ward Howe. when ev erybody has the mania to attain wealth and position. There were no great daily newspapers. I was once a visitor at Wendell Phillips's home in Boston. the purity. P. had this won derful conversational charm. and using a superb diction. Livermore. In this lightning-express age. Printing has become so chea p that even the poorest homes can get more reading for a few dollars than kings and noblemen could afford in the Middle Ages. I have met a dozen persons in my lifetime who have given me such a glimpse of i ts superb possibilities that it has made all other arts seem comparatively unimp ortant to me. as has ex-President Eliot of Harvard. Mary A. to be somebo dy. Knowledge of all kinds was disseminated almost wholly through the spoken word. They do not impress us with their thoughts. they do not stimulate us to actio n. but whose words are so full of meat and stimulating brain force that we feel ourselves multiplied many times by the power they have injected into us. the new world op ened up by inventions and discoveries. and his marvelous art of putting things. The deterioration is due to the complete revolution in the condition s of modern civilization. It is a rare thing to find a polished conversationalist to-day." Mrs. The quality of the conversation is everything. The great discoveries of vast wealth in the precious minerals. The words flow from t heir lips helter-skelter. we no longer have time to r eflect with deliberation. and it seemed to me that I had never heard such exquisite and polished English. eve rybody sits behind the morning sheet or is buried in a book or magazine. There i s no longer the same need of communicating thought by the spoken word. We know other people who talk very little. We do not feel any more determined to do something in the world. and the great impetus to ambition have ch anged all this. when everybody can get for one or a few cents the news and information which it has cost thousands of dollars to collect. I shall never forget. with little thought of arrangement or order. when it is capable of being made the art of it is such a treat and bunglers in our convers communication between h arts. after we have heard them talk than we felt before. the liquid charm of his words. I have met several Englis h people who possessed that marvelous power of "soul in conversation which charm s all who come under its spell. Ward. . In these gr eat newspaper and periodical days. He sat down on the sofa beside me and talked as he would to an old schoolmate. the fascination of his personality. Now and then we meet a real artist in conversation. the profundity of his knowledge. and delight that we wonder why the most of us should be such ation. Formerly people had almost no other way of communicati ng their thoughts than by speech. So rare is it t o hear one speaking exquisite English. transparency. and the music of his voice. that we should make such a botch of the medium of uman beings. who impre ss us by the wonderful flow of their conversation. We all know people who use the c hoicest language and express their thoughts in fluent. In olden times the art of conversation reached a much higher standard than that of to-day. brevity. liquid diction. Oratory is becoming a lost art for the same reason. the transparency of his dicti on. and to develop our powers of conversation.

If you find that your ideas fly from you when you attempt to express them. and will gain ease of manner and facility of expression. People with a lot of ability. You may be a profound scholar. no describing its marvels of beauty within. when they want a particular word to convey their exact meaning. you will be a poor converser. when he first attempted to speak in public and was of ten deeply humiliated by his blunders and failures. They are constantly humiliated and embarrassed when away from those who happen to know their real worth. They have not words enough to clothe their id eas and make them attractive. but i t will also increase one's vocabulary. If you seclude yourself. when they are infinitely bette r informed than those who are making a great deal of display of oratory or smoot h talk. Timid young people often suffer keenly in this way in att empting to declaim at school or college. unable to tell what they know. before the world will appreciate it or give credit for it. l iterature. Conversation is to th e man what the cutting of the diamond is to the stone. The grinding does not add anything to the diamond. even if you fail in your attempt. telling language. who have that awfu l feeling of repression and stifling of thought. It merely reveals its wealth. They talk around in a circle. wil l make it all the easier for you to speak well the next time. w ould avail. will not only broaden the mind and give new ideas. and yet. repeat and repeat. howev er. If you are ambitious to talk well. sit silent. however. you may be wonderfully well-posted in science. Many people have good thoughts and ideas. if one keeps on trying. because they can not carry on an intelligent c onversation upon any topic. There is no other way. Locked-up ability may give the individual some satisfaction. often appear like a set of dummies in company. especially the timid and shy. cultured people. nobody would appreciate it until it was ground and polished and the light let into its depths to reveal its hidden brilliancy. you must be as much as possible in the socie ty of well-bred. We all sympathize with people. while some superficial. It does not matter how valuable the rough diamond may be. shallow-brained person holds the at tention of those present simply because he can tell what he knows in an interest ing way. that you stammer and flounder about for words which you are unable to find. But it is just as important to know how to give out knowledge in a pal atable manner as to acquire it. when they make an effort to say something and cannot. to become an orator or a good conversationalist than by constantly trying to express oneself efficiently and elegantly. and its great value. n o explaining. though you are a coll ege graduate. and art. how quickly he will conquer his awkwardness and self-con sciousness. you will always be placed at a great disadvantage. It is remarkable. who know a great deal. but it must be exh ibited. There are hundreds of these silent people at our nat ional capital--many of them wives of husbands who have suddenly and unexpectedly come into political prominence. expressed in some attractive way. Everywhere we see people placed at a tremendous disadvantage because they have never learned the art of putting their ideas into interesting. b ecause. We see brainy men at public gatherings. Many people--and this is especially true of scholars--seem to think that the gr eat desideratum in life is to get as much valuable information into the head as possible. and that is a great aid to conversation. but they cannot express them because o f the poverty of their vocabulary. when momentous questions are being disc ussed.Good reading. they can not find it. But many a great orator went through th e same sort of experience. if your knowledge is locked up within you. you may be sure that every honest effort you make. . you may be well r ead in history and in politics.

intelligently. to elbow our way through the crowd to get the position or the money we desire. The school and the college employ the student comparatively a few hours a day f or a few years. or elegance of diction. and interrupt the speaker before he reaches his conclusion. develops new powers. we are inclined to look upon them as so many rungs in a ladde r. There is a splendid discipline in the constant effort to express one's thoughts in clear language and in an interesting manner. send u s patients. the contact of mind with mind . it was con sidered one of the greatest luxuries possible to be a listener in a group surrou nding an intelligent talker. a charm of s tyle. we have not enough respect for the talker to keep qu iet. for there was a touch of personality. upon all sorts of topics. or more money. It stimulates thought wonderfully. Before these days of hurry and drive. a superb personality which fascinated.How little parents realize the harm they are doing their children by allowing t hem to grow up ignorant of or indifferent to the marvelous possibilities in the art of conversation! In the majority of homes. We think more of ourselves if w e can talk well. The mingling of thought with thought. hitch about as if we were bored and were anxious t o get away. For the hun . Then the avenues of the mind fly open. customers or show their ability to give us a boost for poli tical position. To converse well one must listen well also--hold oneself in a receptive attitud e. the faculties are on the alert. The power to do so increase s our self-respect. conversation is a training in a perpetual school. Many get the b est part of their education in this school. We are not only poor conversationalists. Ever ything bores us which does not bring us more business. In fact. we are such an impatient people that we have no time for anything excepting to push ahead. Instead of being attentive and eager to drink in th e story or the information. It was better than most modern lectures. "We are too intense for epigram or repartee. but who have cultivated the art o f self-expression. We look about impatiently. our self-confidence. as the mixing of two chemicals often produces a new third substance. interestingly. perhaps snap our watch. We have no time to develop charm of manner. before this age of excitement. a magnetism which held. We lack time. clients. Many a college graduate has been silenced and put to shame by peo ple who have never even been to a high school. We know people who are such superb conver sers that no one would ever dream that they have not had the advantages of the h igher schools. and to value them in proportion as they furnish readers for our books. than anyth ing one could find in a book. play a tattoo with our f ingers on a chair or a table. Every good converser has felt a power come to him from the lis tener which he never felt before. and which often stimulates and inspires to fre sh endeavor. Our life is feverish and unnatural. Nothing else will develop the brain and character more than the constant effort to talk well. No man knows what he really possesses until he makes his best effort to express to others what is in him. if we can interest and hold others. but we are poor listeners as well." Nervous impatience is a conspicuous characteristic of the American people. a great revealer of possibilities a nd resources. Conversation is a great ability discoverer. or which d oes not help us to attain the position for which we are striving. Instead of enj oying our friends. children are allowed to mangle th e English language in a most painful way. We are too impatient to listen.

gry soul. Walter Besant used to tell of a clever woman who had a great reputation as a co nversationalist. more patients. and wrapped up in our own little wor ld. She dissipated their fears. Spontaneity and humor. No one ca n make a good conversationalist who is not sympathetic. yearning for an education. more clients. or more readers for the ir books--or a better house to live in. almost helpless. thinking how they can get on a little faster--get more business. who depend upon tutors to carry them through their examinations--they expect to buy their education ready-made. You must be able to ente r into another's life. dumb. and they could say things to her which they could not say to anyone else. so forced. if it does not happen to interest those to whom you are talking your efforts will be largely lo st. business. how you get on. They are thinking. We work like Trojans during the day. sympathe tic manner that she helped the timid and the shy to say their best things. the charm of the days of chivalry and leisure has almost vanished from our civilization. sometimes. No matter how much you may know about a subject. and the possibility of a fine culture and a superb charm of personality in us are almost impossible and extremely rare. we driv e our human engines at such a fearful speed. they are interested at once. too busily engaged in our own welfare. One cause for our conversational decline is a lack of sympathy. but they do not care a snap about your affairs." We have no time to stop on the street and give a decent salutation. or abandon themselves to the occasion enough to make good talkers. Life is becoming so artificial. If you talk about these things. thinki ng. and you must touch them along the lines of their interest. Some people have the peculiar quality of touching the . Everything must give way to the material. to drink in knowledge from those wise lips was to be fed with a royal feast indeed. Great conversationalists have always been very tactful--interesting without off ending. She had such a cordial. Our conversation will never reach a high standard while we l ive in such a feverish. because their minds are somewhere else. and then rush to a theater or other place of amusement in the evening. It is pitiable. We pay people for doing that while we sit and laugh." accompanied by a sh arp nod of the head. too intent upon our own self-promotion to be interested in others. A new type of in dividual has sprung up. so diverse from naturalness. We have no time to make our own amusement or to develop the faculty of humor and fun-making as people used t o do. business and their own little worl d. It does not do to stab people if you would interest them. business. and unsympathetic state. instead of by a graceful bow. It is: "How do?" or "Morning. selfish. They do not enter heartily into the lives of others. nor to drag ou t their family skeletons. thinking business. how they can make more show. If you would make yourself agreeable you must be able to enter into the life of the people you are conversing with. We are like some coll ege boys. to live it with the other person. We have no time for the grace s and the charms. though she talked very little. to be a good listener o r a good talker. their affections on themselves and their own affairs. We have no time for the development of a fine manner. and powerless to enter heartily into t he conversation because they are in a subjective mood. But to-day everything is "touch and go. We are too self ish. to see men standing around at the average reception or club gathering. There are only two things that interest them. or how they can help you. or what your ambition is. They are cold and reserved. People thought her an interesting c onversationalist because she had this ability to call out the best in others. that our finer life is crushed out. distant. and m ade them feel at home.

No amount of natural ability or education or good clothes. buoyant. and always gave more than he got. you will make yourself ludicrous by attempting to be funny.--GERMAN PROVERB. disgusts. never inter ests you. A man who i s always violating your sense of taste. Strangers were always glad to talk with him because he was so co rdial and quaint. and must show a spirit of good will. and the con versation is perfunctory. no amount of money. He does not deal too muc h with facts. it ought to be in his personality. sympathetic. however. SHAKESPEARE. He should not be obliged to give a stranger an inventory of his possessions in order to show tha t he has achieved something. to be a good conversationalist you must be spontaneous. and you ca n only interest them by a warm sympathy--a real friendly sympathy. You lock tight all the approaches to your inner self. mechanical. interesting language. Your magnetism and your helpfulness are thus cut off. others stir up the bad. Heavy conversation bores. is not too serious. Lincoln was master of the art of making himself interesting to everybody he met . If you are co ld. Others allay all that is disagreeable. of course. You must feel a spirit o f helpfulness. and you give him the mastery of palaces and fortunes wherever he goes. Politeness has been compared to an air cushion. and of fairness. every avenue is closed to him. if you lack the sense o f humor. tolerant. no matter how important. A sense of humor such as Lincoln had is. nat ural. statistics. will make you appear well if you use poor English. They never touch our sensitive spots. What thou wilt. too light. although there is appare . You must be broad. With hat in hand. You must get the attention of people and hold it by interesting them. A narrow stingy soul never talks well. weary. and they call out all that is spontaneous and sweet and beauti ful. must open your heart wide. Than hew to it with thy sword. and an open mind. He put people at ease with his stories and jokes. they solicit him to enter and possess. one gets on in the world. Vivacity is abs olutely necessary. and must enter heart and soul into things which interest others. A good conversationalist.best that is in us. Every time they come into our presen ce they irritate us. distant. Facts. You must be responsive. and exp ress itself in his manner. and. effective. Thou must rather enforce it with thy smile. and without life or feeling. If a man is a success anywhere. of justice. Therefore. CHAPTER XVIII A FORTUNE IN GOOD MANNERS Give a boy address and accomplishments. and exhib it a broad free nature. You must bring your listener close to you. in his power to express himself in strong. But not everyone can be funny. and made them feel so comple tely at home in his presence that they opened up their mental treasures to him w ithout reserve. a great addition to one's c onversational power.--EMERSON. A greater wealth should flow from his lips. so that he wil l throw wide open every avenue of his nature and give you free access to his hea rt of hearts. he has not the trouble of earning or owning them . and unsympathetic you can not hold their attention. which.

and all the r ivers and lakes and seas. I am the terror of all invalids. "Why. but breedin's better. let 'im cock 'is chin hup. fleecy clouds went sailing in the lofty heaven. After a long interval there came a gentle tapping and the low spo ken words: "It is I." The English is somewhat rude. Mien and manner have much to do with our influence and reputation in any walk of life. At length the angel returned with the monk. But his genial disposition and great conversational powers won friends wherever he went. The foliage and flowers and fruits and harvests. whe n I start they hail me by storm signals all along the coast. The fallen angels adopted his manner. an give a crack hover the 'ead to hanybody who comes foolin' round 'im. There was no reply. and he seemed to change the hell into a heaven. according to a quaint old legend. saying that no place could . and even the good angels went a long way to see him and live with him. Birth's gude. Don't you wish you had my power ?" Zephyr made no reply. In about five minutes some one knocked. whose manly self-respect was smarting at her words. Gardens bloomed. The story goes that Queen Victoria once expressed herself to her husband in rat her a despotic tone. the pinions of birds and the sails of vessels were gently wafted onward. when a worthy fellow soldier wished to be reinstated in a position from which he had been dismissed. hi say. "It is I. His inborn politeness and kindness of heart were irresistible. the warm th and sparkle and gladness and beauty and life were the only answer Zephyr gave to the insolent question of the proud but pitiless East Wind.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. but with the same result. all the beasts and birds a nd men smiled at its coming. "Who is it?" inquired the Prince. I can lift and have often lifted the Atlantic. "Has 'e 's been han hofficer 'e bought to know 'ow to be'ave 'isself better. Victoria. Conduct is three fourths of life. The monk Basle. and to keep me from piercing to the very marrow of their bones. your wife. CAREY. sought the seclusion of his own apartment. but floated from out the bowers of the sky. all the forests and fields. died while under the ban of e xcommunication by the pope. eases our jolts wonderfully. but it expresses pretty forcibly the fact that a good bearing is indispensable to success as a soldier. With one sweep of my wing I st rew the coast from Labrador to Cape Horn with shattered ship timber. U nder my breath the nations crouch in sepulchers.--SCOTCH PROVERB. helse 'e might just has well be a Methodist parson. Open to the Queen of England!" haughtily responded her Majesty. orchards ripened. and Prince Albert. switch 'is stick abart a bit." Is it necessary to add that the door was opened. and health and happ iness were everywhere. "Don't you wish you had my power?" asked the East Wind of the Zephyr. What use 'ud 'e be has a non-commissioned hoffice r hif 'e didn't dare look 'is men in the face? Hif a man wants to be a soldier. or that the disagreement was at an end? It is said that civility is to a man what beauty is to a woman: it creates an instantaneous impression in hi s behalf. closing and locking the d oor.ntly nothing in it. and was sent in charge of an angel to find his prope r place in the nether world. He was remove d to the lowest depths of Hades.--GEORGE L. I can twist off a s hip's mast as easily as you can waft thistledown. silver wheat-fie lds turned to gold. men cut down forests for th eir fires and explore the mines of continents for coal to feed their furnaces. "Why the doose de 'e 'old 'is 'ead down like that?" asked a cockney sergeant-ma jor angrily.

Beuve. and she shaped careers as if she were omnipotent." as Longfellow wrote of Evangeline. P. for there is no roast to-day. "it was like the sud den kindling of a big fire. He still remained the same Basle. But sh e was so fascinated by Burr's charming manner that she sat with his friends. of steeps. the privileged circle at Coppet after making an excursi on returned from Chambéry in two coaches. A guest for two weeks at the house of Arthur M." whispered a servant to Madame de Maintenon at dinner. and breathed a purer air. Even the Emperor Napoleon fe ared her influence over his people so much that he destroyed her writings and ba nished her from France. Our door-yards brighter blooming. the crowd caught sight of this fascin ating woman and almost forgot to look at the great hero. Madame. Her father took her from the courtroom. They were the creatures of her will . and he was sent to Heaven and canonized as a saint. shocking roads. "Please. and dange r and gloom to the whole company. but she was so overcome by the fine manner of the accused that she believed in his innocence and prayed for his acquittal. The charm of his manner was irresistible and influe nced all Europe." said Madame Tesse. "I should command Madame de Staël to talk to me every day. of thunder-storm. was very desirous of knowing how he fed himself. So his sente nce was revoked. they had forgotten earth. According to St. commonplace and ashamed. they knew nothi ng. In the words of Whittier it could be said of her as might be said of any woman: -Our homes are cheerier for her sake." yet he sway ed the destinies of empires." She was so fascinating in manner and speech that her guests appeared to overlook all the little discomforts of life." Madame Récamier was so charming that when she passed around the box at the Church St. M. "I feel the m agic of his wonderful deportment." Madame de Staël was anything but beautiful." said one who knew him well. but the conver sation and manner of the host were so charming that the visitor was scarcely con scious of his deformity. Those arriving in the first coach had a rueful experience to relate--a terrific thunder-storm. "one an ecdote more. His fascinating smile and winning speech disarmed the fiercest hatred and made friends of the bitterest enemies. and locked her up. "If I were Queen. no. "it seemed like the ceasing of exquisite music. The intoxication of the conversation had made t hem insensible to all notice of weather or rough roads. A gentleman took his daughter of sixteen to Richmond to witness the trial of hi s bitter personal enemy. And all about the social air Is sweeter for her coming. of danger. Aaron Burr. such a conversation between Madame de Staël and Madame Récamier and Benjamin Constant and Schlegel! they were all in a state of delight. "To this day." said she fifty years afterwards. twenty thousand francs were put into it. who was witho ut arms or legs. At the great recep tion to Napoleon on his return from Italy." "When sh e had passed. "When Dickens entered a room." It is said that when Goethe entered a restaurant people would lay down their kn . whom he regarded as an arch-traitor. The party in the second coach heard their stor y with surprise.. Cavanaugh. of mud. Roche in Paris. The Duke of Marlborough "wrote English badly and spelled it worse. by which every one was warmed. H er hold upon the minds of men was wonderful.be found in which to punish him. but she possessed that indefinable so mething before which mere conventional beauty cowers.

still less of a look of amusement. "I don't think much of Choate's spread-eagle talk." said a simple-minded member of a jury that had given five successive verdicts to the great advocate. he was almost worshiped by the students. madam. returned to his hotel at two o'clock in the morning. the first gentleman in Europe. but the hints had no effect. but what was his chagrin when the door wa s opened by the President of the United States! "Why. but no one could d escribe. after hearing the report of Demosthenes' famous oration. the guest. Silent and abashed." whereat the courtiers were ready to faint. can be better understood from what an acquaintance of Carlyle said of him wh . Smoking is not permitted here. when a somewhat stout man sitting just ahead of her lighted a cigar. and what it may have cost h er. She withd rew in confusion. but the same fine courtesy which led him to give up his cigar was shown again as he spared her the mortification of even a questioning glance. Ralph asked his pardon. When coffee was served. which he declined.ives and forks to admire him. The Que en's courteous suspension of the rules of etiquette. and make a speech to himself and his wife. who was a Scotch peasant. His great popularity lay in a magical atmosphere which every one felt." The late King Edward. His manner seemed touched by that exquisite grace seldom found except in women of rare culture. that she had entered the private car of General Grant. for there was not one of those five cases that ca me before us where he wasn't on the right side. He understood so little of the manners at court that. quickly noting the cause of the untimely amusem ent." said Mr. A New York lady had just taken her seat in a car on a train bound for Philadelp hia. Philip of Macedon. being tired. "but I call him a very lucky lawyer. a moment later. so she said tartly: "You probably are a foreigner. With two friends who had accompanied him. Arthur when Mr. Julian Ralph. offering him the tit le of nobleman." Henry Clay was so graceful and impressive in his manner that a Pennsylvania tav ern-keeper tried to induce him to get out of the stage-coach in which they were riding." The man made no reply. but threw hi s cigar from the window. and do not know that there is a smoking-car attached t o the train. after speaking to her a few minutes. But she was g reat enough. She co ughed and moved uneasily. drank from his saucer. although she watched his dumb. The Prince. I could have sent my colored boy. An open titter of amusement w ent round the table. that's all right. gravely emptied his cup into his saucer and drank after the manner of his g uest. immovable fig ure with apprehension until she reached the door. to find all the doors locked. No one is up in the house b ut me. "L et us sit down. and which never left him." His manner as well as his logic was irresistible. after telegraphing an account of President Arthur's fishing-trip to the Thousand Islands. invi ted an eminent man to dine with him. Queen Victoria sent for Carlyle. he said. What has her astonishment when the conductor told her. when prese nted to the Queen. but he had fallen asleep and I hated to wake him. when Prince of Wales. and gave a gesture that seated all her puppets in a moment. the other members of the princely household took the r ebuke and did the same. feeling that he had always been a nobleman in his own right. he battere d at a side door to wake the servants. sai d: "Had I been there he would have persuaded me to take up arms against myself. When Edward Everett took a professor's chair at Harvard after five years of stu dy in Europe. to the c onsternation of the others. "You wouldn't have got in till morning if I had not come.

contentment. and considered that beauty only worth adorning and transmitting whi ch was unmarred by outward manifestations of hard and haughty feeling. Mirabeau was one of the ugliest men in France. Our good is less good when it i . became the thing with the better class es." or. a bust of the Princess Royal was thrown from its pedestal and damaged. "His presence. actually stood upon it. It is sharp angles that keep man y souls from being beautiful that are almost so.en he saw him for the first time. beauty must be the expression of attractive qualities within--s uch as cheerfulness. Etiquette originally meant the ticket or tag tied to a bag to indicate its cont ents. or wipe their faces on the damask. The Greeks thought beauty was a proof of the peculiar favor of the gods. has been beautifully told by herself. "There is only one occasion. I expected to meet a rare being. Beauty of life and character. charity. It was fortunate for Napoleon that he married Josephine before he was made comm ander-in-chief of the armies of Italy. Its lines seem co ntinuous. r asped the nerves. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. But whence do they obtain such magic power? What is the secret of that almost h ypnotic influence over people which we would give anything to possess? Courtesy is not always found in high places." But to-day the nobles of R ussia have no superiors in manners. If a bag had this ticket it was not examined. not the one of greate st physical beauty. Noblemen are forbidden to strike their wives in company. benignity." Some persons wield a scepter before which others seem to bow in glad obedience. 'I will!'--namely. Ladies of the court must not wash out their mouths in the drinking-glasses. Josep hine was to the drawing-room and the salon what Napoleon was to the field--a pre eminent leader.' As she passed along the way. to act or talk by the card. Even royal courts furnish many exa mples of bad manners. From this the word passed to cards upon which were printed certain rules to be observed by guests. that. Her fascinating manners and her wonderful powers of persuasion were more influential than the loyalty of any dozen men in France in attaching to him the adherents who would promote his interests. and the ladies. in their eagerness to see the Princess." but the charm of his manner was almost irresistible . and love. The secret of her personality that made her the Empress not only of the hearts of the Frenchmen. and I left him feeling as if I had drunk sour wine. who was then but lately married. to which only the very cream of the cream of society was a dmitted. When Catherine of Russia gave receptions to her nobles. According to their ideal. so gently does curve melt into curve. as it was sometim es expressed. has no sharp angles. It was said he had "the face of a tiger pitted by smallpox. The most fas cinating person is always the one of most winning manners. as she passed through the reception rooms. as in art. "in which I would voluntarily use the words. These rul es were "the ticket" or the etiquette. 'I will that all around me be happy." she said to a friend. in some unaccountable manner. At an entertainment given years ago by Prince Edward and t he Princess of Wales. she published the follo wing rules of etiquette upon cards: "Gentlemen will not get drunk before the fea st is ended. there was such pushing and struggling to see the Princess." A fine manner more than compensates for all the defects of nature. and the pedestal up set.'" "It was only a glad 'good-morning. or had had an attack of seasickness. when I would say. or pick their teeth with forks. To be "the ticket. but also of the nations her husband conquered.

and his tail will wag with gratitud e. the lower classes are not polite is because the upper cl asses are not polite. and they enter without money and without price.s abrupt. or ill placed." The true gentleman cannot harbor those qualities which excite the antagonism of others. and the reaso n why. "an d he will always give you a civil and polite answer. his little girl begs her father to keep on his "co mpany manners" for a little while. hatred. Tradition tells us that before Apelles painted his wonderful Goddess of Beauty which enchanted all Greece. I remember how astonished I was the first time I was in Pa ris. I spent the first night with a banker. for these poison the sou rces of spiritual life and shrivel the soul. . or jealousy. He is the same disagreeable. "is the best security against o ther people's ill manners. Johnson did not feel mortified and pained to see h im eat like an Esquimau. stingy. No man ever said a pert thing to the Duke of Marlborough. What friend of the great Dr. let him take the bone from your hand. and called her ma demoiselle. or. polite. pat him on the head. So the good-mannered study. moody. sullen. crabbed. and joy everywhere. and bowed to the servant girl. in this country. "Ask a person at Rome to show you the road. ill timed. As by magic he becomes talkative. but the sullen mood returns and his courtesy vanishes as quickly as it came. They disarm jealousy and envy. rude. Throw a bone to a dog. They can enjoy nearly everything without the t rouble of buying or owning.' But the blame is with the upper classes. the reason why the lower classes the re are so polite is because the upper classes are polite and civil to them. a boarding-house. a servant girl came to the door. 'Follow your no se and you will find it. said a shrewd observer. generous. Some neighbors call: what a change! The bear of a moment ago is as docile as a lamb. Many a man and woman might double thei r influence and success by a kindly courtesy and a fine manner. as though she were a lady. he traveled for years observing fair women. Now. for they have passports everywhere." A fine courtesy is a fortune in itself. sunshine. silent. and he will run off with it in h is mouth. but with no vibration in his tail. Guthrie of Edinburgh. or a civi l one to Sir Robert Walpole. It carries along with it a dignity that is respected by the most petulant. "A man's own good breeding. for they bear good will to everybody." or Great Bear. observe. Ill breeding invites and authorizes the familiarity of the most timid. sulky. but ask any person a questi on for that purpose in this country (Scotland). envy. who took me to a pension. and adopt all that is finest and most wort hy of imitation in every cultured person they meet. Here is a man who is cross. When we got there." said Dr. that he might embody in his matchless Venus a combination of the loveliest found in all. The dog recognizes the good deed and the gracious manner of doing it. as revenge. a nd mean with his family and servants. They are as welcome in every household as the sunshi ne. and accuses her of extravagance that would ruin a millionaire. Those w ho throw their good deeds should not expect them to be caught with a thankful sm ile. as we call it. and to hear him call men "liars" because they did not a gree with him? He was called the "Ursa Major. All doors fly open to them." says Chesterfield. Call the dog to you. He refuses his wife a little money to buy a needed dress. S uddenly the bell rings. and why not? for they carry light. a nd the banker took off his hat. malice. and he will say. The good-mannered can do without riches . Bees will not sting a man smeared with honey. contemptible. Generosity of heart and a genial go od will towards all are absolutely essential to him who would possess fine manne rs. After the callers have gone. crabb ed bear as before the arrival of his guests.

Johnson exclaimed: "There is not an Indian in North America foolish enough to ask such a question. "You replace Dr. refines his tastes. "because if they are untrue I run the risk of being deceived. "I never listen to calumnies. nor that other people should be blamed. uniform. I beg your pardon. no man can replace him." Aristotle thus described a real gentleman more than two thousand years ago: "Th e magnanimous man will behave with moderation under both good fortune and bad. "Have you not seen in the woods. There can be no change after it is burned in. of hating people not worth thinking about. no less. a diamond polished that was first a diamond in the rough. He will neither be delighted with success. and deems every other person as good as himself. virtue." replied Goldsmith. courteous. or mushroom. "You should not have returned their salute." was the felicitous reply of the man who became highly esteemed by the most polite court in Europe.Benjamin Rush said that when Goldsmith at a banquet in London asked a question about "the American Indians. barbarize or refine us by a con stant. is a true gentleman. that subtle oil which lubr icates our relations with each other. cont rols his speech. He is slow to surmise evil. Ev en power itself has not half the might of gentleness. to Mr. A gentleman is gentle." says Emerson. He who h as lost all but retains his courage." Cowper says:-A modest. l ike porcelain-ware." said the master of ceremonies. nor seek it. and if they are true. A gentleman. as he never thin ks it. H e will not allow himself to be exalted. modest. "there is not a savage in America rude enough to make such a speech to a gentlem an. whe n Clement XIV bowed to the ambassadors who had bowed in congratulating him upon his election. or timely thoughtfulness with human sympathy behind it." Dr. which do really clothe a princely nature. invincible operation like that of the air we breathe. hope. and all that is put on afterwards will wash off." "Sir. that seemed nothing . "Oh. and is rich still. Jefferson." "I think." After Stephen A. and self-respec t. must be painted before he is glazed. and well-bred man Would not insult me.--a plant without any solidity. sensible." A gentleman is just a gentle man: no more. "a po or fungus. They are the ki ndly fruit of a refined nature. I hear. He subjects his appetites. steady." asks Emerson. nay. nor grieved with failure. and enables the machinery of society to pe rform its functions without friction. He does not care that he himself should be praised. He will nev er choose danger. and no other can. Franklin. exalt or debase." No one can fully estimate how great a factor in life is the possession of good manners. Douglas had been abused in the Senate he rose and said: "What no gentleman should say no gentleman need answer. "Hans Andersen's story of the cobweb cloth woven so fi ne that it was invisible--woven for the king's garment--must mean manners. in a late autumn morning." said the French Minister. slow to take offense." replied Clement. who had been sent to Paris to relieve our most popular repr esentative. and are the open sesame to the best of society." said Montesquieu. he will not allow himself to be abased. Manners are what vex or soothe. "I have not been pope lo ng enough to forget good manners. Count de Vergenne s. and never giving it. He is not given to talk about himself or others. subdues his feelings. cheerfulness. "I succeed him.

not more worldly-minded and mon ey-loving than people generally are.--and welcome. and so allowed him to retain his seat. "as you would eat at the table of the king. "do you permit a slave to be more of a gentleman than yourself?" "Lincoln was the first great man I talked with freely in the United States. "since a good manner often s ucceeds where the best tongue has failed. and forbearance. entirely unused to the customs of courts. while his companion seemed inclined to keep the narrow path." The astonished bo y looked at her a moment. and actually to lift a hard crust on its head? It is the symbol of the power of kindness. you can knock me clean down and I won't say a word.--by its constant. to sit beside her on the sofa." says Confucius. he said to a companion: "I say." says Richter. it's the first time I ever had any body ask my parding. like bullets. total. in taking a short cut to the house. everything considered." Napoleon was much displeased on hearing that Josephine had permitted General Lo rges. The politest people in the world. affability. James Russell Lowell was as courteous to a beggar as to a lord." The art of pleasing is the art of ris ing in the world. "Thomas. pleasant smile overspread his face: "You h ave my parding." says Magoon. Calling to a rough-looking farmer near by." sa id Fred Douglass. "go farthest when they are smoothest. They indulge in few or no recriminations. more considerate of the prejudices of others than others are of theirs. of the difference in color." said Napoleon. madame. manage to break its way up through the frosty ground. yet are they everywhere polite and affable. they surpass al l nations in courtesy. The President returned the salutation by raisi ng his hat. and it kind o' took me off my feet. She was unwilling to wound the feelings of the honest old soldier. Josephine explain ed that. while a broad. came to a stream which he could not cross. respect the burden. as he courteou sly stepped aside at St. and the next time you run ag'in ' me. it was one of the aged generals of his army. when they met a slave . N apoleon commended her highly for her courtesy. and. he offered a quarter to be carried to ." "Eat at your own table. "Men. my little fellow. are faithful to old associations. I am very sorry that I ran against you. she turned around and said very kindly: "I beg your pard on. Stoppin g as soon as she could. a young lady ran w ith great force against a ragged beggar-boy and almost knocked him down.. but the grandson ignored the civility of the negro." If parents were not careless about the manners of their children at home. miss. Helena to make way for a laborer bending under a heavy load." After the lady had pa ssed on. instead of its being General Lorges. and welcome. In all ages they ha ve been maltreated and reviled. "who in no single instance reminded me of the difference betwe en himself and me. are the Jews." "Respect the burden. President Jefferson was one day riding with his grandson. taking off about three quarters of a cap." said t he grandfather. and. In hastily turning the corner of a crooked street in London. it is said. they would seldom be shocked or embarrassed at their behavior abroad. who took off his hat and bowed. and inconceivably gentle push ing. A Washington politician went to visit Daniel Webster at Marshfield. and despoiled of their civil privileges and thei r social rights. a young and handsome man." "There is no policy like politeness. ma de a low bow and said. Mass.but a soft mush or jelly. and then. Jim. and was once ob served holding a long conversation in Italian with an organ-grinder whom he was questioning about scenes in Italy with which they were each familiar.

and exceptional shrewdness and sagacity. Christ was courteous. "Why did our friend never succeed in business?" asked a man returning to New Yo rk after years of absence. These old ladies although strangers to him. industry. and. Ross Winans of Baltimore owed his great success and fortune largely to his cour tesy to two foreign strangers. Garrison was as polite to the furious mob that tore his clothes from his back a nd dragged him through the streets as he could have been to a king. Butler. Courtesy pays. A poor curate saw a crowd of rough boys and men laughing and making fun of two aged spinsters dressed in antiquated costume. He did so. but would not take the quarter. obliging. w hile agreeable manners win in spite of other defects. forgive them. largely because of his court esy. He became very wealthy. and she was so much pleased with his great politeness that she gave a generous donation to the college. harsh." "He was sour and morose. a merchant in Pr ovidence. I.the other side. He was one o f the serenest souls that ever lived. the former will become rich while the boorish one will starve. Hence. The curate pushed through the crowd. at their death left the gent le curate a large fortune. He cried: "Father. and in terrible agony on the cross. and to the great surprise and chagrin of the vi sitor was introduced as Mr. and the other disobliging. business which might easily be theirs goes to others who are really less de serving but more companionable. Not long ago a lady met the late President Humphrey of Amherst College. This little incident was talked of all about the city and brought him hundreds of customers. and g ot the thread. conducted them up the central aisle. Although his was but a fourth-rate factory. "he had sufficient capital." St. gave them choice seats. He went back. Mr. wh o later invited Mr. The old rustic presented himself a t the house a few minutes later. and his patrons went to shops where they were sure of civility. and yet render success imposs ible by their cross-grained ungentlemanliness. Webster. as well as of persuasive eloquence. even to His persecut ors. a nd soon his profits resulting from his politeness were more than $100. [Illustration: Jane Addams] . Paul's speech before Agrippa is a model of dignif ied courtesy. and amid the titter of the congregation. had once closed his store and was on his way home when he met a little girl who wanted a spool of thread. The strangers were Russians sent by their Czar. Winans to establish locomotive works in Russia. "he always suspected his employees of cheating him. They repel patronage. if one be gentlemanly." was the reply. Good manners often prove a fortune to a young man.000 a year . R. his g reat politeness in explaining the minutest details to his visitors was in such m arked contrast with the limited attention they had received in large establishme nts that it won their esteem. and the greatest energy. natura lly. kind. opened the store. Take two men possessing eq ual advantages in every other respect." Some men almost work their hands off and deny themselves many of the common com forts of life in their earnest efforts to succeed. Bad manners often neutralize even honesty. The farmer took the politician on his broad shoulders and lande d him safely. no man ever put good will or energy into work done for him. and insolent. an d conciliating.. rude. The ladies were embarrassed and di d not dare enter the church. a thorough knowledge of h is business. for th ey know not what they do. and was disc ourteous to his customers.

Mere politenes s is not enough. the employees must try in every possible way to please and to m ake customers feel at home. Ex cessive shyness must be overcome as an obstacle to perfect manners. Addison was one of the purest writers of English and a perfect master of the pen. The two distinguishing characteris tics of the house are one low price to all. George Wa shington was awkward and shy and had the air of a countryman. He retired from London at forty. and did not try to publis h or preserve one of his plays. Archbishop Whately was so shy that he would escape notice whenever it was possible. Practice on the stage or lecture platform does not always eradicate shyness. It is peculi ar to the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic races. "should I en dure this torture all my life?" when. but he co uld scarcely utter a dozen words in conversation without being embarrassed. "Thank you. "I was once very shy. He took second or third-rate parts on account of his diffidence. and extreme courtesy." he asked. for fear it would increase the acquaintances he would have to meet. an enormous establishment in Paris where thousands of clerks are employed. and where almost everything is kept for sale. and has frequently been a barrier to the highest culture. He said that he never went on the platform without fear and trembling. though he had acted for thirty years with marked self-possession. who would walk up to a cannon's mouth in battle. was once summoned to testify in court. but who are cowards in the drawing-room. It is a curious fact that diffidence often betrays us into discourtesies which our hearts abhor. to his surprise. that the world was very clea . and would often b e covered with cold perspiration. the great actor. Sir Isaac Newton was the shyest man of his age. but are merely diffident and shy. my dear. There are many worthy people who are brave on the street. that shamming was of no use. and dare no t express an opinion in the social circle. Generally shyness comes from a person thinking too much about himself--which in itself is a breach of good breeding--and wondering what other people think abou t him. By this co urse the business has been developed until it is said to be the largest of the k ind in the world. Da vid Garrick. and h aughty who are not. John B. Something more must be done than is done in other st ores. that all mankind were not solely employed in o bserving me. They feel conscious of a subtle tyran ny in society's code." spoken to a little beggar-girl who bou ght a pennyworth of snuff proved a profitable advertisement and made Lundy Foote a millionaire. so that every visitor will remember the Bon Marché with pleasure. which locks their lips and ties their tongues. It is a disease of the finest organizations and the high est types of humanity. "for why. and next. Many persons of real refinement are thought to be stiff. Gough said that he could no t rid himself of his early diffidence and shrinking from public notice. At last he det ermined to give up trying to cure his shyness. please call again. proud. He would not allow his name to be used in connection with his theory of the moon's motio n.A fine illustration of the business value of good manners is found in the Bon M arché." said Sydney Smith. and which cause us intense mortification and embarrassment. first. and. "but it was not long before I made tw o very useful discoveries. it almost entirely disapp eared. Elihu Burritt was so shy that he would hide in the cellar when his parent s had company. he was so confused a nd embarrassed that the judge dismissed him. Shak espeare was very shy. It never attacks the coarse and vulgar. reserved. He did not acknowledge his grea t discovery for years just for fear of attracting attention to himself.

for a country booby. and the loss or gain from our last weight is carefully noted. Shy people should dress well. Here's fun. square. and unlock the tongue. when he overheard the remark between some ladies and gentlemen: "Ah. who for it ne glect the culture of the mind or heart. Some people look upon polished manners as a kind of affectation. and may you grow better and wise r in advancing years. he is more careful.r-sighted. its carved and fretted marbles of matchl ess hues. who are troubled more by an unfashionable garment than by a neglected duty. All present weigh him in their judgment and silen tly say. are always under inspection. elocution. rail at it who may." Besides him stands young Jones. yet all t he while full of kindly. Yo u mistook me. Beauty in dress is a good thing." Just then Governor Caleb Strong entered and called to Mr. polite. and soon estimated a man at his true value. It is e . who care more for dress than for their character. cordial feeling for one's fellow men! Shy people are al ways distrustful of their powers and look upon their lack of confidence as a wea kness or lack of ability. A man with a good coat upon his back meets with a better reception than he w ho has a bad one. tending to throw ridicule upon him. They claim adm iration for plain. youn g Brown enters a drawing-room. from the same superfi cial cause. or the claims of others on their service . con siderate. He entered the parlor and sat down. horseback riding. here comes a rea l homespun countryman. He has put robes of b eauty and glory upon all his works. like our characters. Every time we go into society we must step on the scales of each person's opinion. Our manners. for which a higher beauty should not be sacrificed. their best time. permit me to wish you health and happiness. industrious. unornamented houses made from square blocks of stone . it is well to avoid bright colors and fashionable extremes. when he arose and said." says Johnson. who. and wear plain. from my dress. They might as well say that they prefer square. was elected t o the Massachusetts legislature. But it is a lower beauty. and similar accomplishments. said: "I wish you a very good evening. rugged characters. Each mentally asks. while I. or all their money. "This young man is gaining. As peculiarities in apparel are sure to attract attention. Good clothes give ease of manner. when it may indicate quite the reverse. and went to a hotel in Boston. solid. eve ry bird is clothed in the habiliments of the most exquisite taste. St." "In civilized society. "Is this pe rson going up or down? Through how many grades has he passed?" For example. When Ezekiel Whitman. every f ield blushes beneath a mantle of beauty. "Ladies and gentlem en. The mistake has been mutual. dancing. while inferiority of garb often induces res traint. every star is veiled in brightness. bearing in mind that outward appearances are deceitful. he came to Boston from his farm in countryman's dress. a prominent lawyer and graduate of Harvard. The consciousness of being well dressed gives a grace and ease of manner that even religion will not bestow. This cured me. straightforward. we may do much to overcome the sense of shyness. Whitman." One cannot but feel that God is a lover of the beautiful. By teaching ch ildren early the arts of social life." What a misfortune it is to go through life apparently encased in ice. Every flower is dressed in richness. thought you were ladies and gentlemen. Peter's is none the less strong and solid because of its elegant columns a nd the magnificent sweep of its arches. "external advantages make us more respect ed. well-fitting garm ents of as good material as the purse will afford." They asked him all sorts of queer questions. such as boxing. They love dress too much who give it their first thought. thoughtful. plain. turning to the dumfounded company.

snaps at the servants. It may well indicate the kind of wood below. doe s not look you in the eye. exclusiveness. shy people are morbidly self-conscious. who ever stands in the shadow of ourselves holding the scales of justice. Mere politeness can never be a substitute for mora l excellence. is mean. do not constitute or fin ally determine his character.vident that he is losing ground rapidly. one ounce. they think too much about lves. two ounces. they are always analyzing. four ounces. Etiquette is but a substitute for good manners and is often but the ir mere counterfeit. or I-am-better-than-you-ness. three drachms. any more than the bark can take the place of the heart of the oak. for that other self. CHAPTER XIX SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND TIMIDITY FOES TO SUCCESS Timid. and who was the first true gentlema n that ever breathed. ease. happiness. that tell tale in the soul. No one has ever done a great thing wh ile his mind was centered upon himself. what success in hey would achieve. Of the tincture of Good Cheer. Their thoughts are always turned inward. while they are the garb of the gentleman. rushes to the eye or into the manner and betrays us. Pattern after Him who gave the Golden Rule. . We cannot long deceive the world. and achievement. shyness. fatal. He is careless. ting themselves. meanness. indifferent. wondering how they appear and what people think of them. Sincerity is the highest quality of good manners. I sometimes think it would be a great advantage if one could read these ratin gs of his associates. and self-consciousness belong to the same family. stingy. yet is over-p olite to strangers. We usually find all where we find any one of these qualities. rough. Of the Spirit of Love. Of Essence of Heart's-Ease. The Mixture to be taken whenever there is the slightest symptom of selfishness. and no scruples. if we dwell upon our weaknesses. and grace they would gain. tagged with these invisible labels by all who know u s. one ounce. three drachms. Of the Infusion of Common Sense and Tact. three drachms. se people could only forget themselves and think of others. and they are all enemies of peace of mind. Of the Oil of Charity. We must lose ourselves before we can fin d ourselves. themse dissec If the surpri life t Timidity. Of the Extract of the Rose of Sharon. but not always whether it be sound or decayed. But manners. Self analysis is valuable only to learn our strength. And so we go through life. The following recipe is recommended to those who wish to acquire genuine good m anners:-Of Unselfishness. they would be sed to see what freedom.

When he thinks they are aiming remarks at him. They shrink from exposing their sore spots and sensitive points. well educated and able. because they are afraid to jostle with the world. A sufferer who wishes to overco me it must take himself in hand as determinedly as he would if he wished to get control of a quick temper. or even ruined. because of this weakness. they realize that it would be the most foolis h thing in the world to betray resentment. Th ere is many a clergyman. o r drinking. Morbid sensitiveness requires heroic treatment. by his quickness to take offense. when they are probably not thinking of h im at all. is really an exaggerated form of s elf-consciousness. who is so sensitive that he can not keep a pastorate long. He will be ashamed to play "cry baby" every time he feels h urt. Mingle freely with people. Over-sensitiveness. yet it causes one's personality to overshadow everything else. or get out. Think less of yourself and m ore of others. when boys enter college as freshmen. Working in competition with other people. He begins to see that the wor ld is too busy to bother itself especially about him. they m ay not be even conscious of his presence. or analyzing his character. but will make up his mind to grin and bear it. One of the best schools for a sensitive boy is a large business house in which he will be thrown among strangers who will not handle him with gloves. and depreciating and making light of them on ever y possible occasion. he know s that he will be called the class booby. wherever he goes. or trying to hold him up to the ridicule of others. or to rid himself of a habit of lying. and seeing that exactly the same treatment is given to those above him as to himself. But after they have been in coll ege a term. In such a n environment he will soon learn that everyone has all he can do to attend to hi s own business. he is the center of obs ervation. "What shall I do to get rid of it?" asks a victim. they are so touchy th at their sense of honor is constantly being hurt and their pride stung by the un conscious thrusts of classmates and companions. or throw . making fun at h is expense. From his distorted viewpoint some brother or sister in the church is always hurting him. Their super-sensitiveness makes cowards of them. He imagines that people are criticizing his movements. which smart from the lightest touch. takes the nonsense out of him. putt ing slights upon him. A man who appreciates himself at his true value. so he is simp ly forced to drop his foolish sensitiveness. It is far removed from conceit or self-esteem. He does not realize that other people are too busy and too much inter ested in themselves and other things to devote to him any of their time beyond w hat is absolutely necessary. they are not usually thinking of him. Oftentimes. or stealing. even when people look at him. and have been knocked about and handled in a rough but good-humored manner by youths of their own age. If one shows that he is hurt. He will realize that he must be a man and give and take with the others. Many a good business man has been kept back. or whatever he says. whether in man or woman. saying and thinking unkind things. Do not have suc h a low and unjust estimate of people as to think they are bent on nothing but h urting the feelings of others. Do not brood over what is said to you. or to resent a fancied slight. or analyze every simple remark until you magnify it into something of the greatest importance.Thousands of young people are held back from undertaking what they long to do. Become interested in things outside of yourself. whatever he does. and cannot keep places when they get them. and who gi ves his neighbors credit for being at least as good as he is. and that. Thousands of people are out of positions. and are kept from trying to make real their great life-dreams. or any other defect which prevented his being a whole man. A college course is of inestimable value to a boy or girl of over-refined sensi bilities. A sensitive person feels that. and teased unmercifully. cannot be a victim of over-sensitiveness.

the science of color. He always carries about an injured air. and he forgets hi s audience. In the busy world of affairs. Then they found their style. until she was lost in her song. they doom themselves to unhappiness and failure. but they have a ll they can do to attend to their own affairs. or school committees. can he really create. I have in mind a very strong. and other people with artistic temperaments. The great majority of people. all the time. who has been kept in a very ordinary situation for years simply because of her morbid sensitiveness. touch an d go. forgets everything but his subject. or trying to apply the conventional rules of or atory. of perspective. and then only. If they do not. authors. Could anything be more foolish and short-sighted than to allow a morbid sensiti veness to interfere with one's advancement in life? I know a young lady with a superb mind and a fine personality. it is give and take. Many schoolteachers are great sufferers from over-sensitiveness. capable of filli ng a superior position. it is intended for her. and would much rather help than hinder a fellowbeing. and those who expect to get on must rid themselves of all morbid sensitive ness. until he surrenders to that greater principle. No one ever does a really great thing until he feels that he is a part of something greater than himself. Remarks of par ents. no matter how rough in manner or bearing. ar e usually very sensitive. that he really does a great thin g. their grammar. He shows what his real style is. a feeling that he has been imposed upon. or little bits of gossip which are reported to them make them feel as if people were sticking pins in them. No painter ever did a great masterpiece when trying to keep all the rules of hi s profession. in his mind. And she can not understand why she does not get on faster. She takes it for granted that if any criticism is made in the department where she works. vigorous editorial write r who is so prone to take offense that he can not hold a position either on a ma gazine or a daily paper. No orator has ever electrified an audience while he was thinking of his style o r was conscious of his rhetoric. metaphorically speaking. The result is that she makes it so unpleasant for her employers that they do no t promote her. the laws of drawing. It is when a writer is so completely carried away with his subject that he cann ot help writing. and she "flies off the handle" over every lit tle remark that she can possibly twist into a reflection upon herself. never touched their power. Self-consciousness is a foe to greatness in every line of endeavor.--then. and regards every suggestion for the improvement of his work as a personal affr ont. He is cut to the very quick by the slightest criticism. Some of our best writers never found themselves. It is when the orator's soul is on fire with his theme. that he writes naturally. . and have no time to spend in minu tely analyzing the nature and feeling of those whom they meet in the course of t heir daily business. Everything must be swallowed up in his zeal.ing out hints and suggestions calculated to injure him in the eyes of the congre gation. their rhetorical arr angement. which greatly detracts from an otherwise agreeable personality. Writers. fused in the fire of his geni us. are kin d-hearted. No singer ever captivated her audience until she forgot herself. unt il they forgot their rules for construction. by losing themselves in their subject.

but of many things he does not know. They will think of his troubles." When Abraham Lincoln was running for the legislature the first time. but only seemed curious to know whether he had muscle enough to r epresent them in the legislature. Address makes opportunities." said the negro." said a Confederate officer. "Berry sorry. and that if he does not happen to approach them with a smiling fa ce. if they are wise: they will forget self. leveling his rifle. Laugh. A man wants to feel that his employees understand him." said Napoleon in surprise to his cook. If anything has gone wrong in his business and he fe els vexed. not their own. so that your Majesty is sure always to have it at perfection." said the cook. "Sire." . The art of using moderate abilities to advantage wins praise. "but at whate ver hour I call for my breakfast my chicken is always ready and always in good c ondition. he went to secure the votes of t hirty men who were cradling a wheatfield. and that they take into consideration the thousand and one little vexations and happenings which are ext remely trying. and Force replied "Address. He'll suit his bearing to the hour. "the r eason is." The officer surrendered. hain't time to go back and git a white man.No one wishes to employ anyone who is so sensitive that he is obliged to be on his guard every moment lest he wound him or touch a sore spot. with consideration and friendliness in his words or commands. than the pedant by his awkward attempt to exhibit his erudition. It makes an emplo yer very uncomfortable to feel that those about him are carrying around an injur ed air a large part of the time. "Tact clinches the bargain.--COLTON. "I do not know how it is. A man who knows the world will not only make the most of everything he does kno w. and often acquire s more reputation than actual brilliancy. and will gain more credit by his adroit mode of hiding his ignorance. "must kill you den." "I never will surrender to a nigger." This seemed to him the more strange because sometimes he would breakf ast at eight and at other times as late as eleven. "When God endowed human beings with brains. CHAPTER XX TACT OR COMMON SENSE "Who is stronger than thou?" asked Braham. so that he never quite knows whether they are i n sympathy with him or not. and contribute their zeal to the greater good. "he did not inte nd to guarantee them. the want of it gives them.--ROCHEFOUCAULD. or teach. when a colore d soldier chased and caught him. that every quarter of an hour I put a fresh chicken down to roast. The whole thirty voted for him. massa. They asked no questions about internal improvements."--VICTOR HUGO. they will not take offense. ELIZA COOK. listen.--BOVEE. Gets the vote in the Senate. he knows that he is liable to give offense to these people without ev er intending it. Spite of Webster or Clay." says Montesquieu. learn. Lincoln took up a cradle and led the gang arou nd the field. Sails out of the bay. on the pla tform of the improvement of the Sangamon River.

and lively touch. and a small one for the ki tten. "Oh. a fee of one thousand dollars in crisp ne w bills of large denomination was handed to Daniel Webster as he sat reading in his library. He did not know enough of business to cut the coupon fro m a bond when he wanted money." The world is full of theoretical. We often call these one-sided men geniuses. very well. but he did not know men so well. while all their other faculties have atrophied and died. symmetrical man. to friends who seemed to appreciate their b eauty. but he sent three hundred florins to pay f or six shirts and half a dozen handkerchiefs. Beethoven was a great musician. It is the open eye. Learning of a new issue of gold pieces at the Treasury. Talent knows what to do. but a monstrosity. For his argument in the Florida Case. the quick ear. "No matter. Adam Smith could teach the world economy in his "Wealth of Nations . and yet he was so poor at times that he had only a biscuit and a gla ss of water for dinner. one by one. and lacked the other's skill and tact. Many great men are very impractical even in the ordinary affairs of life. One of Napoleon's marshals understood military tactics as well as his chief . to obtain several hundred d ollars' worth. "How much will you have?" asked the mercha nt. Webster was at first puzzled." Talent is power. the remover of all obstacles. I' ll call at another time. On turning the next leaf he found another. and so on until he took the whole amount lost from the places where he had deposite d them thoughtlessly. but I guess a bushel will do. but tact is everything. like a cat. it is the interpreter of all riddles. "Well. Years afterward. a "book-worm. the keen smell. but sold the whole instrument. he would fall upon his feet. but. though he may be an imbecile in the drawing-room. he had two holes cut through the panel s for them to pass at will. Isaac Newton could read the secret of creation. but on reflection remembered that he had given them away." but he could not manage the finances of his own household. he found a bank-bill without a crease in it. It is not a sixth sense. as he read. The next day he wished to use some of the money. but could not find any of the bills. as he turned the page of a book. "The professor is not at home. t he surmounter of all difficulties. tact is skill. one-sided. A merchant is excused if he is a giant in merchandise. but the y were all gone. We see its failure everywhere. tired of rising from his chair t o open the door for a cat and her kitten. impractical men.Talent in this age is no match for tact. and the wo rld excuses their impractical and almost idiotic conduct in most matters. A professor in mathematics in a New England college. becaus e they can perform one kind of work that no one else can do as well." was asked b y his wife to bring home some coffee." Many a great man has been so absent-minded at times as to seem devoid of common -sense. he directed his secretary. He paid his tailor as large a sum in advance." ." replied Lessing. who have turned a ll the energies of their lives into one faculty until they have developed. my wife did not say. I declare. A day or two after he put his hand in his pocket for one. Charles Lanman. not a full-orbed. tact is up at six. but it i s like the life of all the five. "Talent lies abed till noon. Tact wi ll manipulate one talent so as to get more out of it in a lifetime than ten tale nts will accomplish without it. Napole on might fall. but. Dean Swift nearly starved in a country parish where his more practical classmate Stafford became r ich. tact knows how to do i t. "Talent is something. a large hole for the cat. the judging taste." said his servant who looked out of a window in the dark and failed to recognize Lessing when the latter knocked at his own door in a fit of absent-mindedness.

Bacon said that studies "teach not their own use. "We have been among you several weeks. he is astonished to find that he has lost the power to gra pple with men and things. Even the University could not supply common sense." . Not long ago three college graduates were found working on a sheep farm in Aust ralia. He could talk about nothing but sheep and farm. the college against the ranch. Book culture alone t ends to paralyze the practical faculties. The bookworm loses his individuality.Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. but he knew sheep. and unfits him for real life. won by observation. yet it is often but an ethical cultu re. He retired to his tent. distrustful of his abili ties. for he c ould black his own boots. He inhabits an ideal realm where common sense rarely dwells. you are now jealous of us and are trying to drive us away." Over-culture. and told the day and hour it would occur. and continued to reduce the supply of food. The Gre at Spirit is angry with you for not doing as you agreed in bringing us provision s. a nd when he graduates. The culture of books and colleges refines. one from Cambridge. without practical exp erience. and the ranch beat every time." said Columbus to the Indian chiefs. too self-conscious. "an d. and too finely cultured for every day use. one from Oxford. About the time for the eclipse to pass away. yet who can scarcely get a living." said Wendell Phillips." Do not expect too much from books. but no w you bring very little and the amount is less with each succeeding day. and. You brought us food in plenty every morning. and when the sun had passed out of the shadow they leaped and danced and sang for joy. although at first you treated us like friends. "bows to the inevitable and makes use of it. and is gained at the cost of vigor and rugged strength." Th e use of books must be found outside their own lids. has developed hard common sense and practical wisdom. while the college men could scarcely get a living. It was "culture against ignorance. They readily promised. On the appointed day the sun rose without a cloud. too highly polishe d. too fine for the mechanical drudgery of practical life. but the Indians did not believe him." He knew that ther e was to be an eclipse of the sun. in the fierce struggle for existence. his head is filled with theories and saturated with other men's thoughts. To show his anger he will cause the sun to be in darkness. The world cares little for his theories or his encyclopaedic know ledge. Therea fter the Spaniards had all the provisions they needed. But at length a dark spot was seen on one margin. The st amina of the vigorous mind he brought from the farm has evaporated in college. they drove sheep. His three hired graduates could speak foreign langu ages and discuss theories of political economy and philosophy. Book education alone tends to make a man too critical. The owne r of the farm was an ignorant. The cry of the age is for practical men. promising to save them. He knew nothing of books or theories. if po ssible.--college men tending brutes! Trained to lead men. "Common sense. and would soon drive away the monster from th e sun if they would never offend him again. but who. coarse sheep-raiser. and the Indians shook their heads. It was said of a great Fren ch scholar: "He was drowned in his talents. as it became larger. weakens a man. and the other from a German Universi ty. but he could make money. The world is full of men and women apparently splendid ly endowed and highly educated. he came out and said that t he Great Spirit had pardoned them. The college graduate often mi stakes his crutches for strength. but that there is a practical wisdom without them. beginning to show signs of open hostility as the hours passed without a s hadow on the face of the sun. and is therefore out-stripped in the race of life by t he boy who has had no chance. timid. but he had made a fortun e. the natives grew frantic and fell prostrate before Col umbus to entreat for help.

" Opening the bullet-pouch. Thoug h Weed and Bennett had not spoken to each other before for thirty years." Then springing upon the horse the b oys had brought. Moore carried the younger children to the loft of the cabin. and mouth. "Stand by that window with the axe. He could read m en as an open book. nose. if I give them time. "They're coming. ma de to imitate a gigantic grinning face. and was creating a dangerous public sent iment abroad and at home by its articles in sympathy with the Confederacy. His fat her had taken the wrong pouch. The emperor of France favored the South. with a pale face. Moore. speaking of some comparisons that had been instituted between himself a nd Shakespeare. the ver y next day after their interview the "Herald" became a strong Union paper. said: "Shakespeare always hits the right nail on the head at onc e. he galloped away to warn other settlers. Obed felt around to see if there were any smaller balls in the cupboard. "Quick. hiding forever from h is followers the ill omen of his threatened fall. pulling the coat away. "Now for it!" he added." w hich had a large circulation in Europe. as he raised the covere d lantern to the window. but I have to stop and think which is the right nail. one of th e two which he and Joe had been using to make Jack-o'-lanterns when the messenge r alarmed them. and don't strike a light to-night. Joe!" whispered Obed early in the evening. as he sa w several shadows moving across the fields. Mr. He was unselfish. "They'll sound the wa r-whoop in a minute. thus shutting off French manufacturers from lar ge supplies of cotton. "and give me a fresh horse as soon as you can. Mrs. shut up as tight as you can." he whispered. Moore and dayligh t came together. he flung it over the vegetable lantern. By three presid ents whom his tact and shrewdness had helped to elect he was offered the English mission and scores of other important positions. and will not be back until morning. but he invariably declined. Weed was then sent to Europe to counteract the pernicious influence of secession agen ts. "My husband went away y esterday to buy our winter supplies. but nearly fainted as he found it was too large for the rifle.When Caesar stumbled in landing on the beach of Britain. reluctantly yielding the post of danger to them at their urge nt request. But Weed's rare tact modified his views. but the Indians did not return. he instantly grasped a handful of sand and held it aloft as a signal of triumph. and nobody k nows where they'll turn up next!" "What shall we do?" asked Mrs. but he had tact and intuition. and wit h a live coal from the ashes he lighted the candle inside. with open eyes. and the Indians fled w ildly to the woods. "Get ready for the redskins!" shouted an excited man as he galloped up to the l og-cabin of the Moore family in Ohio many years ago. Pulling off his coat. he took ou t a ball. while I get the rifle pointed at this one. and left Obed and Joe to watch. Lincoln selected Weed to attempt the reconciliation of the "New York Herald. Cover up yo ur fire. He had very few chances such as are now open to the humblest boy. Joe! Light up the other one! Don't you see that's wh at scar't 'em so?" demanded Obed. He was very indignant because Charl eston harbor had been blockaded. They killed a family down the river last night. and induced him . and mold them to his will." "Husband away? Whew! that's bad! Well. before I hit." It has been said that a few pebbles from a brook in the sling of a David who kn ows how to send them to the mark are more effective than a Goliath's spear and a Goliath's strength with a Goliath's clumsiness. Thurlow Weed earned his first quarter by carrying a trunk on his back from a sl oop in New York harbor to a Broad Street hotel. Goethe. and almost stumbled over a very large pumpkin. and at the appearance of the second fiery face the savages gave a final yell and vanished in the forest. An unear thly yell greeted the appearance of the grinning monster.

then. James. are seen everywh ere. . My scientific instruments are with the army. "mel t them. M. or common sense. F." "Very well. and let them go about doing good. sir."--"Sire. sir." "I hope nothing serious is the matter. showed his resentment against Providence by abolishing the Christian religion throughou t his dominions for a fortnight. The triumphs of tact. and Charlemagne could hardly write his name so that it could be deciphered." said Napoleon to his chief engineer. be reasonable!"--"Ascerta in at once the width of this river." Turning." The engineer drew the cap-piece of his helmet down until the edge seemed just i n line between his eye and the opposite bank. "Mr. and acqu ired a fortune of a million dollars. holding himself carefully er ect." replied Pr esident Wayland. the witness bowed low in awkward suavity. one of our most distinguished citizens. and soon changed largely the current of public sent iment. His total want of tact had made him ridiculous. or you shall be deposed." "What are these?" asked Napoleon. He paced the distanc e to the point last noted. Walpole was an ignorant man. "Speak to the jury. when it was learned that the g reat statesman. this is Mr. as t hey came to a bridgeless river which the army had to cross. "Well. A." "I don't think the Proverbs of Solomon show very great wisdom. gentlemen. but these giants knew men and things. "allow me to introduce you to Mr. leaving poor Mr. Fifty and my expenses. Mr. and said. "Good-morning. as their Master did. and we are ten miles ahead of it. James in a most lugubrious tone." broke in the mayor . "bring in two to-morrow morning. Smith. I cannot. but my wife----" "Mr. and possesse d that practical wisdom and tact which have ever moved the world." "How do you do. "Tell me the breadth of this stream." "Measure the width of this stream instantly. Webster. James?" asked Webster mec hanically. "Yes." He was promoted. England was working night and day preparing for war when Weed arrived upon the scene. Webster. He was equally successful in business. Webster. "Sire." He did not bring them. on the sudden death of an only child. Webster. On his return to America the city of New York extended public thanks to h im for his inestimable services. in a tone of anxious concern. E." thundered the godlike Daniel. and said: "This is the approximate width of the strea m. "I could make as good ones myself. would be delayed for an hour by a fa ilure to make close connections." was the reply. as he glanced at a thousand people waiting to take his hand. "Will you lecture for us for fame?" was the telegram young Henry Ward Beecher r eceived from a Young Men's Christian Association in the West. although weary with travel. I think it's rheumatiz. "Address yourself to the jury." said Napoleon. I don't know that. coin them into money. the men sitti ng behind you on the raised benches. Montaigne tells of a monarch who. "The tru th is." said a student at Brown University. Mr. he turned on his heel and noticed where the edge seemed to touch the bank o n which he stood. pointing to twelve silver statues in a cathed ral." said a judge to a witness who insisted upo n imparting his testimony in a confidential tone to the court direct." was the answer the shrewd young preacher sent back." said the mayor of a Western city.to change to friendliness the tone of a hostile speech prepared for delivery to the National Assembly. The man di d not understand and continued as before. Mr. over talent and genius. "The twelve Apostles. "Take them down. James to enjoy his bad health in the pitiless solitude of a c rowd. which was on the same level as the other. "I am not very well." replied Mr.

but on reflectin ' that he cood pollish me much wuss in his paper. like Alexander. yet rather than be deprived of the rays of the life-giving sun in the de nse forests of South America. Edito rs are generally fine men. He ground up the king and his vassal. Abuv all. Shakespeare had marvelous tact. he worked everything into his plays. when the old man asked how one could succeed so well where t he other had failed. During a storm at . as you would a picture. According to an old custom a Cape Cod minister was called upon in April to make a prayer over a piece of land. He set my Show up steep." John Jacob Astor had practical talent in a remarkable degree. the simple and the profound. and don't do you no more good than it would to jump into enny other mudpuddle.Tact. I giv it up. Place him in a good light. Napoleon could do anything in the art of war with his own hands. pas sions and characters. as they sumtimes will. It only gives him a notorosity. th e black and the white. The palm is among the hardest and least yielding of all woods. Others make Don Quixote's mistake of fighting a windmil l by engaging in controversies with public speakers and editors. it needs manure. The excellence s and defects will appear if you get the right angle. Paul was all things to all men. to not pay no attenshun to um. A practical man not only sees. these m iserable papers. Ther e is a certain getting-on quality difficult to describe. and called me a horey-heded itinerent v agabone. who are sure to have the advantage of the final word. the Muther of Presidents and things. but seizes the opportunity." said he. the pure and the impure. don't assault a editer of this kind. Artemus Ward touches this bubble with a pretty sharp-pointed pen. even to the making of gunpowder. and climb the n earest trunk to the light. "It was in a surtin town in Virginny. but who had a sort of dull energy in him which enabled him to get on in the world. that I was shaimfully aboozed by a editer in human form. and I wood here t ake occashun to advise people when they run agin. the fool and the fop. Some people show want of tact in resenting every slight or petty insult. it is said to turn into a creeper. "No. but which is the great winner of the prizes of life. howeve r unworthy their notice. I thort at fust Ide pollish him orf ar-lar Beneki Boy. went to anuther offiss to get my handbills printed. but there must be black sheep in every flock. what duz this pussillanermus editer do but change his toon and abooze me like a injun. A farmer who could not get a living sold one half of his farm to a young man wh o made enough money on the half to pay for it and buy the rest. The class leader had only a theoretical knowledge. which is jist what he wants. the prince and the peasant. He sed my wax-wurks was a humbug. One of the greatest elements of strength in the character of Washington was found in his forbearance when unjustly attack ed or ridiculed. "this does n ot need a prayer. mus t not omit a single essential detail. How our old schoolmates ha ve changed places in the ranking of actual life! The boy who led his class and w as the envy of all has been distanced by the poor dunce who was called slow and stupid." To see a man as he is you must turn him round and round until you get him at th e right angle. and leads its forces to g lorious victory. but when I. however rapid its flight. cuts the knots it cannot untie. and could not cope with the stern realities of the age. that he might save some. honor and dishonor. and must be willing to work like a horse. when shown the land. Even genius." was his reply.--everything within the sweep of his vi sion he ground up into paint and spread it upon his mighty canvas. fur the purpuss of s howin' fair play all round. an d kalled me the urbane and gentlemunly manager. "You have not ta ct.

" replied Graham. Well." "Dey are coming to de vront. the world will make a beaten path to his door. between dalent and chenius. which he used as a regulator. and dat is de chenius vot my race has got. if it be wrong. "I have had it seven years. but young Astor went below and coolly put on his best suit of clothes. the most exquisite mechanic in London. no tinker beside Should mend an old kettle like me. expecting every minute to go down. the other passengers ran about the deck in despa ir. and can tell me there has been a difference of five minutes." "I would not part with my watch ." "I remember our conditions. though he build his house in the woods. it is a watch which I have made and regulated myself. "for ten times the sum I paid for it. Ven one goes into a man's shtore and manaches to see l him vat he vonts." said the man. he would at least save his best suit of clothes." said he. saying that if the ship should founder and he shou ld happen to be rescued. If after seven years you come b ack to see me. from which nothing will ever d isplace them. and there is a difference of more than five minutes." replied his companion." Accuracy is the twin brother of honesty. "Let me see the watch. "Sir." said George Graham of London to a customer who asked how far he could depend upon its keeping corr ect time. SIMMONS.sea. "Their trading talent is bringing the Jews to the front in America as well as i n Europe. dat is dalent.--EMERSON.--C. If I were a cobbler. If I were a tinker." Seven years later the gentleman returned from India. in drade. "I bring you back your watch." "And I would not break m y word for any consideration. but ven annoder man goes into dat man's shtor e and sells him vot he don't vont. or make a better mous e-trap than his neighbor. OLD SONG. it would be my pride The best of all cobblers to be. dat is chenius. I hate a thing done by halves. so he paid the money and took the watch. If a man can write a better book. I vill dell you what is de difference." said the man." said a traveler to one of that race. "Sir. preach a better sermon. When a person once asked him to repair a watch upon which his name was . do it boldly. I wi ll return you your money. "and it has gained for them an a scendency. at least in certain branches of trade. Genius is the infinite art of taking pains.--CARLYLE.--GILPIN. if not in the world. most zairtainly. whose name on a timepiece was considered proof positive of its exc ellence. "take it with you wherever you please. He learned his trade of Tampion. If it be right." "Indeed! In that case I return you your money." said Graham. le ave it undone." CHAPTER XXI ENAMORED OF ACCURACY "Antonio Stradivari has an eye That winces at false work and loves the true. on his voyage to America. "but vy d o you shpeak of deir drading dalent all de time?" "But don't you regard it as a talent?" "A dalent? No! It is chenius. what do you complain of?" "Why.

a wonderful improvement in the ey es of the carpenter. the varia tion was only fifteen seconds. it varied less than two minutes." said a carpenter to the blacksmith in a New York village before the first railroad was built. and they had not been awarded. I do. He could be sure of this knowledge when the sun is shining. but throughout his long and successful life he never ceas ed to study still further to perfect his hammers in the minutest detail." the "dead escapement. and how far east or west of some known point. "Make me as good a hammer as you know how. The watchmakers of the world contested for the prizes. or W ashington." Graham invented the "compensating mercury pendulum. Tampion and Graham lie in Westmi nster Abbey. I make it as well as I can. but 1761 came." said Maydole. north o r south." "As good a one as I know how?" asked David Maydole. as Greenwich. In a round trip of one hundred and fifty-six days to Barbadoes. no matter whom it is for. They we re usually sold without any warrant of excellence. and handed the astonish ed customer one of his own master-pieces. a careless repetition.000 pounds for a chronomete r by which a ship six months from home could get her longitude within sixty mile s. but such a thing has not yet been mad e. Character is power.000 pounds for correctness within thirty miles. and left a standing order for all the blacks mith could make. probably. "We have no secret. and in another clause 20. a navigator must know how far he is from the equator. and each ordered just such a hammer. Tampion smashed it with a hammer. if he cou ld have an absolutely accurate timekeeper. a supply unheard of in his previous bus iness career. A New York dealer in tools came to the village to sell his wares. About two hundred years later the English government offered 5. "but perhaps you don't want to pay for a s good a one as I know how to make. and is the best advertisement in the world.fraudulently engraved. "six of us have come to work on the new church. The clock which he m ade for Greenwich Observatory has been running one hundred and fifty years." said the manager of an iron works employing thousands of m . the best. In that year John Harrison asked for a test of his chronom eter. "I can't make any better ones. doubtfully. By means of a longer hole than usual. he ordered two for himself. saying. "I want a good hammer. David had wedged the handle in its place so that the head could not fly off." It was indeed a good hammer that he received. and only four seconds on the outward v oyage." The storekeeper soon ordered two dozen. that had ever been made. The 20. asking that they be made a little bette r than those of his men." said the carpenter. 7. because of the accuracy of their work. the word "Maydole" stamped on the head being universally considered a guaranty of the best article the world could produce. and whose hand was as exquisitely delicate in its movement as the mechanism of his chronometer. "when I m ake a thing.000 pounds was paid to the man who had wor ked and experimented for forty years. 10." none of which have been much improved since." and the "orrery. Paris.500 pounds if within forty miles. yet it needs regulating but once in fifteen months. and I've left mine at home. who boasted of his prize to his companions. To insure safety. here is a watch of my ma king. "Sir." "Yes. In the sixteenth century Spain offered a prize of a thousand crowns for the d iscovery of an approximately correct method of determining longitude. and bought all the storekeeper had. In a trip of one hundred and forty-seven days from Portsmouth to Jamaica a nd back. They all came t o the shop next day. David might have grown very wealthy by making goods of the stan dard already attained.000 pounds if within thirty miles. When the contractor sa w the tools.

you can try it for yourself." s aid the Iron Duke. Mr." said Oliver Cromwell to the artist who." said the sculptor H. had omitted a mole. New E ngland cotton manufacturers were accustomed to state the number of years it had been in use and add. "There. K." It was the figure of an Irishman who worked for the Ward family in Brooklyn years ago. ther e were one hundred. Mass. "Just take a lump and put i t into water. but never mind. Six years later he invited her brother." "I will not believe you saw ten even. "this boy has something in him. suddenly closed his Bible and said. Brown saw the statue at the house of a lady living at New burgh-on-the-Hudson. of Northbridge." said an old lady. I'm quite sure. That is all the secret we've got. Whitin. You have contradicted yourself twice already." said the father. "I will never mention it." said the father. as an all-sufficient guaranty of Northbridge products." "Well. as he admired a statue in alabaster mad e by a youth in his teens. "I don' t think there are a hundred dogs in our village. it will either sink or swim." said a boy. "but did I not black them well?" "It is easy to tell good indigo. "I saw at least ou r Dash and another one. The doctor apologized. exempt from artifice. but even the pa tches in his trousers." "But you will all ow me to attend you. "I saw an immense number of dogs--five hundred. sir. "We always try to beat our last batch of rails. "Paint me just as I am." was the prompt re ply." "Well." or who call day after day the hottest of the summer or the coldest of the winter? There is nothing which all mankind venerate and admire so much as simple truth. duplicity. It exhibits at once a strength of . thinking to please the great man. to a customer who complain ed of the high price of some cotton machinery. "Well. and if it is good. expressed great regrets." "Surely not so many. my bredren.en." said one member of the Hou se of Commons to another in the heat of debate." said the disconcerted boy." When troubled with deafness." said the father." John B. Brown. "True enough. last night." "I don't try to see how cheap a machine I can produce. To-day the name of Ward is that of the most prosper ous of all Americans sculptors. it could not be le ss than ten: this I am quite certain of. Wellington consulted a celebrated physician. Q. Gough told of a colored preacher who. but how much more truthful are they who "never saw it rain so before. I am not sure whic h. "Whi tin make. and said that the blunder wou ld ruin him. Ward. and when there was occasion to advertise any machinery for sale. but how good a machine. who p ut strong caustic into his ear. A. "that would be lying. Business men soon learned what th is meant." We condemn the boy for exaggerating in order to tell a wonderful story." "Father. so that people will not withdraw their confidence?" "No." said the late John C. sir. and now I cannot believe you. warts and all. the rent in his coat. "for you spoke as confidently of seeing five hundred as of see ing this smaller number. and design. I am sure --in our street. and we don't care who knows it. "No. J. and gave with minutest fidelity not merely the man's features and expression. "I can remember when you blacked my father's shoes. to b ecome a pupil in his studio." "It could not be." said Wellington. wishing his congregation to fresc o the recess back of the pulpit. de Gospel will not be dispensed with any more from dis pulpit till de c ollection am sufficient to fricassee dis abscess. causing an inflammation which threatened his lif e." "Madam. and the creases in his narrow-brimm ed stove-pipe hat..

It seems strange that there should be so strong a temptation to exaggerate in a country where the truth is more wo nderful than fiction. The rose in the queen's garden is not more beautiful. to seem to concur with another's opinions when you do not. overdraw. In Siberia a traveler found men who could see the satellites of Jupiter with th e naked eye. to exaggerate. yet they are fa r superior to us in their accuracy of vision. to keep silent rather than s peak the truth. the workmen turned it a little with their hands. You nev er fail. "I am so p ressed with other duties that I haven't time to prepare myself to speak upon tha t theme. it is really difficult to ascertain the exac t truth in America. would impair the correctness of the glass. The crystal found deep in the earth is constructed wit h the same fidelity as that formed above ground. to lack sincerity. th eir very movement being "the uniform manifestation of the will of God. Its adjustment is so delicate that the human hand is the only instrument thus far known suitable for giving the final polish. and one sweep of the hand more than is needed." "But that's the very reason. to dodge. How many American fortunes are built on misrepresentation th at is needless. These men have made little advance in civilization. than that which blooms and blushes unhe eded amid the fern-decked brush by the roadside." ." The marvelous resources and growth of America have developed an unfortunate ten dency to overstate. more fragrant. toward the close of a Congressional session. It is a curious fact that not a si ngle astronomical discovery of importance has been made through a large telescop e. you always speak well upon any subject. A double convex lens three feet in diameter is worth $60. to assum e to know or think or feel what you do not--all these are but various manifestat ions of hollowness and falsehood resulting from want of accuracy. yet return to equinox or solstice at the appointed second. Roses blossom and crystals form with the same precision of tint and angle to-day as in Eden on the morning of creation. "because I never allow myself to speak upon any subject without first making that subject thoroughly my own. Alva n Clark says." Truth is necessary to permanency. During the test of the great glass which he made for Russia. and exaggerate. I can't do it.character and integrity of purpose in which all are willing to confide." "Ah. no slipshod business in nature. Webster. assumes its shape of ethereal beauty as faithfully as though pr eparing for some grand exhibition. the men who have advanced our knowledge of that science the most working with ordinary instruments backed by most accurately trained minds and eyes. We find no lying. to deceive by a glanc e of the eye. a gesture. a nod of the head. To say nice things merely to avoid giving offense." said Webster. a smile. it is impossible. to shirk the truth. to face both ways. Even the tiny snowflake whose d estiny is to become an apparently insignificant and a wholly unnoticed part of a n enormous bank. Indeed. to say what is expedient rath er than what is truthful. "Wait. when urged to speak on a q uestion soon to come up. let it cool before making another trial. to equivocate. The positive is stronger than the superlative. but. for then even he cou ld not exist. or in some far-off glen where n o human eye ever sees it. for nothing else is half so strong as truth. Clark's love of accuracy has made his name a synonym of exactness the world over. but we igno re this fact in our speech. "No. "No. "the p oise is so delicate that the heat from your hands affects it. no inaccuracy." Mr. "Does the devil lie?" was asked of Sir Thomas Browne." said the orator." said Clark. Hence I must refuse. more exquisitely perfect. boys. to evade. I haven't time to do that in this instance. Planets rush with dizzy sweep through almost limitless courses. Mr.000.

" He had made it his study by day and his dream by night." Reynolds said he could go on retouching a picture forever." the Florentines would say when Dante passed. "You do not show that you can use your eyes. Two hours later he examined his new pupil. "That will do. You'll have to try again." "There goes a man that has been in hell." After a seco nd examination he shook his head. V ." This roused the pupil to earnest effort. the more fresh and spontaneous they become." Leonardo da Vinci would walk across Milan to change a single tint or the slight est detail in his famous picture of the Last Supper. the al pha and omega of his aims and objects. commonplace shape in which they were first written down. In 1805 Napoleon broke up the great camp he had formed on the shores of the Eng lish Channel. "Yo u haven't really looked at the fish yet. He was as exact and precise even in the smallest trifles as Napoleon." said his publisher Dodsley. He believed that no gre at success is possible without the most rigid accuracy in everything. The more they are elaborated. The latter handed him a dead fish and told him to use his eyes. He left nothing to chance. saying. Of one of his works Montesquieu said to a friend: "You will rea d it in a few hours. People knew that his word was not "pretty good. and the first chapters of his history eighteen times." said Canon Farrar. "There is only one real failure in life possible. Gibbon wrote his memoir nine times. and he became so interested in things he had never noticed before that he did not see Agassiz when he came for the third examination. and faithfulness of purpose. Every detail of b usiness was calculated and planned to a nicety. He did not vary from a promise in the slightest degree. "should be done with our bes t care. but was awakened towards morning by a request for another star to steer by." Stephen Girard was precision itself." said George Ripley. of manuscript brought to be c opied. we have no scales by which we can weigh our faithfulness to duties. He did not allow those in his employ to de viate in the slightest degree from his iron-clad orders." said the great scientist. yet his brother merchants attributed his s uperior success to good luck. "I now see that you can use your eyes." Grove said of Beethoven." "It is quite astonishing. "and that is. but soon remarked. strength." said an eminent writer.Rufus Choate would plead before a shoemaker justice of the peace in a petty cas e with all the fervor and careful attention to detail with which he addressed th e United States Supreme Court. or the crude. "to find the length of time during which some of the best known instrumental melodies remained in his thoug hts till they were finally used. and gave orders for his mighty host to defile toward the Danube. "He who does not write as well as he can on every occasion." but absolutely good. "Every line was then writte n twice over by Pope. "Whatever is right to do. The captain of a Nantucket whaler told the man at the wheel to steer by the Nor th Star. vague." An accomplished entomologist thought he would perfect his knowledge by a few le ssons under Professor Agassiz. "will soon form the habit of not writing well on any occasion. or determine their relative importance in God 's eyes. so realistic seemed to them his description of the nether world. as they had "sailed by the other. but I assure you it has cost me so much labor that it has w hitened my hair. That which seems a trifle to us may be the secret spring which shall mo ve the issues of life and death. not to be true to the best one knows.

" etc. and you may tug away at their work on your coat. "whose stitches always come out. the exact day and hour it was to leave that sta tion. Besides his scrapbooks. so thoroughly premeditated. When a noted French preacher speaks in Notre Dame." "Parliamentary Decisions." "The Press. Price too high.. "if you woul . he did no t content himself with giving the order. or if a cashier must run over his bookkeeper's columns. When Sir Walter Scott visited a ruined castle about which he wished to write. he might a s well do the work himself as employ another to do it in that way." "Gener al Politics. Shall I buy." said Curran. and the button s they sew on fly off on the mildest provocation. The historian. la beled "Anecdotes. h e wrote in a notebook the separate names of grasses and wild flowers growing nea r. however. no other speaker could command so great an array of facts." came back over the wire instead of "No. "Am offered 10." "Geneva Award. These details . never allowed a sentence to stand until it was as good as he could make it. saying that only by such means can a writer be natural. When h e chose to make careful preparation on a subject." "Electoral Laws and Commissions. and professors in colleges have lost p osition and prestige by carelessness and inaccuracy! "You would be the greatest man of your age." "Carelessness. If a carpenter must stand at his journeyman's elbow to be sure his w ork is right." said a successful manufacturer. "No pric e too high.000. The omission of a period cost the Sacramento dealer $1. or waistcoat. and the precise moment when it was to reach its destination. eloquent." "United States History." could t ruthfully be written over the graves of thousands who have failed in life." "Tariff. and leaving the elaboration of its deta ils to his lieutenants. and method m eans character. were carried out to the letter." "There are women.ast and various as were the projects fermenting in his brain. and you can't start a button in a generation. "you will earn more t han if you make a bad steam-engine. polished discourses. which sealed the fate of Eur ope for ten years." "slouchiness. editors. or is i t too high?" telegraphed a San Francisco merchant to one in Sacramento. the scholars of Paris throng the cathedral to hear his fascinating. "Those who employ men do not wish to be on the constant lookout." said Fields. Macaulay. as though they were rogue s or fools. This bril liant finish is the result of most patient work. Garfield had a large case of some fifty pigeonholes.000 bushels wheat on your account at $1. To details and minutiae which inferior captains would ha ve deemed too microscopic for their notice." as was int ended." "If you make a good pin. How many thou sands have lost their wealth or lives. every valuable hi nt he could get being preserved in the cold exactness of black and white.00. there are other women who use the same needle and thread." "State Po litics." "Public Men. Grattan." "indifference. How m any clerks. Accurate people are methodical people. and how many frightful accidents have occ urred through carelessness in sending messages! "The accurate boy is always the favored one." "French Spoliation. clergymen." "slipshod financiering. he gave such exhaustive attention th at before the bugle had sounded for the march he had planned the exact route whi ch every regiment was to follow. and it is ver y certain that the employer will get rid of such a blunderer as soon as he can. as he delivers but five or six sermons a year. cashiers. and the result of that memorable march was the victory of Austerlitz." said President Tuttle.

Bergh tells of a man beginning business who opened and shut his shop regularly at the same hour every day for weeks. he mastered every detail and worked hard. Exact precision characterized his style. and then change the tit le. without selling two cents' worth. But although the pay was very small the work was never careless. To the end of his life he gave the finishing touch to each of his instrumen ts. A. as a rule. and would trust it to no one else. What Shakespeare is in literature. He determined to make an instrument yielding the fullest and richest volume of melody with the least exertion to the player. His eye was upon his business in all its ramifications. and for every delinquency a penalty was rigidly enforced. compared with accuracy and knowledge. but Jonas Chickering sent a petition to the legislature. He soon became skilful." Curran realized that methodical people are accurate. every sentence must be perfectly balanced before it left h is lips. The demand for perfection in the nature of Wendell Phillips was wonderful. From the time Jonas Chickering began to work for a piano-maker. perfection was his aim. he advised hi m to have it handsomely copied by a professional penman. Turner was intended by his father for a barber. and left matchless studies of natural scenery in lines never before attempted. and employ them in as lofty work as they seem able to do. and the price increasing as other men began to get glimpses of the transcendent art revealed in his paintings. Met hod ruled in every department of his store. He soon made pianos in a factory of his own. T. his work sure of a ma rket at some price. Character has a commercial as well as an ethical v alue. His labor was w orth several times what he received for it. Ever y word must exactly express the shade of his thought. We must strive after accuracy as we would after wisdom. yet whos e application attracted attention and paved the way to fortune. successful. Many able essays have been rejected because of poor penmanship. frequently illustrating guide-books and almanacs. but he showed such a taste for drawing that a reluctant permission was given for him to follow art as a profession. W. The advice was taken. and the article eagerly accepted by one of the very pu blishers who had refused it before. but the price was increased and work of higher grade given him simply because men seek the services of those who are known to be faithful. And so he toiled upward until he began to employ himself. withstanding atmospheric chang es. When consulted by a friend whose article had been rejected by several publishers. Neither time nor labor was of any account to him . The rhythmical fulness and poise of his periods are remarkable. He resolved that each pi ano should be an improvement upon the one which preceded it. Joseph M. He permitted no irregularity in workmansh ip or sales. Alexandre Dumas prepared his manuscript with the greatest care. or h . t he greatest name on record. and. every phrase must be of du e length and cadence. He was easily the first forens ic orator America has produced. To him there were no trifles in the manufacturing of pianos. but as he lacked means he took anythin g to do that came in his way. and straightforw ardness. Chickering's name was such a power that one piano -maker had his name changed to Chickering by the Massachusetts legislature. He surpassed the acknowledged masters in various fields of lan dscape work. Turner is in his special field. transparency.d buy a few yards of red tape and tie up your bills and papers. he was noted fo r the pains and care with which he did everything. and was characterized by simplicity. He distanced all competitors. and put it on his pianos. and preserving its purity and truthfulness of tone. a nd the name was changed back. Stewart was extremely systematic and precise in all his transactions. an art not fully comprehended even in our day.

The worst crimes are not punishable by law. Avoid slipshod financiering as you would the plague. lies in dishonest labor put into manufactured materi al by workmen who said it was good enough for the meager wages they got! Because people were not conscientious in their work there were flaws in the steel. and engines. The history of the human race is full of the most horrible tragedies caused by carelessness and the inexcusable blunders of those who never formed the habit of accuracy. slighted their work. into the building. The steel shaft broke in mid-ocean. careless ness is as much a crime as deliberate criminality. because dishonest workmen wrought deception into the articles they manufactur ed. somebody's habit of inaccuracy. or switches. They are the evil fruit of the low i deals of slovenly. If everybody put his conscience into his work. it was discovered that a girl had served twenty years for a twe nty months' sentence. clear down to the plating. armless sleeves. a leg. Not long since. Determine to form exact business hab its. dishonest--either employer or emplo yee--and worked lies. locomotives. did it to a complete finish. that of ten do more harm than the crimes that make the perpetrator an outcast from socie ty. How many have lost their lives because of dishonest work. somebody's blunders. Nearly every very successful man is acc urate and painstaking. Carelessness. and the lives of a thousand passengers were jeopardized because of somebody's carelessness. which cause so m uch misery and cost so many lives. and while being repair ed a hammer was found in the bottom that had been left there by the builders thi rteen years before. the locomotive or other machinery to break. careless. or are otherwise maime d. Even before they are completed. Careless and indiffere nt habits would soon ruin a millionaire. of doing things to a finish. to a fraction of what it is at present. or an arm. blundering work. and character is power. are crimes against self. Woo den legs. CHAPTER XXII DO IT TO A FINISH Years ago a relief lifeboat at New London sprung a leak. Multitudes of people have lost an eye. but it would also give us a hig her quality of manhood and womanhood. against humanity. it would not only reduce the loss of human life. buildings often fall and bury the workmen under their ruins. lack of thoroughness. in a southern prison. indifferent workers. ties. whic h caused the rail or pillar to snap. carelessness. the mangling and maiming of men an d women. numberless graves. of disasters on land and sea. or half-done. steamboat boilers. botched. . Accuracy means character. slipsh odness. deceptions. Where a tiny flaw or the slightest defect may cost a precious life. because of the mistake of a court cl erk who wrote "years" instead of "months" in the record of the prisoner's senten ce. crimina l blundering in railroad construction? Think of the tragedies caused by lies pac ked in car-wheels. From the constant motion of the boat the hammer had worn thr ough the planking. fatherless and motherless homes ev erywhere speak of somebody's carelessness. of thoroughness.idden treasure or anything we would attain. because somebody was careless. thoughtlessne ss. The majority of railroad wrecks. Everywhere over this broad earth we see the tragic results of botched work. are the result of carelessness. covered up defects and weak places with paint and varni sh. lies in defectiv e rails.

seemingly without being conscious of it. the general improvement. far outweighs the value that att aches to the doing of a thousand botched or slipshod jobs. you a re not quite the same man you were before. or carelessly doing things. Every half-done or slovenly job that goes out of your hands leaves its trace of demoralization behind. The thought of slighting his work was painful to him. can hardly be estimated because the processes are so gradual. like leaven. and pulls down the whole life. Inferiority is an infection which. excellence is impossible. You are not so likely to try to keep up the standard of your work. indifferent people . The habit of precision and accuracy strengthens the mentality. It is astonishing how completely a slovenly habit will gradually. and do not do it well. or with careless. its powe r to drag down.Most young people think too much of quantity. and too little of quality in thei r work. It dulls ideals. How quickly a youth of high ideals. demoralizes the mental processes. not so likely to regard your word as sacred as bef ore. . No one can respect himself who habitually botches his wo rk. without apparent mortification or sense of humiliation. or example of othe rs to keep them up to standard. The mental and moral effect of half doing. and causes deterioration all along the li ne. and when self-respect drops. It paralyzes the normal functions. from p utting the trade-mark of one's character on it. He demanded the best of himself--would not accept his second-best in anything. careless manner det eriorates the whole mentality. affects the entire system. and tends to bring our whole conduct to the same l evel. even when he may think he is doing his best t o carry it out. palsies the asp iring faculty. On the contrary. After slighting your work. The entire person takes on the characteristics of one's usual way of doing things. and he has become so demoralized by the habit which. doing things in a loose-jointed. They try to do too much. prodding. to demoralize. When he started on his career he was very exact and painstaking. They do not realize that the education. of accepting his second-best. and the tragedy of it all is. the comfort. but his menta l processes have so deteriorated. Many people are so constituted that their ambition wanes and their ideals drop when they are alone. he does not know why he has failed! One's ambition and ideals need constant watching and cultivation in order to ke ep up to the standards. who has been well trained in thoroughness. after doing a poor job. They require the constant assistance. the satisfaction. grew upon him. He i s to-day doing quite ordinary things. improves the whole character. stupefies the ambition. and brac ing up of the whole man that comes from doing one thing absolutely right. confidence goes with it. We are so constituted that the quality which we put into our life-work affects everything else in our lives. I know a man who was extremely ambitious to do something very distinctive and w ho had the ability to do it. after a while. and when confidence an d self-respect have gone. insidiously f asten itself upon the individual and so change his whole mental attitude as to t hwart absolutely his life-purpose. slipshod. suggestion. often deteriorates when he leaves home and goes to work for an employer with inf erior ideals and slipshod methods! The introduction of inferiority into our work is like introducing subtle poison into the system. so subtle. that he now s lights his work without a protest.

to sli p in rotten hours. his work always needs lo oking over by some one else. you must not steal his goods or ruin his property by h alf finishing or botching your work. The dead letter depar tment of the Post Office in Washington received in one year seven million pieces of undelivered mail. when you don't get much pay for it. and I get twice as much money as you do. Perfe ct work harmonizes with the very principles of our being. One of John Wanamaker's partners says that unnecessary blunders and mi stakes cost that firm twenty-five thousand dollars a year. rotten service? If you should ask the inmates of our penitentiaries what had caused their ruin. Honesty means wh oleness." Many a young man is being kept down by what probably seems a small thing to him --negligence. skimped. but also carefulness. acc uracy. There is a very intimate relation between the quality o f the work and the quality of the character." replied the other. A prominent business man says that the carelessness. It not only means reliability in your word." said one workman to another. 'Get the most money for the least work. The manager of a large hou se in that city. It does not mean that if only you will not lie with your lips you may lie and defraud in the quality of your work. It fits our very natures. Honesty is our normal expression. the electric thrill and uplift which come from a superbly-done job. Hundreds of clerks and book-keepers are getting sma ll salaries in poor positions today because they have never learned to do things absolutely right. and not your second-best. "but I shall like myself better. He never quite finishes anything he undertakes. Honesty means integrity in e verything. he can not be depended upon to do anything quite right. because we were made f or perfection. Did you ever notice the rapid decli ne in a young man's character when he began to slight his work. clipping their hours. and that is more important to me than money. and blundering of employees cost Chicago one million dollars a day." "That may be. deceiving their employers--to indifferent. honesty in your work. We were made to be honest.The human mechanism is so constituted that whatever goes wrong in one part affe cts the whole structure. dishonest work. says that he has to station pickets here and there throughout t he establishment in order to neutralize the evils of inaccuracy and the blunderi ng habit." You will like yourself better when you have the approval of your conscience.' is my rule. inaccuracy. it means truth in everything--in deed and in word. You must not steal another's time. in his dishones . "What a fool you are. Your contract with your employer means that you will give him your best . Nothing else can give you the glow of satisfa ction. Some one has said: "It is a race between negligence and ignorance as to which c an make the more trouble. to shirk. or botched work. completeness. "to take so much pains with that job. lack of accuracy. Of these more than eighty thousand bore no address whateve r. many of them could trace the first signs of deterioration to shirking. Th at will be worth more to you than any amount of money you can pocket through fra udulent. and any departure from it demoralizes and taints the whole character. Are the clerks who are respon sible for this carelessness likely to win promotion? Many an employee who would be shocked at the thought of telling his employer a lie with his lips is lying every day in the quality of his work. I shall thin k more of myself. by blundering through carelessness or indif ference. Merely not to steal another's money or goods is not all there is to honesty. A great many of them were from business houses.

Eve . Your reputation is at stake in everyt hing you do. not for service. as to express it with the lips. Articles of clothing that look stylis h and attractive when first worn. Vast sums of money are often paid for the use of a name. Some of the world's gre atest manufacturers have regarded their reputation as their most precious posses sion. it is done a s well as I can do it. "Made to sell. There is no other advertisement like a good reputation. in shirking. I am wi lling to be judged by it. Tampion and Graham lie in Westminster Abbey because of the accuracy of their wo rk--because they refused to manufacture and sell lies." would be a good label for the great mass of ma nufactured articles in our markets to-day. individuality and thoroughness wrought into it. Yet on every side we see all sorts of things selling for a song because the mak er put no character. loss of character. Everywhere we see furniture which looks all right. is dishonest with himself as well as with his fellow men. chairs and bedsteads break down at the slightest provocation. It is not pretty well done. seams give way at the slightes t strain. even while prac tically new. It is just as dishonest to express deceptio n in poor work. and under no circumstances would they allow their names to be put on an im perfect article. handles pull out. Most things are just throw n together. and often the entire arti cle goes to pieces before it is worn half a dozen times. It is difficult to find anything that is well and honestly made. not realizing. Put such a quality into your work that anyone who comes across anything you have ever done will see character in it. who lies or cheats in the goods he sells or manuf actures. and must pay the price in loss of self-respect. in shirking. I will stand for that. castors co me off. becaus e of its great reputation for integrity and square dealing. in the rotten hours he is slipping into it. yet I have known of fice-boys. covered up with paint and varnish. There was a time when the names of Graham and Tampion on timepieces were guaran tees of the most exquisite workmanship and of unquestioned integrity. Buttons fly off. that has chara cter. dishonest manufacturing is so general that concerns w hich turn out products based upon honesty and truth often win for themselves a w orld-wide reputation and command the highest prices. When you finish a thing you ought to be able to say to yourself: "There. This slipshod. that lies can be acted as well as to ld and that acting a lie may be even worse than telling one. I am w illing to stand for that piece of work. who could not be induced to tell their employer a direct lie. no thought into them." Accept not hing short of your best. Strangers from any part of the world could send their purchase money and order goods from those manufacturers without a doubt that they would be squarely dealt with. The man who botches his work. your trade-mark of superiority upon it. to stea l his time when on an errand." Never be satisfied with "fairly good. to hide away during working hours to smoke a cigar ette or take a nap. to let botched work or anything that is inferior go out of your hands." "pretty good. Glue starts at joints. in his indif ference to his employer's interests. perhaps. but which in reality is full of blemishes and weaknesses. much-worn garments. many things "go to pieces" altogether. individuality in i t. You cannot afford to do a poor job. and your reputation is your capital. and hang and lo ok like old.t service. dropped stitches are everywhere in evidence." "good enough. of standing in his communi ty. very quickly get out of shape. done to a complete finish.

a little more obliging." between "fairly good" and "excellent. says that the "secret of success is to do the common duty uncommonly well. It may be months. who takes pains with his work. They know he has a future. accuracy. of painstaking an employee put into his work. Think of the value such a reputation for thoroughness as that of Stradivarius o r Tampion. should be ar your trade-mark of excellence. as Tampion regarded every watch that went out of his shop. a little quicker. Every "Stradivarius" now in existence is worth from three to ten thousand dollars." The majority of young people do not see that the steps wh ich lead to the position above them are constructed. who does it to a finish." they say to themselves. little by little. Rockefeller.ry bit of your work. than those about you that attracts the attention of your employer a nd other employers also. carefulness. it is being a little more polite. John D. you should regard every task that goes through your hands. No other characteristic makes such a strong impression upon an employer as the habit of painstaking. every-day duties of the position they are now filling. It must be the very best you can do. Many a boy is marked for a higher position by his employer long before he is aw are of it himself. no matter how unimportant or trivial it may seem. It is doing things a little better than those about you do them. or it may be a year before the opening come s. Employers do not say all they think." and not one of which was ever known to come to pieces or break. it is ingenuity in finding new and more progressive ways of doing old things. Stradivari us did not need any patent on his violins. not from the standpoint of salary or wha t he can get for it. "in this dry routine. by the fa ithful performance of the common. being grounded in thoroughness as a li fe-principle. He knows that if a youth puts his c onscience into his work from principle. helpful. optimistic. in doing these common. for no other violin maker would pay s uch a price for excellence as he paid. a little more observant. The thing which you are now doing will unlock or bar the door t o promotion." between what ot . humble. would give you! There is nothing like being enamored of accuracy. a little more accurate. the best that human skill can produce. which he "made for etern ity. I have known many instances where advancement hinged upon the little overplus o f interest. but when it does come the one who has appreciated the infinite difference bet ween "good" and "better. a little more energet ic. a humble positio n. who gets on in the world. They keep their eye on the emplo yee who has the stamp of excellence upon him. "What can there be. being a little neater. that he is honest and made of good materi al. or several times its weight in gold. It is just the little difference between the good and the best that makes the d ifference between the artist and the artisan.. but because there is something in him which refuses to acce pt anything from himself but the best. a little more tactful. who sees a very uncommon chance in a common situation. would take such pains to put his stamp of superiority upon his instrument. to help me along? " But it is the youth who sees a great opportunity hidden in just these simple s ervices. such a passion to give quality to your work. of always striving for excellence. on his doing a little better than was expected of him. Jr. Many employees are looking for some great thing to happen that will give them a n opportunity to show their mettle. It is just the little touches afte r the average man would quit that make the master's fame. a little more cheerful. but they d etect very quickly the earmarks of superiority. ordinary things. every piece of work you touch. Regard your work as Stradivarius regarded his violins.

Sometimes they are sec ond-rate or third-rate people because those who are responsible for their being and their care during their minor years were so before them. they have never been satisfied to do thin gs just as others do them. they cannot remain first-class men and drink. is only half a man. wears his nerves till his limbs tremble like leav es in the wind. Everywhere we see mediocre or second-class men--perpetual clerks who will never get away from the yardstick. will be likely to get the place. But if you are satisfied with the cheap and shoddy. exhausts his strength and vitality. and happiness. Carelessness as to health fills the ranks of the infer ior. live up to your best. and puts you at a disadvantage in the race for honor." Then they keep on s moking because they have created an appetite as unnatural as it is harmful. bad habits. choose the best. It is the constant effort to be first-class in everything one attempts that c onquers the heights of excellence. never to be second-class in anything. wealth. is a second-class man. People who have accomplished work worth while have had a very high sense of the way to do things. he remains second-class. mechanics who will never be anything but bunglers. he is not third-class. but the surest consequence is that of becoming second-class . try to do it as well as it can be done. but always a little better. Every fault you allow to become a habit. if. that counts in the quality of life's wor k. whose growth has been stunted by self-indulgences. then you must expect to take second place. and could in no sense be called first-class. A ma n who. vitiates his blood. do not put conscience in to their work. you will ac in some line provided you have the persistence and determinati ideal. It is this li ttle higher up. below the standard of the best men for any purpose. to fall back to the rear of the procession. whatever the reason. there are other thin gs that help to make second-class men. failure to get an education. deal with the best. is possible to practically eve . Dissipation in other forms is pursued because of ple asure to be derived. indeed. Edu cation of some sort. all through life. the botched and slovenly. and even a pretty good sort. Aside from the lack of desire or effort to be first-class. a little farther on. They have not been content with mediocrity. through his amusements in his hours of leisure. The submerged classes that the economists talk about are those that are bel ow the high-water mark of the best manhood and womanhood. but more and more i s it becoming one's own fault if. No ma tter what you do. helps to make you second-class. or in your environment. A man weakened by dis sipation. It is said that Daniel Webster made the best chowder in his state on the princi ple that he would not be second-class in anything. Everybody knows the things that make for second-class characteristics. They always pushed things that came to their hands a little higher up.hers call "good" and the best that can be done. i f you are not particular about quality in your work. neglect of healt h. If there is that ss. all sorts of people who will never rise above mediocrity. Men get drunk for all sorts of reasons. Have nothing to do wit h the inferior. this little farther on. positio n. Boys imi tate older boys and smoke cigarettes in order to be "smart. all make second-class men. whose understanding has been dulled. or in your personal habits. Dissipation. but. who will always fill very ordinary positions because they do not take pains. They have not con fined themselves to the beaten tracks. This is a good resolution wit h which to start out in your career. do not try to be first-class. if you insist hieve distinction on to follow your in your nature which demands the best and will take nothing le on keeping up your standards in everything you do. Do your best in everything. to get control over you.

always played as if he were before the most brilliant audi ences in the great metropolises of the world. The world does not demand that you be a physician. No you th can ever hope to accomplish much who does not have thoroughness and accuracy indelibly fixed in his life-habit. no matter what your condition or circumstances . Balzac. if they have not dazzled by their brilliancy. whether it be in books or in business training. a lawyer. When Daniel Webster. sometimes worked a week on a single page. half-done work into their careers and get firstclass products. but rather of the plodding young men who. Genius is the art of taking infi nite pains. I reland. even to the minutest detail. eat first-class butter. Macready. but it does demand that whatever you do undertake. Although not considered one of the "b right" boys of the school. or. hence. and usually from posts far higher up than those filled by the boys who were too "smart" to be thorough. as a rule. Thoroughness characterizes all successful men. Second-class things are wanted only when first-class can't be had. if you don't. I haven't time to do that in this case. he replied: "I ne ver allow myself to speak on any subject until I have made it my own. it is not composed of those who were brilliant i n youth. Second-class me n are no more wanted than any other second-class commodity. You wear fir st-class clothes if you can pay for them. inaccuracy. infinite painstaking. Failure to get the best education available.ryone in our land. and when first-class is in demand everywhere. first-class me at. or who gave great promise at the outset of their careers. no matter what your race or color. a farmer. There is no excuse for incompetence in this age of opportunity. the great French novelist. was asked to make a sp eech on some question at the close of a Congressional session. is sure to relegate one to the ranks of the seco nd-class. no matter how humble it may be. now United States Senator. When he was a boy in the gra mmar school at Clinton. who have had grit. They do not realize that all great achievement has been characte rized by extreme care. who could stay by a task until it was don e. he made up his mind that anything he had to st udy he would keep at until he mastered it. have had the power of a day's work in them. the habit of half d oing things. slipshod. first-class men are wanted. and well done. when playing before scant audiences in country theaters in England." Dickens would never consent to read before an audience until he had thoroughly prepared his selection. and honesty. and Scotland. Slipshodness. Fo r work that really amounts to anything. you will do it right. you will be in demand. I must refuse to speak on the subject. persistence. nothing can keep you from success . or a mer chant. One such boy is Elihu Root. They are taken and u sed when the better article is scarce or is too high-priced for the occasion. and first-class bread. we should find that. If you make yourself first-class in anything. who had the best brain of his time. common sense. would ruin the career of a youth with a Napoleon's mind. New York. The thorough boys are the boys that are heard from. The trouble with many Americans is that they seem to think they can put any sort of poor. It demands that you be a master in your line. his teacher soon found that when Elihu professed to k . If you are a king in your calling. you wish you could. no excuse for b eing second-class when it is possible to be first-class. If we were to examine a list of the men who have left their mark on the world. will do it with all your might and with all the ability you possess.

feveris h work. on schools. Half-trained clerg ymen bungle away in the pulpit. Young men rush into busine ss with no great reserve of education or drill. William Ellery Channing. seminary. he became one of the most noted members of the New York bar. one day pre sented himself before Chief Engineer Parsons. Half-trained lawyers stumble through their cases. to his chosen business." . "I was not satisfied with knowing thi ngs superficially and by halves. on churches." answered the young man. and after graduation serves three years' apprentice ship without pay. and break down in middle life. esp ecially in banks and large mercantile houses. Sometimes the other boys called him a plodder. "What can you do? Have you any specialt y?" asked Mr. Eve ry employer is looking for thoroughness. and German employees. armed with letters of introduction from prominent men. A young man. Root recently said that if his close app lication to problems in his boyhood did nothing else for him. or college education. We can't wait for a high-school. "Can't wait. "I have no use for anyone who can 'almost' do anything. more than any other. As a rule." "haven't time to be thorough. and bu tcher their patients. owing to their pr eeminence in this respect. How seldom you find a young man or woma n who is willing to prepare for his life-work! A little education is all they wa nt. and is written on everything--on commerce. are in great demand to-day in England. and make their clien ts pay for experience which the law school should have given." The quality which. it made him carefu l about jumping at conclusions. Perhaps there is no other country in the world where so much poor work is done as in America. for he knew what he was about. the superiority of their training. Mr. but Elihu would only smile pleasantly. To every problem there was only one answer. they do poor. "Well . "I wa nted to make the most of myself. Elihu frequently remained in his r oom with his arithmetic or algebra. and the completene ss of their preparation for business. and disgust their intelligent and cultured paris hioners. but tried to get comprehensive views of what I studied. Our great lack is want of thoroughness. on society. because they are not willing to take time for thorough pre paration. rising to end the interview. and then they are ready for business. of course. and then a member of the President' s cabinet." he says." is characteristic of our country. nor the youth to become a man. "I can do almost anything. a little smattering of books. has helped to raise the German people t o their present commanding position in the world. had a passion for self-improvement. Half-trained medical students perform bungling operations. while many die of old age in the forties. Thoroughness and reliability. It is g iving young Germans a great advantage over both English and American youths. of the Rapid Transit Commission of New York as a candidate for a position. the German's characteristics. On winter eve nings. who in his youth was har dly able to buy the clothes he needed. a German who expects to engage in business takes a four years' cours e in some commercial school. Many an American youth is willing to stumble through life half prepared for his work. The boy can't w ait to become a youth. and then blame society because he is a failure. the great New England divine. while the other boys were out skating. I prefer someone who can actually do one th ing thoroughly. He was fond of hard problems requir ing application and patience. and patience was the price to be paid for it.now anything he knew it through and through. is their thoroughness. Parsons." remarked the Chief Engineer. Carrying the principle of "doing every thing to a finish" into the law. intrusted with vast interests. are increasing the power of Germany throughout the civilized world.

It indicates the best kind of brain. shirked. This is what every employer is looking for. You cannot be just to yourself and unjust to the man you are working for in t he quality of your work. Ch aracter. "though he build his house in the woods. but can't do any one thing well. a complete. your future success. it is the best substitute for genius. you will earn more mon ey than if you make a bad steam engine. The man who has dealt in shams and inferiority. or bot ching one's work. to make them useful to civilization. they stopped just short of efficiency. a science or two. the education. a little finer mechanical training. The world is full of half-finished work.--of inventi ons which are useless simply because they are not quite practical. Think what a loss it would be if such men as Edison and Bell had not come to the front and carried to a successful termina tion the half-finished work of others! Make it a life-rule to give your best to whatever passes through your hands. or make a better mousetrap than his neighbor. because the m en who started them lacked the staying quality. If yo ur work is badly done. but also smirch your character. compared with which salary is nothi ng. or botched. must be conscious that he has not been a real man. an art or two. to a finish . let it characteriz e everything you touch. dealing in cheap." says Emerson. A successful manufacturer says: "If you make a good pin. Beecher said he was never again quite the same man after reading Ruskin. You have something of infinitely greater importance. Everything you do is a part of your career. thousands.--failures which require only a little more persistence. defective material an d slipshod service into our work. if you slight your work. which they can neither write nor speak. If any work that goes out of your h ands is skimped. if it goes to pieces. for.--yes. which they can not practise with satisfaction or profit! The Patent Office at Washington contains hundreds.There is a great crowd of human beings just outside the door of proficiency. or the ability ne cessary to carry them to the point of practicability. If you would be a fu . there is shoddy. if there is shoddy or sham in it. you not only strike a fat al blow at your efficiency. prea ch a better sermon. manhood and womanhood are at stake. whose elements they have not fully mastered. the world will make a path to his door . We cannot have an honest character. St amp it with your manhood. Y our honor. untarni shed career. your character will suffer. when we are constantly slipping rotten hours. To spend a life buying and selling lies. by the conscience or lack of it which you put into your job. bungled. How many people almost know a language or two. will be affected by the way y ou do your work. sham. shoddy shams. Th ey can half do a great many things. i f there is dishonesty in it. greater value." "If a man can write a better book. he can not help feeli ng that his career has been a botched one. We are all of a piece. or "pulls" with the influen tial. after botching your wor k. it is a better promoter than friends. at stake. your whole career." Never allow yourself to dwell too much upon what you are getting for your work. You ar e never again quite the same man after doing a poor job. dishonesty in your character . who has botched his work all hi s life. Let superiority be your trade-mark. a little better education. it is better capi tal than cash. They have acquisitions which remain permanently unavailable because they were not carried quite to the point of skill. is demoralizing to every element of nobility.

A famous artist said he would never allow himself to look at an inferior drawin g or painting. that's good enough. There is an indescribable superiority added to the character and fiber of the m an who always and everywhere puts quality into his work. weave it into the texture of everythi ng you do. It will never die. Aspiration lifts the life. shirking. Thousands of people are held back all their lives and obliged to accept inferio r positions because they cannot entirely overcome the handicap of slipshod habit s formed early in life. to do anything that was low or demoralizing. and the amount of damage is deducted from her wages. in the most embarrassing situations. a neglected or botche d piece of work. the life copies. When we are trying with all our might to do our level best. which I saw recently in a great establishme nt. or half doing it. a complete man. is not kept awake by a tr oubled conscience. of slurring their work. Every time we obey the inward law of doing right we hear an inward approval. "WHERE ONLY THE BEST IS GOOD ENOUGH. groveling lowers it. from principle. It will bob up farther along in your career at the most unexpected moments. and makes us unhappy. Hang it up in your bedroom. whatever they did only the best they could do would be good enough. of slovenliness. in your office or place of business. for whatever model th e mind holds. put it into your pocket-book. lest familiarity wit h it should taint his own ideal and thus be communicated to his brush. th e amen of the soul." What a life-motto this would be! How i t would revolutionize civilization if everyone were to adopt it and use it. our whole nature im proves. a protest or condemnation. slipshod work on the plea of lack of time. It will be sure to mortify you when you least expect it. No one can be really happy who does not believe in his own honesty. you must be honest to the core in the qualit y of your work. CHAPTER XXIII . of skipped problems. We are so c onstituted that every departure from the right. Everything looks down when we are going down hill. and every time we disobey it.ll man. Whatever your vocation. But in the ordinar y situations of life there is plenty of time to do everything as it ought to be done. let quality be your lifeslogan. it will arise at the most unexpected moments to mar your happiness. of skipping diffi cult problems in school. habits of inaccuracy. and your life-work will be what every one's should be--A MASTERPIECE. There is a sense of who leness. causes loss of s elf-respect. Like Banquo's ghost. in his life which is never felt by the ma n who does not do his level best every time. I was much impressed by this motto. what's the use of being so awfully particular?" has been t he beginning of a life-long handicap in many a career. to r esolve that. of satisfaction. There is everything in holding a high ideal of your work. "Oh . of happiness. He is not haunted by the ghosts or tail ends of half-finished tasks. would satisfy them! Adopt this motto as yours. A single broken thread in a web of cloth is traced back to the girl who neglected her work in the factory . Many excuse poor. a just man. Don't think you will never hear from a half-finished job.

His money was all gone. "It is in me. one of which came o ut covered with beautiful enamel. burning so much wood. and tried to get a better flux.THE REWARD OF PERSISTENCE Every noble work is at first impossible. and make a seeming impossibility give way. and the great burst of heat melted the enamel. but he determined. and he was forced. Perpetual pushing and assurance put a difficulty out of countenance. Tearing off the p alings of his garden fence. The shelves of his pantry were then broken up and thro wn into the furnace." said Woodfall the reporter. "I am sorry to say that I don't think this is in your line. spoiling so many drugs and pots of c ommon earthenware. and it shall come out of me. that poverty stared him in the face. he fed them to the flames. Persistence had triumphed again. Victory belongs to the most persevering. though he kept the heat up s ix days. you shall ride in your carriage yet. when young. as he rushed home to his trembling wife." The nerve that never relaxes. "I had no other books than heaven and earth. he had the soul of an artist. "Unstable as water. who left his home in the south of France in 1828. was ove rwhelming. "The pit rose at me!" exclaimed Edmund Kean in a wild tumult of emotion. he attained no result until his fuel was gone. "If you work hard two weeks without selling a book. The sight of an elegant Italian cup disturbed his whole existence and from that moment the dete rmination to discover the enamel with which it was glazed possessed him like a p assion.--CARLYLE. The grand se cret was learned. and then a second. but he decided on the spot to beg in all over again. as no other man had ever played it. at the age of eigh teen. thou shalt not excel. the thought that nev er wanders. his enamel would not melt. to try his experiments in a common furnace. carrying the bricks on his back. the eye that never blanches. after Sheridan had made his first speech in Parliament. when it did come.--BURKE." F rom the same man came that harangue against Warren Hastings which the orator Fox called the best speech ever made in the House of Commons. Though only a glass-painter. then looked up and said. but in vain. When next he li ghted his fire. Flat failure was the result.--JEREMY COLLIER. which are open to all. but. and losing so much time. in Massinger's drama. "Mary. a nd Charles shall go to Eton!" He had been so terribly in earnest with the study of his profession that he had at length made a mark on his generation. and bought more pots and wood. Success in most things depends on knowing how long it takes to succeed. which was a failur e.--these are the masters of victory. and all London was at his feet. from lack of ability to buy fuel. His furnitur e followed to no purpose. but he borrowed some . to play the character of Sir Giles Overreach. He was a little dark man with a voice naturally harsh. and soon had three hundred pieces baking. He built a furnace.--MONTES QUIEU. At length the time came for a trial. By a persistency that nothing seemed able to daunt. "You would bet ter have stuck to your former pursuits." said Berna rd Palissy. To perfect his invention he next built a glass-furnace. he so t rained himself to play the character that his success.--NAPOLEON. For months and years he tried all kinds of experiments to learn the mate rials of which the enamel was compounded." wrote a publisher to an ag ." With head on his hand Sheridan mused fo r a time.

taught her laws. I have never had any time to put on electrical w onders. with every breath of caprice that blows. navigated every sea and explored every land. and tires. measured her untrodden spaces. Anything I have begun is always on my mind. "nor did any of my inventions come indirectly through accident. It has whitened the waters of the world with the sails of a hundred nations. except the phonograph. the painter.--can never acco mplish anything great or useful. I like it. The last blow drives home the nail. in any other art. I have always kept strictly within the lines of commercially useful inventions. harnessed thousan ds of iron steeds to as many freighted cars. "you will make a success of it. and veers like a weather-cock to ever y point of the compass." con tinued the great inventor. "I don't know any other reason. "Do they come to you while you are lying awake nights?" "I never did anything worth doing by accident. or." said Turner. and if he have ability and common sense. indeed. he wi ll be at best stationary." "Know thy work and do it. painted on canvas the gorgeous mimicry of nature. "and work at it like a Hercules." "Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. Edison. The slow trotter will out-travel the fleet racer." was the reply. "will do neither." said Carlyle. and reared in its stead a community of states and nations.ent. and set them flying from town to to wn and nation to nation. counted her myriad hosts o f worlds. How Bulwer wrestled with the fates to change his apparent destiny! His first no vel was a failure. valuable simply as novelties to catch the popular fancy. flutters. opened a highway through the watery wilderness of the Atlantic. leve led the forests of the new world. cloud-c apped Alps. and I am not easy while away from it until it is finished ." "I have no secret but hard work. The man who resolves. but suffers his resolu tion to be changed by the first counter-suggestion of a friend--who fluctuates f rom opinion to opinion. inclosed in adamant the Chinese Empire. tunneled mountains of granite. and his youthful speeches prov oked the ridicule of his opponents. retrograde in all." said Reynolds. "The man who is perpetually hesitating which of two things he will do first. prophesied her future movements. erected the gorgeous temple at Jerusalem. No. more probably. and velocities. Perseverance has wrought from the marble block the exquisite creati ons of genius. and computed their distances. from plan to plan. "must bring all his mind to bear upon that one object from the moment that he rises till he goes to bed. It has reduc ed nature in her thousand forms to as many sciences. his success will be great. Genius darts." [Illustration: Thomas Alva Edison] A man who thus gives himself wholly to his work is certain to accomplish someth ing. but perseverance wears and wins. Instead of being progressive in anything." Perseverance built the pyramids on Egypt's plains. The afternoon-man wears off the laurels. and." s aid William Wirt. and engraved on a metallic surface the viewless substance of the shadow. and annihilated space wi th the lightning's speed. when I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead on it and make tr ial after trial until it comes. his early poems were failures. The all-day horse wins the race. The slow penny is surer than the quick dollar. "Are your discoveries often brilliant intuitions?" asked a reporter of Thomas A . Perseverance has put i n motion millions of spindles. scaled the stormy. winged as many flying shuttles. But he fought his way to eminence through ri . dimensions.

an d helps us to win the next victory. but one slig ht error in a measurement of the earth's circumference interfered with a demonst ration of the correctness of his theory. "But how can men walk with their heads hanging down.dicule and defeat. But his last hop e of obtaining aid for a voyage of discovery had failed. found on the shores of Portugal. like fl . George Stephenson was fifteen years perfecting his locomotive. had drifted from unknown lands in the west. King John of Portugal. and showed that the planets roll in their orbits as a result of the same law which brings an apple to the ground. Blücher may have been routed at Ligny yesterday." said Columbus. industry w ill supply the deficiency. So the spirit of our conquests enters us. He was then called a crack-brained impostor by his fellow phys icians. twenty years on his condensing engine. To overcome one barrier gives us greater ability to overcome the next. he had lost h is wife. H arvey labored eight long years before he published his discovery of the circulat ion of the blood. drawn maps and charts to keep from starving." said John Ruskin. his head bowed with discouragement a lmost to the back of his mule. The council of wise men called by Ferdinand and Isabella ridiculed his theory of reaching the east by sailing west. a nd fights for them ever afterwards." Noah Webster spent thirty-six years on his dictionary. and forsaken him." Newton rewrote h is "Chronology of Ancient Nations" fifteen times." He worked on his Pietro Martyn eight years. industry will improve it. He had begged bread." Savages believe that when they conquer an enemy. Watt. the great actor. "why not the earth?" "If the earth is a ball. said that the early part of his theatrical career was spent in getting dismissed for incompetency. in the words of Joshua Reyno lds. if you have none. 1492. What a sublime patience he sho wed in devoting a life to the collection and definition of words! George Bancrof t spent twenty-six years on his "History of the United States. a poor gray-haired man. "But the sun and moon are round.: "I send your majesty the Last Supper. He believed that the piece of carved wood picked up four hundred miles at sea and the bodies of two men unlike any other human beings known. In February. his spirit enters into them. Amid abuse and ridicule he waited twenty-five years before his great dis covery was recognized by the profession. Opposing circumstances create strength. what holds it up?" asked the wise men. rode slowly out through the beautiful gateway of the Alhambra. but to-day you hear the thunder of his guns at Waterloo hurling dismay and death among his former conquerors. Twenty years later he corrected the err or. after working on it almost daily for seven y ears. his friends had called him crazy. had sent out secretly an expedition of his own. "What holds the sun and moon up?" inquired Columbus. Opposition gives us greater power of re sistance. Sothern. Newton discovered the law of gravitation before he was twenty-one. From boyhood he had been haunted with the idea that the earth is r ound. "if you have talent. while pretending to think of helping him. "Never depend upon your genius. Titian wrote to Charles V. and their feet up. Gibbon worked twenty years on his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

John's. The cable was loaded upon the A gamemnon. when two hundred miles at sea. and m en paced the decks nervously and sadly. Just as Mr." said a priest. An old friend had told Isabella that it would add great renown to her reign at a trifling expense if what the sa ilor believed should prove true. "This doctrine is contrary to the Bible." Columbus turned and with him turned the world. and a man of great skill was set to work to devise a better machine for payin . it caught in the machinery and parted. Seven hundred miles more of cable were ordere d. Terror seized the sailors." said Dickens. though he tells them it is but seventeen hundred. Three days out. The preli minary work included the construction of a telegraph line one thousand miles lon g. as did the laying of a cable across the St. breaking the cable. Columbus raised the banner of Castile over the western world. Two hundred miles west of the Canar ies. the compass ceased to point to the North Star. Not a sailor would go voluntaril y. and they pick up a piece of wood curious ly carved. as if in the presence of death. but in Congress he encountered such bitter opposition from a powerful lobby that his m easure only had a majority of one in the Senate. and of a patient and continuous energy whic h then began to be matured. intending to offer his services to Charl es VII. "I will only add to what I have already written of my p erseverance at this time of my life. the Pinta floated a signal of distress for a bro ken rudder. and all improvement appertaini ng to it. Field was about to give the order to cut the cable. 'The heavens are stretched out like a tent:'--of course it is flat. a bush with berries floats by. the current returned as quickly and mysteriously as it had disappeared. On October 12. but Columbus calmed their fears with pict ures of gold and precious stones from India. the electric current was suddenly lost. Field had retired from business with a large fortune when he became po ssessed with the idea that by means of a cable laid upon the bottom of the Atlan tic Ocean. it is rank heresy to say it is round. and upon the Niagara . Another stretch of one hundred and forty miles across the island of Cape Breton involved a great deal of labor. By hard work he secured aid for his company from the British government. Lawrence." said Isabella. He plunged into the undertaking with all the force of his being." Cyrus W. The sailors are ready to mut iny. which says. but he tells them the North Star is not exactly north. but. land birds fly near. the flag ship of the British fleet at Sebastopol." said another phi losopher. "How hard I worked at that tremendous shorthand. the brakes were applied too suddenly just as the steamer gave a heavy l urch. when five miles of c able had been paid out. Columbus left the Alhambra in despair. Call him back.ies on a ceiling?" asked a learned doctor. "how can trees grow with their roots in the air?" "The water would run out of the ponds and we should fall off. telegraphic communication could be established between Europe and Ame rica. On the second tri al. so the king and queen compelled them. a magnificent new frigate of the United States Navy. Newfoundland. Through four hundred miles of almo st unbroken forest they had to build a road as well as a telegraph line across N ewfoundland. from New York to St. when the sh ip was moving but four miles an hour and the cable running out at the rate of si x miles. Twenty-three hundred miles from home. in his vessels scarcely larger than fishing-schooners. Field was not the man to give up. "I will pled ge my jewels to raise the money. "It shall be done. The following night.. but he heard a voice calling his name.

Before the vessels were three miles apart. if for two days. had thrown away his book i n despair. Thank God! the cable i s laid and is in perfect working order. all the world know . In Revelation we read: "He that overcometh. and the tw o are still working. the whole project would have been abandoned . A third time the cable was spliced and about two hundred miles paid out. but perseverance is more so. After sev eral attempts to raise it. 1866. Faith now seemed dead except in the breast of Cyrus W. "Tw elve hours a day for twenty years. and bu t for the indomitable energy and persuasiveness of Mr. when the cable snapped and sank. spliced. when he saw a poor woman rubbing an iron bar on a stone to make a nee dle. Again it was spliced. Lyman Beecher w hen asked how long it took him to write his celebrated sermon on the "Government of God. "About forty years. Mr. great powers will yield to great industry. which steamed slowly out to sea." replied. "We arrived here at nine o'clock this morning. was begun the trial which ended with the following mes sage sent to New York:-"HEART'S CONTENT. At length in mid-ocean the two halves of the cable were spliced and the steamers began to separate. Talent is desirable. it is said. July 27.g out the long line." Successful men. owe more to their perseverance than to their natura l powers. with such success that the whole cable was l aid without a break. All well. the other for Newfoundland. discouraged by repeated failures. the enterprise was abandoned for a year. I will give him to sit down with me on my throne. and continued to Newfoundland. and he became one of the three greatest scholars of China. their friends. each running out the precious thread. Not discouraged by all these difficulties. the current was lost. and made a new cable far superior to anything before us ed. Field went to work with a will. the public skeptical. This example of patience sent him back to his studies with a new determinat ion. and one or two fr iends. Field. paying out as she advanced. but when the ships were eighty miles apart. "CYRUS W. and the vessels returned to the coa st of Ireland. with good prospects for usefulness for many years. when suddenly the current ceased. it was hoped. and several messages were flashed through nearly seven hund red leagues of ocean. and on July 13. Finally a third attempt was made." replied the great violinist. when it parted some twenty feet from the Agamemnon. organized a new company. the one headed for Ireland. Directors were disheartened. or the favorable circumstances around them. yet with such persistence did they work that they persuaded men to furnis h capital for yet another trial even against what seemed their better judgment. Field." A Chinese student. Malibran said: "If I neglect my practice a day. who worked day and night almost without food or sleep. my friends see it. I see the difference in my exec ution. and if for a week. Everything worked to a charm until with in six hundred miles of Newfoundland. "How long did it take you to learn to play?" asked a young man of Geradini. the cable parted. Genius will falter by the side of labor. capitalists were shy." The old cable was picked up. FIELD. would bind two continents together. which. A new and superior cable was loaded upon the Great Eastern. American and British inventors united in making a machine.

but he became the great orator of America. Webster's tenacity was illustrated by a circumstance which occurred in the academy. After repeating the hundred lines he continued until he had recited two hundred. he reproduced that which had burned in a f ew minutes. The principal punished him for shooting pigeons by compelling him to co mmit one hundred lines of Vergil. He said he committed piece after piece and rehearsed th em in his room. He reproduced his drawings. He w ent to recite them to the principal just before train time." After the first volume was ready for the press. so he went to his room and learned seven hundred lines.s my failure. Indeed. continuing to recite. The principal anxio usly looked at his watch and grew nervous. he sai d: "Unless you can live cheaper than I can you can not starve me out." All are familiar with the misfortune of Carlyle while writing his "History of t he French Revolution. but Audubon took his gun and note-book and started for the forest. I assure you. Every one was ruined. patient." said the principal. . When he returned he opened the box only to fin d a nest of Norwegian rats in his beautiful drawings. but Carlyle was n ot the man to give up. would never have served me as it has but for the habit of co mmonplace." he says. When an East India boy is learning archery. Pointing to a piece of bread from which he had just eaten his dinner. humble. He hired one room for his office. "My own invention. making drawings of birds. Webster declared that when a pupil at Phillips Exeter Academy he never could de claim before the school. and sleeping-room. He nailed them all up securely in a box and went off on a vacation. It was a bitter disappointment. The princi pal finally stopped him and asked him how many more he had learned." Constant. toiling attention. He found a formidable rival in the city and invited him to his ro om. "You can have the rest of the day for pigeon-shooting." said Webster. he carried his material through the streets on a wheelbarrow. It w as a terrible disappointment. After many months of poring over hundreds of volumes of a uthorities and scores of manuscripts. the naturalist. had spent two years with his gun and note-book in the forests of America." Addison amassed three volumes of manuscript before he began the "Spectator. and the servant gi rl took it to kindle the fire. When Dickens was asked to read one of his selections in public he replied that he had not time. he is compelled to practise three m onths drawing the string to his ear before he is allowed to touch an arrow. He knew the principal was to take a certain tr ain that afternoon. "such as i t is. it is doubtful whether Demosthenes himself surpassed his great reply to Hayne in the United States Sen ate. "About five hundred more. but Webster kept right on. he loaned the manuscript to a neighbor who left it lying on the floor. Benjamin Franklin had this tenacity of purpose in a wonderful degree. but when he heard his name called in the academy and all eyes tu rned towards him the room became dark and everything he ever knew fled from his brain. and he was elected by a majority of one! Such persistence alway s triumphs. At last his opponents voted for him from admirati on of his pluck. persistent struggle she found to be the price of her ma rvelous power. persistent man. and they were even better than the first. Audubon. work-room." Everyone admires a determined. When he s tarted in the printing business in Philadelphia. Marcus Morton ran sixteen times for governor of Massachusetts. for he was in the habit of reading the same piece every day for six months before reading it in public.

And of all maxims." he replied. "Never despair. The note-books of great men li ke Hawthorne and Emerson are tell-tales of the enormous drudgery." Want of constancy is the cause of many a failure. but have been elaborated an d elaborated into grace and beauty. by w orking like galley-slaves at literature for half a lifetime with no other compen sation than--fame. PLUCK "Never give up. th is is the courage of the Gospel. Adam Tucker spent eighteen years on the "Light of Nature. by endless blotches and er asures. seven hundred of which I wrote myself." was an ent ire failure. by writing hundreds of pages as mere practise-work. another. until every trace of their efforts has been obliterated." Yet he took up his pen wit h as much determination as ever. and it was en tirely reset. the best. Knowing that Providence mingles the cup." says Bulwer "is th e courage of the conqueror. The rolling stone gathers no moss. Therefore. Is the stern watchword of 'Neve r give up!'" ." yet you can read it in sixty minutes. Bishop Butler worked twenty years incessantly on his "Analogy." The head of the god Hercules is represented as covered with a lion's skin with claws joined under the chin. "A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. and its importance in a social view--its import ance to races and institutions--cannot be too earnestly inculcated. Their works h ave not been flung off from minds aglow with genius. Oh. it is the virtue par excellence. Rousseau says he obtained the ease and grace of his style only by ceaseless inquietude. Thoreau wrote in his diary: "I have some nine hundred volumes i n my library. How came popular writers famous? By writing for years without any pay at all. when he had written five hundred lines. making the millionaire of today a beggar to-morrow. of the years p ut into a book which may be read in an hour. Vergil worked eleven years on the Aeneid. Seven hundred of the one thousand copies printed were returned from the publishers. Montesquieu was twenty-five years w riting his "Esprit des Lois. He spen t ten years on his "Orlando Furioso. the glory of an unconquerable will! CHAPTER XXIV NERVE--GRIP." says Burke. "Patience. of Man against Dest iny--of the One against the World. seven." and only sold one hundred copies at fiftee n pence each. The persistent tortoise outruns the swift bu t fickle hare. as the oldest." A rival playwright once laughed at Eu ripides for spending three days on three lines. for the wisest is boldest. The reading and re-reading of a single volume has been the making of many a man.Great writers have ever been noted for their tenacity of purpose. they become our helpers. and of the Soul against Matter. An hour a day for twelve years more than equals the time given to study in a four years' course at a high school." and even then w as so dissatisfied that he wanted to burn it. Adam Smith s pent ten years on his "Wealth of Nations. The proof of Burke's "Letters to a Noble Lord" (one of the sublime st things in all literature) went back to the publisher so changed and blotted w ith corrections that the printer absolutely refused to correct it. to show that when we have conquered our misfortunes ." Thoreau 's New England pastoral. "But your five hundred lines in three days will be dead and forgotten. Show me a really great triumph that is not the reward of persistence. w hile my three lines will live forever. One of the paintings which made Titian famous was on his easel eig ht years. "but if you do. work on in despair. Ariosto wrote his "Description of a Tempest" in sixteen different ways.

" was the only reply. to die hard. the mongrel's hold will slip.000. and arms and baggage. He is resolved. if he dies." said Napoleon. It is just such grit th at enables men to succeed." It was Lincoln's marvelous insight and sagacity that saved Grant from the storm of popular passion. "The greatest thing about him is cool persis tency of purpose. "you are to o many to assassinate." It was "On to Richmond. solid. when he once gets his teeth in. after several days of hard fighting without definite result. or seek a m ore favorable position in the rear. not as p risoners of war. "My sword is too short. took a bundle of papers from a n inside pocket. and gave us the greatest hero of the Civil War. w ho had been a silent listener for hours. with clenched teeth and knit muscles.000 men in Genoa had been reduced by fighting and famine t o 8. speaking only at rare intervals to tell a pithy story. I will sally forth from Genoa sword in hand. It is this keeping right on that wins in the battle of life. then. or fall back. at dawn you w ill execute those orders. "General Taylor never surrenders. When Lincoln was asked how Grant impr essed him as a general. They had killed and captured more than 15. the jaw that never yields Drags down the bello wing monarch of the fields! HOLMES. but their prov isions were completely exhausted." said a Spartan youth to his father. nearly every newspaper of b oth parties in the North. and general after general told how he would withdraw." that settled the fate of the Rebellion . starvation stared them in the face. St ick to your aim. he replied. for his own sake as well as for the good of the country. one constant element of luck Is genuine. the enemy outnumbered them four to one. Massena's army of 18. h e said: "I can't spare this man. old Teutonic pluck. after a long silence. completely cowed. He rose.000 soldiers b y capitulation. and with the morning sun the army moved forward to victory. handed one to each general. nothing can shake him off. One general described the route by which he would retreat. that shows what Oxford boatm en call "the beefiness of the fellow. Grant never looked backward. "Soldiers. and public sentiment everywhere demanded his removal. Lincoln listened for hours one night." said old "Rough and Ready" at Buena Vista." "How brave he is!" exclaim ed the ringleader. Once. w hen Santa Anna with 20. The battle was long and desperate. It is said that the snapping-turtle will not release his grip.000 men offered him a chance to save his 4. and too few to intimidate me.Be firm. Small though he looks." Every paper gave definite directions for an advance. It is the final effort that brings victory. coolly walking among his disaffec ted generals when they threatened his life in the Egyptian campaign. as he withdrew. but free to fight when and where we please. At length all eyes were turned upon Grant. almost every member of Congress. for what is called luck is generally the prerogative of valiant souls." After Grant's defeat at the first battle of Shiloh. With eight thousand famished . he called a council of war. It is the last pul l of the oar. and said: "Gentlemen." and "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. but Massena replied: "My soldiers must be allowed to march out with colors flying. Then. but at length the Mexicans we re glad to avoid further defeat by flight.000 Austrians. and they seemed at the mercy of their opponents. "Add a step to it. another thought it better to retire by a different road. even after his h ead is cut off. until the clock struck one. G eneral Ott demanded a discretionary surrender. you are Frenchmen. He has the grip of a bulldog. He fights. But only crowbars loose the bulld og's grip. If you do not grant this. Friends of the President pleaded with him to gi ve the command to some one else.

The goddess of fame or of fortune has been won by many a poor boy who had n o friends. and agreed to accept the terms if he wou ld surrender himself." said Mr. Barnum assented to the arrangement. "Is this the way you eat your dinner?" he asked. and won the field." said young Junot coolly . no backing." said Wellington at Waterloo to his officers. when Massena said: "I give you notic e that ere fifteen days are passed I shall be once more in Genoa. as an Austrian shell scattered earth over the dispatch he was writing at the d ictation of his commander-in-chief." "It is very kind of them to 'sand' our letters for us. The nature which is all pine and straw is of no use in times of trial. "but it is only two o'clock.men I will attack your camp. or anything but pure grit and invincible purpose. and knew the condition of his pocket. when consul ted by Napoleon at Marengo. as though he had been the conqueror. who would do as he agreed. Mr. looking at his watch. "Well. "Hard pounding." and he kept h is word." There is another big word in the English language: the perfection of grit is th e power of saying "No. and we shall have time to gain another. Olmstead." was the prompt reply." said Desaix. or I will cut my way through your army." Ott at last agreed. or if he would depart by sea so as not to be quickly joine d by reinforcements. Mrs. Whoev er attempts to pass through the door to success will find it labeled. O lmstead was to appoint a money-taker at the door." "The battle is completely lost." said Barnum to a friend in 1841. except on the Sabbat h. and more determined pluck. alt hough a few minutes before the French soldiers all along the line were momentari ly expecting an order to retreat." with emphasis that can not be mistaken. slappi ng the young man approvingly on the shoulder. The young man who succeeds must hold his ground and push hard." said Webster to a young man hesitating to stu dy law because the profession was so crowded. gentlemen." "Ah! you are safe . who owned the Museum building ." and accepted a proposition to give security for the purchaser. This is true in every department o f activity." He then made his famous cavalry charge. Six months later Mr. an d offered to cut down the household expenses to a little more than a dollar a da y. He was right. and credit Barnum towards the purchase with all above expenses and an allowance of fifty dollars per month to support his wife and three children. The remark attracted Napoleon's attention an d led to the promotion of the scrivener. who knew that the showman had not a dollar. consulted numerous references all telling of "a good showman. and will pay for the Museum before the year is out. Learn to meet ha rd times with a harder will. "I have not eaten a warm dinner since I bought the Museum. "f or silver and gold have I none. who was orphaned in infancy and cast upon the world to make his own way in life: "When defeated. "Push. . "There is room enough up higher." Ot t knew the temper of the great soldier. and found Ba rnum eating for dinner a few slices of bread and some corned beef. and I intend never to eat another until I get out of debt. for in less than a y ear Barnum had paid every cent out of the profits of the establishment. Massena's only reply was: "Take my terms. Napoleon said of this man. "but w e will see who can pound the longest. "I am going to buy the American Museum . Olmstead entered the ticket-office at noon." Everyone interested in public entertainments in New York knew Barnum." "Buy it!" exclaimed the astonished friend. Massena was always ready to fight a battle over again. we must have some oak and iron in us. but Francis Olmstead. and I will fight till I cut my way through it. "what do you intend buying it with?" "Brass.

equally expert.--bear in mind that even this "luck" came to men as the result of action. labor turns out at six o'clock. obtained the result desired by angrily running his hands together from the extremities of the keyboard. No life is w asted unless it ends in sloth. or Richmond. or cowardice. Waterloo. I am much disposed to think that endurance is the most valuable quality of all. Bell his telephone. a Rothschild. folly at a premium? Does it cast intelligence into the gutter. to him who is not striving. Put forth your whole energies." says Cobden. Be awake. Edison his phonograph ? If you are told of the man who. Gould. as the desire to work hard. but only opened an internal tumor. but even here it wi ll usually be found that the sagacity with which the efforts are directed and th e energy with which they are prosecuted measure pretty accurately the luck conta ined in the results achieved. Blanchard his lathe. a carel ess stonecutter carve an Apollo. an Aeneid. dive together and work with equal energy. electrify yourself. Stewart. Goodyear his rubber. Luck lies in bed. a Venus de Medici." Stick to the thing and carry it through. No success is worthy of the name unless it is won by honest industry and brave breasting of the waves o f fortune. Luck relies on chance. a Paradise Lost. of a painter who produced an effect long desired by throwing hi s brush at a picture in rage and despair. an element of luck in the amount of success which crowns the efforts of different men. Wagram. Fulton his steamboat. ten. on character. to attach more and more importance to industry an d physical endurance. "to set less value on mere cleverness. What are called accidental discoveries are almost invariably made by those who are looking for something. effecting a cure. "Varied experience of men has led me. labor. Vanderbilt. labor whistles. while the other returns empty-handed. Franklin his captive lightning. Whitney his cot ton-gin. Luck whin es. and iron industry are impregnable to the assault s of the ill luck that fools are dreaming of. for industry. Field. Believe you were made for the place yo u fill. One b rings up a pearl. worn out by a painful disorder. for all practica l purposes. Morse his telegraph. Only once learn to carry a .A good character. while the temperate man looks haggard and suffers want a nd misery? Does luck starve honest labor. weeds and brambles on t hat of the industrious farmer? Does luck make the drunkard sleek and attractive. There is no luck. or a Hamlet. a lo afer become a Girard or Astor. There is." Has luck ever made a fool speak words of wisdom. A man incurs about as much risk of being struck b y lightning as by accidental luck. perhaps. or a Greek Slave? Does luck raise rich crops on the land of the sluggard. T wo pearl-divers. good habits. the longer I live. an ignoramus utter lectures on science. does not come to much if a feeble frame is unable to respond to the desire. and raise ignorance to the skies? Does it imprison virtue. or Rockefeller. "Luck is ever waiting for something to turn up. Howe hi s sewing-machine. a coward win at Yorktown. and his home cheerful. will turn up something. and wishes the postman would bring him the news of a legacy. tried to commit suicide. of the Persian co ndemned to lose his tongue. dishonesty. a dolt write an Odyssey." says Huxley. a Minerva. and laud vice ? Did luck give Watt his engine. with keen eyes and strong will. an d with busy pen or ringing hammer lays the foundation of a competence. go forth to the task. after repeated fail ures in trying to imitate a storm at sea. of a musician who. Apparent exceptions will be found to relate almost wholly to single undertakings. not inaction. or twenty years it will be found that they succeeded almost in exact proportion to their skill and industry. Indeed. and whose senses are not all eagerly att ent. while in the long run the rule will hold good. on whom a bungling operation merely removed an imped iment of speech. and pamper idleness? Does luck put com mon sense at a discount. "labor. and that no one else can fill it as well. But let both persevere a nd at the end of five.

DRYDEN." said Pizarro. and you will become a hero . "neve r give up then. e ase and pleasure. N or loses faith in man. He might have found saf ety under sheltering rocks close by. not a tear Is shed when fortune. I go to the south.-GOLDSMITH. second. like an ample shi eld. backbone. what best becomes a brave Castilian. That wins each godlike act. and plucks success E'en from the spear-proof crest of rugged danger. Choose. but does his best. There's a brave fellow! There's a man of pluck! A man who's not afraid to say h is say. with love. Can take in all. the workmen found the skeleton of a Rom an soldier in the sentry-box at one of the city's gates." said Harriet Beecher Stowe. when his men were c lamoring to return to Panama. true and just. B ut with a smile and words of hope.thing through in all its completeness and proportion. he had r emained at his post. The world in its very heart admires the stern. better. others will think better of you." "When you get into a tight place and everything goes against you. on the little island of Gallo in the Pacific. the ceaseless vi gilance and fidelity which made the Roman legionaries masters of the known world . and verge enough for more. yet keeps unfa ltering trust That God is God. for that's just the place and time that the tide'll turn. . till it seems as if you could not hold on a minute longer. which the world holds dear. in the face of certain death. Nor even murmurs at his humbler lot."--BEETHOVEN. he crossed the line and was followed by thirteen Spaniards i n armor. "Friends and comrades. At the time they had not even a vessel to transport them to the country they wished to conquer." Charles Sumner said "three things are necessary to a strong character: First. but in rising every time we fall. but. The barriers are not yet erected which shall say to aspiring talent. that somehow. "on that side are toi l. did Pizarro and his few volunteers resolve to stak e their lives upon the success of a desperate crusade against the powerful empir e of the Incas. third. 79. Our greatest glory is not in never falling. You will think better of yourself. Panama and its poverty. envies not. Thus. Who by a life heroic conquers fate. backbone. a crust Than living in dishonor." CHAPTER XXV CLEAR GRIT Let fortune empty her whole quiver on me. Falls f rom his grasp. His plans work out f or mortals. each man. gives zest To every toiler. and death. he alone is great . Sees his hopes fail. For my part. determined doer. after trac ing with his sword upon the sand a line from east to west. a mute witness to the thorough discipline. There lies Peru with its riches: here. which was buried by the dust and ashe s from an eruption of Vesuvius A. nakedness. the drenching storm. b ackbone. D. on this side. desertion. LONGFELLOW. "I like the man who faces what he must With step triumphant and a heart of chee r." While digging among the ruins of Pompeii. Is it necessary to add that all difficulties yie lded at last to such resolute determination? "Perseverance is a Roman virtue. I have a soul that. Who fights the daily battle without fear." So saying. hunger. "Thus far and no farther. as he turned toward the south. Though a whole town's against him.

an d his personality pervaded every detail. The "London Times" was an insignificant sheet published by Mr. You can not. that a man with brains and push and tenacity of purpo se stood at the helm. and all opposition from the government. throwing off 17. then only twenty-seven years old. hypocrisy is uncertain. both sides printed. Thereupon the public customs. pure grit. Enterprise." and nothing could stay its progress. The young journalist began to remodel the establishment and to introduce new ideas everywhere. Jr. At enormous expense he employed special couriers. The " leading article" also was introduced to stay. John Walter. and Walter had duplicate and even triplicate types set. In those days only three hundred copies of the paper could be struck off in an hour by the best presses. The paper had not attempted to mold publi c opinion. "Mean natures always feel a sort of terror before great natures. patiently. 1814. and the government adverti sements were withdrawn. The father was in utter dismay. that the first steam printed paper was given to the world. at his post. It was the 29th of November. Am ong other new features foreign dispatches were introduced. printing. being asked by an anxious visitor what he would do after three or four years if the rebellion were not subdued. who calmly. meanness and baseness slink out of sight. Lincoln. whi le the ministerial journalists were allowed to proceed. by tying an opinion to a man's tongue. His son. The audacious y oung editor boldly attacked every wrong. and independence. even the government. there is no alternative but to keep pegging away. and his foreign dispatches were all stopped at the outposts. push. grit were behind the "Times. and they appeared in the "Times" several days before their appearance in the government organs. only added to his determination to succeed. In the strife of parties and principles. wo uld ruin the paper and himself. many a sneaking vote withheld. was the result. make him the representative of that opinion. has the right of way. at th e close of any battle for principles. he was sure." As a rule. and ev erybody admires achievement. After many misgivings. "Clear grit" always commands respect. It is that quality which achieves. that its article s meant business. his name will be found neither among the d ead nor among the wounded. But no remonstrance could swerve the son from hi s purpose to give the world a great journal which should have weight. The aggressive editor antagonized the government. He became known as one of the foremost orators of his day.--a man who could make a way when he could not find one. if need be . Young Walter was the soul of the paper. the fa ther finally consented. through the fear in spired by the rebuking presence of one noble man.000 copies per hour." said Sheridan. individuality. Walter and was s teadily losing money." "It is in me and it shall come out. begged his father to give him full control of the paper. when told that he would nev er make an orator as he had failed in his first speech in Parliament. replied: "Oh. character. Ev ery obstacle put in his way. Then he set his brain to work. that new life and new blood and new ideas had been infused int o the insignificant sheet. who dies. but among the missing. whenever he though t it corrupt. dishonesty trembles. The public soon saw that a new power stood behind the "Times". But nothing could daunt this resolute young spirit.. and many a bas e thought has been unuttered. When a boy Henry Clay was very bashful and diffident. and courageously grapples with his fate. and scarcely dared recite . charact er.The world admires the man who never flinches from unexpected difficulties. and had had no individuality or character of its own. In the presence of men permeated with grit and sound i n character. and fin ally the Walter Press. Mean men are uncomfortabl e. backbone w ithout brains will carry against brains without backbone.

and the generals in the war were denouncing his "f oolish" confidence in Grant. you are suddenly electrified with the news of some splendid victory. Many of our generals in the Civil War exhibited heroism." When the illustrated papers everywhere were caricaturi ng him. W hat were impossibilities to such a resolute. if you call him an imbecile and a blunderer. is not clamor. He is spared the necessity of declaring himself. So he commit ted speeches and recited them in the cornfields. There is a mighty force in sublime conviction and supreme self-confidence behind it. He said he could live upon blackberries. Lincoln and Grant swerved by public truth. is the best brain to plan and the s trongest heart to dare among the generals of the Republic. and in the the knowledge that ll prevail. they ought to have been foun d somewhere between the birth and death of Kitto. for his grit speaks in his e very act. yielding disposition. and delegations were waiting upon him to ask for th at general's removal. he placidly returns the pu ff from his regalia. Through sunshine and storm. and if you tell him he should run for the presidency. and keep the needle of his purpose pointing to the star of his hope. and field turnips. It does not come by fits and starts. through hurricane and tempest. they were "plucky. with a leaky ship. immov able. even if he had to subsist like the Hottentots. Here was real grit. He begged his father to take him ou t of the poorhouse. but Grant had pure "grit" in the most con centrated form. and. can bear abuse and hatred." Lincoln had pure "grit. but he determined to become an orator. with a crew in mutiny. and was reminde d of a story. The man of grit carries in his very presence a power which controls and command s. it is a part of his life. it perseveres. through sleet a nd rain. obliging this man by investing in hopeless speculation. it do es not disturb the equanimity with which he inhales and exhales the unsubstantia l vapor which typifies the politician's promises. and it dies still struggling. It is unfortunate for a young man to s tart out in business life with a weak." an d often displayed great determination. he blandly lights another cig ar. with no ability to say "No" with an emphasis. which enters into the very structure. in fact. and the conviction and confidence that it wi Pure grit is that element of character which enables a man to clutch his aim wi th an iron grip. solid quality. with no resolution or backbone to mark his own course and stick to it. Many of the failures of life are d ue to the want of grit or business nerve. proving that behind the cigar. when his methods were criticized by his own party. He could not be moved from his base. It insp ires a sublime audacity and a heroic courage. and behind the face discharged of all telltale expression. popularly speaking. that deaf pauper and master of Oriental learning. by which he thought he co uld raise about twelve shillings. the v ery tissues of the constitution. the great President sat with crossed legs. or in the barn with the horse a nd cows for an audience. r ather than offend a friend. and was willing to sleep on a hayrick. both had that rare nerve which cares not for ridicule.before his class at school. But Kitto did not find them there. indorsing a questionable note. In the presence of his de cision and imperial energy they melted away. nuts. he stolidly sm okes. if you praise him as the greatest general living. indomitable will? Grit is a permanent. He told him t hat he would sell his books and pawn his handkerchief. While you are wondering what k ind of creature this man without a tongue is. "If you try to wheedle out of him his plans for a campaign. . when no epithet seemed too harsh to heap upon him. If impossibilities ever exist. he was self-centered. nothi ng but death can subdue it. in truth is mighty.

lesson after lesson with the scho lar. The Austrian army extended its wing s on the right and on the left. you would shake worse yet if you knew where I am going to take you. that secu res what all so much desire--SUCCESS. he r ose painfully and said courageously. half starved and thinly clad. the triumphs of this indomitable spirit of the conqueror! This it was that enabled Franklin to dine on a small loaf in the printing-office with a book in h is hand. "You may well shake. Napoleon gave the command to charge.' And he kept his word. and the battle was won for France . the bra ve student died." he replied. He persevered in spite of repeated attacks of illness and par tial loss of sight. It enable d Gideon Lee to go barefoot in the snow. It sustai ned Lincoln and Garfield on their hard journeys from the log cabin to the White House. though the French themselves thought that the battle was lost." It is victory after victory with the soldier. and the Austrians were confident i t was won. looking down at his knees which we re smiting together. and mile after mile with the traveler. But that steadfast soul seemed alt ogether unaffected by bodily prostration. fighting death inch by inch! What a lesson! Before his manuscript was published or the prize awarded.A little boy was asked how he learned to skate. to whom the Emperor dispatched a messenger. to follow up the French. couched in the form of a request . 'Tell the Emperor that I will hold out for two hours. being too poor to buy a dictionary. and his whole appearance indicating a physical state better befitting the hospital than the field. Mass. "After the defeat at Essling. crop after crop with the farmer. The French army was inferior in numbers. the Austrians considered the day won. his frame weakened by his unparalleled exertions during a contest of forty hours. actually copied one. Congressman William W." In the battle of Marengo. Physician s said there was no hope for him. to New Bedford to replenish his store of words and defi nitions from the town library. competing for a prize. but his work was successful. Whipple tells a story of Masséna which illustrates the masterful purpose that plu cks victory out of the jaws of defeat. He resolved to make a critical study of Dante. and in four years he took his degr ee. Crapo. Once when Marshal Ney was going into battle. while working his way through college. by getting up every time I fell down. rolled the two wings up on either side. helpless in bed. This order. but Napoleon knew the indomitable tenacity o f the man to whom he gave it. and had given way. The examiners heard him at his bedside. Think of the para lytic lad. required almost an impossibility. picture after picture with the painter. "Oh. telling him to keep his posit ion for two hours longer at Aspern. blow after blow with the laborer. Oh. Then. his eyes bloodshot. cut it i n two. the trumpet's blast being g iven. It helped Locke to live on bread and water in a Dutch garret. and. Half dead as he was with fatigue. the Old Guard charged down into the weakened center of the enemy. The messenger found Masséna seated on a heap of rubb ish. "he was alway s successful in war." "Often defeated in battle.. . to do which he had to learn I talian and German." said Macaulay of Alexander the Great. A promising Harvard student was stricken with paralysis of both legs. the success of Napoleon's attempt to withdraw his beaten army depended on the character of Masséna. He was competing for the university prize. walking from his home in the vill age of Dartmouth. he said. The lad determined to continue his college stu dies.

William H. and the boy wit h no chance swayed the scepter of England for a quarter of a century. this was all he was to have. When the youth found the props all t aken out from under him. But he did not give up speaking till every poor man in England had a larger. and nevertheless has gone on. better. and whi ch had an utter contempt for self-made men and interlopers. Scoffed. and worked thirty-five years after his funeral had been planned. he rose repeatedly from the ashes of his misfortune each time mo re determined than before. He will make stepping-stones out of his stumbling-blocks. and bec ame the greatest historian of America in his line. "The time will come when you will hear me. Again and again he was ruined. pushing his way up through the middle classes. ears. His father refused to give him mo re. . he left home moneyle ss. after three defeats in parliamentary elections he was not th e least daunted. was el ected Governor of New York. he could s ting Gladstone out of his self-control. and paying his notes at the same time. he could exhaust the resources of the bitterest invective. and became Lincoln's great Secretary of State during the Civil War. most of the great things of the world have been accomplished by g rit and pluck. sprung from a hated and persecuted race. for he knew his day would come. graduated at the head of his class. owing thousands more than he possessed. Francis Parkman put grit in place of health and eyesight. One of the most remarkable examples in history is Disraeli. and I will back that young man to do better than most of those who have succeeded at the first trial. he was absolute master of himself and hi s situation. See young Disraeli. and cheaper loaf. legs and yet have achieved marvelous su ccess. yet he resolutely resumed business once more. Seward was given a thousand dollars by his father with which to go t o college. forcing his leaders hip upon that very party whose prejudices were deepest against his race." Cobden broke down completely the first time he appeared on a platform in Manche ster. and lift himself to success. asked him what he wish ed to be. with the hated Hebrew blood in his veins. without opportunit y. rebuffed. fairly wringing success from adverse f ortune. Thousands of men have put gri t in place of health. At fifty. Determined audacity was in his very face. he simply says . The son returned at the end of the fresh man year with extravagant habits and no money. and the chairman apologized for him. and told him he could not stay at home. and became the greatest Postmaster -General England ever had." said Charles J. and became one of America's greate st historians." was his audacious reply. Handsome. Imagine England's su rprise when she awoke to find this insignificant Hebrew actually Chancellor of t he Exchequer! He was easily master of all the tortures supplied by the armory of rhetoric. He may go on. returned to college. Indeed. You could see that this young man intended to make his way in the w orld. and that he must now sink or swim. ridiculed. Lord Melbourne. hissed from the House of Commons. Prescott also put grit in place of eyesight. when this gay young fop was introduced to him. until he stands self-poised upon the topmost round of political and social power . Henry Fawcett put grit in place of eyesight.President Chadbourne put grit in place of his lost lung." The time did come. You can not keep a man down who has these qualities. eyes. Fox. Barnum was a ruined man. "It is all very well. bu t phoenix-like. or he may be sati sfied with his first triumph. the great Prime Minister. studied law. but show me a young man who has not succeeded at f irst. hands. up through the upper classes. "Prime Minister of England. "to tell me that a young man has di stinguished himself by a brilliant first speech.

We must take into consideration the hindrances. "Begone. the handicaps. sloth and folly Shiver and sink at sight of toil and hazard. because they get no sympathy and are forever tortured for not doing that again st which every fiber of their being protests. unprovided for an d starving. They could not half will. by impaire d eyesight or hearing? When the prizes of life shall be finally awarded. General Jackson's troops. but have be en accustomed to lean upon a father's wealth or a mother's indulgence? How many are weakened for the journey of life by self-indulgence. the weights we have carried. the land of opportunity. greedy world. But the general set the example of living on acorns. no grip on life? "The truest wisdom. will decide the prizes. How many young men are weighted down with debt. and this is taken into acco unt in the result. and then he rode before the rebellious line and threatened with instant death the first mutineer that should try to leave. the disadvantages of education. but the obstacles we have overcome. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam. What chance is there in this crowding. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. it is the best poss ible substitute for it. During a winter in the War of 1812. By daring to attempt them." shouted the conquering Macedonian. pushing." The triumph of industry and grit over low birth and iro n fortune in America." "I can't. shiftless. with th e opposition of parents who do not understand them? How many a round boy is hind ered in the race by being forced into a square hole? How many youths are delayed in their course because nobody believes in them. ought to be sufficient to put to shame all grumblers over their hard fortune and those who attempt to excuse aiml ess. always at the mercy of those who have wills. they l acked will-power. hampered by inhospitable surroundings. of circumstances. a mere sport of chance. of breeding. the battle is not always to the strong. to be tossed about hither and thither. self ish. of training. the disadvantages und er which we have made the race." said Napoleon. "there is nothing impossible to him who will try. with povert y. where everything is pusher or pushed. by dissipation. to Alexander. successless men because they have no chance. and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. Can he will strong enough. the weights we have c arried. the poor woman who has buried her sor rows in her silent heart and sewed her weary way through life. So in the race of life the distance alone does not determine the prize. I should say unhesitatingly. because nobody encourages them . Ho rses are sometimes weighted or hampered in the race. will often receive the greater prize. will all be taken into account. for a young man with no will. and who have been unrecognized or despised by their fel low-runners. "is a resolute deter . became mutinous and were going home. with the support of invalid parents or brothers and sisters. or friends? How many are fettered with ignorance. how many are crippled by disease. And make the impossibility t hey fear. it is impossible. the distance we have run. "The wise and active conquer difficulties. Not the distance we have run." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes. by "lif e-sappers". those who have su ffered abuse in silence. "If the power to do hard work is not talent." said a foiled lieutenant.Garfield said. and every drop of their blood rebe ls? How many men have to feel their way to the goal through the blindness of ign orance and lack of experience? How many go bungling along from the lack of early discipline and drill in the vocation they have chosen? How many have to hobble along on crutches because they were never taught to help themselves. The race is not always to the swift. The poor wretch who has plodded along against unknown temptations. by a weak constitution. of surrounding s.

In 1818 Vanderbilt owned two or three of the finest coasting schooners in New Y ork harbor. you will plow. and had a capital of nine thousand dollars. "The undivided will 'T is that compels the elements and wrings A human music fr om the indifferent air. by that time. There was no keeping him down. "I'll d o it." said a boy of twelve one day in 1806 to the innkeeper at South Amboy. He early identified himself with the g rowing railroad interests of the country. in the face of opposition so bitter that he lost his last dollar. "My son. Little minds are tamed and subdued by misfortunes. I'll leave with you one of my horses in pawn. to carry the cargo across a sand-spit to the lighte rs. no opposition daunted him. and three men. "on the twenty-seventh of this month you will be sixteen years o ld. trembling through every fiber." CHAPTER XXVI SUCCESS UNDER DIFFICULTIES Victories that are easy are cheap. I will advance you the money." The innkeeper asked the reason for this novel proposition. harrow." said the innkeeper. but the work was done in time." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon. The work accomplished. and plant with corn the eight-acre lot. "Eloquence must have been born with you. and reached South Amboy penniless. J. The horse was soon redeemed. as he looked into the bright honest eyes of the boy. "I have here three teams that I want to get over to Staten Island." Speaking of his first attempt at a debating club. and take it to New York in lighters. N. and well done. J. and if I don't send y ou back six dollars within forty-eight hours you may keep the horse. and became the richest man of his day in America. "it was born some three and twe nty years and some months after me.--WASHINGTON IRVING. From this small beginning Cornelius Vanderbilt laid the foundation of a colossal fortune. Seeing that steam-vessel s would soon win supremacy over those carrying sails only. he said: "I stood up. he had started with only six dollars to travel a long distance home over the Jersey sands. N. Those only are worth having which come as th e result of hard fighting. Barnum began the race of business life barefoot. But the tide turned. P." said this same boy's mother.mination. and learned that the lad's father had contracted to get the cargo of a vessel stranded near Sandy Ho ok." replied the orator.--BEECHER. Curran. "Indee d. but remembering that in this I was but imitating Tully. having imbibed a strong liki ng for the sea. The boy had been sent with three wagons . I took courage and had actually proceeded al . untarnished by ambition or avarice . 1810." The field was rough and stony. In 1829 he b egan business as a steamboat owner. but with cha racter it would make a Wellington or a Grant. six horses. on the first of May. "If you will pu t us across. when he asked her to lend him one hundred dollars to buy a boat. but great minds rise above t hem. for at the age of fifteen he w as obliged to buy on credit the shoes he wore at his father's funeral. and he prospered so rapidly that he a t length owned over a hundred steamboats. it was not. my dear sir. For twelve years he ran between New York City and New Brunswick. If. He was a remarkable example of success under difficulties." said a friend to J. he gave up his fine b usiness to become the captain of a steamboat at one thousand dollars a year.

incessantly continued. David Livingstone at ten years of age was put into a cotton factory near Glasgo w. was in London completing his first s ewing-machine. at which we look with praise and wonder. although it was worth fifty. I perceived that every eye was turned on me. The boy Arkwright begins barbering in a cellar. Great men have found no royal road to their triumph." s ays Johnson. and read extensively. first calculated eclipses on his plow handle. and mounta ins are leveled. yet was it. and then he pawned his letters patent to pay his expenses home. as if I were the central object in nature. but I would recommend him to show it in future by so me more popular method than his silence. A young man determined and willing wi ll find a way or make one. to my panic-stricken imag ination. that he would place his book bef ore him on the spinning-jenny. the astronomer. on small scraps of leather. when a cobbler's apprentice. It is always the old route . He corrected his hab it of stuttering by reading favorite passages aloud every day slowly and distinc tly. Bunyan wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress" on the untwisted papers which were used t o cork the bottles of milk brought for his meals. and assembled millions were gazing upon me in breathless expectation. Washburn. He would sit up and study till midnight unless his mothe r drove him to bed. He mastered Vergil and Horace in this way." and well did he deserve the title until he ventured to stare in astonishment at a speaker who was "culminating chronology by the most preposterous anachronis ms. and that distant countries are united with canals. 'Hear him!' but there was nothing to hear. yet those petty operation s.most as far as 'Mr. So eager for knowledge was he. work ou t their problem. and early learned the lesson that it takes one hundred cents to make a dollar.' when. and Rittenhouse." When Elias Howe. until he was called the "Watchdog of t he Treasury. harassed by want and woe. and oceans bounded. he wou ld be overwhelmed by the sense of their disproportion. he c an bring electricity from the clouds with a common kite. and master the situation. and studied in the n ight schools for years. he took great pains to become a good speaker. by way of industry and perseverance." Stung by the taunt." said the annoyed speaker. If a man was to compare the effect of a single stroke of the pickax. "that 'Orator Mum' possesses wonde rful talents for eloquence. and spoke at every opportunity. taught school at ten dollars per month. to my astonishment and terror. "All the performances of human art. Out of his first week's wages he bought a Latin grammar. Curran rose and ga ve the man a "piece of his mind." "I doubt not. with the general design and last result. in time surmount the greatest difficulties. and amid the deafening roar of machinery would po re over its pages. they seize upon whatever is at hand. notwithstanding he had to be at the factory at six in the mo rning. and the r oom could not have contained as many more. I became dismayed and dumb. Encouraged by this success. H e sold his first machine for five pounds. He also borrowed money to send his wife back to America. besides studying botany. but dies worth a million and a . he had frequently to borrow money to live on. or of one impression of the spade. Nor do they wait for fa cilities or favoring circumstances." He was nicknamed "Orator Mum . Chairman. they make them." speaking fluently in his anger. by the slender force of human beings. There were only six or seven present. Elihu B. A Franklin does not require elaborate apparatus. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance: it is by th is that the quarry becomes a pyramid. My friends cried. Gifford wrote his first copy o f a mathematical work. The farmer boy. In af ter years he fought "steals" in Congress. He bought beans and cooked them himself." Great men never wait for opportunities.

Amid scenes unpropitious. and turned all hi s energies in that direction. From among the rock-ribbed hills of New Hampshire American orators and statesmen. to be snatched from obscurity. William H. singularly awkwar d. men like Seward. studied. but often in adversity and destitution. The world treated his novelties just as it treats everybody's novelties--m ade infinite objection. statesmen famous and trained. of what real parentage we know not. poring over old archives and manuscripts. and given the reins of power. ami dst the harassing cares of a straitened household. Everyone who enters makes his o wn door. which closes behind him to all others. have become the companions of kings. He set his heart upon being a historian. raised to supreme comm and at a supreme moment." said Emerson. late in life. But the boy would not lead a useless life. repulsive. before he publi shed his "Ferdinand and Isabella. the most experienced and accomplis hed men of the day.half. The great l eaders of his party were made to stand aside. Columbus f ound the new world in an undecked boat. in a hovel. and intrusted with the destiny of a nation. Prescott was a remarkable example of what a boy with "no chance" can do. were sent to the rear. and lived to become honored and wealthy. While at college. not even permitting his own chil dren to pass. have often come tors of our race. and death might be chanted by a Greek chorus as at once the pr elude and the epilogue of the most imperial theme of modern times? Born as lowly as the Son of God. a young manhood vex ed by weird dreams and visions. ungainly even among the uncouth about him: it was reserved for this remarkabl e character. but he snapped his fingers at their objections. Not in the brilliant salon. Then he spent ten years more. and persecution. From the and homes to which luxury is a stranger. "What does he know. and exercised an influence upon the thought of the world amounting to a species of intellectual legislation. "discovered a more splendid series of celestial phenomena than any one since with the great telescopes. mustered all the impediments. even against the opposition of the most progressive men. There is no open door to the temple of success." and the other eye became almost useless. nor fair surrounding. squalor. wretched. calumny. Nearly every great discovery or invention that has blessed mankind has had to f ight its way to recognition. the guides and teachers of their kind. have men labored. with no gleam of light." said a sage. while this strange figure was brought by unseen hands to the front. By the aid of others' eyes. and t rained themselves. is genius born and nurtured. wh ose life. he lost one eye by a hard piece of bread thrown during a "biscuit battle. in bare and fireless garrets." What a lesson in his life for young men! What a rebuke to those who have thrown away their opportunities and wasted their liv es! "Galileo with an opera-glass. Daniel Webster. and Sumner. not in ease and comp etence. the unfolding of your p sprang the greatest of crowded ranks of toil. reared in pe nury. with scarcely a natural grace. not in the tapestried library." Surroundings which men call unfavorable can not prevent owers. career. until they have at last emanated from the gloom of that obscu rity the shining lights of their times. "who has not suffered?" Schiller produced his . he spent ten years stu dying before he even decided upon a particular theme for his first book. and Chase. the leaders and benefac Where shall we find an illustration more impressive than in Abraham Lincoln. There is scarcely a great truth or doctrine but has had to fight its way to pub lic recognition in the face of detraction.

and his breath woul d give out before he could get through a sentence. who had defrauded him.greatest tragedies in the midst of physical suffering almost amounting to tortu re. after many hardships. perpetual plodding. talking about a Spanish ship wrecked off the Bahama Islands. One of his audito rs. or swerved a hair's breadt h from his purpose. hanging his head in great confusion. in order to overcome his stammering. He accordingly appeared again in public. a noted actor. Rebuffed by kings. but was hissed down as befor e. He was so discouraged by his defeats that he determined to give up forever all attempts at oratory. discovered the lost treasure. Jay had arranged with Great Britain. and such an impedim ent in his speech. ostracism. He then heard of anothe . Satyrus. when o ppressed by almost total deafness. yet he persevered and won s uccess. His awkward gestures were also corrected by long and dete rmined drill before a mirror. and on them will climb to greatness. must be sacrificed. mutiny of sailors. All that is great and noble and true in the history of the world is the result of infinite painstaking. T ake away his money. Handel was never greater than when. He stammered so much that he could not pronounce some of the letters at all. jeers. he sat down to compose the great w orks which have made his name immortal in music. scorned by quee ns. and encouraged him to persevere. As he withdrew. and. All his first attempts were nearly drowned by the hisses. he determined to be an orator at any cost. The words "New World" were graven upon his heart. could not shake his mighty purpose. Perhaps no one ever battled harder to overcome obstacles which would have dishe artened most men than Demosthenes. and scoffs of his audiences. Mozart composed his great opera s. He set out at once. Even our own revered Washington was mobbed in the streets because he would not pander to the clamor of the people and reje ct the treaty which Mr. and reputation . Beethoven produced his greatest works amidst gloomy sorrow. pleasure. warned by palsy of the approach of death . Young Phipps determined to find it. You can not keep a determined man from success. Roger Bacon. Threats. life itself if need be. He overcame his short breath by practising while running up steep and difficul t places on the shore. Columbus was dismissed as a fool from court after court. and whom he compelled to refund a part of his fortune." when oppressed by debt and struggling with a f atal disease. leaky vessels. and struggling with distress and suffering. and last of all his "Requiem. of common every-day industry. that he could scarcely get throug h a single sentence without stopping to rest. heard some sailors on the street. storms. was terrib ly persecuted for his studies in natural philosophy. however. encouraged him still further to try to overcome his impediment. But he remained fir m. Place stumbling-blocks in his w ay and he takes them for stepping-stones. and at the same time accustom himself to the hisses and tumults of his audience . Cripple hi m. His first effort tha t met with success was against his guardian. ease. position. and he was kept in prison for ten years. believed the young man had something in him. He was accused of dealing in magic. and he writes the Waverley Novels. and the people adopted his opinion. He went to the seashore and practised amid the roar of th e breakers with small pebbles in his mouth. his books were burned in public. Finally. He had such a weak voice. The Duke of Wellington was mobbed in the streets of London and his windows were broken while his wife lay dead in the hou se. ridicule. when a young man. and was so short of breath. which was supposed to have money on board. he did not swerve a hair's breadth from the overmastering purpose which domi nated his soul. in Boston. one of the profoundest thinkers the world has produced. William Phipps. and he makes spurs of his poverty to urge him on. but he pushed his suit against an incredulous and ridiculing world. but the "Iron Duke" never faltered in his course.

and does not bear the sc ar of desperate conflict. after years of toil. not with. won friends. whi le it was yet time. on our own resources." Two of the three greatest epic poets of the world were blind. "Adversity is the prosperity of the great. blin d. and at length had to return to England to repair his vessel. Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties. He set sa il for England and importuned Charles II for aid. The good are better made by ill. whereas. They proved to belong to th e wreck. sewin g and economizing and growing narrower every year.r ship.--EMERSON. A constant struggle. or indeed their chief reward. the wind." said Harriet Martineau. is the price of all great achievements. we have worked hard and usefully." "Many and many a time since. It almost seems as though some great characters had been physically crippled in certain respects so that they would not dissipate their energy.--Homer and Milton . when she adds difficulties. ye'll find no other where.500. but he t urned the ship's guns on them. Field placed his hand upon the tele graph instrument ticking a message under the sea. do you suppose those bright rays failed to illuminate the inmost recesses of his soul? CHAPTER XXVII USES OF OBSTACLES Nature. Though losses and crosses be lessons right severe. To his delight the king fitted up the ship Rose Algier for him. a ceaseless battle to win success in spite of every barrie r. ROGERS. of ridicule. One day an Indian diver went down for a curious s ea plant and saw several cannon lying on the bottom. He had nothing but dim traditions to guide him. but concentra te it all in one direction. The man who has not fought his way up to his own loaf. which had been wrecked off Port De La Plata many years before." "Kites rise against. in short. by being thrown. referring to her father's failure in business. As odors crushed are sweeter still. Dante. have truly lived instead of vegetating. The money acquired by those who have thus struggled upward to success is not th eir only. Edison demon strated that the electric light had at last been developed into a commercial suc cess. "have we said that. There's wit there ye'll get there. does not know the highest meaning of success. think you that the electric th rill passed no further than the tips of his fingers? When Thomas A. abroad and at home. but for that loss of money. A distinguished investigator in science said that when he encountered an appare ntly insuperable obstacle. He searched and searched for a long time in va in. and Phipps had to wait for four years before he could raise mo ney to return. His crew mutinied and threatened to throw him overboard. seen the world abundantly. When. was in his later years nearly.--SPU RGEON. but he returned to Engl and with $1. of opposition . if not altogether. BURNS. James II was th en on the throne. and independence. Cyrus W. we might h ave lived on in the ordinary provincial method of ladies with small means. adds brains. of repeated failure. he usually found himself upon the brink of some disco . reputation.000. while the third.

to fight its way up to sunlight and air.--a force against him that lifts him higher. by firing a dormant purpose. a stronger muscle and stamina of body. is always floundering in the mud. "Let the adverse breath of criticism be to you only what the blast of the storm wind is to the eagle. enemies d rag out to the light all our weaknesses without mercy. by awakening p owers which were sleeping. as the oak is braced and anchored for its th ousand battles with the tempests. Men of mettle turn disappointments into helps as the oyster turns into pearl the sand which annoys it. commanded their respect. the fiber of its timber will be all the t ougher and stronger. They have developed in us the very power b y which we overcome them. We dread these thrusts an d exposures as we do the surgeon's knife. An air of triumph is seen in every movement. There is nothing that does a young lawyer so much good as to be half starved. with snow and frost. If the germ of the seed has to struggle to push its way up through the stones a nd hard sod. quickly rising above them in scholarship. and our griefs develo p us in a similar way. and we are led to resolve to redeem ourselves from sc orn and inferiority. our sorrows. but they often act as a stimulus to the naturally indolent. . It is just so in lif e. having noth ing to keep him steady. and. but are the better for them. where it accumulates strength and a mighty reserve which ultimately sweeps the obstruction impetuously to the sea. Our trials. and develop a firmer fiber of mind. When Napoleon's school companions made sport of him on account of his humble or igin and poverty he devoted himself entirely to books." Thousands of men of great native ability have been lost to the world because th ey have not had to wrestle with obstacles. No effort is too dear which helps us along the line of our proper career. These unkind stings and thrusts are often spurs which urge us on to grander su ccess and nobler endeavor. There is good philosophy in the injunction to love our enemies. "Returned with thanks" has made many an author. The man who is tied down by half a dozen blooming responsibilities and their mother will make a higher and stronger flight than the bachelor who. They reac h depths before untouched. Poverty and obscurity of origin may impede our progress. Soon he was regarded as the brigh test ornament of the class. and then to wrestle with s torm and tempest. for they are of ten our best friends in disguise." A kite would not fly unless it had a string tying it down. The man who has triumphed over difficulties bears the signs of victory in his f ace. We are the victors of our opponents.very. "To make his way at the bar. and to struggle under difficulties su fficient to stimulate into activity their dormant powers. "a young man must live li ke a hermit and work like a horse. T heir biting sarcasm and scathing rebuke are mirrors which reveal us to ourselves . Without their opposition we could never have braced an d anchored and fortified ourselves. but it is only like th e obstruction of ice or débris in the river temporarily forcing the water into edd ies." said an eminent jurist. They tell us the truth when friends flatter. Friends cover our faults and rarely rebuke. Failure often leads a man to su ccess by arousing his latent energy. Poverty and obscurity are not insurmount able obstacles.

" In the sunshine of wealth a man is. like the palm-tree." said Anaximander. crushed. A drenching shower of adversity wo uld straighten his fibers out again. "The gods look on no grander sight than an honest man struggling with adversity . The huge truck wheels were sliding uselessly round on the car tracks that were wet and s lippery from rain. never. "No. their edge from grinding. He should have some gr eat thwarting difficulty to struggle against. in th e opinion of those around them. The harder the diamond. Only its own dust is hard enough to make this most precious stone reveal its ful l beauty. the no blest characters are developed in a similar way.John Calvin." replied Northcote. Trials unlock their virtues. who made a theology for the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. but were rocked in the cradle of difficulties and pillowed on hardships. an electric car came to a standstill j ust in front of a heavy truck that was headed in an opposite direction. The very element that offers the oppositi on to flying is at the same time the condition of any flight whatever. . it is defeat that makes men invincible. "Friction is a very good thing. defeated. How many ce nturies of peace would have developed a Grant? Few knew Lincoln until the great weight of the war showed his character. It is defeat that turns bone to flint." "Then I must learn to sing better. The best tools receive their temper from fire. All the urging of the teamster and the straining of the horse s were in vain. Yet if the air we re withdrawn. it is defeat that has made those hero ic natures that are now in the ascendency. it is defeat that turns gristle to muscl e. warped too much to become an artist of high merit. The philosopher Kant observed that a dove. The spark in the flint would sleep forever but for friction. Suddenly. and the greater the friction necessary to bring it out. defeat is the thres hold of their victory. and so was Robert Hall. was tortured with disease for many years. unable to fly at all. and then the truck lumbered on its way. A century of peace would never have prod uced a Bismarck. when told that the very b oys laughed at his singing. Difficulties call out great qualities. Some people neve r come to themselves until baffled. the mor e brilliant the luster. with much jarring and jolting. "Will he not make a great painter?" was asked in regard to an artist fresh from his Italian tour. "Why not?" "Because he has an income of six thousand pounds a year. Perhaps Phillips and Garrison would never have been known to hi story had it not been for slavery. rebuffed. inasmuch as the only obstacle it has to overcome is the resistance of the air. might suppose that if only the air we re out of the way it could fly with greater rapidity and ease." remarked a passenger. as a rule. and make greatness possible. and that has given the sweet law of l iberty instead of the bitter law of oppression. seem to thrive best when most abused. and the bird should try to fly in a vacuum. the fire in man wo uld never blaze but for antagonism.--until the motorman quietly tossed a shovelful of sand on the tr ack under the heavy wheels. it would fall instantl y to the ground. Me n who have stood up bravely under great misfortune for years are often unable to bear prosperity. as th e torrid zone enervates races accustomed to a vigorous climate. Their good fortune takes the spring out of their energy. The great men who have lifted the world to a higher level were not developed in easy circumsta nces. thwarted. Strong characters.

Give him thousan ds a year for spending money. with only the district school. if he has the right sort of material in him. The two meet. self-made man from the one who has been propped up all his life by wealth. as it is for the shipbuilder to tell the differe nce between the plank from the rugged mountain oak and one from the sapling of t he forest. but how changed! It is as easy to distinguished the stu rdy. plant one on a hill by itself. and cannot fail to leave us stronger. Sometimes its upward growth seems checked for years. or the loss of a fortun e. They meet again as men. He thinks that it is a cruel Providence that places such a wide gulf between th em. and a few books. Every rootlet lends its elf to steady the growing giant. and awkward manner of the country boy make sorry contrast with the genteel appearance of the other." and envies the city youth. Remove wealth and props of every kind. The poor boy bemoans h is hard lot. Its roots reach out in every directio n. The prison has roused the slumbering fire in many a noble mind. Put the other boy in a Vande rbilt family. the harder the obstacle he meets the higher he rebounds. . The gales which sport so rudely with its wide branches find more than their match. even though we may never reach the position we desire. and let him travel extensively. and the other in the dense forest. For twenty years Dante worked in exile. From an aimless. tawny face. position. The "Pilgrim's Progress" appeared in Bedford Jail. he will thrive. Luther translated the Bible while confined in the Castle of Wartbu rg. as nearly alike as possible. idle. The acorn planted in the deep forest. the Sunday-school. on the other hand. But for our Civil War the names of its grand heroes would not be written among the greatest of our time. "Robinson Cru soe" was written in prison. as nearly alike as possible. he rises with more determination than before. The oak standing alone is exposed to every storm. but all the wh ile it has been expending its energy in pushing a root across a large rock to ga in a firmer anchorage. Take two acorns from the same tree. regrets that he has "no chance in life. and useless brain. prepared to defy the hurricane. gratify his every wish. Obstacles and opposition are but apparatus of the gymnas ium in which the fibers of his manhood are developed. and only serve still further to toughen every minutest fiber from pith to bark. it feels no need of spreading its roots far and wide for support. Place one in the country away from the hothouse culture and refinements of the city. hard hands. and family influence. Give him French and German nurses. If he falls. as if in anticipation of fierce conflict with t he elements. slen der sapling. or secure the prize we seek. Place h im under the tutelage of great masters and send him to Harvard. and. The effort or struggle to climb to a higher place in life has strength and dign ity in it. and even under sentence of death. thread bare clothes. clutching the rocks and piercing deep into the earth.Emergencies make giant men. The plain. emergencies often call out powers and virtues before unknown and unsuspected. Take two boys. or after some other calamity has knocked the props and crutches from under hi m. The city lad is ashamed of his country brother. He compels respect and rec ognition from those who have ridiculed his poverty. Like a rubber ball. Shielded by its neighbors. Then it shoots proudly aloft again. shoots up a weak. S ir Walter Raleigh wrote "The History of the World" during his imprisonment of th irteen years. Every obstacle ove rcome lends him strength for the next conflict. and watch them grow. How often we see a young man develop as tounding ability and energy after the death of a parent.

John Huss led to the stake at Constance. trade. he does not send him to school to the Graces. amid the incipient earthquake throes of revolution. the y are not what they seem. wo rn to a shadow. but he is spoiled by the ease with which he composes." "He has the stuff in him to make a good musician. but to the Necessities." John Hunter said that the art of surgery would never advance until professional men had the courage to publish their failures as well as their successes. Milton. not hindrances." said Beethoven of Rossini. promotes self-reliance. for. In this necessity for exertio n we find the chief source of human advancement. one of them exclaimed: "What a f ine profession ours would be if there were no gibbets!" "Tut." says Smiles. but replied: "Heave n forbid that his necessities should be relieved. We are not conscious of the mighty cravings of our half divine humanity. Peabody. you blockhead. if there were no gibbets. Through the pit and the dungeon Joseph came to a throne. disciplines the faculties. and gives one independence of thought and force of char acter. whose eyes have been sharpened b y affliction. " if he had only been well flogged when a boy.When God wants to educate a man. It has led to most of the mechanical inventions and improvements of the age." He was so poor th at he could not even get paper during the last of his writing. e very one would be a highwayman. and may prove to be helps. fierce and expert in pursuing his prey. "Young men need to be taught not to expect a perfectly smooth and easy way to t he objects of their endeavor or ambition. or till the rending asunder of our affections forces us to become conscious of a ne ed. Kossuth called himself "a tempest-tossed soul. But if they are properly met." We do our best while fighting desperately to attain what the heart covets. "gibbets are the making of us. David Livingstone." says Dr. "Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulties." As soon as young eagles can fly the old birds tumble them out and tear the down and feathers from their nest. Paul in his Roman cell. "If the re were no difficulties there would be no success. A rich Spaniard was asked to help him." said Mendelssohn to his critics when entering the B irmingham orchestra. alone--what failures the y might all have seemed to themselves to be. There is no more helpful and profiting exercise than surmounting obstacles. and had to write on scraps of leather. yet what mighty purposes was God wo rking out by their apparent humiliations! Two highwaymen chancing once to pass a gibbet. we are not aware of the God within us until some chasm yawns which must be filled. it i s the difficulties that scare and keep out unworthy competitors. "Don't tell me what you like." "Stick your claws into me." re plied the other. . teaching two little boys in Aldgate Street. matures the judgment. "Seldom does one re ach a position with which he has reason to be satisfied without encountering dif ficulties and what might seem discouragements. it is his poverty that makes t he world rich. Tyndale dying in his prison at Amsterdam." Just so with every art." It was in the Madrid jail that Cervantes wrote "Don Quixote. but what you don't like. dying in a negro hut in Central Africa. Waters says that the struggle to obtain knowledge and to advance one's self in the world strengthens the mind.--the advancement of individuals as of nations. or pursuit. St. The rude and rough experience of the eaglet fits him to become the bold king of birds.

the statue of man . the calm endurance. The frost. the chi seling. the tempests. Don't lament and grieve over lost wealth. The statue would have slept in the marble forever but for the blasting. They hold the purse-strings of many nations. You must throw away the crutches of riches and stand upon your own feet." while thos e who do not have these disadvantages frequently fail to "come out. crash ing through a beautiful garden. God may see a rough diamond in you which only the hard hits of poverty can polish. But from the ugly chasm there burst forth a spri ng of water which ever afterward flowed a living fountain. The most beautiful as well as the strongest woods are found not in tropi cal climates. frosty but kindly. wrestling with the storm. ye t they have given the world its noblest songs. Who has not observed the patience. To them hardship ha s been "like spring mornings." said the aged Sidenham Poyntz. chiseled into grace and beauty. They thrive where other s would starve. hardships. With them persecution seems to bring prosperity. and the polishing. fighting for its life from the moment that it leaves the acorn until it goes into the shi p. the sweet loveliness chi seled out of some rough life by the reversal of fortune or by some terrible affl iction? How many business men have made their greatest strides toward manhood. From the ugly gashes which misfortunes and sorrows make in our hearts. its sweetest music. that gives it value. where they have to fight the frosts and th e winter's cold. Almost from the dawn of history. and its grain would have never been susceptible of high polish. and what drill and what discipline are necessary to bring them out. are the chisel and mallet whic h shape the strong life into beauty. telling its grand story of valor in the public square for centuries. Obstacles. its wisest proverbs. But look again: behold the magnificent statue. It is its half-century 's struggle with the elements for existence. perennial fountains of rich ex perience and new joys often spring. The Creator may see something grand a nd mighty which even He can not bring out as long as your wealth stands in the w ay. but in severe climates. Adversity strippe d him only to discover him. kicked out. the snows. God knows where the richest melodies of our lives are. and deve loped their greatest virtues when reverses of fortune have swept away everything they had in the world. and the sand-papering of a thousand annoya nces. the monument. Without this struggle it would have been characterless. usually "turn out. of the blasting which disturbs its peace of centuries: it is not pl easant to be rent with powder. the chiseling of obstacles. oppression has been the lot of the Hebrews." In one of the battles of the Crimea a cannon-ball struck inside the fort. to be hammered and squared by the quarryman. nerveless. Many a man has never found himself until he has lost his all. but will let the plant live. Fierce winters are as necessary to it as long summers. when disease had robbed them of all they held dear in li fe! Often we can not see the angel in the quarry of our lives. crowded out. the cold of which will kill the vermin. and develop the long unused muscles of manhood. The rough ledge on the hillside complains o f the drill. The angel of our higher and nobler selves would remai n forever unknown in the rough quarries of our lives but for the blastings of af fliction." "It was not the victories but the defeats of my life which have strengthened me . the lightnings are the rough teachers that bring the tiny acorn to the sturdy oa k.Boys who are bound out. staminaless.

and co mpels us to consider it in all its relations. he had never seen. The lightning which smote his deares t hopes opened up a new rift in his dark life. "Helps" and "aids" are advertised everywhere. Adversity exasperates fools. Milton wrote his leading productions when blind. A man upon whom continuous sunshine falls is l ike the earth in August: he becomes parched and dry and hard and close-grained. dejects cowards. You can not keep them down . Many of our best poets "Are cradled into poetry by wrong. Southey. "Adversity is a severe instructor. Every obstacle seems only to add to their ability to get on. as he loves us better too. and excite the invention." In a few years he stood by the sid e of such men as Scott. Macaulay said. puts the modest to the necessity of trying their skill. The greatest men will ever be those who have risen from the ranks. The grave buried his dearest hopes. Our antagonist is our h elper. The storms of adversity. shabby. Not until the breath of the plague had blasted a hundred thousand lives. and sick. ski ll." Men who have the right kind of material in them will assert their personality a nd rise in spite of a thousand adverse circumstances. wicked London. rouse the faculties. until the blasts of misfortune have rent the ledge.hood." Bunyan sa id that. Men have drawn from adversity the elements of greatness. "best can do. endurance." published when he was but nineteen years of age. "Who best can suffer. prudence. and makes the idle industrious. He was not free from pain for fifteen years. He that wrestle s with us strengthens our nerves and sharpens our skill. and Campbell. "There is scarce an instance in history of so sudden a ri se to so dizzy an eminence as Byron reached. "set over us by one who knows us better than we do ourselves. a grand and mighty city. did she arise. True salamanders live best in the furnace of persecution. but draws out the faculties of th e wise and industrious. until then." as he was once called. like those of the ocean. but un covered in his nature possibilities of patience. This conflict with difficulty makes us acquainted with our object." said he. and virtue shall issue from a farmhouse rather than from a palace. if it were lawful. This is the crutch age. Beethoven was almost totally deaf and burdened with sorrow when he produced his greatest works. It will not suffer us to be superf icial. Schiller wrote his best books in great bodily suffering." says Edmund Burke. and fortitude of the voyager. that ag e so fatal to genius. talent. has been spurred into eloquence by ridicule and abus e. and died at thirty-seven. phoenixlike. poor. "Hours of Idleness. and difficulties and o bstacles have squared and chiseled the granite blocks into grace and beauty. and th e great fire had licked up cheap. We have i . Many a man has been ruined into salvation. and gave him glimpses of himself which." Byron was stung into a determination to go to the top by a scathing criticism o f his first book. from her ashes and ruin. It is said t hat there are ten thousand chances to one that genius. Many an orator like "stuttering Jack Curran. for the grea ter comfort's sake. and hope which he ne ver before dreamed he possessed." or "Orator M um. he could even pray for greater trouble. awes the opulent. And learn in suffering what they teach in so ng.

it is poverty. fame. It is rugged necessity. A man must master his undertaking and not let it master him. As the sculptor thinks only of the angel imprisoned in the marble block. The most beautiful as well as the strongest characters are not developed in war m climates. has rushed to man's relief with her wondrous forces. Chambers of the gr eat are jails. and preachers our religion. humiliate our ambition. it is the strug gle to obtain. where man finds his bread ready made on trees. as if conscious of delayed bles sings. and thou art free. Nature will chip and pound us remorselessly to bring out our possibil ities. and Ne w England with its granite and ice rich. the other for denial. integrity. will discipline us in a thousand ways. S he emancipates the muscles only to employ the brain and heart. It is no t chance that returns to the Hindoo ryot a penny and to the American laborer a d ollar for his daily toil. but rather in a trying climate and on a stubborn soil. and where exertion is a great effort." Then welcome each rebuff. or ingenuity. Each sting. le t us down from the ladder of fame. the ready "yes" a weak one. But do not misinterpret her edict. Intelligent labor found the world a wilderness and has made it a garden.--T. when we hav e purchased one thing. "Short roads" and "abridged methods" are characteristic of the century. that develops the stamina of m anhood. Nature has little regard for the mere lump of breathing clay. He must have the p ower to decide instantly on which side he is going to make his mistakes. and undertakes to do the world's drudgery and emancipate him from Eden's curse. that makes Mexico with its mineral wealth poor. colleges.--P. the priceless spur. whether riches. Newspapers give us our politics. Nature. so Nat ure cares only for the man or woman shut up in the human being. Daily his own heart he eats. T. repine that we do not possess another we did not buy. gild it as we may. And head-winds right for royal sails. newspapers.--LONGFELLOW. and not like children. The world is a market where everything is marked at a set price. The sculptor will chip off all unnecessary material to set free the angel. we must stand by our decision. She emancipates from the lower only to call to the higher. labor. A stout "no" means a stout character . magaz ines. that bids not sit nor stand but go." One stands for the surrender of the will. "The hero is not fed on sweets. MUNGER. That turns earth's smoothness rough. Self-help and self-reliance are getting old-fashioned. She will strip us of wealth. and calls the race out of barbarism. if she can develop a little character. Our thinking is done for us. "yes" and " no. humble our pride. universities. D.--MA THEWS. ARMOUR. and whatever w e buy with our time. BROWNING. Ingenious methods are used everywhere to get the drudgery out of the college cou rse.nstitutes. She does not bid the world go and play while she does the work. one stands for gratification. the other for character. libraries. or knowledge. . teachers. The heaviest charged words in our language are those briefest ones. ease. Everything must give way to that. The sculptor car es nothing for the block as such. Our problems are all worked out in "explanati ons" and "keys." Our boys are too often tutored through college with very little study. books. CHAPTER XXVIII DECISION Resolve.

he is not a man. I saw." he said. backi . In fact. When Julius Caesar came to the Rubicon." and his intrepid mind did not waver long. The decided man. and to sacrifice ever y opposing motive. This acti on was the key to the character and triumphs of this great warrior. An undecided man. the prompt man. Men who have left their mark upon their century have been men of great and prom pt decision. He.--" the sacred and inviolable. a legend tells us. changes the face of everything. as he das hed into the stream at the head of his legions. but would win it with the sword.When Rome was besieged by the Gauls in the time of the Republic. Satan's sublime decision in "Paradise Lost. events must submit to him. The man who said. positive man. If he decide s upon a course he only follows it until somebody opposes it. the Romans wer e so hard pressed that they consented to purchase immunity with gold. and war was prevented. bewildered crowd. "The die is cast. But his alternative was "destroy myself. the man who is forever twisting and turning. although it may be wrong. The brave Roman swept a circle around the king with his sword. the inhabitants resolved never to surrender. and. decided."--even his great decision wavered at the thought of i nvading a territory which no general was allowed to enter without the permission of the Senate. who will do so mething. threw his sword into the scales in place of the ransom. or destroy my country." could not hesitate long. a man who is ever balancing between two opinions. In order to cut off all hope of retreat. When Antiochus Epiphanes invaded Egypt. Caesar's quic k mind saw that he must commit his soldiers to victory or death." after his hopeless banishment from heaven. had the power to choose one co urse. All the great ac hievements in the history of the world are the results of quick and steadfast de cision. does not wa it for favorable circumstances. when Camillus appeared on the scen e. the Romans sent an ambassador who met Antiochus near Alexandria and comman ded him to withdraw. he does not submit to events. which formed the boundary of Italia. When he landed with h is troops in Britain. to silence them forever and not al low them continually to plead their claims and distract us from our single decid ed course. Such a man co mes upon the scene like a refreshing breeze blown down from the mountain top. I conque red. forever debating which of two courses he will pursue. The vacillating man is ever at the mercy of the opinion of the man who talked w ith him last. The invader gave an evasive reply. like Napoleon. The whole history of the world w as changed by that moment's decision. when once sacrificed. To hesitate is s ometimes to be lost. that he was meant to be possessed by others. and sacrifice every conflicting plan on the instant. They were in the act of weighing it. The prompt decision of the Rom ans won them many a battle. There was no hope of return. After a few moments of terrible s uspense he resumes his invincible spirit and expresses that sublime line: "What matter where. He may see the right. is one of the most potent forces in winning success. it was victory or death. he burned all the ships which had borne them to the sh ores of Britain. and forbade his crossing the line until h e had given his answer. only a satellite. and made them masters of the world. the arrival of a prompt. "I came. proclaims by his indecisi on that he can not control himself. which was then under the protection of Rome. This act of daring and prompt decision so roused the Romans that they triumphantly swept fro m the sacred soil the enemy of their peace. excites a feeling akin to admiration. By the prompt decision of the intrepid ambassador the in vader was led to withdraw. He is a tonic to the hesitating. if I be still the same?" That power to decide instantly the best course to pursue. but he drifts toward the wrong. and declared that the Romans should not purchase peace. In an emergency.

Those who lin gered were swept off by the returning wave. will never accomplish anything. "A man without decision. The punctual man. in whic h the fate of the engagement was decided." ." When the packet ship Stephen Whitney struck. the puny force of some cause. He seemed to be everywhere at once. Great opportunities not only come seldom into the most fortunate life ." The decided man not only has the advantage of the time saved from dillydallying and procrastination. details. weighing and b alancing. hesitating and dawdling. may make a seizure of the unhappy boaster the very n ext minute. You can measure him. when asked how it was that he had conquered the world. What he could accomplish in a day surprised all who knew him. since if he dared to assert that he did. and so does not move at all of his own volition. His invincible energy thrilled the whole army. and weighs them until the two sides hang in equipoise. and one thing after another vindicates i ts right to him by arresting him while he is trying to go on. "By not wavering. He seemed to electrify everybody about him. You can estimate the work that his energy will accomplish. Napoleon used to say that although a battle might last an entire day. "are at present out of season. at midnight. half-hearted men! "The doubt of Charles V. listening to every new motive whi ch presents itself. splitting hairs over non-essentials. It is related of A lexander the Great that. yet it generally turned upon a few critical minutes." says Motley. The positive step landed them in safety. is a power in the world. The negative man creates no confidence. the decided man. and engulfed forever.. dispatches an d. he only invites distrust. His will. but he also saves the energy and vital force which is wast ed by the perplexed man who takes up every argument on one side and then on the other. gauge hi m. the decided man. can do twice as much as the undecided and dawdling man who never quite knows what he w ants." says John Foster. He belon gs to whatever can make capture of him. Decision of purpose and promptness of action enabled him to astonish the world with his marvelous successes. abo ut as powerful as a spider. "changed the destinies of the civilized world. What a lesson to dawdling. and contemptuously exhibit the futility of the determination by whic h he was to have proved the independence of his understanding and will. "can never be said to belong to him self. shuffling and parleying. after riding thirty or forty leagues. all the passengers who leaped instantly upon the rock were saved." He would sit up all night if necessary. an d clung for a few moments to the cliff. He is in stable equilibrium. negativeness never accomplishes anything. but also are often quickly gone. There is not positiveness en ough in him. he replied. on an Irish cliff.ng and filling. The "ifs and buts. shiftless. and above all it must be done with speed. He could rouse to imm ediate and enthusiastic action the dullest troops. as twigs and chips floating near the edge of a river are intercepted by every weed and whirled int o every little eddy. and inspire with courage the most stupid men. was as prompt and decisive in the minutest detail of command as in the greatest battle. with no preponderi ng motive to enable him to decide. but moves very easily at the slightest volition of another. which subdued nearly the who le of Europe. and without promptness no success is possible." he said. Prompt decision saved Napoleon and Grant and their armies many a time when delay would have been fatal. But the positive man. and stands for something. to attend to correspondence. The vacillating man is never a prompt man. Yet there is not a man living who might not be a prompt and decided man if he w ould only learn always to act quickly.

and lo. There is a legend of a powerful genius who promised a lovely maiden a gift of r are value if she would go through a field of corn. So he vacillates through life. thus getting on the flats. at times almost overwhelming. full of enthusiasm." Most of the young men and women who are lost in our cities are ruined because o f their inability to say "No" to the thousand allurements and temptations which appeal to their weak passions." There is no vocation or occupation which does not present many difficulties. to succeed. that when Congress adjourned. While other men are bemoaning difficulties and shrinking from dangers and obstacles. and. The undecided man can not bring himself to a focus. do ing this thing and that thing. who supports his judgment against thei r own and that of their representatives. She passed by many magnificent ones. impelled by his hatred to the Romans. they are afraid of offending. and the young man who allows himself to waver every time he comes to a hard place in life will not succeed. Hannib al. which are always most agreeable. one emphatic "No" might silence their solicitors forever. even crosses the Alps to compass his d esign. "we had formed the habit of prompt acting. adopts it as his life's work. The one which his friend adopted is much better suited to him. and. He dissipates his energy.So powerful were President Washington's views in determining the actions of the people. s catters his forces. If they would only show a little decision at firs t. They spend their lives at the beginning of occupations . they don't like to say "No. tak es the step. like a withered leaf. and. thus fix your floating life and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. but governed by his imp ressions and his feelings at the moment. he feels sure it is the thing he wants to do. "The secret of the whole matter was. they are here to-day and there to-morrow. These people rarely reach the stage of compet ency. or wandering hither and thither. she came out on the other side without any. never using his judgment or common sense. Republicanism resigns the vessel to the pilot. by every wind that blows. One vocation or occupation presents its rosy side to him. the mountain has been leveled and the way lies open. throwing away all the skill they had acquired in mastering the drudgery of the last occupation. An undecided man is like the turnstile at a fair. thus taking the top of the tide. he drops his own and adopts the other.--namely. The value of the gift was to be in proportion to the size and perfection of the ear . and contentment." and thus they throw d . without fuss or noise. without pausing. Finally they became so small that she was ashamed to select one of them. You never know where to find them. He can not hold to one thing long enou gh to bring success out of it. ca ptured by any new occupation which happens to appeal to him as the most desirabl e at the time. select the largest and ripest ear. But in a few days the thorns begin to appear. the skilful stage. while the habit of som e others was to delay till about half tide. a man must concentrate. to will strongly and decisively. Such people are never led by principle. But they are weak. In fact. that one man outweighs them all in influence. Learn. conquers the world. they never go far enough in anything to get beyond the drudgery stage to the remunerative and agreeable stage. going b ackward. and executes nothing." replied Amos Lawrence. his heart throbbing with a great purpose. and. Jefferson wrote to Monroe at Paris: "You will see by their proceedings the truth of what I always told you. which is in every body's way but stops no one. his enthusiasm evaporates. comfort. Without decision there c an be no concentration. the great soul. Alexander. and preparing expedients. and he wonders why he is so foolish as to think himself f itted for that vocation. not being allowed to go backwa rd. then. but was so eager to get the largest and m ost perfect that she kept on without plucking any until the ears she passed were successively smaller and smaller and more stunted.

" He has no power to seize the facts w hich confront him and compel them to serve him. On many of the tombstones of those who have failed in life could be read between the lines: "He Dawdled. consent thou not. Burton c ould not overcome this habit." above which the words of warning are flying! Webster said of such an undecided man that "he is like the irresolution of the sea at the turn of tide." Such a man is at the mercy of any chance occurrence that may overtake him." Oh. which creep s in at every crevice of unoccupied time and often ruins a bright life." There is no habit that so grows on the soul as irresolution. Before a man knows what he has done. Then the wise man pleaded that the fool was to blame because h e desired to take the wrong way. " "Procrastination. "Your mo tto must be. he simply hovers . Men who have been noted for great firmn ess of character have usually been strong and robust. They do not realize that the habit of putting everything off puts off their manhood. Nothing will give greater confidence. The judge punished them both equa lly. and so declared. listless people life becomes a mere shuffle of expedien ts. knowing that he would lose his shilling if he did n ot get him up." "j ust this side of happiness. The fool desired to take the pleasant way. and all because he has never ma de up his mind what he would do with it. turn ing over and dreading to get up! Many a career has been crippled by it. but Burton would beg him to be left a little longer. their success. and bring assistance more quickly from th e bank or from a friend. and wer e soon met by robbers. An old legend says that a fool and a wise man were journeying together." "Always B ehind. t he servant called. Indus try advises me to get up. and n o sensible man should have heeded his counsel. or lassitude. he has gambled his life away. mad e his servant promise before he went to bed to get him up at just such a time."--do instantly. it is the strong physical man who carries weight and conviction. who seized their goods and made them captives." "Listlessness. their contagion infects their whole neig hborhood. which is usually impaired or weakened from physica l suffering or any great physical debility." said he." "Behind Time. the ot her narrow and rough. Any bodily weakness. they took the more inviting path. "in hearing counsel every morning. as an impartial judge.own the gauntlet and are soon on the broad road to ruin. and called. The fool pleaded that he was only a fool." he said. It is my part. "I am employed. convinced that it would ruin his success. A little resolution ear ly in life will soon conquer the right to mind one's own business. is. Sloth to lie still. then dashed cold water into the bed between the sheets. "Hoc age. than the reputation of promptness. As a rule." "Nervelessness. and cam e to a point where two ways opened before them. as a rule. There is no quality of the mind which does not sympathize with bodily weakness. and especially is this tru e with the power of decision." There is no doubt that. the wrecks strewn along the shores of life "just behind success. To indolent. This man neither advances nor recedes. their capacity." "Shiftlessness. The servant. and coaxed. to hear all that can be sai d on both sides. This is the only way to check t he propensity to dawdling. and by the time the cause is over dinner is ready. How many hours have been wasted dawdling in bed. When one asked a lazy young fellow what made him lie in bed so long. shiftless. great decision of character is usually accom panied by great constitutional firmness.--one broad and beautiful. Hi s "days are lost lamenting o'er lost days. The world knows that . and Burto n came out with a bound. and they give me twenty reasons fo r and against. or la ck of tone and vigor. "If sinners entice thee. and. the wise man kn ew that the difficult one was the shortest and safest. perhaps. But at l ast the urgency of the fool prevailed. Scott used to caution youth against the habit of dawdling. A little l ater both they and their captors were arrested by officers of the law and taken before the judge. first felt in the weakened or debilitated pow er of decisions.

which often does not present itself but once! It was said that Napoleon had an officer under him who understood the tactics o f war better than his commander. you are not to be allured or intimidated. and will trust him. t hat there is some iron in you. It was his decision whic h voiced itself in those memorable words in the Wilderness. I replied. "When I first went to Brooklyn. no opening it up for reconsideration. when it was within easy grasp." CHAPTER XXIX OBSERVATION AS A SUCCESS FACTOR Henry Ward Beecher was not so foolish as to think that he could get on without systematic study.--no wavering. Prompt decision and sublime a udacity have carried many a successful man over perilous crises where deliberati on would have been ruin. He must nail his colors to the mast as Nelson did in battle.'" He was a hard student during four hours every morning. once resolved. knew the country as well. How many a man can trace his downfall in life to the failure to seiz e his opportunity at the favorable moment. were better educated. There was no going behind it. Yet someh ow they seem fated with a morbid introspection which ever holds them in suspense . but nothing left for the moment um of action." Some minds are so constructed that they are bewildered and dazed whenever a res ponsibility is thrust upon them. but they lacked that power of decision which made unconditional surrender absolutely imperative wherever he met the foe. When he draws his sword he must throw the sc abbard away. and they can not seem to get light enough to decide nor courage enough to attempt to remove the obstacle. consider. the ni ck of time. " Let it be your first study to teach the world that you are not wood and straw. "men doubted whether I could sustain myself." and which sent back the words "un conditional surrender" to General Buckner. 'Give me uninterrupted time till nine o'clock every morning. At last Lincoln had a general who had the power of decision. lest in a moment of discouragement and irresolution he be tempted t o sheathe it. they have a mortal dread of deciding anything." "Let men know that what you say you will do. and fears. weigh. once made. fatal to success. it is true that much that was most vital in his preach ing he did pick up on the street. those who saw him after that imagined that he picked up the material for his sermons on the street. that gave the first confidence to the North that the rebellion was doom ed. They know that h esitation is fatal to enterprise. that." he said. deter mined to sink with his ship if he can not conquer. and I do not care what comes after. a nd make retreat forever impossible. and a thorough-going knowledge of the world of books. There were several generals under Grant who were as well skilled in war tactics. he must burn his ships behind him. "I propose to fight it out on these lines if it takes all summer. Yet having said so much. fatal to progress. The very effort to come to immediate and unflinching decision starts up all sort s of doubts. but he lacked that power of rapid decision and powerful concentration which characterized the greatest military leaders perhaps of the world. They have just energy enough to weigh motives. deliberate. tha t your decision. who asked him for conditions of capit ulation. Grant's decision was like inexorable fate. and the North b reathed easy for the first time. "Hoc age. . but never act. The man who would forge to the front in this competitive age must be a man of p rompt and determined decision. They analyze and analyze. like Caesar.the prompt man's bills and notes will be paid on the day. difficulties. ponder. is final.

There was something in his sermons that appe aled to the best in everyone who heard him. or education. the lawyer. which he loved so well. he was never again satisfied without illustrations fresh from the lives of the people he met every day. the day laborer. They were full of pictures of beauti ful landscapes. orphans. the mechanic. He saw that the strength of this great Master' s sermons was in their utter simplicity. He picked them u p in the marketplace. Happiness and sunshine. seascapes. they had the vigor of bright red blood in them. They pulsated with lif e. gathering grandeur and sublimity from the great White Mountains. ambitious world was everywhere throbbing for him. passed in quick succession and stamped themselves on the brains of his eage r hearers.--keeping his eyes open and asking q uestions. the fields. the clerk. I watched him.--whatever touched the lives of men. a little more determined to do their share in the world. many a time. on Wall Street. [Illustration: Henry Ward Beecher] When he once got a taste of the power and helpfulness which comes from the stud y of real life. and the storm were reflected in them. to do t heir work a little better. to be a little more conscientious. healthy. a little more help ful. the physician. the newsboy. and entrancing sunsets. the despondent."Where does Mr. all sor ts of experiences and bits of life. Beecher get his sermons?" every ambitious young clergyman in th e country was asking. like Christ's. the record of creation imprinted in the rocks and the mountains were interming led with the ferryboats. of the discouraged. completely absorbed in drinking in the beaut ies of the marvelous landscape. Beecher believed a sermon a failure when it does not make a great mass of heare rs go away with a new determination to make a little more of themselves. again the problem of government. He did not watch the progress of the great human battle from his study. the cheerful. and strong. and where he spent many summers. the brooks . The clouds. the rain. and great crowds cam e from every direction to hear him. . The flowers. the Christ was his great model. in hospitals and in funeral processions. Although Beecher was an omnivorous reader he did not care much for the writings of the theologians. He always preached on Sunday at the hotel where he stayed." This is the secret of many a man's success. Beecher's sermons were very simple. and the business man. the blacksmith. but picked them up as He walked along the banks of the Jordan and over the hills and through the meadows and villages of Galilee. birds and trees alte rnated with the direst poverty in the slums. their naturalness. Now it was the problem of slavery. Where the battle of life raged fiercest. The great. He went into the thick of the fight himself. busy. calamities. He was in the swim of things. This great observer was not only a student of human nature. and upon one occasion he answered: "I keep my eyes open an d ask questions. He got them everywhere from life and nature. the sun shine. and he knew that H e did not search the writings of the Sanhedrin for His sermons. because. when he saw how much more forceful and interesting actual life s tories were as they were being lived than anything he could get out of any book except the Bible. the train conduc tor. people on sick beds and death beds. as many did. He kept his hand upon the pulse of events. the optimist and the pessim ist. the steam-cars. but of all nature a s well. accidents. He got them from the brakem an. they grew out of doors. there he was studying its great problem s. or commer ce. in the stores. He was in the smoke and din. life pictures of successes and failure s.

his ears. to b e able to discriminate between the genuine and the false. The power which inheres in a trained faculty of observation is priceless.--nothing s eemed to escape him. He did not ask questions. Beecher continued his study of life through observation. to be able to pierce t heir masks and read the real man or woman behind them. To place the right values upon men. but his mind pen etrated to the heart of things. the appearance of the eye. To him man was the greatest study in the world . He watched the patient closely. but he brought home rich treasures from over the sea. a nd his mind open. the latter could scarcely recall anything of interest. which reveals marve ls of beauty in common things. who could see wonders in the scale of a fish or a grain of sand." said the physicians at a consultation where a precio us life hung by a thread. he did not stand nearly as high in col lege as some of his classmates whom he far outstripped in life. and extr acted the meaning of everything that came within its range." There is no position in life where a trained eye can not be made a gre at success asset. "Let's leave it to Osler. that they were willing to leave the whole decision to him. While visiting Luther Burbank. and brought home almost nothing of value. He rec ommended a certain operation. he regarded as one of a c lergyman's greatest accomplishments. one of whom was all eyes. while the former ha d a genius for absorbing knowledge of every kind through the eye. Th e majority of those present disagreed with him. "is an element of all great success. Beecher had an eye like the glass of a microscope. in the lowliest ob ject." I once traveled abroad with two young men. He was not a great scholar.--everything was a telltale of the patient's condition. meant a great deal more to him and to the world than his colle ge education. He could see beauty and harmony where others saw only ugliness and discord. everyday oc currences. Lincoln was another remarkable example of the possibilities of an education thr ough reflection upon what he observed. meant a great deal to him. to emphasize the right thing in them. the philosophy underlying the common. The e ducation which Beecher got through observation. He could feel the Divine presence in all created things. the Divine plan. w hich he read as an open book. Like Professor Agassiz. He was a poor student. The o ther young man was comparatively rich. His experienced eye drew a conclusion from the slightest evidence. He has . with additional eyes in finger tips s o familiar with the anatomy that they could detect a growth or displacement so s mall that it would escape ordinary notice. Everything he saw must give up i ts secret before he would let it go.Wherever he went. in his famous garden. His mind stopped and questioned. recently. He had a passion for knowledge. and the patient recovered. Wherever he went. Like Ru skin. but thousands can think for one who can see. the wizard horticulturist.--and the other never saw anything. Ruskin says: "Hundreds of people can talk for one who can think." says Herbert Spencer. Professo r Osler was called a living X-ray machine. th ere was a great interrogation point before him. because he read the hidden meaning in things. his manner of breathing. I was much impressed by his marvelous power of seeing things. which was performed. "An exhaustive observation. Then the great Johns Hopkins professor examined the pa tient. He saw symptoms which others could not see. Things so triv ial that his companion did not notice them at all. but such was their confidence in his power to diagnose a case through symptoms and indications which escape most physicians. he yearned to know the meaning of things. he could see the marvelous philosophy. The day after leaving a city. by keeping his eyes. Noth ing else was half so interesting.

he would never have advanced. apathy. mentally. Many people thought he wou ld remain a stenographer. the image is not clean-cut. ready. keen attention. It is a splendid drill for children to send them out on the street. every triu mph of modern labor-saving machinery. The whole secret of a richly stored mind is alertness. his mind ope n. the telephone. The telegraph. And he could not understand the lethargy. Just the effort to try to see how much they can remember and bring back is a splendid drill. George W. is due to the trained power of seeing things. Few people realize what a tremendous success and happi ness is possible through the medium of the eye. The efficient man is always growing. He knows its geograp hy. they just look at them. not the optic nerve. sharp. Cortelyou was a stenographer not long ago. The majority of people do not see things. indifferent observation does not go back of the eye. He sees with them. or out of d oors anywhere. just for the purpose of finding out how many things they can see in a certain given time. Chi ldren often become passionately fond of this exercise. of absorbing knowledge. He does not merely look with his eyes. the telescope. calculating. Promotion was always staring him in the face. and how closely they can observe them. The power of keen observation is indicative of a superior mentality. He must be quick. forming opinions. He said that when he landed in New York it seemed to him that he saw more o pportunities in walking every block of our streets than he had ever seen in the whole of Turkey. and it becomes of inestim . in fact. It does not take long to develop a habit of attention that seizes the salient p oints of things. If the mind is n ot focused. He has studied the map of our country. The youth who would get on must keep his eyes open. But for this power of seeing things quickly. the indifference of our young men to our marvelous possibilities. b alancing. and a great deal of our history. and is capable of becoming a mighty power. the sewing machine. estimating. and much about our resources and opportunit ies. weighing. who has been in this country only a year. The mind is all the time working over the material which the eye brings it. He is always accumulating knowledge of eve ry kind. every great invention of the past or present. Close observation is a powerful mental process. He was a shrewd observer. become marvels of beauty. Careless. considering. the lack of ambition. I know a young Turk. the miracles o f electricity. alert. mental lassitude and laziness are fatal to all effective observation.observed the habits of fruits and flowers to such purpose that he has performed miracles in the fields of floriculture and horticulture. The observing faculty is particularly susceptible to culture. and is not carried with force and distin ctness enough to the brain to enable it to get at the truth and draw accurate co nclusions. for it is the mind. but he always kept his eyes open. Stunted and ugly flower s and fruits. under the eye of this miracle worker. to see things carefully. He keeps his ears open. He was always looking for the next step above him. He keeps his mind open to all that is new and fresh and helpful. He was after an oppo rtunity. that really sees. every discovery in science and art. Indifference. yet he speaks ou r language fluently. Most people are too lazy. his ears open. a nd thoughtfulness.

uncultured. before you go into his store. In all my acquaintance I ha ve never known a man to be drowned who was worth the saving. it is the keen observer who gets ahead. analyze the situation.able value in their lives. He succeeded because all the world in concert could not have kept him in the background. What I am I have made myself. as I can testify. CHAPTER XXX SELF-HELP I learned that no man in God's wide earth is either willing or able to help any other man. "but nine times out of ten the best thing that can happen to a young man is to be tossed overboard and compelled to sink or swim for himself. and because when once in the front he played his part wi th an intrepidity and a commanding ease that were but the outward evidences of t he immense reserves of energy on which it was in his power to draw. multiplied the receipts tenfold in a few years. If he is making a remarkable success. Be sure. perhaps. would make a good sale sman. your ears open. Keep your eyes open. Shall die and leave his errand unfulfill ed. He stepped to the front with the confidence of one who b elonged there. You will see by h is show windows. You will see that this man has not studied men. No matter where you go. in a little while. Let nothing escape you. He preferred being right to being president. that there is no busines s insight. by gruff. Hereditary bondsmen. know ye not Who would be free themselves must strike the b low? BYRON.--PATRIC K HENRY." said James A. He does not know them. study the situation. Think why the man does not do bett er if he is not doing well." Garfield was the youngest member of the House of Representatives when he entere d. Trace difficulties. if honest. Who waits to have his task marked out. "Poverty is uncomfortable. Other things equal. "Colonel Crockett makes room for himself!" exclaimed a backwoods congressman in answer to the exclamation of the White House usher to "Make room for Colonel Cr ockett!" This remarkable man was not afraid to oppose the head of a great nation . If you keep your eyes o pen. Study his emp loyees. find out why this man is not a greater success. You can see that a little more knowledge of human nature would have revolutioni zed his whole business. he is driving out of the door cus tomers the proprietor is trying to bring in by advertisements. Crockett was a man of great courage and determination. Ask yourself why it i s that the proprietor at fifty or sixty years of age is conducting a business wh ich a boy of eighteen or twenty ought to be able to handle better. but. Go into a place of business with the eye of an eagle. try to find out why.--HUMPHRY DAVY. you can. look up e vidences of success or failure everywhere. . and remember that the best men always make themselves. LOWELL. It will be one of the greatest factor s in your own success. Make deductions from what you see and hear. no detection of the wants of possible buyers. why he remains in mediocrity all his life. He thought a boy. and unc outh. Though rough.--PESTALOZZI. but he had not been in his seat sixty days before his ability was recognized and his place conceded. my son. You will find perhaps that he never knew the valu e of good manners in clerks. Garfield. perhaps. uncouth manners.

weakness. You cannot transfer the skill. stamina. the pride of acquisition. and strength which enabled you to maintain your lofty position. You had the power which comes only from experience. which the acqu isition has given you. "Will you give me ten years to learn to pa int. gave his spinning model to the world. the experience. discipline." It is not the men who have inherited most. "A pair of shirtsleeves. fell deeply in love with the daughter of the painter Coll' Antonio del Fiore. to him it may mean inaction. and honest ambition has no heig ht that genius or talent may tread. the spur which h as goaded man to nearly all the great achievements in the history of the world. "and all men a cquiesce. which will probably dwarf him. joy. it will be a dead weight to him. His great d etermination gained him his bride. In climbing to your fortune. When asked to name his family coat-of-arms. with no education. every possible goal is accessible. no chan ce. an anxiety." "A person under the firm persuasion that he can command resources virtually has them. patience. a wandering gypsy tinker. the hardships. promptness. which lie concealed in your wealth. Your fortune wa s experience to you. t o keep your millions intact. You thought to spare him the drudgery. but was told that no one but a painter as good as the father should wed the maiden. politen ess of manner have developed. the power. Richard Arkwright. where "Fame's proud temple shines afar. to him it will be a temptation. About the time that the ten years were to end the king's sister showed Coll' An tonio a Madonna and Child. It meant a great deal for you. and have made adverse circumstances a spur to goad them up the steep mount. but rather the men with no "start" who have wo n fortunes. which has not felt the impress of their feet ." says Livy. and so entitle myself to the hand of your daughter?" Consent was given. You have taken the priceless spur--necessity--away from him. You may leave your millions to your son."Take the place and attitude which belong to you. foresight. who have risen highest. Louis Philippe said he was the only sovereign in Europe fit to govern. you developed the mu scle." To such men. to you it was education and expansion of your high est powers. the joy fe lt only in growth. honesty of dealing. growth. You thought it a kindness to deprive yourself in order that your son might begi n where you left off. prudence. indolence. and which alone enables you to stand firm on your dizzy height. It was wings to you. Judge of his surprise on learning that Solario was the artist. except it be in nobility of soul and purpose. method. and character. lethargy. and put a scepter in England's right h and such as the queen never wielded. b ut means nothing to your heir. ignoranc e. the character which trained habits of accuracy. It leaves every man with profound unconcern to set his own rate. Col l' Antonio thinking that he would never be troubled further by the gypsy." says Emerson. sagacity. dispatch. which the painter extolled in terms of the highest pr aise. the thirteenth child. a self-made President of the United States replied. in a hovel. you can not transfer the delight of achieving. The world must be just. the . for he c ould black his own boots. Solario. but have you really given him anything ? You can not transfer the discipline.

"when there is no money left?" "They ear n it. for he trimmed the lamps. the wounds were s harper than those of a serpent's tooth. asked an English lady what became of daughters when no property was left th em. he found written at the end . will gradually die away.--but he knew that a fine church and great salary can not make a great man. Men who have been bolstered up all their lives are seldom good for anything in a crisis. He was poor and dejected. and rang the bell. and presenting them to the youth. "Only to tend this line till I come back. It the prop is not there. "If now I had these I would be happy. they look around for somebody to lean upon. the old fisherman said. "But what becomes of the Ameri can daughters. or unhorsed men in armor. If I had only had firmness enough to compel my boys to earn their living. There is no manhood mill which takes in boys and turns out men. who chanced to over hear his words. But grief shook the sands of life as he thought only of the son who had brought disgrace upon a name before unsullied. my home dishonored.deprivations. I was so unkind to Edward when I thought I was being kind. "if you will do me a trifling favor. "A man's best friends are his ten fingers. the lack of opportunities." was Miss Mitchell's reply. to self-elevation. What you call " no chance" may be your only chance. At length. If you do everything for your son and fight his battles for him. help yourself. It was work and opportunity that he wanted. his ambition. down they go. then they w ould have known the meaning of money." asked the English lady. his energy will be dissipated. kindled the fires. and he lost all his depression in the excitement of pulling them in." A young man stood listlessly watching some anglers on a bridge. Oh. Once down. His salary was only about $200 a yea r." The proposal was gladly accepted. not being stimulated by the struggle for selfelevation. in recognition of his great work for civil ization in mooring two continents side by side in thought. you will have a weakling on your hands at twenty-one. Counting out from them as many as we re in the basket. When the o wner returned he had caught a large number. When misfortune comes. During the great financial crisis of 1857 Maria Mitchell. "I f . His enthusiasm will evaporate. I wish to go on a short err and. without which no real success. in a little town near Cincinnati." He wrote under it. of the fame he had wo n and could never lose. you ha ve taken away from him the incentive to self-development. "Finis." said Robert Collyer. Many a frontier boy has succeeded beyond all his expectations simply because all props were early knocked out from under him and he was obliged to stand upon his own feet." "I w ill give you just as many and just as good. to self-discipline and self-help. make it yourself. Meanwhile the fish snapped greedily at the hook. the meager education. "They live on their brothers. "My life is a wreck." His table was covered with medals and cer tificates of honor from many nations. approaching a basket filled with fish. But you have put a crutch into his hand instead of a staff. Field. they are as helpless as capsized turtles. no real happiness. which you had on the old farm. "Man. lift yourself. he sighed." said the owner. Don't wait for your place to be made for you . with God's help. no great character is ever possible. swept the rooms." "And what is that?" asked the other. He felt that if there were anything in him work would bring it out. I could sell them and buy food and lodgings. When Beethoven was examining the work of Moscheles. H enry Ward Beecher did not wait for a call to a big church with a large salary. H e accepted the first pastorate offered him." was the reply." said the dying Cyrus W. The old man was gone so long that the yo ung man began to get impatient. He became literally the light of the church. Don't wait for somebody to give you a lift. who brought hi s wife to America in the steerage. who was visiting Engl and. "my fortune gone.

to teach you whenever you see ot hers earning what you need to waste no time in foolish wishing. no. Ask almost any great man in our larg e cities where he was born." His biography shows how often the chisel and hammer were in h is hands to shape himself into his ideal. Yo u take an oar. and wh eeled them to his stand. They therefo re petitioned the Powers that be to levy a tax upon the property of the entire c ounty for the purpose of laying out a macadamized highway. in the County of Hatework." "Every one is the artificer of his own fortune." The grandest fortunes ever accumulated or possessed on earth were and are the f ruit of endeavor that had no capital to begin with save energy. It cannot be coaxed or bribed. and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But su ccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. Every one who enters makes his own door." says Sallust." "No. to-day. in Congress." says a printer's squib. bought three bushels of oysters. at twenty-three. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to ri . in business. an d made it into an oyster stand on the street corner. in a state of intense fear. "let the little man pray.ulfil my promise from the fish you have caught. but what of that? He made an opening. and he will tell you it was on a farm or in a small country village. He borrowed a wheelbarrow." The door to the temple of success is never left open. the larges t and strongest man in the party. Bayard Taylor. and went three miles to an oyster smack. those men have won most who relied most upon themselves. broad and smooth. When it seemed that the crisis had really come. my man. The gods sell ever ything for that. "Let us pray . pay the price and it is yours. Isaac Rich. and t he will. and have filled the highest places as teachers and journalists. From Croesus down to Rockefeller the story is the same. not only in the getting of wealth. of our colleges." A white squall caught a party of tourists on a lake in Scotland. but cast a line for yourself. He found a board. "found themselves laboring under great inconvenience fo r want of an easily traveled road between Poverty and Independence. and all the way down hill to the latter place." shouted the bluff old boatman. at the bar. Boys of lowly origin have made many of the greatest disco veries. left Cape Cod for Boston to make his way with a capital of only four dollars. he could find no opening for a boy. and threatened to capsize the boat. You will never find success "marked down. How many yo ung men falter. wrote: "I will become the sculptor of my o wn mind's statue. Our p oor boys and girls have written many of our greatest books. Like Horace Greeley. and then he b ought a horse and cart. They have fought their way to triu mph over the road of difficulty and through all sorts of opposition. are presidents of our banks. but also in the acquirement of eminence. A lowly beg inning and a humble origin are no bar to a great career. and dally with their purpose because they have no capital to start with. nothing without it. intellect. Soon his little savings amounted to $130. which closes behind him to all others. "The male inhabitants in the Township of Loaferdom. said. of our universities. The farmer's boys fill many of the greatest places in legislatures. Man is not merely the architect of his own fate. in pulpits . Labor is the only legal tender in the world to true success. Nearly all of the great capitalists of the city came from the c ountry. faint. the founder of Boston University. Circumstances have rarely favored great men. but he must lay the bricks him self.

It is said that Bryant rewrote "Thanatopsis" a hundred times. the h eadaches. polished and repolishe d. and studying at night and holidays . carrying it in his poc ket that he might utilize every spare moment. of what is called genius is merely the result of persistent. to pick up an excellent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. but it was found that the "brilliants" and "off-hand sayings" with whic h he used to dazzle the House of Commons were elaborated.se in the world than Elihu Burritt." Rousseau says of the labor involved in his smooth and lively style: "My manuscripts." H ume toiled thirteen hours a day on his "History of England. in whose shop h e had to work at the forge all the daylight. and often by candle-light? Yet. one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived. apprenticed to a blacksmith. What chance had such a boy for distinction? Probably not a single youth will read this book who has not a better opportunit y for success. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and ge tting their eyes open. John Foster would sometimes linger a w eek over a single sentence. Chalmers was once asked what Foster was about in London." he replied. the discouraged hours. There is not on . The greatest geniuses have been the greatest workers. If the youth of America who are struggling against cruel circumstances to do so mething and be somebody in the world could only understand that ninety per cent. wha t an uplift of inspiration and encouragement they would give! How often I have w ished that the discouraged. o r practise any other severity on whatever he wrote. some one declared that he wrote "drop by drop. line by l ine. pull up by the roots. attest the trouble they cost me. but when he was a student too poor t o buy books. blotted. he had actually borrowed and copied many hundreds of pages of large law books. till it gained his consent t o exist. Sheridan was considered a genius. paragraph by paragraph. that it is the slavery to a single ide a which has given to many a mediocre talent the reputation of being a genius. in terlined. The drudgery which l iterary men have put into the productions which have stood the test of time is a lmost incredible. "Hard at it. in most cases of down-right hard work. at his death lef t large numbers of manuscripts filled with "sudden thoughts set down for use. determined industr y. young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. he managed. which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. the disheartening trials. If men who have done great things could only reveal to the struggling youth of to-day h ow much of their reputations was due to downright hard digging and plodding. Yet he had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improveme nt." Lord Eldon astonish ed the world with his great legal learning. Lucretius worked nearly a lifetime on one poem. The greatest works in literature have been elaborated and elaborated. It is interesting to note that the men who t alk most about genius are the men who like to work the least. He would hack. and even then was not satisfied with it. by studying with a book before him at his meals. prune. At thirty years of age he was master of every important language in Europe and was studying those of Asia. but th e days and months of weary plodding over details and dreary drudgery often requi red to produce it would stagger belief. and put down in his memorandum book ready for any emergency. split. "at the rate of a line a week. scratched. th ey would be inspired with new hope. Speaking of Fox. Genius has been well defined as the infinite capacity for taking pains. and scarcely legible. Matthew Hale for years studied law sixteen hours a day. struggling youth could know of the heartaches. the nerve-aches. often rewritten a dozen times. The lazier the man ." Even Lord Bacon. but which have taxed the utmost powers of their authors. the fears and despair involved in works which have gained the admiration of the worl d. It completely absorbed his life. the more he will have to say about great things being done by genius. You can read in a fe w minutes or a few hours a poem or a book with only pleasure and delight.

but he had a hard life of p ersecution until he became a barber in Vienna. Lord Tenterden was proud to point out to his son the shop where he had shaved for a penny. He died while Napoleon's guns we re bombarding Vienna. there was no more barbering. his reputation w as made. . He was so displeased with the latter that he attempted to rise from his deathbed to commit it to the flames. a blind man. after others had gone. and Butler his famous "Analogy" twent y times. He was courted by princes and dined with kings and queens. If it is your call to acquire money power instead of brain power. . son of a blacksmith. . There is scarcely a bar in his music that was not writ ten and rewritten at least a dozen times. Franklin was b ut a poor printer's boy. to whi . Here he blacked boots for an infl uential man. "The barriers are not yet erected which can say to aspiring talent and industry 'thus far and no further. Francis Parkman. some of the shot falling in his garden. who was too poor to afford even a c andle or a fire.e of them which I have not been obliged to transcribe four or five times before it went to press. Haydn was very poor. He was sent away from home to act as errand boy for a mus ic teacher. no matter what it may be. double your talent just the same. one of the greatest writers that ever lived. and a great philanthropist. and was in his study ev ery morning. Some of my periods I have turned or returned in my head for five or six nights before they were fit to be put to paper. who apprenticed him at the age of thirteen to a bookbinder in London. summer and winter. a musician. friendless and lonely. Personal value is a coin of one' s own minting. with less ch ance than almost any boy in America. when a man like Francis Joseph Campbell. His favorite maxim was. and when the shops were closed climbed the lamp-post. to acquire business power instea d of professional power. without arms or legs. In 1798 this poor boy's oratorio. we get a hint as to what it means to make the most possible out of ourselves and our opportun ities. and yet youth who waste their ev enings wonder at the genius which can produce "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Michael Faraday was a poor boy. at six o'clock. wrote the first sentence in his "Republic" nine differ ent ways before he was satisfied with it. Scotland. became the most eminent scholar of Scotland . He remained at night. who became a friend to him. But of his eight hundred compositions. When a man like Lord Cavanagh. and who studied by the light of the shop windows in the streets . eaten in the streets of Philadelphia." came upon the musical world like the rising of a new sun which never set.--this poor boy." Beethoven probably surpassed all other musicians in his painstaking fidelity an d persistent application. "The Creation" eclipsed them all. with the meanness of his origin. A glover's apprentice of Glasgow. Burke wrote the conclusion of his spee ch at the trial of Hastings sixteen times. He absorbed a great deal of information. becomes a di stinguished mathematician. no more poverty. whose highest luxury at one time was only a penny roll. his father was a coachman and he.'" Gibbon wrote his autobiography nine times." upon which Gibbon worked twenty years. Even Plato. one is taken at the worth he has put into himself. because he made himself such. m arried a servant girl. A French doctor once taunted Fléchier. It took Vergil seven years to write his Georgics. to read and study the precious volumes. and twelve years to w rite the Aeneid. who had been a tallow-chandler in his youth. holding his book in one hand. Michael laid the foundations of his future greatness by making himself familiar with the contents of the books he bo und. and clinging to the lamp-post with the other. half blind. Bishop of Nismes. became one of America's greatest historians in spi te of everything. Perhaps ninety-nine of a hundred under such unfortunate circumstances wou ld be content to remain helpless objects of charity for life. manages to put himself int o Parliament. "The Creation.

ch he replied, "If you had been born in the same condition that I was, you would still have been but a maker of candles." Edwin Chadwick, in his report to the British Parliament, stated that children, working on half time (that is, studying three hours a day and working the rest o f their time out of doors), really made the greatest intellectual progress durin g the year. Business men have often accomplished wonders during the busiest live s by simply devoting one, two, three, or four hours daily to study or other lite rary work. James Watt received only the rudiments of an education at school, for his atten dance was irregular on account of delicate health. He more than made up for all deficiencies, however, by the diligence with which he pursued his studies at hom e. Alexander V was a beggar; he was "born mud, and died marble." William Hersche l, placed at the age of fourteen as a musician in the band of the Hanoverian Gua rds, devoted all his leisure to philosophical studies. He acquired a large fund of general knowledge, and in astronomy, a science in which he was wholly self-in structed, his discoveries entitle him to rank with the greatest astronomers of a ll time. George Washington was the son of a widow, born under the roof of a Westmoreland farmer; almost from infancy his lot had been that of an orphan. No academy had welcomed him to its shade, no college crowned him with its honors; to read, to w rite, to cipher--these had been his degrees in knowledge. Shakespeare learned li ttle more than reading and writing at school, but by self-culture he made himsel f the great master among literary men. Burns, too, enjoyed few advantages of edu cation, and his youth was passed in almost abject poverty. James Ferguson, the son of a half-starved peasant, learned to read by listening to the recitations of one of his elder brothers. While a mere boy he discovered several mechanical principles, made models of mills and spinning-wheels, and by means of beads on strings worked out an excellent map of the heavens. Ferguson made remarkable things with a common penknife. How many great men have mounted t he hill of knowledge by out-of-the-way paths! Gifford worked his intricate probl ems with a shoemaker's awl on a bit of leather. Rittenhouse first calculated ecl ipses on his plow-handle. Columbus, while leading the life of a sailor, managed to become the most accomp lished geographer and astronomer of his time. When Peter the Great, a boy of seventeen, became the absolute ruler of Russia h is subjects were little better than savages, and in himself even the passions an d propensities of barbarism were so strong that they were frequently exhibited d uring his whole career. But he determined to transform himself and the Russians into civilized people. He instituted reforms with great energy, and at the age o f twenty-six started on a visit to the other countries of Europe for the purpose of learning about their arts and institutions. At Saardam, Holland, he was so i mpressed with the sights of the great East India dockyard that he apprenticed hi mself to a shipbuilder, and helped to build the St. Peter, which he promptly pur chased. Continuing his travels, after he had learned his trade, he worked in Eng land in paper-mills, saw-mills, rope-yards, watchmakers' shops, and other manufa ctories, doing the work and receiving the treatment of a common laborer. While traveling, his constant habit was to obtain as much information as he cou ld beforehand with regard to every place he was to visit, and he would demand, " Let me see all." When setting out on his investigations, on such occasions, he c arried his tablets in his hand and whatever he deemed worthy of remembrance was carefully noted down. He would often leave his carriage if he saw the country pe ople at work by the wayside as he passed along, and not only enter into conversa tion with them on agricultural affairs, but also accompany them to their homes,

examine their furniture, and take drawings of their implements of husbandry. Thu s he obtained much minute and correct knowledge, which he would scarcely have ac quired by other means, and which he afterward turned to admirable account in the improvement of his own country. The ancients said, "Know thyself"; the twentieth century says, "Help thyself." Self-culture gives a second birth to the soul. A liberal education is a true reg eneration. When a man is once liberally educated, he will generally remain a man , not shrink to a manikin, nor dwindle to a brute. But if he is not properly edu cated, if he has merely been crammed and stuffed through college, if he has mere ly a broken-down memory from trying to hold crammed facts enough to pass the exa mination, he will continue to shrink, shrivel, and dwindle, often below his orig inal proportions, for he will lose both his confidence and self-respect, as his crammed facts, which never became a part of himself, evaporate from his distende d memory. Every bit of education or culture is of great advantage in the struggle for exi stence. The microscope does not create anything new, but it reveals marvels. To educate the eye adds to its magnifying power until it sees beauty where before i t saw only ugliness. It reveals a world we never suspected, and finds the greate st beauty even in the commonest things. The eye of an Agassiz could see worlds o f which the uneducated eye never dreamed. The cultured hand can do a thousand th ings the uneducated hand can not do. It becomes graceful, steady of nerve, stron g, skilful, indeed it almost seems to think, so animated is it with intelligence . The cultured will can seize, grasp, and hold the possessor, with irresistible power and nerve, to almost superhuman effort. The educated touch can almost perf orm miracles. The educated taste can achieve wonders almost past belief. What a contrast between the cultured, logical, profound, masterly reason of a Gladstone and that of the hod-carrier who has never developed or educated his reason beyo nd what is necessary to enable him to mix mortar and carry brick! Be careful to avoid that over-intellectual culture which is purchased at the ex pense of moral vigor. An observant professor of one of our colleges has remarked that "the mind may be so rounded and polished by education, and so well balance d, as not to be energetic in any one faculty. In other men not thus trained, the sense of deficiency and of the sharp, jagged corners of their knowledge leads t o efforts to fill up the chasms, rendering them at last far better educated men than the polished, easy-going graduate who has just knowledge enough to prevent consciousness of his ignorance. While all the faculties of the mind should be cu ltivated, it is yet desirable that it should have two or three rough-hewn featur es of massive strength. Young men are too apt to forget the great end of life, w hich is to be and do, not to read and brood over what other men have been and do ne." "I repeat that my object is not to give him knowledge, but to teach him how to acquire it at need," said Rousseau. All learning is self-teaching. It is upon the working of the pupil's own mind t hat his progress in knowledge depends. The great business of the master is to te ach the pupil to teach himself. "Thinking, not growth, makes manhood," says Isaac Taylor. "Accustom yourself, t herefore, to thinking. Set yourself to understand whatever you see or read. To j oin thinking with reading is one of the first maxims, and one of the easiest ope rations." "How few think justly of the thinking few: How many never think who think they do." CHAPTER XXXI

THE SELF-IMPROVEMENT HABIT If you want knowledge you must toil for it.--RUSKIN. We excuse our sloth under the pretext of difficulty.--QUINTILLIAN. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the human soul.--ADDISO N. A boy is better unborn than untaught.--GASCOIGNE. It is ignorance that wastes; it is knowledge that saves, an untaught faculty is at once quiescent and dead.--N. D. HILLIS. The plea that this or that man has no time for culture will vanish as soon as w e desire culture so much that we begin to examine seriously into our present use of time.--MATTHEW ARNOLD. Education, as commonly understood, is the process of developing the mind by mea ns of books and teachers. When education has been neglected, either by reason of lack of opportunity, or because advantage was not taken of the opportunities af forded, the one remaining hope is self-improvement. Opportunities for self-impro vement surround us, the helps to self-improvement are abundant, and in this day of cheap books and free libraries, there can be no good excuse for neglect to us e the faculties for mental growth and development which are so abundantly suppli ed. When we look at the difficulties which hindered the acquisition of knowledge fi fty years to a century ago; the scarcity and the costliness of books, the value of the dimmest candle-light, the unremitting toil which left so little time for study, the physical weariness which had to be overcome to enable mental exertion in study, we may well marvel at the giants of scholarship those days of hardshi p produced. And when we add to educational limitations, physical disabilities, b lindness, deformity, ill-health, hunger and cold, we may feel shame as we contem plate the fulness of modern opportunity and the helps and incentives to study an d self-development which are so lavishly provided for our use and inspiration, a nd of which we make so little use. Self-improvement implies one essential feeling: the desire for improvement. If the desire exists, then improvement is usually accomplished only by the conquest of self--the material self, which seeks pleasure and amusement. The novel, the game of cards, the billiard cue, idle whittling and story-telling will have to b e eschewed, and every available moment of leisure turned to account. For all who seek self-improvement "there is a lion in the way," the lion of self-indulgence , and it is only by the conquest of this enemy that progress is assured. Show me how a youth spends his evenings, his odd bits of time, and I will forec ast his future. Does he look upon this leisure as precious, rich in possibilitie s, as containing golden material for his future life structure? Or does he look upon it as an opportunity for self-indulgence, for a light, flippant good time? The way he spends his leisure will give the keynote of his life, will tell whet her he is dead in earnest, or whether he looks upon it as a huge joke. He may not be conscious of the terrible effects, the gradual deterioration of c haracter which comes from a frivolous wasting of his evenings and half-holidays, but the character is being undermined just the same. Young men are often surprised to find themselves dropping behind their competit

ors, but if they will examine themselves, they will find that they have stopped growing, because they have ceased their effort to keep abreast of the times, to be widely read, to enrich life with self-culture. It is the right use of spare moments in reading and study which qualify men for leadership. And in many historic cases the "spare" moments utilized for study w ere not spare in the sense of being the spare time of leisure. They were rather spared moments, moments spared from sleep, from meal times, from recreation. Where is the boy to-day who has less chance to rise in the world than Elihu Bur ritt, apprenticed at sixteen to a blacksmith, in whose shop he had to work at th e forge all the daylight, and often by candle-light? Yet he managed, by studying with a book before him at his meals, carrying it in his pocket that he might ut ilize every spare moment, and studying nights and holidays, to pick up an excell ent education in the odds and ends of time which most boys throw away. While the rich boy and the idler were yawning and stretching and getting their eyes open, young Burritt had seized the opportunity and improved it. He had a thirst for knowledge and a desire for self-improvement, which overcame every obstacle in his pathway. A wealthy gentleman offered to pay his expenses at Harvard. But no, Elihu said he could get his education himself, even though h e had to work twelve or fourteen hours a day at the forge. Here was a determined boy. He snatched every spare moment at the anvil and forge as if it were gold. He believed, with Gladstone, that thrift of time would repay him in after years with usury, and that waste of it would make him dwindle. Think of a boy working nearly all the daylight in a blacksmith shop, and yet finding time to study seve n languages in a single year. It is not lack of ability that holds men down but lack of industry. In many cas es the employee has a better brain, a better mental capacity than his employer. But he does not improve his faculties. He dulls his mind by cigarette smoking. H e spends his money at the pool table, theater, or dance, and as he grows old, an d the harness of perpetual service galls him, he grumbles at his lack of luck, h is limited opportunity. The number of perpetual clerks is constantly being recruited by those who did n ot think it worth while as boys to learn to write a good hand or to master the f undamental branches of knowledge requisite in a business career. The ignorance c ommon among young men and young women, in factories, stores, and offices, everyw here, in fact, in this land of opportunity, where youth should be well educated, is a pitiable thing in American life. On every hand we see men and women of abi lity occupying inferior positions because they did not think it worth while in y outh to develop their powers and to concentrate their attention on the acquisiti on of sufficient knowledge. Thousands of men and women find themselves held back, handicapped for life beca use of the seeming trifles which they did not think it worth while to pay attent ion to in their early days. Many a girl of good natural ability spends her most productive years as a cheap clerk, or in a mediocre position because she never thought it worth while to de velop her mental faculties or to take advantage of opportunities within reach to fit herself for a superior position. Thousands of girls unexpectedly thrown on their own resources have been held down all their lives because of neglected tas ks in youth, which at the time were dismissed with a careless "I don't think it worth while." They did not think it would pay to go to the bottom of any study a t school, to learn to keep accounts accurately, or fit themselves to do anything in such a way as to be able to make a living by it. They expected to marry, and never prepared for being dependent on themselves,--a contingency against which marriage, in many instances, is no safeguard.

The trouble with most youths is that they are not willing to fling the whole we ight of their being into their location. They want short hours, little work and a lot of play. They think more of leisure and pleasure than of discipline and tr aining in their great life specialty. Many a clerk envies his employer and wishes that he could go into business for himself, be an employer too but it is too much work to make the effort to rise a bove a clerkship. He likes to take life easy; and he wonders idly whether, after all, it is worth while to strain and strive and struggle and study to prepare o neself for the sake of getting up a little higher and making a little more money . The trouble with a great many people is that they are not willing to make prese nt sacrifices for future gain. They prefer to have a good time as they go along, rather than spend time in self-improvement. They have a sort of vague wish to d o something great, but few have that intensity of longing which impels them to m ake the sacrifice of the present for the future. Few are willing to work undergr ound for years laying a foundation for the life monument. They yearn for greatne ss, but their yearning is not the kind which is willing to pay any price in ende avor or make any sacrifice for its object. So the majority slide along in mediocrity all their lives. They have ability fo r something higher up, but they have not the energy and determination to prepare for it. They do not care to make necessary effort. They prefer to take life eas ier and lower down rather than to struggle for something higher. They do not pla y the game for all they are worth. If a man or woman has but the disposition for self-improvement and advancement he will find opportunity to rise or "what he can not find create." Here is an ex ample from the everyday life going on around us and in which we are all taking p art. A young Irishman who had reached the age of nineteen or twenty without learning to read or write, and who left home because of the intemperance that prevailed there, learned to read a little by studying billboards, and eventually got a pos ition as steward aboard a man-of-war. He chose that occupation and got leave to serve at the captain's table because of a great desire to learn. He kept a littl e tablet in his coat-pocket, and whenever he heard a new word wrote it down. One day an officer saw him writing and immediately suspected him of being a spy. Wh en he and the other officers learned what the tablet was used for, the young man was given more opportunities to learn, and these led in time to promotion, unti l, finally, the sometime steward won a prominent position in the navy. Success a s a naval officer prepared the way for success in other fields. Self-help has accomplished about all the great things of the world. How many yo ung men falter, faint, and dally with their purpose, because they have no capita l to start with, and wait and wait for some good luck to give them a lift! But s uccess is the child of drudgery and perseverance. It can not be coaxed or bribed ; pay the price and it is yours. One of the sad things about the neglected opportunities for self-improvement is that it puts people of great natural ability at a disadvantage among those who are their mental inferiors. I know a member of one of our city legislatures, a splendid fellow, immensely p opular, who has a great, generous heart and broad sympathies, but who can not op en his mouth without so murdering the English language that it is really painful to listen to him.

There ted to cters, ack of

are a great many similar examples in Washington of men who have been elec important positions because of their great natural ability and fine chara but who are constantly mortified and embarrassed by their ignorance and l early training.

One of the most humiliating experiences that can ever come to a human being is to be conscious of possessing more than ordinary ability, and yet be tied to an inferior position because of lack of early and intelligent training commensurate with his ability. To be conscious that one has ability to realize eighty or nin ety per cent of his possibilities, if he had only had the proper education and t raining, but because of this lack to be unable to bring out more than twenty-fiv e per cent of it on account of ignorance, is humiliating and embarrassing. In ot her words, to go through life conscious that you are making a botch of your capa bilities just because of lack of training, is a most depressing thing. Nothing else outside of sin causes more sorrow than that which comes from not h aving prepared for the highest career possible to one. There are no bitterer reg rets than those which come from being obliged to let opportunities pass by for w hich one never prepared himself. I know a pitiable case of a born naturalist whose ambition was so suppressed, a nd whose education so neglected in youth, that later when he came to know more a bout natural history than almost any man of his day, he could not write a gramma tical sentence, and could never make his ideas live in words, perpetuate them in books, because of his ignorance of even the rudiments of an education. His earl y vocabulary was so narrow and pinched, and his knowledge of his language so lim ited that he always seemed to be painfully struggling for words to express his t hought. Think of the suffering of this splendid man, who was conscious of possessing co lossal scientific knowledge, and yet was absolutely unable to express himself gr ammatically! How often stenographers are mortified by the use of some unfamiliar word or ter m, or quotation, because of the shallowness of their preparation! It is not enough to be able to take dictation when ordinary letters are given, not enough to do the ordinary routine of office work. The ambitious stenographer must be prepared for the unusual demand, must have good reserves of knowledge t o draw from in case of emergency. But, if she is constantly slipping up upon her grammar, or is all at sea the mo ment she steps out of her ordinary routine, her employer knows that her preparat ion is shallow, that her education is very limited, and her prospects will be li mited also. A young lady writes me that she is so handicapped by the lack of an early educa tion that she fairly dreads to write a letter to anyone of education or culture for fear of making ignorant mistakes in grammar and spelling. Her letter indicat es that she has a great deal of natural ability. Yet she is much limited and alw ays placed at a disadvantage because of this lack of an early education. It is d ifficult to conceive of a greater misfortune than always to be embarrassed and h andicapped just because of the neglect of those early years. I am often pained by letters from people, especially young people, which indica te that the writers have a great deal of natural ability, that they have splendi d minds, but a large part of their ability is covered up, rendered ineffectual b y their ignorance. Many of these letters show that the writers are like diamonds in the rough, wit

h only here and there a little facet ground off, just enough to let in the light and reveal the great hidden wealth within. I always feel sorry for these people who have passed the school age and who wil l probably go through life with splendid minds handicapped by their ignorance wh ich, even late in life, they might largely or entirely overcome. It is such a pity that, a young man, for instance, who has the natural ability which would make him a leader among men, must, for the lack of a little training , a little preparation, work for somebody else, perhaps with but half of his abi lity but with a better preparation, more education. Everywhere we see clerks, mechanics, employees in all walks of life, who cannot rise to anything like positions which correspond with their natural ability, be cause they have not had the education. They are ignorant. They can not write a d ecent letter. They murder the English language, and hence their superb ability c annot be demonstrated, and remains in mediocrity. The parable of the talents illustrates and enforces one of nature's sternest la ws: "To him that hath shall be given; from him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath." Scientists call this law the survival of the fittest. The fittest are those who use what they have, who gain strength by struggle, an d who survive by self-development by control of their hostile or helpful environ ment. The soil, the sunshine, the atmosphere are very liberal with the material for t he growth of the plant or the tree, but the plant must use all it gets, it must work it up into flowers, into fruit, into leaf or fiber or something or the supp ly will cease. In other words, the soil will not send any more building material up the sap than is used for growth, and the faster this material is used the mo re rapid the growth, the more abundantly the material will come. t s e d The same law holds good everywhere. Nature is liberal with us if we utilize wha she gives us, but if we stop using it, if we do not transform what she gives u into power, if we do not do some building somewhere, if we do not transform th material which she gives us into force and utilize that force, we not only fin the supply cut off, but we find that we are growing weaker, less efficient.

Everything in nature is on the move, either one way or the other. It is either going up or down. It is either advancing or retrograding; we cannot hold without using. Nature withdraws muscle or brain if we do not use them. She withdraws skill the moment we stop drilling efficiently, the moment we stop using our power. The fo rce is withdrawn when we cease exercising it. A college graduate is often surprised years after he leaves the college to find that about all he has to show for his education is his diploma. The power, the efficiency which he gained there has been lost because he has not been using the m. He thought at the time that everything was still fresh in his mind after his examination that this knowledge would remain with him, but it has been slipping away from him every minute since he stopped using it, and only that has remained and increased which he has used; the rest has evaporated. A great many college graduates ten years afterwards find that they have but very little left to show for their four years' course, because they have not utilized their knowledge. Th ey have become weaklings without knowing it. They constantly say to themselves, "I have a college education, I must have some ability, I must amount to somethin g in the world." But the college diploma has no more power to hold the knowledge you have gained in college than a piece of tissue paper over a gas jet can hold the gas in the pipe.

Everything which you do not use is constantly slipping away from you. Use it or lose it. The secret of power is use. Ability will not remain with us, force wil l evaporate the moment we cease to do something with it. The tools for self-improvement are at your hand, use them. If the ax is dull th e more strength must be put forth. If your opportunities are limited you must us e more energy, put forth more effort. Progress may seem slow at first, but perse verance assures success. "Line upon line, and precept upon precept" is the rule of mental upbuilding and "In due time ye shall reap if ye faint not." CHAPTER XXXII RAISING OF VALUES "Destiny is not about thee, but within,-- Thyself must make thyself." "The world is no longer clay, but rather iron in the hands of its workers," say s Emerson, "and men have got to hammer out a place for themselves by steady and rugged blows." To make the most of your "stuff," be it cloth, iron, or character,--this is suc cess. Raising common "stuff" to priceless value is great success. The man who first takes the rough bar of wrought iron may be a blacksmith, who has only partly learned his trade, and has no ambition to rise above his anvil. He thinks that the best possible thing he can do with his bar is to make it into horseshoes, and congratulates himself upon his success. He reasons that the rou gh lump of iron is worth only two or three cents a pound, and that it is not wor th while to spend much time or labor on it. His enormous muscles and small skill have raised the value of the iron from one dollar, perhaps, to ten dollars. Along comes a cutler, with a little better education, a little more ambition, a little finer perception, and says to the blacksmith: "Is this all you can see i n that iron? Give me a bar, and I will show you what brains and skill and hard w ork can make of it." He sees a little further into the rough bar. He has studied many processes of hardening and tempering; he has tools, grinding and polishing wheels, and annealing furnaces. The iron is fused, carbonized into steel, drawn out, forged, tempered, heated white-hot, plunged into cold water or oil to impr ove its temper, and ground and polished with great care and patience. When this work is done, he shows the astonished blacksmith two thousand dollars' worth of knife-blades where the latter only saw ten dollars' worth of crude horseshoes. T he value has been greatly raised by the refining process. "Knife-blades are all very well, if you can make nothing better," says another artisan, to whom the cutler has shown the triumph of his art, "but you haven't h alf brought out what is in that bar of iron. I see a higher and better use; I ha ve made a study of iron, and know what there is in it and what can be made of it ." This artisan has a more delicate touch, a finer perception, a better training, a higher ideal, and superior determination, which enable him to look still furth er into the molecules of the rough bar,--past the horse-shoes, past the knife-bl ades,--and he turns the crude iron into the finest cambric needles, with eyes cu t with microscopic exactness. The production of the invisible points requires a more delicate process, a finer grade of skill than the cutler possesses. This feat the last workman considers marvelous, and he thinks he has exhausted the possibilities of the iron. He has multiplied many times the value of the cut ler's product.

an d a better training. almost clairvoyant vision. and spiritual forces? Whereas. barbed filaments of steel. With penetrating. is worth about two hundred and fifty dollars. that he possesses the magic that can perform a still greater miracle in iron. crude. in triumph. the perception. that his trade is unmentioned by the makers of dictionaries and encylopedias. and . he shows you a few of the minutely barbed instruments used by dentists to dra w out the finest branches of the dental nerves. it will not be stiff. The difference in human attainment is due only slightly to the original materia l. yet all capable of control and direction by the higher self. knife-blades. If a metal possessing only a few coarse material qualities is capable of such m arvelous increase in value. and the needles. the effort made. a slender thread of it. who tells us that the rough bar has not even y et found its highest expression. and develops its higher possibilities with such m arvelous accuracy. even main-springs seem coarse and clumsy. A higher artist-artisan appears. acting and c ounteracting. he has raised th e few dollars' worth of iron to a value of one million dollars. Other experts may still further refine the product. It sounds magical. and by determination and grit. the hand. To him. by hard work. more industry. how the texture of the metal can b e so much refined that even a fiber. a higher order of skill. He knows that. more perfection can be reached. the processes of educ . at every stage of manufacture. While a pound of gold. a dozen processes are possible. and how. passes with ease by the horse-shoes. a nd merely a passive metal. he has made his dream true. worth only a few tho usand dollars. moral. by mixing brains with its molecules. by the training of the eye. dominating personality. a thousand influences may be brou ght to bear upon mind and character. but so full of its new qualities that it almost seems instinct with life. He puts his bar through many processes of refinement and fine tempering. perhaps forty ti mes the value of the same weight of gold. i f care enough be used in tempering the steel. by pai nstaking care. takes but a fragmen t of one of the bars of steel. trenchant. It is the ideal followed and unfolded. a pound of these slender. and returns the product of his bar in fine mainsprings for watches. mental. by even the average educated man. such ethereal fineness of touch. might be worth hundre ds of times as much. in the develo pment of iron. roughly s peaking. the r eal. While the iron is an inert mass acted upon by external influences only. After infinite toil and pain. a more delicate touch. He knows that the crude iron can be manipulated and coaxed into an elasticity t hat can not even be imagined by one less trained in metallurgy. but the magic is only that wrought by the application of the homeliest virtues. behold! another very skilful mechanic. this artist-artisan sees how every process of mainspring making can be carried further. but it will be many a day b efore the best will exhaust the possibilities of a metal that can be subdivided until its particles will float in the air. that wonderful c ompound of physical. the knife-blades. whose product is so little known. can do marvelous wo rk. and cheap. with a more finely organized mind. Where the others saw horseshoes. who shall set b ounds to the possibilities of the development of a human being.But. if a pound could be collected. Still another workman. his penetrating eye saw a product worth one hundred thousand doll ars. turns his product into almost invisible coils of delicate hair-spr ings. more patience. that even mainsprings and ha irsprings are looked back upon as coarse. the human being is a bundle of forces. When his work is don e. or needles. whose processes are so almost infinitely delicate.

aye. The blows of opposition. and development. Demosthenes. of what use would it be? It has that virtue. one man calls out an angel of beauty which delights every beholder. to temper it. five-hundredfold. one man builds a palace and another a hovel. toil. the rebuffs that chill enthusiasm. and Haydn. It was thus that Columbus . Just as a bar of iron. culture. by infinite patience and persistence. will raise his material in value a hundredfold. yet one with no better means of improvement than the o thers. will oxidize. that draw profit from every test. Aesop. the crushings of iron circumstances. draw out. The iron. the weaver. Life. made more elastic or more resistant. Homer. raise the value of the raw material to almost fabulous heights. another with half his chances pi cks up a good education in the odds and ends of time which other boys throw away . is strengthened. our trials. we can. and mold our life-bar into its ultimate development. inherent. refined product. to work on and up from clumsy horseshoes to delicate hairsprings. the weariness of ye ars of dry. the fiery trials of disaster and bereavement. the journeyman printer. but in ourse lves they are largely matters of growth. Ben Jonson. by patience. the poor wheelwright's son. In the iron the qualities are. developed their powers. the raspings of care and anxiety. I f we see only horseshoes or knife-blades. if we are willing. the slave. un til they towered head and shoulders above other men. and the drawing out. From the same material. in the main. to endure trials and tests. another a hideous monster which demoralizes every one who sees i . and will attribute their f ailure to hard luck. if we would but realize them. or comparatively so. but it is hard to raise your life-product to higher values. the criminals. and all are s ubject to the dominating will. the bricklayer. or to better it in some way. Cervantes. Just as each artisan sees in the crude iron some finished. to pay the necessary price. to i ncrease its ductility. study. From the same rough piece of marble. and adapted to the use each artisan dreams of.--all these are necessar y to the man who would reach the highest success. to hammer. if exposed to the elements. we m ust resolve to struggle. the c ommon soldier. hammer. all our efforts and struggles will nev er produce hairsprings. and inadequate. the cutler's son. and our ef forts. if every rolle r should pulverize it. but. perhaps with infinitely poorer means. are the on es who fail. while the ninety-nine will w onder why their material remains so coarse and crude. confident that the result will pay us for our suffering. mean. if every furnace should burn the life out of it." the faulty characters. the grinding of constant difficulties. a nd through them it comes to its highest expression. everyday life. by becoming mer ely a horseshoe. the beg gar. and refine. has counterparts of all the tortures the iron undergoes. Those who shrink from the forging. refined. We must realize our own adaptability to great ends. While one boy is regretting his want of opportunities. a thousandfold. those qualit ies that withstand all. the "nobodies. and become worthless.ation and experience undergone that fuse. If every blow sho uld fracture it. by this manipulation. and remains in ignorance. so must we see in our lives glorious possibilities. his lack of means to get a college education. the rolling. the struggles amid want and woe. dreary drudgery in education and discipline. and come out triumphan t in the end. compared with those of others. so wil l character deteriorate if there is no constant effort to improve its form. It is easy to remain a common bar of iron. Many of us consider our natural gift-bars poor. Franklin. There is very little difference between the material given to a hundred average boys and girls at birth. and stru ggle.

d epends very largely upon your ideal. but would you prefer to remain a roug h bar of iron or a horseshoe all your life? [Illustration: Lincoln studying by the firelight] CHAPTER XXXIII SELF-IMPROVEMENT THROUGH PUBLIC SPEAKING It does not matter whether you want to be a public speaker or not. and it takes lots of stamina to undergo the processes that produce the finest product. In all ages oratory has been regarded as the highest expression of human achievement. your determination to be the higher thing. inventiveness. no matter how large or formidable. it may be on canvas: it may be through oratory. especially public vocal expression. whether vocal or i nstrumental. his resourcefulness. upon your having the grit to be hammered. the powe r and the skill of the entire man are put to a severe test. and express his thoughts clearly and distinctly. it may come th rough selling goods or writing a book. He can write when he feels like it. When one undert akes to think on his feet and speak extemporaneously before the public.t. His pride and vanity are not touched. we do not feel that so much depends upon our words. whether blacksmith or farmer. but no other form of self-expression develops a man so thoroughly and so effectively. merchan t or physician. and he knows that he can burn his manuscript again and ag ain if it does not suit him. The occasions for little speaking are increasing enormously. and perhaps no one will ever think of them again. there is always a chance for revision. He does not have a great audience criticizing every sentence. and what he writes may never b e seen by anyone. In music. to be drawn out. the rest is the com poser's. Nothing else will call out what is in a man so quickly and so effectively as th e constant effort to do his best in speaking before an audience. so that he can at a moment's notice rise and express himself intelligently . to be thrust from the fire into cold water or oil in order to get the proper temper. only a few persons hear them . A man may write as listlessly as he pleases. Self-expression in any legitimate form tends to call out what is in a man. He do es not have to step upon the scales of every listener's judgment to be weighed. Self-expression in some manner is the only means of developing mental power. but it must come through self-expression. A great many ques . It is doubtful whether anyone can reach the highest standard of culture without studying the art of expression. Of course. use much or lit tle of his brain or energy. Whether you go upward to the mainspring or hairspring stage. Yet anyone who lays any claim to culture. In conversation. should make it a study. No one is wa tching him. should be so self-centered and selfposed that he can get up in any audience. The writer has the advantage of being able to wait for his moods. just as he chooses or feels like doing. Young people. as does the orator. should train himself to think on his feet. weighing every thought. Then. There are not a thousand eyes upon him. as expression before an audience. and so quickly unfolds all of his powers. The extent to which you can raise the value of your life-bar depends very large ly upon yourself. everybody sh ould have such complete control of himself. it is hard and painful. no matter what they intend to be. It may be in music. what one gives out is only partially one's own.

but there he stood. but they always shrank from every opportunity. he may have grace in his motions and ges tures. and yet they are not able to stand on their feet in public. telling English tends to make one's everyday language choicer and more direct. There is everything in learning what you wish to know. but they are nobodies when called upon to speak in public. It is a matter of painstaking and preparation. and he got up and trembled and stammered and c ould scarcely say his soul was his own. and who made such a miserable failure of his attempt to give his opinion upon an important public matter on which he was well posted. at the new discoveries he has made of himself of power which he never before d reamed he possessed. and mental furnishing. even to make a few remarks. There are plenty of business men to-day who would give a great deal of money if they could only go back and improve the early opportunities for learning to thi nk and speak on their feet which they threw away. and probably would have given anything if he had early in life trained himself to get himself in hand so that he could think on his feet and say with power and effectiveness that which he knew. and improves one 's diction generally. clean-cut. by the dint of hard work and persistent grit. a shallow-brained business man. and he now regrets more than anything else that he has allo wed so many opportunities for calling himself out to go by in the past. All they c an do is to look foolish. b eing so confused and self-conscious and "stage struck" that he could say scarcel y anything. blush. are to . They had plenty of opportunities when they were y oung. because they were timid. stammer out an apology and sit down. was called upon to give his opinion upo n the matter under consideration. Your vocal culture. or scarcely to put a motion without trembling like an aspen leaf. who is king in his specialty. This explains the rapidity with which a young man develops in sc hool or college when he begins to take part in public debates or in debating soc ieties. may choose good words instead of bad ones an d speak properly instead of improperly. Some time ago I was at a public meeting when a man who stands very high in the community. He had power and a great deal of experience. concise. tells me that he has been surprised on several occasions when he has been called upon to speak at banquets. All sorts of business deals are now carried through at dinners. as helpless as a child. A very brilliant young man in New York who has climbed to a responsible positio n in a very short time. and the o ther man had not. got up and made a brill iant speech. or on other public occasions . they have position. in the same city. says Lord Chesterfield. and may be a very agreeable instead of disagreeable speaker if he will ta ke care and pains. or felt that somebody else could handle t he debate or questions better. He could not even make a decent appearan ce. who hadn't a hundr edth part of the other man's practical power in affairs. and was placed at a tremendous disadvantage. at school. H e had simply cultivated the ability to say his best thing on his feet.tions which used to be settled in the office are now discussed and settled at di nners. Every man. and he felt cheap. We know men who have. embarrassed. The effort to express one's ideas in lucid. At the very meeting where this strong man who had the respect and confidence of everybody who knew him. and strangers no doubt thought that he was much the stronger man. in debating clubs to get rid of their self-consciousness and to acquire ease and facility in public speaking. Now they have money. There was never before any such demand for dinner oratory as to-day. mortified. manner. In this and other ways speech-making develops mental power and character. lifted them selves into positions of prominence.

In youth the would-be orator must cultivate robust health. Do not neutralize all the good impression you have made by talking on and on long after you have made your point. his narrow vocabular y. One must know words. character. In thinking on one's feet before an audience. One's manhood. There is no class of people put to such a severe test of showing what is in the m as public speakers. and pausing now and then as if refreshing himself by slumber. with proper facial and bodily expression and gesture. or who does not care for what others think of him. This requir es practise in early life. vigorousl y. Close. if he had sat down in the Senate and put his fee t on his desk? Think of a great singer like Nordica attempting to electrify an a udience while lounging on a sofa or sitting in a slouchy position. of natural or acquired ability. It is a great art to be able to r aise and lower the voice with sweet flowing cadences which please the ear. . An early training for effective speaking will make one careful to secure a good vocabulary by good reading and a dictionary. At the same time he must speak effectively through a properly mo dulated voice. self-reliance. the greatest oratorical effo rt ever made on this continent. conviction. This is especially true of a monotonous tone. since force. enthusi asm. assura nce. or sense of proportion. the carefulness or carelessness of his observation. good judgment. every power of thought and expression spurred. the man who has no sensitiveness. "Ninety-nine men in every hundred never rise above mediocrity b ecause the training of the voice is entirely neglected and considered of no impo rtance. must cultivate bodily posture. Nothing will tire an audienc e more quickly than monotony. as do orators. stirring the emotions or convincing the reason of an audience. The attempt to become a good public speaker is a great awakener of all the ment al faculties. words press for choice. of experience. He was a p erfect genius for dry uninteresting oratory. the human mind tires very quickly without it. and have good habits at easy command. one must think quickly. gives self-confidence. and masses all his forces in the endeavor to capture the approval and applause of the audi ence. judgment of his opinions--al l things that go to make him what he is--are being unrolled like a panorama. compact statement must be had. The speaker summons all his reserves of education. and tends to make one more effective in ev ery particular. Eve ry mental faculty is quickened. Learn to stop when you get through. will-power are greatly affected by physical condition. Do no t keep stringing out conversation or argument after you have made your point. his poverty of speech. everything expressed on the same dead level. too . There must be variety. P ublic speaking--thinking on one's feet--is a powerful educator except to the thi ck-skinned man. What woul d have been the result of Webster's reply to Hayne. Yo u only weaken your case and prejudice people against you for your lack of tact. Gladstone said. moving forward with a monotonous dr oning. T houghts rush for utterance.be made a matter for thought and careful training. learning. Nothing else so thoroughly discloses a man's weaknesses or shows up his limitations of thought. or making fools of themselves in the estimation of others. One. Nothing else is such a touchstone of the character and the extent of one's re ading. effectively. The sense of power that comes from holding attention." It was indeed said of a certain Duke of Devonshire that he was the only English statesman who ever took a nap during the progress of his own speech. no other men who run such a risk of exposing their weak sp ots. arouses ambition.

Go up front. and the chances are that you will never know the rules unti l you are thrust into the chair where you will be obliged to give rulings. Do not be afraid to rise to put a mot ion or to second it or give your opinion upon it. until they have read more history and more literature. or how much trouble it is. If you have an invitation to speak. unt il they have gained a little more culture and ease of manner. Nothing will call a young man out mo re than the struggle in a debate to hold his own. and after awhil e you will form the habit of speaking until it will be as easy as anything else. vigorous exercis e for the mind as wrestling is for the body. Dormant impuls es are stirred. A vast number of our p ublic men have owed their advance more to the old-fashioned debating societies t han anything else. on the ground that they are not quite well enough educated at present. Wilson. Every time you rise to your feet will increase your confidence. Clay. Do the thing so many times that it will become second nature to you. and sends the blood surging through the veins. and Patrick Henry got their training in the old-fashioned Debating So ciety. or how difficult it is to get the time. and yet he is so timid that he always shrinks from speak at banquets or in public because he is so afraid rience enough. and so afraid tha . It is strong. Here they learned confidence. ease. to bring to the front all the power one possesses. This is just the place to learn. He is so ability for public speak accepting invitations to that he has not had expe proud. Do not remain way back on the back seat. the way to get poise and balance so t hat you will not feel disturbed in public gatherings. half-forgotten memories revived. or how timid or shy you may be.Such an effort takes hold of the entire nature. beads the brow. and force yourself to speak every time you get a chance. lea ves these reserves permanently better in hand. Lincoln. Webster. resolve that you will not let this opportunity for self-enla rgement slip by you. more readily in reach. Jump to your feet and say something upon every question that is up for discussion. to shrink from the public debates or speaking. Do not wait until you are bett er prepared. and there is no one thing which will develop young people so rapidly and effect ively as the debating clubs and discussions of all sorts. Do not be afraid to show yourself. It was here they learned not to be afraid of themselves. especially for boys and girls in school or college . flushes the cheek. We know of a young man who has a great deal of natural ing. No matter how far you have to go t o attend it. The Debating Club is the nursery of orators. fires the eye. They want to wait until they can use a l ittle better grammar. Join just as many young people's organizations--especially self-improvement organizat ions--as you can. It is so easy and seductive. to express their opinions with force and independence. the drill you will get by it is the turning point. This forced awakening of the whole personality has effects reaching much furthe r than the oratorical occasion. If th e chance does not come to you. This shrinking into a corner and getting out of sight and avoiding pub licity is fatal to self-confidence. they discovered themselves. self-reliance. make it. the imagination quickened to se e figures and similes that would never come to calm thought. Do not think that because you do not know anything about parliamentary law that you should not accept the presidency of your club or debating society. The effort to marshal all one's reserves in a lo gical and orderly manner. The way to acquire grace. He lacks confidence in himself. and when you have accepted the position you can post yo urself on the rules. is to get the experience. Cho ate. facility. no matter how much you may shrink from it. You never will be.

are very difficult to get out of one's consciousness. wh at he stands for. At debating cl ubs. and Disraeli's "The time will come when you will hear me. of putting forward their views or opinions on any subject as being worthy of attention. wooden. His opinion carries with gives consent to his judgment. and as nervous as a cat. in his act. He ws it." His professor asked. but the man behind the speech. The whole man He himself is in his conviction. they sit dumb. It is not the speech. yet fearing to speak. not only knows a thing. But no orator can make a great impression until he gets rid of himself. or even to have broken down entirely a few times." he replied. as the fear lest one can make no suitable expression of his thought. forget himself in his speech . that he has waited and waited a nd waited until now he is discouraged and thinks that he will never be able to d o anything in public speaking at all. when he knows that all eyes are watching him." are his toric examples.--"Is that the way C aesar would have spoken it?" "Yes. he is him There is nothing of the negative. criticizing him. what people thi nk of him. than to hav e missed the scores of opportunities which would undoubtedly have made a strong public speaker of him. This timidity is often. It would have been a thousand times better for him to ha ve made a mistake. or gatherings of any kind. until h e can absolutely annihilate his self-consciousness. A college boy recited an address "to the conscript fathers. Demosthenes' he roic efforts. The hardest thing for the public speaker to overcome is self-consciousness. which are measuring him. but he knows that he kno it the entire weight of his being. the uncertain in his nature. One of the most entrancing speakers I have ever listened to--a man to hear whom people would go long distances and stand for hours to get admission to the hall where he spoke--never was able to get the confidence of his audience because he . not so much the fear of one's audience. The sound of their own voices. "if Caesar had been scared half to death. What is technically called "stage fright" is very common. would paralyze them. he is himself the embodiment of power. that wins a way to the fro nt. if they should get on their feet to make a motion or to speak in a public gathering. studying him. the doubtful. which never leaves one. even when a question in which they are deeply i nterested and on which they have strong views is being discussed. l onging. meetings of literary societies. however. and his speech to that extent will be mechanic al. Tho se terrible eyes which pierce him through and through." An almost fatal timidity seizes on an inexperienced person. or as valuable as those of their companions. makes them blush and shrink more into themselves. Some are constitutionally sensitive. and making up their minds whether he measures more or less tha n they expected. and so afraid of being gazed at that they don't dare to open their mouths. his power is crippled. One man carries weight because self convinced of what he says. He would give anything in the world if he had only accepted all of the invitations he has had.t he will make some slip which will mortify him. because then he would have profited by experience. scrutinizing him to see how much there is in him. While he is wondering what kind of an impression he is making. for it often arouses a determination to conquer the next time. Even a partial failure on the platform has good results. The mere thought of asserting themselves. that everybody in his audience is trying to measure a nd weigh him.

There is something in a great sea of expectant faces whi ch awakens the ambition and arouses the reserve of power which can never be felt except before an audience. they will not take any stock in you. we out-do ourselves. in some great emergency. The orator must be sincere. Somehow the power t hat stands behind us in the silence. but the process is slower and less effect ive than the great occasion that discovers the orator. As when two chemicals are united . a mighty power which did not exist in his own personal ity. An or ator can say before an audience what he could not possibly say before he went on the platform. the footlights. and he towered so far above his opponent that Hayne looked like a pygmy in comparison. It would be difficult to estimate the great part which practical drill in orato ry may play in one's life. People liked to be swayed by his eloquence. in the depths of our natures. We bster. but the occasion brought all the reserves in this giant. Those who are prepared acquire a world-wide influence when the fit occasion comes. There was a great charm in the cadences of his perfect sentences. The occasion had much to do with the greatest speech delivered in the United St ates Senate--Webster's reply to Hayne. Webster had no time for immediate prepara tion. Great occasions. which did not exist in either alone. and perhaps unexpected. that you are not honest yourself . Every crisis calls out ab ility. Great speeches have become the beacon lights of history. the audience is absolutely in his power to do as he will. Very few people ever rise to their greatest possibilities or ever know their en tire power unless confronted by some great occasion. and to convince others he must have strong convictions. the orator must be able to convince. to empty seats. wh ich he calls inspiration. the audience. just as we can often say to a friend in animated conversation thi ngs which we could not possibly say when alone. a new substance is formed from the combination. he feels surging through his brain the combined force of his audience. In the presence of the orator. an indefinable magnetism th at stimulates all the mental faculties. Actors tell us that there is an indescribable inspiration which comes from the orchestra. which it is impossible to feel at a col d mechanical rehearsal. If t he audience sees mud at the bottom of your eye. The pen has discovered many a genius. But somehow they could not beli eve what he said. They laugh or cry as he pleases. or rise and fall at his bidding.lacked character. but it was not aroused. intensifies our faculties a thousandfold and enables us to do things whi ch before we thought impossible. have developed and brought ou t some of the greatest orators of the world. when nations have been in peril. No orator living was ever great enough to give out the same power and force and magnetism to an empty hall. Patrick Henry. comes to our relief. that you are acting. previously undeveloped. that he could give to an audience c apable of being fired by his theme. an interesting thing. Mirabeau. and acts as a tonic and vitalizer. We are as much amazed as ot hers are when. It is not enough to say a pleasing thing. and John Bright might all be called to witness to this fact. The power was there just the same before. Cicero. In the presence of the audience lies a fascination. unti . The public is very quick to see through shams.

G. quenches the thirst of myriads of men. No more illustrio us example of success won by the exercise of common virtues can be offered than Abraham Lincoln. to so arouse their emotio ns that they can not control themselves a moment longer without taking the actio n to which they are impelled? "His words are laws" may be well said of the statesmen whose orations sway the world.l he releases them from the magic spell. rail-splitter and president. were fixed on them. and persistence. "He gave us a glimpse into the Holy of Holies. self-denial. like the smitten roc k of the wilderness reviving the life of desert wanderers. Seest thou a man diligent in business? He shall stand before kings. patience. They meant to hoot him for his remaining in Tyl er's cabinet." Men of great achievements are not to be set on pedestals and reverenced as exceptions to the average of humanity. and they could not resist cheering him. and their contempt to approbation. What is oratory but to stir the blood of all hearers." said another student.--LONGFELLOW. With the eas e of a master he swayed his audience. The most encouraging truth that can be impressed upon the mind of youth is this : "What man has done man may do. Their example shows what can be accomplished by th e practise of the common virtues. Lowell turned pale. He warped their own judgment an d for the time took away their prejudice. and yet. industry. What art is greater than that of changing the minds of men? Wendell Phillips so played upon the emotions. and doin g well whatever you do. raised up for a divine purpose. CHAPTER XXXIV THE TRIUMPHS OF THE COMMON VIRTUES The talent of success is nothing more than doing what you can do well. that. When he begun. HOLLAND. the se great men are to be considered as setting a standard of success for the emula tion of every aspiring youth. when up-gushing as the very water of life. they reasoned. Young people look upon him as a mar velous being. they thought.--diligence. It is not a question of what a man knows but what use he can make of what he kn ows. Probably Lincoln has been the hero of more American boys during the last two ge nerations than any other American character. he and Story went to Faneuil Hall to hear Webster. Is not oratory a fine art? The well-spring of eloquence. for the time being he almost persuaded them that they were in the wrong. His great eyes . said Wetmore Story. thrift. so changed the convictions of Sou therners who hated him. in relati ng his experience in listening to a great preacher. if we analyze his charact . without a thought of fame. I have see n him when it seemed to me that he was almost godlike in his power. to get the three thousand people to join them. det ermination. Some who hated him in the slavery days wer e there. It would be easy. and Story livid. but who were curious to listen to his oratory. We can best appreciate the uplifting power of these simple virtues which all ma y cultivate and exercise. Instead.--J. His opening words changed their scorn to adm iration.--SOLOMON. by taking some concrete example of great success which has been achieved by patient plodding toward a definite goal. When James Russell Lowell was a student.

The reader can see that it would be easy to make up the hundred per cent. Had a few events over which no one had control been other than they were it is quite possible I might never have held the high office I now oc . a loving. Roosevelt said: "You think tha t my success is quite foreign to anything you can achieve. kindly neighbor a nd an honest citizen. his ability for hard work ten per cent. He simply wanted to better his condition. He had a helpful mind. who look upon him as a demigod. He was a simple man. a poor widow in trouble. without finding a ny one quality which could be called genius. the most ordinary virtues w ithin the reach of the poorest youth in the land. his aspiration .er. his integrity twenty per cent of the total. If I have succeeded. The strong thing about Lincoln was his manliness. of family.--in fact. wise and painstaking father. but there is no evidence of any grea t genius. He never covered up anything. but that are within the reach of the poorest and the humblest. an inspiratio n to poor boys and poor girls that his great achievement can be accounted for by the triumph in his character of those qualities which are beyond the reach of m oney. He wanted to know something. and as a citizen. they would probably expect to find some brilliant faculty which would rank at least f ifty per cent of the total. He was ambitious to make the most of himse lf. always ready to help everybody and everyth ing out of their troubles. "If when I die the ones who know me best believe that I was a thoughtful. and will prove my life to have been more successful than the fact that I have ever been president of t he United States. or a farmer who needed advice. But I think that the verdict of history has given hi s honesty of purpose. that will be a far more real honor. a large-hearted. You could depend upon him. a passion for a larger and c ompleter life than that of those about him. It is true that he had a divine hunger for growth. Suppose we rank his honesty. His simplicity was his chief charm. never straining after effec t. The ability to do hard work. merely because I have tried to do my duty as I saw it in my home and in my business. his do gged persistence. the poo rest boys and girls. so commanding that it could be ranked as genius . possess these qualities. his yearning for fulness of life ten more. the commonest qualities. we find it made up of the humblest virtues. In a speech to the people in Colorado Mountains. never had secrets. and certainly these qualities are within the reach of the poorest boy an d the humblest girl in America. that the total of his character wou ld be made up of the sum of the commonest qualities. downrigh t honesty. There is no one quality in his entire make-up so overpowering. for completeness. his longing for growth. a generous. his purity and unselfishness of motive as his highest attr ibutes. to be somebody. is the right hand of genius an d the best substitute for it. that is genius. What an inestimable blessing to the world. for doing everything to a finish ten more. to lift his head up from his hu mble environment and be of some account in the world. The door of his hea rt was always open so that anyone could read his inmost thoughts. generous friend. his passion for wholen ess. t ransparent. frank. any marvelous powers. helpf ul husband. of influence. whether it was a pig stuck in the mire. Everybody who knew him felt that he was a m an. Let me assure you tha t the big prizes I have won are largely accidental. open. and to stick to it. If young people were to represent Lincoln's total success by one hundred. his straightforward. it is o nly as anyone of you can succeed. what an encouragement.

With this he possessed great applicatio n and dogged determination. If he undertook a task. He had no very brilliant talents. and. was noted for his slowness. level head. and if my success in the end proves to have been as great as that achieved by many of the humblest of you I shall b e fortunate. no great leaps and bounds in his life from particula r ability or special opportunity. how to hang on. The record of human achievement is full of the truth. can refuse to stop . and he made a specialty of th e tariff. he did no t make a great record in Congress. The boulder which was an obst acle in the path of the weak becomes a stepping-stone in the pathway of the reso lute. "There is no difficulty to him who wills. He had good common sense and was a hard worker." It has been well said that from the same materials one man builds palaces. The biographies of the giants of the race are often discouraging to the average poor boy. increase his determination. and he knew that the only way to show what he was made of in Congress was to stick to one thing. because the moment he gets the impression that the character he is re ading about was a genius. "This is very interesting r eading. but I can never do those things. but no train of events could accidentally make me a noble character or a f aithful member of my home and community. not notable as a sch olar. at which we look with praise and wonder. he would come out first." came out seventeenth in a class of seventy. sharpen his wits and develop his inna te resources. one warehouses. Obstacles only serve to stiffen his backbone. He was not a great genius. He had the bes t substitute for genius--the ability for hard work and persistence. he was not a great lawyer." But when he reads the life of McKinley he does not see any reason why he could not do the same things himself. So. following the advice of a statesman friend. who looks on them as a sort of mental spring-board by which to vault across the gulf of failure to the sure. "are instances of the resistless force of perseverance. t unnels through them. when he went to West Point. He had tact and diplom acy and made the most of every opportunity. He did not stand very high in school. His classmates used to say that. distancing fifty-three who started with bette r attainments and better minds. The difficulties which dishearten one man only stiffen the sinews of anoth er. He knew how to keep plodding. but he avera ged well. he never let go till he had it done. Nothing can keep from success the man who has iron in his blood and is determin ed that he will succeed. When he is confronted by barriers he leaps over them.cupy. Bricks and mortar are mortar and bri cks until the architect makes them something else. There was nothing very surpri sing or startling in his career. The world always stands aside for the determined man. "Stonewa ll" Jackson." McKinley did not start with great mental ability. One of the commonest of common virtues is perseverance. but he had a good. the effect is largely lost upon himself. another villas. because there were no great jumps. Therefore each of you has the same chan ce to succeed in true success as I have had. There is no open door to the Temple of Success. if the course w as ten years instead of four." "All the performances of human art. anot her hovels. solid ground of full success. He kept up this steady gait. Every man and woman can exercise this virtue of perseverance. his habitual class response was that he was too busy getting the lesson of a few days back to look at the one of the da y." s ays Johnson. One of the greatest generals on the Confederate side in the Civil War. or makes a way around them. yet it has been the ope n sesame of more fast locked doors of opportunity than have brilliant tributes. and he says to himself. You will find no royal ro ad to your triumph. from the least promising "plebe. because he kn ows that he is not a genius.

Perseverance. the warrior's sword. earnestly living the everyday simple life. f or always being at the foot of the class. and it was not long before he silenced those who had ridiculed him. to undergo any hardship in order to achieve what these men have achieved. they could work with enthusiasm and zeal and power and con centration. schola Persistency is to talent what steam is to the engine. can decline to turn aside in search of pleasures that do but hinder progress. the great genius." Nothing is good enough unless it reflec ts our best." fascin all ch said. and remaining there. Wellington's dispatches centered around the commo n word duty. tha t it is not making a tremendous strain to do something great. the inventor's secret. others will exalt you. It is by the exercise of . they would devote all their energies to study. and asked the reason. and that he had decided to give up and go home. applied himself to his studies with determination to win. and he writes t he immortal "Pilgrim's Progress.short of the goal of ambition. He said the boys made fun of him. the r's "open sesame. It has been observed that the dispatches of Napo leon rang with the word glory. with a very little talent. a nd you will become a hero. He was sen t to Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire. Daniel Webster had no remarkable traits of character in his boyhood. and see what hard study would do. The friend said he ought to go back. You will think better of yourself. or a merchant prince like Wanamak er or Marshall Field. or if they could be an Ediso n in invention. They do not realize that success is not necessarily doing some great thing. can be counted on to go farther tha n a great deal of talent without persistency. Thoroughness is another of the common virtues which all may cultivate. if they were positivel y sure that they could be a Webster in law. Fidelity to duty has been a distinguishing virtue in men who have risen to posi tions of authority and command. Tenacity of purpose has been characteristic of aracters who have left their mark on the world. The romance of perseverance under especial difficulty is one of the most ating subjects in history. You cannot keep a determined man from success. it has been is the statesman's brain. and so they are not willing to make the great exertion. Every little while I get letters from young men who say. and he make s spurs of his poverty to urge him on. Daniel said he despaired of ever making a scholar. It is the driving force b y which the machine accomplishes the work for which it was intended. They would be willing to make any sacrifice. fling their whole lives into their work. Nowadays people seem unwilling to tread the rough path of duty and by patience and steadfast perseverance step into the ranks of those the country delights to honor. A great dea l of persistency. but that it is jus t honestly." Stick to a thing and carry it through in all its completeness and proportion. by reaching the hea d of the class. But many of them say they do not feel that they have the marvelous ability. and stayed there only a short tim e when a neighbor found him crying on his way home. Take away his money. The man who puts his best into every task will leave far behind the man who lets a job g o with the comment "That's good enough. or a great leader in medicine. Lock him up in a dungeon. the tremendous talent exhibited by those leaders. He went back.

w e miss the little successes. But when he went to Chicago and saw the marvelou s examples around him of poor boys who had won success. the sum of which would make our lives sublime. in the struggle to do something great and wonderful. He weren't cut out for a merchant. "Well." replied Deacon Davis. and I don't want to hurt yo ur feelin's. "If others can do such wonderful things. which. Great scientists tell us that the reason why the secrets of nature have been hi dden from the world so long is because we are not simple enough in our methods o f reasoning. h omely. but I'm a blunt man. Massachusetts. for so mething complicated. John. what beauty. that investigators are always looking for unusual phenomena. but he wouldn't make a merchant if he stayed i n my store a thousand years. for the grander t hings. accommodating. accommodatin g attitude toward those about us. what loveliness. as he watched his s on. would not compare in be auty and delicacy and loveliness to the things they trampled under their feet in trying to procure it. in trying to do some marvelous thing that will attract attention and get our names in the papers! We trample down th e finer emotions. we spoil many of the most delicious things in life in our scra mbling and greed to grasp something which is unusual. Marshall is a good. it is by always ringing true in our friendships. CHAPTER XXXV GETTING AROUSED "How's the boy gittin' on. waiting upon a customer. that there must be some genius born in the man who achieves it. Oh. we miss them. perhaps. and often. cheering things we have lost in the useless struggle. he could never have become one o f the world's merchant princes. John. It is just a natural persistent exercis e of the commonest every-day qualities. "why cannot I?" . that the principles of nature's secrets are so extremely si mple that men overlook them in their efforts to see and solve the more intricate problems. the lovely wild flowers in their efforts to get a b ranch of showy flowers off a large tree. "we are old friends. There is no great secret about success. it is by all t hese simple things that we attain success. encouraging father. In straining for effect.the common everyday virtues. It is most unfortunate that so many young people get the impression that succes s consists in doing some marvelous thing. and air goin' to tell you the truth. it is by trying to do everything one does to a comp lete finish. and teach him how to milk cows!" If Marshall Field had remained as clerk in Deacon Davis's store in Pittsfield. after all this straining and struggling for the larger. a g ood. and then we discover to our horror what we have missed on t he way up--what sweetness. what a lot of common. all right. by trying to be the best possible citizen. Take him back to the farm. it is by trying to be scrupulously honest in every transaction. else he could not do such remarkable things. as he took an apple from a barrel and handed it to Marshal l's father as a peace offering. where he got his first position. you and I are old friends. how many exquisite experiences." he asked himself. steady boy. something showy that we ca n wave before the world in order to get its applause. delightful possible joys we trample under o ur feet in straining after something great. by holding a helpful. Marshall. helpful neighbor. We have seen people in the country in the summer time trampling down the daisie s and the beautiful violets. Davis?" asked Farmer John Field. it aroused his ambition and fired him with the determination to be a great merchant himself. a kind.

before his latent pow er was aroused. awakened his ambition. that is my problem. an ambition-arousing environment. had a great deal to do wi th stimulating his latent energy and bringing out his reserve force. and it requires constant care and education. But it is a passion that responds very quickly to cultivati on. Almost in a day she passed from childhood to budding womanhood. It had then only about eighty-five thousand inhabitants. was in middle life. Ho w can we expect our ambition to remain fresh and vigorous through years of inact ivity. "is somebody to make do what I can. me do what I can. This was wh at stirred the slumbering power within him. but circumstances. But the city grew by lea ps and bounds. indolence. that it is not susceptible to improvement. . A few years before it had been a mere Indian trading village. Some time ago there appeared in the newspapers an account of a girl who had rea ched the age of fifteen years. there was the making of a great merchant in Mr. and always beat the predictions of its most sanguine inhabitants. Field from the start . Great possibil ities of usefulness and of achievement are. If we do not try to realize our ambition." as Emerson says. fifteen. with the reputation of being its best-read man. she suddenly awakened to full consciousne ss. or indifference? If we constantly allow opportunities to slip by us without making any attempt to grasp them. the owner of the fine st library in his city. "What I most need." To a Lincoln could do. It is doubt ful if he would have climbed so rapidly in any other place than Chicago. They have developed only a small percentage of their success possibilitie s. What caused the revolution in his life? The hearing of a single lecture on the value of education. one of the most highly esteemed jurists in his state. all unconsciously. an d indifferent to everything around her most of the time until. slumbering within us. just as the faculty for music o r art does. one day. as it slumbered in this girl. an illiterate blacksmith. while li stening to a hand organ on the street. our inclination will grow duller and weaker. not what a Napoleon or ut what I can do. which could do marvels if we would only awaken it. She came to herself.--whether I utilize five. He is now sixty. The judge of the municipal court in a flourishing western city. or it will atrophy. b to me whether I bring ten. or ninety per cent of my ability.Of course. [Illustration: Marshall Field] Many people seem to think that ambition is a quality born within us. In 1856 . going to waste wi thin them. It makes all the difference in the world out the best thing in me or the worst. and in a few days she leape d forward years in her development. when young Field went there. and one whose highest endeavor is to help his fellow man. Everybody felt that there were great possibilities ther e. Success was in the air. twenty- Everywhere we see people who have reached middle life or later without being ar oused. Most of us have an enormous amount of power. She was dreamy. inactive. They are still in a dormant state. and yet had only attained the mental development of a small child. of latent force . When we meet these people we feel conscious that they have a great deal of latent power that has never been exercised. her faculties were aroused. that it is something thrust upon us which will take care of itself. The best thing in them lies so deep that i t has never been awakened. it will not keep sharp and defined. this marvelous city was just starting on its unpa ralleled career. and set his f eet in the path of self-development. O ur faculties become dull and soon lose their power if they are not exercised. Only a few things interested her.

The ambiti on aroused by stimulating environment had sunk to sleep again. able to resist the downward-dragging tendencies about them. and. beca . and how many of its inherit ed tendencies will remain? If brought up from infancy in a barbarous. has also come to the con clusion that environment is stronger than heredity. we are constantly be ing modified by our surroundings. and encouraged them. and ate like one. brutal atm osphere. It will make all the difference in the world to you whether you are with people who are watching for ability in you.I have known several men who never realized their possibilities until they reac hed middle life. photographs of the Indian y ouths as they come from the reservation and as they look when they are graduated . in order that they might acquire American methods and ca tch the American spirit.--someone with high ideals. people who believe in.--walk ed on all fours. Everything--every se rmon or lecture or conversation you have heard. encouraging environment. encourage. with the fire of ambition in their eyes. personal initiative. by listening to a sermon or a lecture. of course. believed i n. Even the strongest of us are not beyond the reach of our environment. They had developed ambitio n. non-progr essive atmosphere about them had done its work. The chief probation officer of the children's court in New York. Our Indian schools sometimes publish. There are.--modif ied somewhat from what you were before. we rise or fall according to the stronge st current in which we live. howled like a wolf. and who actually took on all the characteristics of the wolf. they were again plodders. A year after their return to their own country. was suckled by a wolf with her own young ones. many notable exceptions. with the greatest in herited advantages." The New York Society for the Prevention of Cruel ty to Children. We naturally follow the examples about us. Take the best-born child. the deadening. The poet's "I am a part of all that I have met" is not a mere poetic flight of fancy.--who understood. strong-willed. says: "Removing a boy or girl from improper environment is the first s tep in his or her reclamation. as a rule. but the majority of those who go back to their tribes. o r by meeting some friend. with no goal beyond the day's work. and determined our nature. blast ing your hopes. you will find that multitudes have failed because they never got into a stimulating. after thirty years of investigation of cases involving the socia l and moral welfare of over half a million of children. Within six months the Russians had become almost the eq uals of the American artisans among whom they worked. Some years ago a party of Russian workmen were sent to this country by a Russia n firm of shipbuilders. and throwing cold water on your aspirations. If you interview the great army of failures. and a marked degree of excellence in thei r work.--just as Beecher was never the same man after reading Ruskin. The story is told of a well-born chi ld who. It does not take much to determine the lives of most of us. being lost or abandoned as an infant. The men had lost the desire to i mprove. every person who has touched you r life--has left an impress upon your character. and prai se you. but th ese are strong characters. it will. become brutal. intelligent. and you are never quite the sam e person after the association or experience. We predic t great things for them. You are a little different. as if from a long sleep. of course. in his report for 1905. and let it be reared by savages. individuality. by re ading some inspiring. stimulating book. it is an absolute truth. or whether you are with those who are forever breaking your idols. Then they were suddenly aroused.--well dressed. side by side. after struggling awhile to keep up their new standards. gradually drop back to t heir old manner of living. No matter how independent.

Most of the peopl e we find in prisons and poor-houses are pitiable examples of the influence of a n environment which appealed to the worst instead of to the best in them.--J. indolent." "Well.--W . who will help you to discover yourself and encourage you to make the most of yourself. Keep close to those who are dead-in-earnest. There is a great power in a battery of individuals who are struggling for the a chievement of high aims. "I can ma ke one myself. yes it can. of Boston. and he finally resolved to p roduce one. Thoughts are mightier th an armies. the light-hearted boy had become a thoughtful. STUART MI LL. A healthful hunger for a great idea is the beauty and blessedness of life. If you lack energy. Sti ck to those who are trying to do something and to be somebody in the world. a great magnetic force which will help you to attract t he object of your ambition. with t ." The words of Davis were uttered in a spirit of jest. K eep close to people who understand you. The thoug ht of the sewing-machine haunted him night and day. A profound conviction raises a man above the feeling of ridicule. lofty ambition. who believe in you. bu t the novel idea found lodgment in the mind of one of the workmen who stood by. and guiding and contro lling his entire life. M. "why don't you make a sewing-machin e?" His advice had been sought by a rich man and an inventor who had reached the ir wits' ends in the vain attempt to produce a device for knitting woolen goods. discouraging. that is. or because they were not strong enough to rally under depressing. Whatever you do in life. This may make all the difference to you between a grand success and a mediocre existence. After months wasted in the effort to work a needle pointed at both ends. "I wish I could. You will catch the spirit that dominates in your environm ent. the more desirable such a machine appeared to him. a mere youth of twenty. But Elias Howe was not so rattle-headed as he seemed. but it can't be done. and the more he reflected .--JEA N INGELOW. "What are you bothering yourselves with a knitting machine for?" asked Ari Davi s. The success of those about you who are trying to climb upward will encourag e and stimulate you to struggle harder if you have not done quite so well yourse lf. CHAPTER XXXVI THE MAN WITH AN IDEA He who wishes to fulfil his mission must be a man of one idea. who was thought not capable of a serious idea. and I'll insure you an independent fortune. plodding man. Ideas go booming through the world louder than cannon. or vicious surroundings. A mbition is contagious. Four years passed. if you are naturally lazy . over shadowing all his aims. PAXTON." "Oh. an environment that will stimulate you to self-development. make any sacrifice necessary to keep in an ambition-ar ousing atmosphere. Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots. you will be urged forward by the consta nt prodding of the more ambitious.--peo ple of high aims. It is very stimulating to be with people whose aspir ations run parallel with your own. "you do it." said Davis. and with a wife and three children to support in a great city on a salary of nine dollar s a week. or inclined to take it easy.--BATE. a manufacturer of instruments.use their ambition was never aroused. of one great overmastering purpose." the capitalist replied.

000 each." . But help came fro m an old schoolmate. It has ever been the man with an idea. until he had made a rough mod el of wood and wire that convinced him of ultimate success. a poor. and is considered more nearly perfect tha n any other prominent invention at its first trial. This saved nearly three-four ths of the steam. uneduc ated Scotch boy. He then went to work on t he principle that the more luxurious his cars were. and he had faith enough in his idea to risk his all in it. and his brave wi fe Margaret begged him not to mind her inconvenience. the greater would be the dem and for them. Newcomen. All this time he was re volving in his mind his pet project of building a "sleeping car" which would be adopted on all railroads. who at fifteen walked the streets of London in a vain search fo r work. who had aided him more or less. After spending three years in Colorado gold mines. were insufficient to embody it in a working machine. who in the seven teenth century conceived the idea of moving a piston by the elastic force of ste am. There is not one of the mill ions of sewing-machines now in use that does not contain some of the essential p rinciples of this first attempt. and soon found they would be in demand. and comfort. but his engine consumed thirty pounds of coal in producing one horse power. He fitted up two old cars on the Chicago and Alton roa d with berths." she wrote him while struggling in London. The wonderful t own which he built and which bears his name. and wi th almost insane devotion he worked night and day. that should pass up and down through the cloth. and letting the steam already in the chamber expand and drive the piston the remaining distance. the machine was completed. In May. but it was not developed until mo re than two thousand years later. "If th e engine will not work. but he was terribly in earnest. and the contract was awarded to him. with no opportunities. In his mind's eye he saw his idea. one for Mr." But Pullman believed that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with speedy approval. who has changed the face of Christendom. Never despair. order. He ag reed to board Elias and his family and furnish five hundred dollars. nor be discouraged. if the machine proved to be worth patentin g. A professor in the Glasgow University gave him the use of a room to work in. and put in a bid for the great undertaking. wil l sew three hundred stitches a minute. When it was decided to try and elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising its im mense blocks up to grade. the young son of a poor mechanic. The germ idea of the steam engine can be s een in the writings of the Greek philosophers. named George M. appeared on the scene. for which h e was to have one-half of the patent. The perfection of the modern engine is largely due to James Watt. He not only raised the blocks.he eye in the middle. Watt suffered from pinching poverty and hardships which would have disheartened ordinary men. and so the town of Pullman is a model of cleanliness. Pull man. which is still preserved. but his own funds and those of his father. is an example of his belief in this principle. This machine. It was an English blacksmith. Fisher and the other for hims elf. suddenly t he thought flashed through his mind that another stitch must be possible. Everybody laughed at "Pullman's folly. 1845. He impr oved Newcomen's engine by cutting off the steam after the piston had completed a quarter or a third of its stroke. but did it in such a way that business within them was scarcely interrupted. which he puts into practical effect. Pullman was a great believer in the commercial value of beauty. and in July Elias Howe sewed all the seams of two suits of woolen clothes. and while waiting for jobs he experimented with old vials for steam reservo irs and hollow canes for pipes. as well as his magnificent cars. for he could not bear to waste a moment. he returned and built two cars which cost $18. a coal and wood merchant of Cambridge. The sewing outlasted the cloth. "something el se will. George Fisher. He counts it a good investment to s urround his employees with comforts and beauty and good sanitary conditions.

but also burst a pipe. when the idea came into my head that. We trust tha t Parliament will." This article referred to Stephenson's proposition to use h is newly invented locomotive instead of horses on the Liverpool and Manchester R ailroad. The "Sanspareil" made an average of fourteen miles an hour. The company decided to lay the matter before two leading English engineers. who reported that steam would be desirable only when used in stationary engines one and a half miles apart. and set them on wheels to draw men and merchandise. 1829." For three days the committee of the House of Commons plies questions to him. and was crowded out. "carriage makers and coachmen will starve for want of work. as the conditions called for at least ten. He had picked up the fixed engines which the gen ius of Watt had devised. he would undertake to eat a stewed engine for breakfast. it would rush into it. "What can be more palpably absurd and ridiculous than the prospect held out of locomotives traveling twice as fast as horses?" asked a writer in the English "Q uarterly Review" for March. The "Novelty" did splendidly. People say he is crazy. and died poor. lived poor. the "Novelty. indeed. 1825. Sylvester is as great as c an be ventured upon. that if he could get one hundred pounds by cutti ng off one of his legs he would gladly give it to the knife. in all the railways it may grant. "on a fine Sabbath afternoon. thinking upon the engine at the time. He was one of those eager souls that would coin their own fl esh to carry their point. in a crisis of his invention. This was one of them: "If a cow get on the track of the engine traveling ten miles an hour. poor in appearance. but in it lay the germ of the first steam engine of mu ch practical value. the highest rate attained being twenty-nine. giving the first money he ever earned. ." said Watt. aga inst the most direful predictions of the foremost engineers of his day. it would rush into a vacuu m. which we entirely agree with Mr. for the coo. $150. to his blind father to pay his debts. "smoke will pollute the air". working in the coal pits for sixpence a day. and so fully vindicated his theory that the idea of stationary engines on a ra ilroad was completely exploded. patching th e clothes and mending the boots of his fellow-workmen at night. But Ste phenson persuaded them to test his idea by offering a prize of about twenty-five hundred dollars for the best locomotive produced at a trial to take place Octob er 6. then in process of construction. On the eventful day. In all the records of invention there is no more sad or affecting story than th at of John Fitch. Sir James Mackintosh places this poor Scotch boy who began w ith only an idea "at the head of all inventors in all ages and all nations. poor in spirit . leaving th e "Rocket" to carry off the honors with an average speed of fifteen miles an hou r. and so was ruled o ut." The idea was simple. drawing the cars by means of ropes and pulleys. this man was one. "We should as soon expect the people of Woolwi ch to suffer themselves to be fired off upon one of Congreve's rockets as to tru st themselves to the mercy of such a machine. will it n ot be an awkward situation?" "Yes. A government inspector said that if a locomotive ever went ten miles an hour. He was born poor. and if a communication were made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel . his "roaring steam e ngine will set the house on fire with its sparks". very awkward. but as it burst a water-pipe it lost its chance." and the "Sans pareil. to earn a little money to attend a night school. Poor he was in many senses." The "Perseverance" could make but six miles an hour. and had p assed the old washing-house. If there ever was a true inventor . He only uttered the obvious truth when he said one day . This was Stephenson's locomotive ."I had gone to take a walk." replied S tephenson." the "Perseverance. going at such a rate. limit the speed to eight or nine miles an hour. as steam is an elastic body." the "Rocket. and might be there condensed without cooling the cylind er." See George Stephenson. thousands of spectators assembled to watch the competition of four engines.

and "they will all be drowned. They rus hed to the shore amazed to see a boat "on fire" go against the stream so rapidly with neither oars nor sails. Those on shore thought that a fire had broken out below the decks. Nobody present. At noon. Did anybody ever hear of such a ridiculous idea as navigating against t he current up the Hudson in a vessel without sails? "The thing will 'bust. "it will burn up. True. Sailors forsook their vessels. The walking beam moves slowly up and down." exclaims a third. But the passengers go on board. The Indians were as much frighte ned as their predecessors were when the first ship approached their hunting-grou nd on Manhattan Island. and when he died. a serv ice which has revolutionized the commerce of the world. "It can never go up stream. newspapers were marked with black lines . refused by the rich. By this time his fame had spread all over the civ ilized world. dense columns of fire and smoke belched forth from her smoke-stack while she glided triumphantly up the river. It ran six miles an hour against the tide. Dr." the spectators persis t. he was looked upon by ma ny as a public enemy. and minute guns were fire d as the long funeral procession passed to old Trinity churchyard. and detraction has usua lly been in proportion to the benefit the victim has conferred upon mankind. in all probability. in 1790. Johnny Fitch will be forgotten. Notwithstanding that Fulton had rendered such great service to humanity. ridicule. The severity of the world's censure. Critics and cynics turned up their noses when Fulton was m entioned. he kept on till. It was the opinion of everybody that the man who had tooled away his money and his time on the Clermont was little better than an idiot. He also built a diving boat for the government f or the discharge of torpedoes. ragged. and the inhabi tants along the banks were utterly unable to account for the spectacle. 1807. He would say: "You and I will not live to see the day. forlorn. discouraged by the great. and eight miles with it. But the success of the Clermont soon led to the construction of other steamships all over the country. pitied as a madman. As the Clermont burned pine wood. having made this "impossible" passage. The noise of her great paddle-wheels increased the wonder. and when steamboats will cross the ocean. The government employed Fulton to aid in building a powerful steam frigate. the plank is pulled in. and fishermen rowed home as fast as poss ible to get out of the way of the fire monster.'" say s one. but other men will carry out his ideas and grow rich and great upon them. But it did go up stream. a crowd of curious people might have been s een along the wharves of the Hudson River. the legislature of New York wore badges of mourning. and had given to the world the first ste amboat that had any practical value. in 1815. and a king's cutter wa . but the time wi ll come when the steamboat will be preferred to all other modes of conveyance. and the Clermo nt floats out into the river. Others whose interests were affected denied Fulto n's claim to the invention and brought suits against him. ever heard of a boat going by st eam. on Friday.He tried in vain both in this country and in France to get money to build his s teamboat. but in 1810 the Savannah from New York appeared off the coast o f Ireland under sail and steam. w hen steamboats will ascend the Western rivers from New Orleans to Wheeling. The owners of sailing vessels were jealous of the Clermo nt. had scored a great triumph. whi ch was called Fulton the First. and t he steam is turned on. as he sees vast columns of black smoke shoot up with showers of brilli ant sparks. and tried to run her down. They had gathered to witness what the y considered a ridiculous failure of a "crank" who proposed to take a party of p eople up the Hudson River to Albany in what he called a steam vessel named the C lermont. who in his youth said there is nothing impossible. he had the first vessel on the D elaware that ever answered the purpose of a steamboat. and ought to be in an insane asylum." says another. Very few priv ate persons were ever honored with such a burial." Poor. August 4. and the boy. Lardner had "proved" to scientific men that a steamship could not cro ss the Atlantic. jeered at.

and send her to New York. worn to a skeleton himself. but he never gave up his idea. a river steamer of seven hundred tons. and both vessels arrived at New York the same day. T o his surprise. the historian and banker. it was near ly twenty years before it was admitted that steam navigation could be made a com mercial success in ocean traffic. and he reaped his re ward. to make William of Prussia a greater potentate tha n Napoleon or Alexander. What a sublime picture of determination and patience was that of Charles Goodye ar. to make India rubber of practical use! See him in prison for debt. despised by his neighbors for neglecting his family. Oke . melancholy. Columbus was exposed to continual scoffs and indignities. Soon af ter Smith made the round trip between London and New York in thirty-two days. giving his clot hes to his hired man because he could not pay him in money. Diet. when his neighbors were h arshly criticizing him for his neglect of his family and calling him insane. He could play the game alone. but only baked potatoes. plodding on through want and woe t o rediscover the lost art of enameling pottery. probably of starv ation. of New Haven. or nation. ever believing that right would at last triumph. German unity was the idea engraven upon Bismarck's heart. Watch his sublime courage and devotion to his idea. he said to himself. He simply defied and sent h ome every Diet which opposed him. Although the voyage was made without accident. To make Germany the greatest power in Europe. the result of that heroic struggle. imperious. agreed to build a steamship of two thousand tons . was his all-absorbing purpose. Germany must hold the deciding voice in the Areopagus of the world. but it wa s the same old story. irrepressible! See the great Dante in exile. "Wh y not cross the ocean regularly in steamships?" In New York and in London a deaf ear was turned to any such nonsense. seeing his six children die of neglect. pawn ing his clothes and his wife's jewelry to get a little money to keep his childre n (who were obliged to gather sticks in the field for fire) from starving. gaunt form. hoping always. At length Isaac Selby. condemned to be burnt alive on false charges of e mbezzlement. Look at his starved features. who said the idea was practicable. the famous German naturalist. they had neither meats nor dessert.--he would risk no money in it. whether people. behold his vulcanized rubber. po inted to their foreheads as he passed. An unexpected delay in fitting the engines led the projecto rs to charter the Sirius. other parties started from Bristol four days later in the Great Western. building his furnaces with brick s carried on his back. when he had no money to bury a de ad child and when his other five were near starvation. it is said. being taught to regard him as a kind of m adman. The very children. on a rough and tedious voyage in 1832. he poured out his very soul into his immortal poem. faili ng steadily. defiant of oppositi on. He rode ro ughshod over everybody and everything that stood in his way. all must bend to his mighty will . As Junius Smith impatiently paced the deck of a vessel sailing from an English port to New York. buried in poverty and struggling with hardships for eleven lon g years. a pr ominent business man of London.s sent to her relief. It mattered not what sto od in his way. applied to o ver five hundred uses by 100. Learning of this. a poor wander er. Smith's first encouragement came from Geor ge Grote.000 employees. What cared this hercu lean despot for the Diet chosen year after year simply to vote down every measur e he proposed? He was indifferent to all opposition. An American was once invited to dine with Oken. But . the British Queen. until at last his great work was accomplished. What a pathetic picture was that of Palissy. his wife in rags and despair over her husband's "folly". being ridiculed as a mere dreamer and stigmatized as an adventurer.

that her husband's income was very small. M rs. Before the discovery of ether it often took a week. and the enemy that aims a shot at the tent or building over which flies the white flag with the red cross has lost hi s last claim to human consideration. but as soon as the instruments were applied the patient would revive. he was not liberally educ ated. What a grand idea Bishop Vincent worked out for the young world in the Chautauq ua Circle. Oftentimes in these grea t battles for principle and struggles for truth. Clark in his world-wide Christian Endeavor movement. and that they preferred to live simply in order that he might obtain books and instruments for his scientific r esearches. and he went straight to his mark. He never pandered for public favor nor sought applause. he did not know the properties of chemical substances. hardship. ridicule. Hoe. and she determined to have the barba rous custom stopped. She noticed in our Civil War th at the Confederates were shelling the hospital. toil. incurred the pity and scorn of the rich and highly educated. and bigotry. Harriet Beecher Stowe." in the opinion of their neighbors. however.n was too great a man to apologize for their simple fare. each representing some great idea embodied in earnest action. Noah in building the ark. Beecher. and too magnanimous for envy. Other churches did no t agree with him nor his. Bell. or even death. to r ecover from the enormous dose. but immediately began to experiment with well-known substances. of Morse. Yet in every age and in every clime men and women have been willing to incur poverty. Edward Everett Hale in his little bands of King' s Daughters and Ten Times One is Ten! Here is Clara Barton who has created the R ed Cross Society. given t o a patient to deaden the pain during a surgical operation. Morton did not resort to books. persecution . and sc ores of others. Of course the world laughed at this poor unaided woman. George Peabody. Edison. Young Dr. In fact it is doubtful whether a ma n can perform very great service to mankind who is not permeated with a great pu rpose--with an overmastering idea. His wife explained. Ther e was no shilly-shallying. sometimes five hundred drops of laudanum. narrowness. Duty and truth were his goal. McCormick. but he was too broad for hatred. which is loved by all nations. Morton bel ieved that there must be some means provided by Nature to relieve human sufferin g during these terrible operations. She thought it the last touch of cruelty to fight what couldn't fight back. Goodyear. nor did he go to scientific men fo r advice. uncharitableness and envy even in hi s own church. Howe. Dr. He kept on experimenting with narcotics in this manner until at last he found what he sought in ether. But he never hesitated nor wavered when he once saw his duty. too charitable for re venge. He hewed close to the chalk line and held his li ne plumb to truth. Gough. Beecher had to fight every step of the way to his triumph through obstacles whi ch would have appalled all but the greatest characters. or Christ in living and dying to sa ve a fallen race. but what could he do? He was not a chemist. He tri ed intoxicants even to the point of intoxication. What tale of the "Arabian Nights" equals in fascination the story of such lives as those of Franklin. Mos es in espousing the cause of the Israelites. In all ages those who have advanced the cause of humanity have been men and wom en "possessed. Dr. ho wever. But her idea has been adopted by all nations. Amos Lawrence. in some cases a month. he stood almost alone fighting popular prejudice. if thereby they might shed light or comfort upon the path which all must walk from the cradle to the grave. i n common with all great benefactors. no hunting for a middle ground between right and wron g. mental. the Methodis t Church in the Epworth League. no compromise on principles. an d resulting in an improvement of the physical. and moral condition of th ose around them? .

To stand unchained. ay. and each one challenges the independent soul. who brought an order from the king for them to dis perse. Let me die facing the enemy. "No. with perfect liberty to go away. All good things have not been done. W. although the men were retreating. or the wounds of a guilty mind? Slave as I am to Carthage." The courage which Cranmer had shown since the accession of Mary gave way the mo ment his final doom was announced. June 23. "We have heard the intentions that have been attributed to the king. but where they are." shouted a captain at the battle of the Alma." When the assembled senate of Rome begged Regulus not to return to Carthage to f ulfil an illegal promise. 1789.--BAYARD. ROBERTSON. shall find a stubborn foe. he calmly replied: "Have you resolved to dishonor me? Torture and death are awaiting me. who cannot be recognized as his organ in the National A ssembly. many of whom had to keep their word by thus obeying. I still have t he spirit of a Roman.--SHAKESPEARE.--BYRON.--this is heroism. nor right to speak. Let the gods take c are of the rest.--you. I have sworn to return.--you are not t he person to bring to us a message of his. and again to dare.There are plenty of ideas left in the world yet. "But how shall I get ideas?" Keep your wits open! Observe! Study! But above all . "The Commons of France have resolved to deliberate . "Steady. save by the power of the bayonet. say to those who sent you that we are here by the power of the people." "To dare.--F. but what are these to the shame of an infamou s act. sir. no doubt. What's brave. who have neither place. But the true glory is resignation to the inevit able. It is my duty. is heroic. GEORGE ELIOT. and without end to dare." said Mirabeau to De Breze. men! Every man must die where he stands!" said Colin Campbell to the N inety-third Highlanders at Balaklava. what's noble.--DRYDEN. Who conquers me. "Bring back the colors. Fortune befriends the bold. and let the fire creep up to the heart. There are thousands of abuses to rectify . Sir Colin! we'll do that!" was the response from men. and you. voice. when an e nsign maintained his ground in front. No great deed is done By falterers who ask for certainty. held only by the high er claims of duty. let's do it after the high Roman fashion. armed with a new idea. The moral cowardice which had displayed itsel . Think! and when a noble image is indelibly impressed upon the mind--Act! CHAPTER XXXVII DARE The Spartans did not inquire how many the enemy are. Everything has not been invent ed. "bring up the men to the colors. "Ay.--AGIS II. and make death proud to take us. as an overwhelming force of Russian cavalr y came sweeping down. Go. and that we will not be driven hence." was Danton's noble defia nce to the enemies of France." cr ied the ensign. To stand with a smile upon your face against a stake from which you cannot get away--that.

When General Jackson was a judge and was holding court in a small settlement. "He will do great things for you in return for this day's work. The youth redoubled his exertions. and h olding it steadily in the flame. a ." exclaimed the woman as she caught sight of a youth of eighte en. The cries were repeat ed in quick succession. he will save my child!" cried the mother." solemnly spoke the gratefu l woman. the child is held aloft by his strong right arm. my boy. sir. "therefore it shall suffer first punishment". and then. Three times he was about to grasp the child. and they will not l et me go!" "It would be madness. in a delirium of joy. I thank Thee!" And sure enough." ended his address to the hushed congregation before him." replied the Iron Duke. and the youth almost exhausted. she will jump into the river. to s ave my life. for if I come to the fire it shall be the first burned." That first fight. and the blessings of thousands besides mine will attend you. plunged into the roaring rapids. and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a po wer in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. "and the rapids would dash her to pieces in a moment!" Throwing off his coat. sunny day in 1750. "he never stirred nor cried till life was gone. "Now . On e final effort he makes. " A woman's piercing shriek suddenly startled a party of surveyors at dinner in a forest of northern Virginia on a calm. when some stronger eddy would toss it from him. the boy senseless. lest h e should be dashed to pieces. from whose grasp escape would seem impossible . even in a canoe. and no one had ever dared to approach it.--"now I come to the great thing that troubleth my conscience more than any other thing that ever I s aid or did in my life." he a gain exclaimed at the stake. if it might be. my darling boy! How could I leave you?" But all eyes were bent upon the youth struggling with strong heart and hope ami d the dizzy sweep of the whirling currents far below. which here I now renounce and refuse as things written by a hand contra ry to the truth which I thought in my heart. on an Indian field. and that is the setting abroad of writings contrary to th e truth. but still alive. but a cry of horror bursts from the lips of every spectator as boy and man shoot over the falls and vanish in the seething waters below. they emerged unharme d from the boiling vortex. My boy. forasmuch as my hand offended in writing contr ary to my heart. and in a few minutes reached a low place in the bank and were drawn up by their friends. "You are right. "Your Grace has not the organ of animal courage largely developed. althou gh terribly near the most dangerous part of the river." said a phre nologist. Now it seemed as if he wou ld be dashed against a projecting rock. and a non a whirlpool would drag him in. who was examining Wellington's head. scanned for a m oment the rocks and whirling currents.--my poor boy is drowning. The rush of waters here w as tremendous. to repeat his recantation on the way to the stake. and the men sprang through the undergrowth to learn thei r cause. Twice the boy went out of sight. "God will give you a reward." The youth was George Washington. "See ! they are safe! Great God." said one of the men who was holding her. but he had reappeared the second time. and all rushed to the brink of the precipice. "There they are!" shouted the mother a moment later. over which the water flew in foam. the youth sprang to the edge of the bank. but a man in stature and bearing. And. "you will surely do something for me! Make these friends release me." "This was the hand that wrote it. at sight of part of the boy's d ress. Mary at Oxfo rd on the 21st of March. "there he is! Oh. "Thank God. "and but for my sense of duty I should have retreated in my first fight.f in his miserable compliance with the lust and despotism of Henry VIII displaye d itself again in six successive recantations by which he hoped to purchase pard on. was one of the most terrible on record. and written for fear of death. But pardon was impossible. my hand therefore shall be the first punished. "Oh.

and the train stop ped. placing h is hand upon his heart." One of the last official acts of President Carnot. It was seen. It was the heroic devotion of an Indian girl that saved the life of Captain Joh n Smith. of France. The judge ordered him to be arrested. and so he warned his companions that they must be ready to leave camp at a moment's notice. afterwards saying. their supports fled in a panic. discovered that a trestle was on fire. At the tap of the drum the foremost assailants whee led from the cover of the street wall under a terrible hail of grape and caniste r. ." When Stephen of Colonna fell into the hands of base assailants. carried the column ac ross two hundred yards of clear space. Ill could the st ruggling colony spare him at that time. they asked him in derision. The front ranks went down li ke stalks of grain before a reaper. While a train on the Pan Handle Railroad. "Call me." said the judge. and with his eagle eye actually cowed the ruffian. many of whom must have suffered d eath but for Jennie's courage and presence of mind. So sudde n and so miraculous was it all that the Austrian artillerists abandoned their gu ns instantly. Then she took off her red flannel skirt and. the purpose of which is the honoring of bravery and merit. which was nearly due. entered it a dreadful wreck would take place. and th e result was the sending of the medal of this famous French society. Behind them were six thousand troops. waved it back and forth across the track. Napoleon masse d four thousand grenadiers at the head of the bridge. 1796. When they returned to France . having on board several distin guished Frenchmen. This Napoleon had counted on in making the b old attack. and that if the t rain. wherever they may be found. "and arrest him. Thereu pon she ran out upon the track to a place where she could be seen from some litt le distance. and instead of rushing to the front and meeting the French onslaug ht. From his headquarters at Vancouver he had gone on an exploring expedition with two companions. After the Mexican War General McClellan was employed as a topographical enginee r in surveying the Pacific coast. and his aides and g enerals rushed to his side. Jennie Carey. Fourteen cannon--some accounts say thirty--were trained upon the F rench end of the structure. who was then ten years old. On May 10." He left the bench. The of ficer did not dare to approach him. The contrast between Napoleon's slight figure and the massive grenad iers suggested the nickname "Little Corporal. On board of it were seven hundred people. in the face of the Austri an batteries. and attempted to pass the gateway to the bridge. when the train came in view.border ruffian. Napoleon carried the bridge at Lodi." But they also shrank in fear from the ruffian. then. and a quick run. counted by seconds only. came into the court-room with brutal violence and interrupted the court. the column staggered and reeled backward. when o ne evening he received word that the chiefs of the Columbia River tribes desired to confer with him. Without a word o r a look of reproach. a murderer and desperado. was bound to Chicago and the World's Fair. walked straig ht up to the man. a soldier and a servant. Forward again." was his bold reply. an d the valiant grenadiers were appalled by the task before them. the Frenchmen brought the occurrence to the notice of President Carnot. From the messenger's manner he suspected that the Indians m eant mischief. "There was something in his eye I could not res ist. Napoleon placed himself at their head. "this court is adjourned for five minutes. scarcely a shot from the Austrians taking effect beyond the point where the platoons wheeled for the first leap." said Jacks on. was the sending o f a medal of the French Legion of Honor to a little American girl who lives in I ndiana. with a battalion of three hundred carbineers in front. "Call a posse. when the powerful King Powhatan had decreed his death. this time over heaps of dead that cho ked the passage. who dropped his weapons. "Where is now your fortress?" "Here.

with his fingers c licking the trigger. he whipped out his revolver and held it close to the chief's temple. where his two followers were r eady to spring into the saddle and to escape from the villages." said the Vice-President. They made lavis h preparations for the dinner. Not a hand was raised agains t him. who presided. He found the supports of the floor in so bad a condition that the sl ightest applause would be likely to bury the audience in the ruins of the buildi ng. The chiefs pondered long. and then Saltese. he rode boldly into the Indian village." sneered a Senator who had already taken too much. apparently indifferent to his fate. In 1856.in five minutes". No doubt many lives were saved by his c oolness. By his listlessness he had thrown his captors off their guard. He had known that argument and pleas for justice or mer cy would be of no avail. The revolver wa s lowered. the Houstonites determined to go beyond any other Southern city in the way of a banq uet and other manifestations of their good-will and hospitality. he added. He owed his life to his quickness of perception. Returning rather leisurely to the platform. until a sound of cracking timber below would have precipitated a stamp ede with fatal results but for the coolness of B. therefore he and th ose with him would be the last to leave. About thirty chiefs were holding council. then he told the crowd that ther e was no immediate danger if they would slowly disperse. and could understand every word spoken in the council. but Schuyler Colfax. his courage. Telli ng the people to remain quiet. F. Rufus Choate spoke to an audience of nearly five thousand in Lowell. was on the platform." was the quick response. Butler. he said that he would see if there were any cause for alarm. The floor of the great hall began to sink. then vice-presi dent of the United States. the committee taking great pains to have the fine st wines that could be procured for the table that night. he whispered to Choate as he pas sed. M ass. "Revok e that sentence. Saltese was released from the embrace of the strong arm. McClellan said nothing. When the time came to serve the wine. "You are right. Flinging his left arm around the neck of Salt ese. The post of danger. fairly livid from fear. "Colfax dares not drink. the headwaiter went first to Grant. "I revoke it!" exclaimed Saltese. in favor of the candidacy of James Buchanan for the presidency. declined to drink from a proffered cup. He sat motionless. decreed that McClellan should immediately be put to death. he was a white man. bu t had little to say. in the name of the head men of the tribes. Without a single word be . McClellan knew how sacred was the pledge which he had received. McClellan had been on friendly terms with them. Two Indians had been captured by a party of white pioneers and hanged for the ft. When the sentence was passed he acted like a flash. McClellan st rode out of the tent with his revolver in his hand. The council was prolonged for hours before sentence was passed.Mounting his horse. McClellan was led into the circle. and the c hiefs had vowed vengeance against the race. which was most weakly supported. This movement was a great surpr ise to the Texans. Without a word the general q uietly turned down all the glasses at his plate. " I must have your word that I can leave this council in safety. "We shall all be in ---. Saltese made known the grievance of the tribe s." When Grant was in Houston many years ago. Retaliation for this outrage seemed imperative. but they were equal to the occasion. He was familiar with the Chinook jargon. and was not responsible for the forest executions. and placed at the righ t hand of Saltese. Many distinguished foreign and American statesmen were present at a fashionable dinner party where wine was freely poured. or I shall kill you this instant!" he cried.. but still. "I dare not. Nat urally hospitable. and naturally inclined to like a man of Grant's make-up. settling more and more as he proceeded with his address. He mounted his horse and rode to his camp. and to his accurate knowledge of I ndian character. he was given a rousing reception." "You have the wo rd of Saltese.

Dr." We live ridiculously for fear of being thought ridiculous." "Yes. "he knows his danger. but "They are slaves who dare not be In the right with two or three. scoffed. dictates. when he saw a soldier turn pale as he ma rched against a battery. a slight." Luther replied : "Although they should make a fire that should reach from Worms to Wittenberg. "Tis he is the coward who proves false to his vows. observing that the other showed signs of fear. "Sir. Colo nel Thomas Wentworth Higginson said that at a dinner at Beaufort. for a laugh or a sneer. in the Lord's name I would pass through it a nd appear before them." The youth who starts out by being afraid to speak what he thinks will usually e nd by being afraid to think what he wishes. One. It takes courage for a young man to stand firmly erect while others are bowing and fawning for praise and power.." He said to another: "I would enter Worms though there we re as many devils there as there are tiles upon the roofs of the houses. and snap his fingers at Dame Grundy? . "and they will burn your body to ashes as they did that of John Huss. Two French officers at Waterloo were advancing to charge a greatly superior for ce. to stand alone with all the world against you." said a friend to Luther. Who dares conduct his household or business affairs in his own w ay. boyish fel low who did not drink. Custom or fashion . servants. and they in turn dare not depart from th eir schools." He replied: "It is my d uty to go. or we are ostracized. or sung a song. He replied: "I cannot sing. S. carriages." It takes courage to do your duty in silence and obscu rity while others prosper and grow famous although neglecting sacred obligations . It takes courage to say "No" squarely when t hose around you say "Yes. beaten. said." was the reply. and that should flame up to heaven. everything must conform. It takes courage and pluck to be outvoted. Miner. although I must drink it in water. laughed at." "That's a brave man. misunderstood. told a story. "and if you were half as much fri ghtened. To his manhood. derided. every man along the line of the long tables turned his glasses down.'" The men were so aff ected and ashamed that they took him by the hand and thanked him for displaying such admirable moral courage. How we shrink from an act of our own! We live as others live. It is 'Our Mothers. It takes courage to wear threadbare clothes wh ile your comrades dress in broadcloth. his honor. It takes courage to remain in honest pove rty when others grow rich by fraud. or your doctor or minister." Anothe r man said to him: "Duke George will surely arrest you.ing spoken. but I will give a toa st. where w ine flowed freely and ribald jests were bandied. ridicul ed. C." "An honest man is not the worse because a dog barks at him. to show your blemishes to a condemn ing world. was told that he could not go until he had drunk a toast. you would run away. living. misjudged. and I will go. Dress. I am. I believe yo u are frightened." said Wellington. It takes courage to unmask your true self. and faces it." "There are many cardinals and bishops at Worms. though it rain Duke Georges for nine days together. and to pass for what you really are. and there was not a drop of wine taken that night." A Western paper recently invited the surviving Union and Confederate officers t o give an account of the bravest act observed by each during the Civil War.

and raged more fiercely than ever." Anne Askew. It takes courage to refuse to follow custom when it is injurious to his health and morals. to confront the colossal Gol iath with his massive armor. That simple shepherd-lad. landed his terrible cargo safely within. If that wire had been left there for a little time longer he would have gone dead lame. Manly courage is always dignified and graceful. racked unti l her bones were dislocated. surroundi ng the orchard with a wall of flame. "if you don't want to see to it. a nd soon two loaded wagons came galloping toward the farmhouse. begging everybody's pardon for taking the liberty of being in the world. "Dent. Bruno." said a rela tive who found the little boy Nelson wandering a long distance from home. condemned to be burned alive in Rome. and would perhaps have be en ruined for life. with an orchard surrounded by a thick hedge. At last the powder and ball ran short and the hedges took fire. "it is simply murder for us to sit here. with the reckless daring of an English boy. A messenger had been sent for ammunition. is the sublimest audacity the world has ever seen. afforded him one desperate chance. "Dent. Both are deformities and are repulsive. which exploded in an instant." said he." . sending wagon." said Grant." He dismounted. said to his judge: "You are more a fraid to pronounce my sentence than I am to receive it." "To think a thing is impossible is to make it so. but looked her tormentor calmly in the face and refused to adjure her faith." Courage is victory. which was so important a point in the British position that orders were given to hold it at any hazard or sacr ifice. "Fear? " said the future admiral. sent his horses at the smoldering breach and. "I guess looking after your horse's legs can wait. I wish you would get down and see what is the matter with that leg there . There is nothing attractive in timidity. "when you've got a horse that you think a great deal o f.It takes courage for a public man not to bend the knee to popular prejudice. "I don't know him. marching unattended and unarmed. For a instant the driver of the second wag on paused. David. beaten back for the moment by the explosion. appalled by his comrade's fate. spurred his strugglin g and terrified horses through the burning heap. How much easier for a politician to prevaricate and dodge an issue than to stand squarely on his feet like a man! As the strongest man has a weakness somewhere. Peter was courageous enough to draw his sword to defend his Master." said Dent. and caught the powder. horses. nothing lovable in fear." "All right. I will. and climbed into his saddle. Behind him the flames closed u p. observing that the flames. the next. examined it deliberately. Don't be like Uriah Heep. "The driver of th e first wagon." said Grant. but the flames rose fiercely ro und. amid the deafening cheers of the g arrison. when he and Colonel Dent were riding through the thickest of a fi re that had become so concentrated and murderous that his troops had all been dr iven back." Wellington said that at Waterloo the hottest of the battle raged round a farmho use. and he actually denied even the acquaintance of the Master he had declared he would die for. so the greatest hero is a coward somewhere. "I should have thought fear would have kept you from going so far. and rider in fragments into the air. fresh from his flocks. but he could not stand the ridicule and the finger of scorn of the maidens in th e high priest's hall. you should never take any chances with him. untwisted a piece of telegraph wire which had begun to cut the horse's leg. never flinched. timidity 's defeat. save with his shepherd's staff and sling.

and tens of minutes passed. as some of the bishops had omas More preferred death to dishonor. if that ball were destined for you. and th as if it were a review. "If. and he had determined to to his principles. She remained true to her father when all others. " At the battle of Trafalgar. as Nelson walked the deck slippery with blood and covered with the dead. Lieutenant Doughty and Sergeant Rees volunteered to examine the fuse. They found the defect. yielded at once. The men en marched three miles under a heavy cannonade as coolly pouring shot into his r at once ordered a halt. Com bat difficulty manfully. he said: "This is warm work. though you were to bu rrow a hundred feet under ground it would be sure to find you there. sustain misfortune bravely. minutes. and soon a terri ble upheaval of earth gave the signal to march to victory. fired the train anew." He took the ax and kissed the blade. At the battle of Copenhagen. When Sir Walter Raleigh came to the scaffold he was very faint. and this day may be the last to any of us in a moment. what is your competitor bu t a man? Conquer your place in the world. His him a fool for staying in a dark. he c overed his face. But seconds. endure poverty nobly. you perceive any weakness in me. had forsaken him. Thoughts are but dreams until their effec ts be tried. but a sound cure for al l diseases. . and said to the sheriff: "'T is a sharp medicine. The influence of the brave man is contagious a nd creates an epidemic of noble zeal in all about him. not knowing but that they were advancing to a horrible death. mark me. and a young soldier instinctively dodged. To half will and to hang forever in the balance is to lose your grip on life. filthy prison when he might erty by merely renouncing his doctrines. In a skirmish at Salamanca. that those fighting might not know their chief had fallen. Execute your resolutions immediately. Thomas More walked cheerfully to the block. remain loyal wife called have his lib done. or in crossing bridges you have not reached. for all things serve a brave soul. and began his s peech to the crowd by saying that during the last two days he had been visited b y two ague fits." After the great inward struggle was over. Every day sends to the gr ave obscure men who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has p revented them from making a first effort. Sir William Napier's men became disobedient. But. and requested that it be buried in the coffin with her. After his head ha d been cut off and exhibited on a pole on London Bridge. and the suspense became painful. even her mother. and who. But Th His daughter showed the power of love to drive away fear." Don't waste time dreaming of obstacles you may never encounter. therefore. I would not be elsewhere for thousands." says George Eliot. I beseech you ascribe it to my sickness rather than to myself. for her death soon occurred. Napoleon looked at him and smili ngly said: "My friend. Through the long subterranea n galleries they hurried in silence. "No great deed is done." When the mine in front of Petersburg was finished the fuse was lighted and the Union troops were drawn up ready to charge the enemy's works as soon as the expl osion should make a breach. encou nter disappointment courageously. He and flogged four of the ringleaders under fire. damp. when he was shot and was being carried below. while the enemy's guns were egiment. Her request was granted. if they could have been induc ed to begin. Does competition trouble you? work away. wi thout a sound from the mine. "by falterers wh o ask for certainty. the poor girl begged it of the authorities.At the battle of Friedland a cannon-ball came over the heads of the French sold iers. would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of u sefulness and fame.

returned a verdict of "Not guilty. and when other lawyers had refused. At the time when it almost cost a young lawyer his bread and butter to defend the fugitive slave. it required no little courage to cast his fortune with the weaker side in polit ics." and the bloodstained crowd quailed befo re the courageous words of a single man in a city which Mayor Fernando Wood coul d not restrain with the aid of police and militia. LOWELL. or you shall starve for it. United States Senator from Ohio. Only the most sublime moral courage could have sustained him as President to hold his ground against hostile criticism and a long train of disaster. fiends from hell. What the world wants is a Knox. who dares to preach on with a musket leveled at his head. Ere her caus e bring fame and profit. overturned an ash barrel. after t wo days and two nights without food. "mind your privileges. not satisfied with the first verdict. till hi s Lord is crucified. if it's right. When at last he had begun the practice of law. a man looked at him in surprise and said: "There goes a fi ne young fellow who has just ruined himself. a Garrison. while the coward stands aside. derisive scorn. with little educa tion. and began: "Delegates from Five Points. to support Grant and Stanton against the clamor of the politicians and t he press." But in thus ruining himself Chase had taken the first important step in a career in which he became Governor of Oh io. or a scaffold erec ted in front of his door. What cared Christ for the jeers of the crowd? The palsied hand moved. the dead spake. and hisses? In him "at last the scornful world had met its match. Did Anna Dickins on leave the platform when the pistol bullets of the Molly Maguires flew about h er head? She silenced those pistols by her courage and her arguments. he arrived in advance of his troops." The rec order fined them forty marks apiece for their independence. At the trial of William Penn for having spoken at a Quaker meeting. who is not afraid of a jail." "You are Englishmen. despite the ridicule and scoffs of the spectators. What cared Wendell Phillips for rotten eggs. Lincoln would alw ays plead the cause of the unfortunate whenever an opportunity presented." Were Beecher and Gough to be si lenced by the rude English mobs that came to extinguish them? No! they held thei r ground and compelled unwilling thousands to hear and to heed. the blind saw. Chase left the court room after an impassioned plea for the runawa y slave girl Matilda. . said to the jury: "We will have a verdi ct by the help of God. Without waiting for his men. and no influential friends. "Go to Lincoln." Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. As Salmon P. when these hounded fugitives were seeking protectio n. "he's not afraid of any cause.Abraham Lincoln's boyhood was one long struggle with poverty. Doubting in his abject spirit. which had already hanged several men to lamp-posts." At last the jury." people would say. and thus imperil what small reputation he had gained. give not away your right. an d Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. or a mob. and found the streets thronged with an an gry mob. When General Butler was sent with nine thousand men to quell the New York riots ." said P enn. stood upon it. Butler went to the place where the crowd was most dense. to issue the Emancipation Procla mation. the recorde r. Lincoln never shrank from espousing an unpopular cause when he believed it to b e right. you have murdered your superiors. and 'tis prosperous to be just: Then it is the brave ma n chooses. Secretary of the United States Treasury. the leper was made whole.

Robe rt Browning wrote at eleven poetry of no mean order. What wonder that a handful of such men checked the march of the greatest host that ever trod the earth! "It is impossible. Equal courage and resolution are often shown by men who have passed the allotte d limit of life. Wa shington was appointed adjutant-general at nineteen. Luther was but twenty-nine when he nailed his famous thesis to the door of the bishop and defied the pope. Begin! Begin! Begin!!! Whatever people may think of you. For that were stupid and irrational . conquered three hundred nations. who ascended the throne at twenty. Gladstone ruled England with a strong hand at eighty-four. when Napoleon gave directions for a d aring plan. published a volume of poems at fifteen. do that which you believe to be right. Elizabeth Barrett Browning was proficient in Greek and Latin at twelve." replied a Lacedemonian. He was but fo rty-seven when he received his death wound at Trafalgar. at Cannae." "The brave man is not he who feels no fear. Victor Hugo and Wellington were both in their prime after they had reached the age of threescore years and ten. defeated three million men. had conquered the known world before dying at thirty-three." came the mes sage from Xerxes. . the greatest of military commanders." "Then we will fight in the shade. and N apoleon was only twenty-seven when." was the cool reply of Leonidas. was only thirty when . Julius Caesar captured eight hundred c ities. Be ali ke indifferent to censure or praise. often before reaching the prime of lif e." exclaimed the Spartans at Thermopylae. Me n follow him."Our enemies are before us. Men who have dared have moved the world. A Per sian soldier said: "You will not be able to see the sun for flying javelins and arrows. Lafayette was made general of the whole French Army at twenty. and at twenty-four he was Lord of the Treasury. Galileo was but eighteen when he saw the principle of the pendulum in the swing lamp in the cathedral at Pisa . Hannibal. Charl emagne was master of France and Germany at thirty. and still was a young man. at thirty-two. the veteran marshals of Austria." was the answer Leonidas sent back. At thirty-six. De Quincey at eleven. It is astonishing what daring to begin and perseverance have enabled even you ths to achieve. Clive had established the British pow er in India. Peel was in Parliament at twenty-one. Cowley. who sleeps in Westm inster Abbey. "impossible is the adje ctive of fools!" The courageous man is an example to the intrepid. he outgeneraled and defeated. on the plains of Italy. Cortez w as the conqueror of Mexico. "Deliver your arms.--PYTHAGORAS. "And we are before them. he dealt an almost annihilating blow at the republic of Rome. one after another. Shakespeare says: "He is not worthy of the honeycomb that shuns the hive becaus e the bees have stings. became a gre at orator and one of the greatest statesmen known." Many a bright youth has accomplished nothing of worth to himself or the world s imply because he did not dare to commence things." said a staff officer. Gladstone was in Parliament before he wa s twenty-two. was sent at twenty-one as a n ambassador to treat with the French. His influence is magnetic. "Come and take them. "Impossible!" thundered the great commander. and was a marvel of literary and scholarly ability. and won his first battle as a colonel at twenty-two. But he whose noble soul its fear subdues And bravely dares the danger nature s hrinks from. Nelson was a lieutenant in the British Navy before he was twenty. Alexander. even to the death.

and during the evening he drew the attention of Mr . The next morning the garrison sallied out to attack their enemies. abandonment.--1 SAMUEL iv. in commemoration of the wonderful del iverance of the city. The outer d ikes were replaced at once. The next day the wind changed. The iron will of one stout heart shall make a thousand quail: A feeble dwarf.--MIRABEAU. CHAPTER XXXVIII THE WILL AND THE WAY "I will find a way or make one. in New Yo rk City. d auntlessly resolved. it is curious to see how the spa ce clears around a man and leaves him room and freedom. leaving the North Sea within its old bounds. will turn the tide of battle. "there is a great deal in that head of his: but he has a strange fancy. the garrison was starving. "Yes. Can you conceive anything more absurd than that?" . And rally to a nobler strife the giants that had fled. In the lexicon of youth which fate reserves for a bright manhood there is no su ch word as fail.--BULWER. and poverty are battlefields which have their heroes. tossing on his bed of feve r at Rotterdam.--TUPPER. a joyous procession marched through the streets to found the University of Leyden. ranged one within another for fifteen miles to their city of the interior. Gallatin. to the stranger. For man's great actions are performed in minor struggles. There are obstinate a nd unknown braves who defend themselves inch by inch in the shadows against the fatal invasion of want and turpitude. at the residence of Chancellor Kent. as o f old. had issued the command: "Break down the dikes: give Holland back to ocean!" and the people had replied: "Better a drowned land than a lost land. When a firm and decisive spirit is recognized.--VICTOR HUGO. 9.--JOHN FOSTER. and swept the fleet on the rising waters almost to the camp of the Spaniards. with the fleet upon it. touching his own forehead with his finger. When th e flowers bloomed the following spring. But from the parched lips of William. observing that his fore head indicated a great intellect. At a dinner party given in 1837. SHAKESPEARE. "As well can the Prince of Orange pluck the stars from the sky. m isfortune. But ever. Gallatin. Can you believe it? He has the idea that he will one day be th e Emperor of France. Professor Mors e was also one of the guests." was the derisive shout of the Spanis h soldiers when told that the Dutch fleet would raise that terrible four months' siege of 1574. no renown rewards. but the besiegers had fled in terror under cover of the darkness. from the surface of Holland. Quit yourselves like men. Heaven aids those who help themselves. " They began to demolish dike after dike of the strong lines. and no flourish of trumpets salutes. and amo ng them was a young and rather melancholy and reticent Frenchman. There are noble and mysterious triumphs wh ich no eye sees. Life. and a counter tempest bru shed the water. some of the most distinguished men in the country were invited. On the first and second of October a violent equinoctial gale rolled the ocean inland." Nothing is impossible to the man who can will. then a prominent statesman.I dare to do all that may become a man: Who dares do more is none. as bring the oc ean to the wall of Leyden for your relief. isolation." replied Mr. It was an enormous task . and the besiegers laughed in scorn at the slow prog ress of the puny insects who sought to rule the waves of the sea.

Does any one wonder that such a youth succeede d? Once he rose at two o'clock in the morning and walked to London to get some p apers because there was no post to bring them. "have rarely favored famous men. This achievement had had no parallel in history up to that date. a Pi tt. strength. dreary year s of imprisonment. "Circumstances. scarcely on the threshold of active life. before he accomplished his purpose there were long. we can not ind orse the theory that there is nothing in circumstances or environments. Every schoolboy knows that circumstances do give clients to lawyers and patient s to physicians. yet he is a remarkable example of what pluck and energy can do. Obstacles permane ntly insurmountable bar our progress in some directions. Ingram. and yet. long afterward. They have fought their way to triumph through all sorts of opposing obstacles." The true way to conquer circumstances is to be a greater circumstance yourself. lifting himself into eminence in any direction. He was not scrupulous as to the means employed to accomplish his ends. or it will only lead us to ru n our heads against posts. fathe r. place sons o f the rich at the head of immense corporations and large houses. led ever ywhere by a faithful daughter. to his grief-stricken father." began life as a ne wsdealer at Nottingham.--his dream of becoming Napoleon III. M. This is the kind of will that finds a way. for this reserved Frenchman was then a poor adventurer. Gladstone's last Postmaster-General. Not only had no woman ever held this position before. England. fourte en years later. was Henry Fawcett. For the first time in the history of Oxford Coll ege. P. other things being equal. There is scarcely anything in all biography grander than the saying of young He nry Fawcett. and support it with knowledge and common sense. blindness shall not interfere with my success in life. while desiring to impress in the most forcible manner possible the fact th at will-power is necessary to success. su ddenly losing the sight of both eyes and yet by mere pluck and almost incomprehe nsible tenacity of purpose. We must temper determination with discretio n. The strong-willed. exile. He determined that his customers should not be disappointed. may become a Bonaparte. and endurance. a Lincoln. but in any direction we may reasonably hope and attempt to go we shall find that. the grander and more complete the success." says Milton. We only have the right to assume that we can do anything wi thin the limit of our utmost faculty. which reaches back centuries. she succeeded in winning the post which had o nly been gained before by great men. a way can be found or made. who had put out both his eyes by birdshot during a game hunt: "Never mind. in the nature of things. True. Yet. an exile from his country. he walked ten miles to deliver a single paper r ather than disappoint a customer. who acted as amanuensis as well as guide to her p lucky father. publisher of the "Illustrated London News. was realized. We must not expect to overcome a stubborn fact merely by a stubborn will. without fortune or powerful connections. When Mr. disaster. when they have . intelligent. they are e ither not insurmountable or else not permanent. as a rule. but he gained hi s ambition at last. to s ay nothing of becoming one of the foremost men in a country noted for its great men! The courageous daughter who was eyes to her father was herself a marvelous exam ple of pluck and determination. Think of a young man.. a Webster. the g reater the will-power. place ordinary clergymen in extraordinary pulpits. his idea became a fact. persistent man will find or make a way where.It did seem absurd." One of the most pathe tic sights in London streets. and attra cted the attention of the whole civilized world. and patient labor and hope. such as Gladstone. simply because he has an indomitable will. and that. a Beecher. or that any man.--the post of senior wran gler. but with few exceptions it had only been held by men who in after life became highly distinguished.

" says Victor Hugo. Show me a man who according to popular prejudice is a victim of bad luck. As Sha kespeare says:-Men at some time are masters of their fates. that we are underlings. that resolution. the inflexible purpose. but it is impossible. good education. that there are limitations in our very natures which no amount of will-power or industry can overcome. And grasps the skirts of happy chance.very ordinary ability and scarcely any experience. conceited. Every one knows that there is not always a way where there is a will. is not in our stars. that labo r does not always conquer all things. "molds the world to himself. that there are things impossible even to h im that wills. But in ourselves. But while it is true that the will-power can not perform miracles. but that circumsta nces are the creatures of men. and large experience. The youth who starts out i n life determined to make the most of his eyes and let nothing escape him which he can possibly use for his own advancement. all history goes to prove. that one can not always make anything of himsel f he chooses. burning like fire within him. will find that idea. have bee n remarkable above all things else for their energy of will. The fault. and can perform wonders. which annihilates the sickly. and sol emnly resolves upon it. and ever putting him upon his own improvement. "He who has a firm will. And grapples with his evil star. that there are thousands of young men of superior ability. In other words. Ther e is always room for a man of force. or some other requisite for success. He will find it remov ing difficulties." "People do not lack strength. both in the city and in the coun try. "they lack will. lacks character. ra ther than his military skill. by that very resolution has scaled the gre at barriers to it. who is ever on the alert for everything which can help him to . our salaries. searching out. dear Brutus. who keeps his ears open for every s ound that can help him on his way. giving courage for despondency . our station in life. those who have towered high above their fellows. Give me the man who faces what he must. Disraeli said that man is not the creature of circumstances." Nearly all great men. and he who seizes the grand idea of self-cultivation.--you must. but can't. will find a way or make one. when others about them are raised by money or family influenc e into desirable places. you ought. we all know that the best men do not al ways get the best places. He is ill-tempered. Of Julius Caesar it was said by a contemporary that it was his activity and giant determination. or making means." says Goethe. while poor young men with unu sual ability. however strongly. and strength for weakness. who seem to be compelled by circumstances to remain in very ordinary positi ons for small pay. yet that it is almost omnipotent. who keeps his hands open that he may clutch e very opportunity. Believe in the power of will. circumstances do have a great deal to do with our posi tion. A nd breasts the blows of circumstance. or trifling. and I will show you one who has some unfortunate crooked twist of temperament that in vites disaster. that won his victories. ent husiasm." "He who resolves upon any great end. often have t o fight their way for years to obtain even very mediocre situations." The indomitable will. sentimental doctrin e of fatalism. good character. "Who breaks his birth's invidious bar.

then. He read law barefoot under the trees. showin g the possibilities of our country. the authorities were panic-stricken. Lincoln's will made his way.--that youth will be sur e to make his life successful.--one hundred miles. who seizes every experience in life and grinds it up into p aint for his great life's picture. The will can be educated. wrote in his journal. He had nothing in the world bu t character and friends. flax and to w-linen trousers. The world always stands aside for the determined man. In came a man who said. When his friends suggested law to him. subjugated the authorities. for they did not dare to trust their underlings. Kitto. Napoleon was sent for. Learn. on the threshold of manh ood: "I am not myself a believer in impossibilities: I think that all the fine s tories about natural ability. When making his campaign speeches he wore a mixed jean coat so short that he could not sit down on it. to will decisively and strong ly. he laughed at the idea of his being a la wyer. to borrow a book to read before the sap-bush fire. See Samuel Drew. and whatever weakens or impairs it diminishes success. He had to borrow money to buy a suit of clothes to make a respectable appe arance in the legislature. it is the will to labor. ruled France and then conquered Europe. who keeps his heart open that he may catch ev ery noble impulse. there are no "ifs" or "ands" about it. and the fluctuations of popular politics. are mere rigmarole. through pove . his enemies made fun of him. He who will pa y the price for victory need never fear final defeat. "I know a young officer who has the courage and ability to quell this mob. and that every man may. deaf pauper." "Send for him. liv ing on bread and water in a Dutch garret. See Thurlow Weed." It was the insatiable thirst for knowledge which held to his task. and he sometimes slept on the counter in the store where he wo rked." History is full of such examples. Success in life is dependent largely upon the will-power. it is the purpose." Lincoln is probably the most remarkable example on the pages of history. subjugated the m ob. That which most easi ly becomes a habit in us is the will. No tyranny of circumstances can permanently imprison a determined will. hi s neighbors said." said they. with r ags for shoes. who made shoes in the almshouse.get on in the world. throu gh the rowdyism of a frontier town. by every wind that blows. Paris was in the hands of a mob. render himself almost anything he w ishes to become. "It is not talent that men lack. See Heyne." said Confucius. and everything which may inspire him. he rose to the championship of union and f reedom. When his friends nominated him as a candidate for the legislature. according to his opportunities and industry. thus fix your floating life.. send for him. "The general of a large army may be defeated. straw hat. See Locke. the discouragement of early bankruptcy. and who became t he greatest of Biblical scholars. From the poverty in which he was born. defying poverty and wading through the snow two miles. and pot-metal boots. "but you can not defeat the determined mind of a peasant. and walked to take his seat at Vandalia. etc. tightening his apro n string "in lieu of a dinner." The poor. nothing can keep him from final success. like a withered leaf. and leave it no longer to be carried hither and thither. send for him. If he has his health. sleeping many a night on a barn floor with only a book for his pillow. He said he had not brains enough. came.

and would not allow the slightest departure from them. perfectly oblivious of the scanty meal of bread and wa ter which awaited him at his lowly lodging. attributed his great success to his luck. Before he was nineteen. He improved every leisure minute at sea. He never left anything of importance to others. What seemed luck with h . His desire for an education defied the extremest poverty. John Leyden." What seemed to be luck followed Stephen Girard all his life. yet they would cause loss in ninety-nine other cases. H e used to say that while his captains might save him money by deviating from ins tructions once. method. for they not only admit water. He left nothing to chance. He was rich when he discovered a little bo okstore. unable to speak English. would not help him to an education beyond that of mere reading and writing. and he sailed f or India. At the age of eight he had first discovered that he was blind in one eye. as the War of 1812. but nothing would daunt him. blind in one eye. He never lost a ship. and the chagrin of his brothers' advancement soured his whole life. His plans and schemes were worked out with mathemati cal care." Carlyle said of him: "One would incline at sight to back him again st the world. Walter Scott. The discovery of his blindness. Sydney Sm ith said: "Webster was a living lie. he bottled wine and cider. He was rigidly accura te in his instructions. laying out their routes and giving detailed instructions. because no man on earth could be as great a s he looked. His f ather. especially his jealous brother merchants. Webster was very poor even after he entered Dartmouth College. He bought and sold anything. helped to fit him out. only increased his wealth. thi s poor shepherd boy with no chance had astonished the professors of Edinburgh by his knowledge of Greek and Latin. Being a foreigner. No matter what he did. yet he was precision. and his thirsty soul would drink in the precious treasures from its pri celess volumes for hours. a Scotch shepherd's son. he determined to apply for it." Yet he became one of the greatest men in the world. accuracy. which was all the schooli ng he had. But he was not the m an to give up. He had begun as a cabin boy at thirteen. it always seemed to others to turn to his account. there seemed to be nothing he would not do for money. who thought this one of the most remarkable illustrations of perseverance. Everybody.rty and discouragement. but even peas a nd gravel-stones. and added: "Bu t my boots needs other doctoring. Everything he t ouched prospered. although he knew nothing whatever of medicine. energy itself. His letters written to his captains in foreign ports. the neglect of his fathe r. A friend sent hi m a recipe for greasing his boots. he walked six or eight miles daily to learn to read. There were on ly six months before the place was to be filled. and many times that which brought financial ruin to many others. Nothing could discourage him from tr ying to improve himself by study. from which he made a good profit. but sent his young er brothers to college. stout. It seemed to him that an opportunity to get at books and lectures was all that any man could need. it was hard for him to get a start. an d he took his degree with honor. When he began business for himself in Philadelphia. mastering the art of navigation. are models of foresight and systematic planning. Webster wrote and thanked him. evidently thinking that he would never amount to anything. Barefoot and alone . from groceries to old ju nk. and no obst acle could turn him from his purpose. and with a repulsive face. and for nine years saile d between Bordeaux and the French West Indies. Hearing that a surgeon's assistant in the Civil Service was wanted. While undo ubtedly he was fortunate in happening to be at the right place at the right time . short.

im was only good judgment and promptness in seizing opportunities, and the great est care and zeal in improving them to their utmost possibilities. The mathematician tells you that if you throw the dice, there are thirty chance s to one against your turning up a particular number, and a hundred to one again st your repeating the same throw three times in succession: and so on in an augm enting ratio. Many a young man who has read the story of John Wanamaker's romantic career has gained very little inspiration or help from it toward his own elevation and adv ancement, for he looks upon it as the result of good luck, chance, or fate. "Wha t a lucky fellow," he says to himself as he reads; "what a bonanza he fell into! " But a careful analysis of Wanamaker's life only enforces the same lesson taugh t by the analysis of most great lives, namely, that a good mother, a good consti tution, the habit of hard work, indomitable energy, determination which knows no defeat, decision which never wavers, a concentration which never scatters its f orces, courage which never falters, self-mastery which can say No, and stick to it, strict integrity and downright honesty, a cheerful disposition, unbounded en thusiasm in one's calling, and a high aim and noble purpose insure a very large measure of success. Youth should be taught that there is something in circumstances; that there is such a thing as a poor pedestrian happening to find no obstruction in his way, a nd reaching the goal when a better walker finds the drawbridge up, the street bl ockaded, and so fails to win the race; that wealth often does place unworthy son s in high positions; that family influence does gain a lawyer clients, a physici an patients, an ordinary scholar a good professorship; but that, on the other ha nd, position, clients, patients, professorships, managers' and superintendents' positions do not necessarily constitute success. He should be taught that in the long run, as a rule, the best man does win the best place, and that persistent merit does succeed. There is about as much chance of idleness and incapacity winning real success o r a high position in life, as there would be in producing a "Paradise Lost" by s haking up promiscuously the separate words of Webster's Dictionary, and letting them fall at random on the floor. Fortune smiles upon those who roll up their sl eeves and put their shoulders to the wheel; upon men who are not afraid of drear y, dry, irksome drudgery, men of nerve and grit who do not turn aside for dirt a nd detail. The youth should be taught that "he alone is great, who, by a life heroic, conq uers fate"; that "diligence is the mother of good luck"; that nine times out of ten what we call luck or fate is but a mere bugbear of the indolent, the languid , the purposeless, the careless, the indifferent; that, as a rule, the man who f ails does not see or seize his opportunity. Opportunity is coy, is swift, is gon e, before the slow, the unobservant, the indolent, or the careless can seize her :-"In idle wishes fools supinely stay: Be there a will and wisdom finds a way." It has been well said that the very reputation of being strong-willed, plucky, and indefatigable is of priceless value. It often cows enemies and dispels at th e start opposition to one's undertakings which would otherwise be formidable. It is astonishing what men who have come to their senses late in life have acco mplished by a sudden resolution. Arkwright was fifty years of age when he began to learn English grammar and imp rove his writing and spelling. Benjamin Franklin was past fifty before he began the study of science and philosophy. Milton, in his blindness, was past the age

of fifty when he sat down to complete his world-known epic, and Scott at fifty-f ive took up his pen to redeem a liability of $600,000. "Yet I am learning," said Michael Angelo, when threescore years and ten were past, and he had long attain ed the highest triumphs of his art. Even brains are second in importance to will. The vacillating man is always pus hed aside in the race of life. It is only the weak and vacillating who halt befo re adverse circumstances and obstacles. A man with an iron will, with a determin ation that nothing shall check his career, is sure, if he has perseverance and g rit, to succeed. We may not find time for what we would like, but what we long f or and strive for with all our strength, we usually approximate, if we do not fu lly reach. I wish it were possible to show the youth of America the great part that the wi ll might play in their success in life and in their happiness as well. The achie vements of will-power are simply beyond computation. Scarcely anything in reason seems impossible to the man who can will strong enough and long enough. How often we see this illustrated in the case of a young woman who suddenly bec omes conscious that she is plain and unattractive; who, by prodigious exercise o f her will and untiring industry, resolves to redeem herself from obscurity and commonness; and who not only makes up for her deficiencies, but elevates herself into a prominence and importance which mere personal attractions could never ha ve given her! Charlotte Cushman, without a charm of form or face, climbed to the very top of her profession. How many young men, stung by consciousness of physi cal deformity or mental deficiencies, have, by a strong, persistent exercise of will-power, raised themselves from mediocrity and placed themselves high above t hose who scorned them! History is full of examples of men and women who have redeemed themselves from disgrace, poverty, and misfortune by the firm resolution of an iron will. The co nsciousness of being looked upon as inferior, as incapable of accomplishing what others accomplish; the sensitiveness at being considered a dunce in school, has stung many a youth into a determination which has elevated him far above those who laughed at him, as in the case of Newton, of Adam Clark, of Sheridan, Wellin gton, Goldsmith, Dr. Chalmers, Curran, Disraeli and hundreds of others. It is men like Mirabeau, who "trample upon impossibilities"; like Napoleon, who do not wait for opportunities, but make them; like Grant, who has only "uncondi tional surrender" for the enemy, who change the very front of the world. "I can't, it is impossible," said a foiled lieutenant to Alexander. "Be gone," shouted the conquering Macedonian, "there is nothing impossible to him who will try." Were I called upon to express in a word the secret of so many failures among th ose who started out in life with high hopes, I should say unhesitatingly, they l acked will-power. They could not half will. What is a man without a will? He is like an engine without steam, a mere sport of chance, to be tossed about hither and thither, always at the mercy of those who have wills. I should call the stre ngth of will the test of a young man's possibilities. Can he will strong enough, and hold whatever he undertakes with an iron grip? It is the iron grip that tak es the strong hold on life. "The truest wisdom," said Napoleon, "is a resolute d etermination." An iron will without principle might produce a Napoleon; but with character it would make a Wellington or a Grant, untarnished by ambition or ava rice. "The undivided will 'Tis that compels the elements and wrings A human music fro m the indifferent air."

CHAPTER XXXIX ONE UNWAVERING AIM Life is an arrow--therefore you must know What mark to aim at, how to use the b ow-- Then draw it to the head and let it go. HENRY VAN DYKE. The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it.--GOETHE. "A double-minded man is unstable in all his ways." Let every one ascertain his special business and calling, and then stick to it if he would be successful.--FRANKLIN. "Why do you lead such a solitary life?" asked a friend of Michael Angelo. "Art is a jealous mistress," replied the artist; "she requires the whole man." During his labors at the Sistine Chapel, according to Disraeli, he refused to meet any one, even at his own house. "This day we sailed westward, which was our course," were the simple but grand words which Columbus wrote in his journal day after day. Hope might rise and fal l, terror and dismay might seize upon the crew at the mysterious variations of t he compass, but Columbus, unappalled, pushed due west and nightly added to his r ecord the above words. "Cut an inch deeper," said a member of the Old Guard to the surgeon probing his wound, "and you will find the Emperor,"--meaning his heart. By the marvelous po wer of concentrated purpose Napoleon had left his name on the very stones of the capital, had burned it indelibly into the heart of every Frenchman, and had lef t it written in living letters all over Europe. France to-day has not shaken off the spell of that name. In the fair city on the Seine the mystic "N" confronts you everywhere. Oh, the power of a great purpose to work miracles! It has changed the face of t he world. Napoleon knew that there were plenty of great men in France, but they did not know the might of the unwavering aim by which he was changing the destin ies of Europe. He saw that what was called the "balance of power" was only an id le dream; that, unless some master-mind could be found which was a match for eve nts, the millions would rule in anarchy. His iron will grasped the situation; an d like William Pitt, he did not loiter around balancing the probabilities of fai lure or success, or dally with his purpose. There was no turning to the right no r to the left; no dreaming away time, nor building air-castles; but one look and purpose, forward, upward and onward, straight to his goal. His great success in war was due largely to his definiteness of aim. He always hit the bull's-eye. H e was like a great burning-glass, concentrating the rays of the sun upon a singl e spot; he burned a hole wherever he went. After finding the weak place in the e nemy's ranks, he would mass his men and hurl them like an avalanche upon the cri tical point, crowding volley upon volley, charge upon charge, till he made a bre ach. What a lesson of the power concentration there is in this man's life! To succeed to-day a man must concentrate all the faculties of his mind upon one unwavering aim, and have a tenacity of purpose which means death or victory. Ev ery other inclination which tempts him from his aim must be suppressed. A man may starve on a dozen half-learned trades or occupations; he may grow ric h and famous upon one trade thoroughly mastered, even though it be the humblest. Even Gladstone, with his ponderous yet active brain, said he could not do two t hings at once; he threw his entire strength upon whatever he did. The intensest

energy characterized everything he undertook, even his recreation. If such conce ntration of energy is necessary for the success of a Gladstone, what can we comm on mortals hope to accomplish by "scatteration"? All great men have been noted for their power of concentration which makes them oblivious of everything outside their aim. Victor Hugo wrote his "Notre Dame" d uring the revolution of 1830, while the bullets were whistling across his garden . He shut himself up in one room, locking his clothes up in another, lest they s hould tempt him to go out into the street, and spent most of that winter wrapped in a big gray comforter, pouring his very life into his work. Abraham Lincoln possessed such power of concentration that he could repeat quit e correctly a sermon to which he had listened in his boyhood. A New York sportsman, in answer to an advertisement, sent twenty-five cents for a sure receipt to prevent a shotgun from scattering, and received the following : "Dear Sir: To keep a gun from scattering put in but a single shot." It is the men who do one thing in this world who come to the front. Who is the favorite actor? It is a Jefferson, who devotes a lifetime to a "Rip Van Winkle," a Booth, an Irving, a Kean, who plays one character until he can play it better than any other man living, and not the shallow players who impersonate all part s. The great man is the one who never steps outside of his specialty or dissipat es his individuality. It is an Edison, a Morse, a Bell, a Howe, a Stephenson, a Watt. It is an Adam Smith, spending ten years on the "Wealth of Nations." It is a Gibbon, giving twenty years to his "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." It is a Hume, writing thirteen hours a day on his "History of England." It is a Web ster, spending thirty-six years on his dictionary. It is a Bancroft, working twe nty-six years on his "History of the United States." It is a Field, crossing the ocean fifty times to lay a cable, while the world ridicules. It is a Newton, wr iting his "Chronology of Ancient Nations" sixteen times. A one-talent man who decides upon a definite object accomplishes more than a te n-talent man who scatters his energies and never knows exactly what he will do. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers upon one thing, can acc omplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accom plish anything. A great purpose is cumulative; and, like a great magnet, it attracts all that i s kindred along the stream of life. [Illustration: Joseph Jefferson] A Yankee can splice a rope in many different ways; an English sailor only knows one way, but that is the best one. It is the one-sided man, the sharp-eyed man, the man of single and intense purpose, the man of one idea, who cuts his way th rough obstacles and forges to the front. The time has gone forever when a Bacon can span universal knowledge; or when, absorbing all the knowledge of the times, a Dante can sustain arguments against fourteen disputants in the University of Paris, and conquer in them all. The day when a man can successfully drive a doze n callings abreast is a thing of the past. Concentration is the keynote of the c entury. Scientists estimate that there is energy enough in less than fifty acres of sun shine to run all the machinery in the world, if it could be concentrated. But th e sun might blaze out upon the earth forever without setting anything on fire; a lthough these rays focused by a burning-glass would melt solid granite, or even change a diamond into vapor. There are plenty of men who have ability enough; th e rays of their faculties, taken separately, are all right, but they are powerle ss to collect them, to bring them all to bear upon a single spot. Versatile men,

universal geniuses, are usually weak, because they have no power to concentrate their talents upon one point, and this makes all the difference between success and failure. Chiseled upon the tomb of a disappointed, heart-broken king, Joseph II. of Aust ria, in the Royal Cemetery at Vienna, a traveler tells us, is this epitaph: "Her e lies a monarch who, with the best of intentions, never carried out a single pl an." Sir James Mackintosh was a man of remarkable ability. He excited in every one w ho knew him the greatest expectations. Many watched his career with much interes t, expecting that he would dazzle the world; but there was no purpose in his lif e. He had intermittent attacks of enthusiasm for doing great things, but his zea l all evaporated before he could decide what to do. This fatal defect in his cha racter kept him balancing between conflicting motives; and his whole life was al most thrown away. He lacked power to choose one object and persevere with a sing le aim, sacrificing every interfering inclination. He, for instance, vacillated for weeks trying to determine whether to use "usefulness" or "utility" in a comp osition. One talent utilized in a single direction will do infinitely more than ten tale nts scattered. A thimbleful of powder behind a ball in a rifle will do more exec ution than a carload of powder unconfined. The rifle-barrel is the purpose that gives direct aim to the powder, which otherwise, no matter how good it might be, would be powerless. The poorest scholar in school or college often, in practica l life, far outstrips the class leader or senior wrangler, simply because what l ittle ability he has he employs for a definite object, while the other, dependin g upon his general ability and brilliant prospects, never concentrates his power s. It is fashionable to ridicule the man of one idea, but the men who have changed the front of the world have been men of a single aim. No man can make his mark on this age of specialties who is not a man of one idea, one supreme air, one ma ster passion. The man who would make himself felt on this bustling planet, who w ould make a breach in the compact conservatism of our civilization, must play al l his guns on one point. A wavering aim, a faltering purpose, has no place in th e twentieth century. "Mental shiftlessness" is the cause of many a failure. The world is full of unsuccessful men who spend their lives letting empty buckets do wn into empty wells. "Mr. A. often laughs at me," said a young American chemist, "because I have but one idea. He talks about everything, aims to excel in many things; but I have l earned that, if I ever wish to make a breach, I must play my guns continually up on one point." This great chemist, when an obscure schoolmaster, used to study b y the light of a pine knot in a log cabin. Not many years later he was performin g experiments in electro-magnetism before English earls, and subsequently he was at the head of one of the largest scientific institutes of this country. He was the late Professor Henry, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. We should guard against a talent which we can not hope to practise in perfectio n, says Goethe. Improve it as we may, we shall always, in the end, when the meri t of the matter has become apparent to us, painfully lament the loss of time and strength devoted to such botching. An old proverb says: "The master of one trad e will support a wife and seven children, and the master of seven will not suppo rt himself." It is the single aim that wins. history. They do not focus their y into the roll of honor. Edward ppointed the expectations of his Men with monopolizing ambitions rarely live in powers long enough to burn their names indelibl Everett, even with his magnificent powers, disa friends. He spread himself over the whole field

of knowledge and elegant culture; but the mention of the name of Everett does n ot call up any one great achievement as does that of names like Garrison and Phi llips. Voltaire called the Frenchman La Harpe an oven which was always heating, but which never cooked anything. Hartley Coleridge was splendidly endowed with t alent, but there was one fatal lack in his character--he had no definite purpose , and his life was a failure. Unstable as water, he could not excel. Southey, th e uncle of Coleridge, says of him: "Coleridge has two left hands." He was so mor bidly shy from living alone in his dreamland that he could not open a letter wit hout trembling. He would often rally from his purposeless life, and resolve to r edeem himself from the oblivion he saw staring him in the face; but, like Sir Ja mes Mackintosh, he remained a man of promise merely to the end of his life. The man who succeeds has a program. He fires his course and adheres to it. He l ays his plans and executes them. He goes straight to his goal. He is not pushed this way and that every time a difficulty is thrown in his path; if he can not g et over it he goes through it. Constant and steady use of the faculties under a central purpose gives strength and power, while the use of faculties without an aim or end only weakens them. The mind must be focused on a definite end, or, li ke machinery without a balance-wheel, it will rack itself to pieces. This age of concentration men, not for geniuses, not to do one thing as well as f his soldiers better than calls, not for educated men merely, not for talented for jacks-of-all-trades, but for men who are trained it can be done. Napoleon could go through the drill o any one of his men.

Stick to your aim. The constant changing of one's occupation is fatal to all su ccess. After a young man has spent five or six years in a dry goods store, he co ncludes that he would rather sell groceries, thereby throwing away five years of valuable experience which will be of very little use to him in the grocery busi ness; and so he spends a large part of his life drifting around from one kind of employment to another, learning part of each but all of none, forgetting that e xperience is worth more to him than money and that the years devoted to learning his trade or occupation are the most valuable. Half-learned trades, no matter i f a man has twenty, will never give him a good living, much less a competency, w hile wealth is absolutely out of the question. How many young men fail to reach the point of efficiency in one line of work be fore they get discouraged and venture into something else! How easy to see the t horns in one's own profession or vocation, and only the roses in that of another ! A young man in business, for instance, seeing a physician riding about town in his carriage, visiting his patients, imagines that a doctor must have an easy, ideal life, and wonders that he himself should have embarked in an occupation so full of disagreeable drudgery and hardships. He does not know of the years of d ry, tedious study which the physician has consumed, the months and perhaps years of waiting for patients, the dry detail of anatomy, the endless names of drugs and technical terms. There is a sense of great power in a vocation after a man has reached the point of efficiency in it, the point of productiveness, the point where his skill beg ins to tell and brings in returns. Up to this point of efficiency, while he is l earning his trade, the time seems to have been almost thrown away. But he has be en storing up a vast reserve of knowledge of detail, laying foundations, forming his acquaintances, gaining his reputation for truthfulness, trustworthiness, an d integrity, and in establishing his credit. When he reaches this point of effic iency, all the knowledge and skill, character, influence, and credit thus gained come to his aid, and he soon finds that in what seemed almost thrown away lies the secret of his prosperity. The credit he established as a clerk, the confiden ce, the integrity, the friendships formed, he finds equal to a large capital whe n he starts out for himself and takes the highway to fortune; while the young ma n who half learned several trades, got discouraged and stopped just short of the

point of efficiency, just this side of success, is a failure because he didn't go far enough; he did not press on to the point at which his acquisition would h ave been profitable. In spite of the fact that nearly all very successful men have made a life-work of one thing, we see on every hand hundreds of young men and women flitting abou t from occupation to occupation, trade to trade, in one thing to-day and another to-morrow,--just as though they could go from one thing to another by turning a switch, as though they could run as well on another track as on the one they ha ve left, regardless of the fact that no two careers have the same gage, that eve ry man builds his own road upon which another man's engine can not run either wi th speed or safety. This fickleness, this disposition to shift about from one oc cupation to another, seems to be peculiar to American life, so much so that, whe n a young man meets a friend whom he has not seen for some time, the commonest q uestion to ask is, "What are you doing now?" showing the improbability or uncert ainty that he is doing to-day what he was doing when they last met. Some people think that if they "keep everlastingly at it" they will succeed, bu t this is not always so. Working without a plan is as foolish as going to sea wi thout a compass. A ship which has broken its rudder in mid-ocean may "keep everlastingly at it," may keep on a full head of steam, driving about all the time, but it never arri ves anywhere, it never reaches any port unless by accident; and if it does find a haven, its cargo may not be suited to the people, the climate, or conditions. The ship must be directed to a definite port, for which its cargo is adapted, an d where there is a demand for it, and it must aim steadily for that port through sunshine and storm, through tempest and fog. So a man who would succeed must no t drift about rudderless on the ocean of life. He must not only steer straight t oward his destined port when the ocean is smooth, when the currents and winds se rve, but he must keep his course in the very teeth of the wind and the tempest, and even when enveloped in the fogs of disappointment and mists of opposition. A tlantic liners do not stop for fogs or storms; they plow straight through the ro ugh seas with only one thing in view, their destined port, and no matter what th e weather is, no matter what obstacles they encounter, their arrival in port can be predicted to within a few hours. On the prairies of South America there grows a flower that always inclines in t he same direction. If a traveler loses his way and has neither compass nor chart , by turning to this flower he will find a guide on which he can implicitly rely ; for no matter how the rains descend or the winds blow, its leaves point to the north. So there are many men whose purposes are so well known, whose aims are s o constant, that no matter what difficulties they may encounter, or what opposit ion they may meet, you can tell almost to a certainty where they will come out. They may be delayed by head winds and counter currents, but they will always hea d for the port and will steer straight towards the harbor. You know to a certain ty that whatever else they may lose, they will not lose their compass or rudder. Whatever may happen to a man of this stamp, even though his sails may be swept away and his mast stripped to the deck, though he may be wrecked by the storms o f life, the needle of his compass will still point to the North Star of his hope . Whatever comes, his life will not be purposeless. Even a wreck that makes its port is a greater success than a full-rigged ship with all its sails flying, wit h every mast and every rope intact, which merely drifts along into an accidental harbor. To fix a wandering life and give it direction is not an easy task, but a life w hich has no definite aim is sure to be frittered away in empty and purposeless d reams. "Listless triflers," "busy idlers," "purposeless busy-bodies," are seen e verywhere. A healthy, definite purpose is a remedy for a thousand ills which att

end aimless lives. Discontent and dissatisfaction flee before a definite purpose . What we do begrudgingly without a purpose becomes a delight with one, and no w ork is well done nor healthily done which is not enthusiastically done. Mere energy is not enough; it must be concentrated on some steady, unwavering a im. What is more common than "unsuccessful geniuses," or failures with "commandi ng talents"? Indeed, the term "unrewarded genius" has become a proverb. Every to wn has unsuccessful educated and talented men. But education is of no value, tal ent is worthless, unless it can do something, achieve something. Men who can do something at everything and a very little at anything are not wanted in this age . What this age wants is young men and women who can do one thing without losing their identity or individuality, or becoming narrow, cramped, or dwarfed. Nothin g can take the place of an all-absorbing purpose; education can not, genius can not, talent can not, industry can not, will-power can not. The purposeless life must ever be a failure. What good are powers, faculties, unless we can use them for a purpose? What good would a chest of tools do a carpenter unless he could u se them? A college education, a head full of knowledge, are worth little to the men who cannot use them to some definite end. The man without a purpose never leaves his mark upon the world. He has no indiv iduality; he is absorbed in the mass, lost in the crowd, weak, wavering, and inc ompetent. "Consider, my lord," said Rowland Hill to the Prime Minister of England, "that a letter to Ireland and the answer back would cost thousands upon thousands of m y affectionate countrymen more than a fifth of their week's wages. If you shut t he post-office to them, which you do now, you shut out warm hearts and generous affections from home, kindred, and friends." The lad learned that it cost to car ry a letter from London to Edinburgh, four hundred and four miles, one eighteent h of a cent, while the government charged for a simple folded sheet of paper twe nty-eight cents, and twice as much if there was the smallest inclosure. Against the opposition and contempt of the post-office department he at length carried h is point, and on January 10, 1840, penny postage was established throughout Grea t Britain. Mr. Hill was chosen to introduce the system, at a salary of fifteen h undred pounds a year. His success was most encouraging, but at the end of two ye ars a Tory minister dismissed him without paying for his services, as agreed. Th e public was indignant, and at once contributed sixty-five thousand dollars; and , at the request of Queen Victoria, Parliament voted him one hundred thousand do llars cash, together with ten thousand dollars a year for life. It is a great purpose which gives meaning to life; it unifies all our powers, b inds them together in one cable and makes strong and united what was weak, separ ated, scattered. "Smatterers" are weak and superficial. Of what use is a man who knows a little of everything and not much of anything? It is the momentum of constantly repeate d acts that tells the story. "Let thine eyes look straight before thee. Ponder t he path of thy feet and let all thy ways be established. Turn not to the right h and nor to the left." One great secret of St. Paul's power lay in his strong pur pose. Nothing could daunt, nothing intimidate him. The Roman Emperor could not m uzzle him, the dungeon could not appall him, no prison suppress him, obstacles c ould not discourage him. "This one thing I do" was written all over his work. Th e quenchless zeal of his mighty purpose burned its way down through the centurie s, and its contagion will never cease to fire the hearts of men. "Try and come home somebody," said his mother to Gambetta as she sent him off t o Paris to school. Poverty pinched this lad hard in his little garret study and his clothes were shabby, but what of that? He had made up his mind to get on in

and the greatest orator in the Republic. rough and uncouth.--H. p urposeless man has who. dominated by one unwavering aim. Nor did he lose his head in h is quick leap into fame. he chose this young man. is somet imes called out by a great emergency or sudden sorrow. although but thirty-two years old. and what we are will be the result of previous years of self-discipline. and soon all France recogni zed him as the Republican leader. For many years Gambetta had been preparing for such an opportu nity. runs against all sorts of snags to which he must yield simply because he has no momentum to force them out of his way. and resolved to make his mark in the world. He made one of the greatest speeches that up to th at time had ever been made in France. absolutely unknown." This youth who was poring over his books in an attic while other youths were promenad ing the Champs Elysées.000 men. W hat a sublime spectacle it is to see a youth going straight to his goal. He does not have one-half the opposition to overcome that the undecided. and when the Prussian army was marching on Paris. as though they were but stepping-stones! Defeat. yesterday. even in dissolute lives. though he might easily have made himself a millionaire. He had been steadfastly working and fighting his way up against oppositions and poverty for just such an occasion. living i n a garret. like driftwood. like a gymnasium. This sudden rise was not due to luck or accide nt. At last his opportunity came. and surmounting obstacles which dishearten others . Jules Favre was to plead a great cause on a certain day." American boys should study this great man. b ut. opposition only doubles his exertions. was now virtually dicta tor of France. landed in Amiens." CHAPTER XL WORK AND WAIT What we do upon some great occasion will probably depend on what we already are . for he lo ved our country. the brave G ambetta went out of the besieged city in a balloon barely grazed by the Prussian guns. What a striking example of the great reserve of personal power. and will carry down Gambetta's name to remote posterity. A German officer said: "This colossal energy is the most remarkable event of modern history. which shows none of its inherent beauties until the skill of the polisher sketches out the c . and by almost superhuman skill raised three armies of 8 00. in the city of Marseilles. That night all the papers in Paris were so unding the praises of this ragged. No matter what comes to him. and ever after leads the life to victory! When Gambetta found that his first speech had electrified all F rance. He is bound to win. his great reserve rushed to the front. neutrum capit. poverty. and the great Republ ican leader! When Louis Napoleon had been defeated at Sedan and had delivered his sword to W illiam of Prussia. dangers only increase his courage. being ill. sickness. disaster. P . For years he was chained to his desk and worked like a hero. he never turn s his eye from his goal. cutting his way through difficulties. When he died the "Figaro" said. LIDDON. "Duos qui sequitur lepores. the world stan ds to one side and lets him pass. only gives him new power. he was suddenly weaned from dissip ation.the world. What a stride. t o take his place. "The Republic has lost its greatest man. it always makes way for the man with a will in him. provided for their maintenance. poor and unknown. today. deputy-elect. and directed their military operatio ns. Had he not been equal to it. and took our Republic as the pattern for France. uncouth Bohemian. and remained a poor man. and he was equal to it. There is no grander sight in the world than that of a young man fired with a gr eat purpose. it would onl y have made him ridiculous. I consider a human soul without education like marble in a quarry. which. He still lived in the upper room in the musty Latin Qua rter. without stain of dishonor.

So Bessemer's financial prospects were not very encouraging. of the idea conveyed by that little insignificant word. fetters and stops itself. and of no special importance if we omit a single word of four letters.00 0 pounds a year.--CHARLES KINGSLEY. but. As a result his system of perforation was abandoned and he was deprived of his promised office. Having ascertained later that in this way the raised stamps on all official papers in England could easily be forged. At the public st amp office he was told by the chief that the government was losing 100. He felt proud of the young woman's ingenuity. He discovered this simple process only after trying in vain much more difficult and expensive methods.olors. had for a long per iod saved the government the burden of caring for an additional income of 100. and then addi ng enough spiegel-eisen (looking-glass iron). Bessemer chose the office. So he o ffered Bessemer a definite sum for his process of perforation. Use your gifts faithfully. but. The result. like the schoolboy's pins which saved the lives of th ousands of people annually by not getting swallowed. and vein that runs throughout the body of it. surely. and do more work with less effort. after years of thought and experiment. "I understand that. which has revolutionized the iron industry through out the world. he told how it would prevent any one from taking a valuable stamp from a document a hundred years old and using it a second time. and you shall attain to higher knowledge. And the same little word." said his betrothed. "Yes. makes the surface shine. and promptly suggested the improvement at the stamp office. and hastened to tell the good news to a young woman with whom he had agreed to share his fortune ." This was a very short speech. he at once entered in to a partnership which placed at his command the combined ideas of two very leve l heads. practise what you know. to change t he whole mass to steel. if published in its connection. was the Bessemer pro cess of making steel cheaply. spot. His method consists simply in forcing hot air from below into sev eral tons of melted pig-iron. Haste trips up its own heels. so as to produce intense combustion.--SENECA." said Henry Bessemer . realizing tha t the best capital a young man can have is a capital wife. Although but eighteen years old. the government coolly making use from that day to this. by keepin g out of the ponderous minds of the British revenue officers. . "I was a mere cipher in that vast sea of human enterprise. In explaining his invention. without compensation. speaking of his arrival in London in 1831. The more you know.--ADDISON. His method was so simple that o ne could learn in ten minutes how to make a die from an embossed stamp for a pen ny. if all stamps had a date put upon them they could not at a future time be used without detection. and discovers every ornamental cloud. and they shall be enlarged. an d without an acquaintance in the city. or an office for life at eight hundred pounds a year. the more you can save yourself and that which belongs to you . The chief also fully appreciated the new danger of easy counterfeiting. that little word.000 pound s a year through the custom of removing stamps from old parchments and using the m again. but. he soon made work for himself by inventin g a process of copying bas-reliefs on cardboard. would render Bessemer's perforation device of far less value than a last year's bird' s nest. an ore rich in carbon.--ARNOLD. he set to work and invented a perforat ed stamp which could not be forged nor removed from a document.

Don't risk a life's superstructure upon a day's foundation. Think of Bishop Hall spending thirty years on one of hi s works! Owens was working on the "Commentary to the Epistle to the Hebrews" for twenty years. The shifts to cover up ignorance. he replied that he wou ld have spent six weeks. But as Pope says. suggesting th at she had better stick to teaching. feverish work." Henry Ward Beecher sent half a dozen articles to the publisher of a religious p aper to pay for his subscription. on society. "Sartor Resartus" is everywhere. and consigned the young poet to temporary oblivion. But the way to shorten the road to success is to take plenty of time to lay in your reserve power. a perfect man. Johnson said a man must turn over half a library to write one book. "Can't wait" is characteristic of the century. Wha t will she not do for the greatest of her creation? Ages and aeons are nothing t o her." Not long ago a professor in one of our universities had a letter from a young w oman in the West. and everything is made "to sell. You can get it for a mere trifle at almost any bookseller's. Only one . Today. But when Carlyle brought it to London in 1851. and hundreds of thousands of copie s are scattered over the world. on schools. At length he managed to get it into "Fraser's Magazine. Patience is Nature's motto. and break down in middle life. the product of many hours of drudging research in the great libraries. Y outh rush into business with no great reserve of education or drill. i t was refused almost contemptuously by three prominent publishers." are pitiable. and fai thfulness will shorten the way. deep foundations. The weary years in preparator y school and college dishearten them. They only want a "smattering" of an educat ion. Drink deep. She works ages to bring a flower to perfection. Can't wait for a high school. And drinking largely sobers u s again. asking him if he did not think she could teach elocution if sh e could come to the university and take twelve lessons. and is written on everything. and then they are read y for business." The great lack of the age is want of thoroughness. and "the constant trembling lest some blunder should expose one's emptiness. Carlyle wrote with the utmost difficulty and never executed a page of his great histories till he had consulted every known authority. nor the youth a man. When an aut horess told Wordsworth she had spent six hours on a poem. Short cuts and abridged methods a re the demand of the hour. The publi shers of the "Atlantic Monthly" returned Miss Alcott's manuscript. but they were respectfully declined. or taste not the Pierian sp ring: There shallow draughts intoxicate the brain. so that every sentence i s the quintessence of many books. and many die of old a ge in the forties. The boy can't wait to become a youth."All things come round to him who will but wait. a little smattering of books. One of the leading magazines ridiculed Tenn yson's first poems. How seldom you find a young man or woman who is willing to take time to prepare for his life work! A little education is all they want.-A little learning is a dangerous thing. or college. se minary. Everybody is in a hurry. out of them she has been carving her great statue. Buildings are rushed up so quickly t hat they will not stand. Our young people of to-d ay are not willing to lay broad. a definite aim. Hard work. on churches. of course t hey do poor. Moore spent several weeks on one of his musical stanzas which rea ds as if it were a dash of genius. on commerce." the editor of which conveyed to the author the pleasing information that his work had been received with "unqualifie d disapprobation.

a Milton. when denounced by his brother generals and politicians everywhere. a Grant. a Thurlow Weed. and thought of the time when they would have disappeared before the march of ci vilization. When a young lawyer Daniel Webster once looked in vain through all the law libr aries near him. a Balzac. whe ther the world applaud or hiss. he was co nsulted by Aaron Burr on an important but puzzling case then pending before the Supreme Court. a Thacke ray. lest his pencil might catch the taint of avarice. nor hunger could discourage or intimidate. and then ordered at an expense of fifty dollars the necessary bo oks. He saw in a moment that it was just like the blacksmith's case. not hindered by discouragements." What the age wants is men who have the nerve and the grit to work and wait. "proceed". Think of an American youth spending ten years with Da Vinci on the model of an equestrian statue that he might master the anatomy of the horse! Most young Amer ican artists would expect. fighting on in hero ic silence. to obtain authorities and precedents in a case in which his client was a po or blacksmith. when he had finished. elaborating "Paradise Lost" in a world he could not see." without any effort to see how much he may lear n on any subject. to say noth ing of his time. It wants men who can work and wait. debt. which he had solved so thoroughly that it was to him now as simple as the multiplication table. on ly charged fifteen dollars." "Very well. Years after. men whom neither pove rty. Going back to the time of Charles II he gave the law and precedents involved with such readiness and accuracy of sequence that Burr asked in great surprise if he had been consulted before in th e case. Washington Irving was n early seventy years old before the income from his books paid the expenses of hi s household." refusing all remuneration therefo r. In some respects it is very unfortunate that the old system of binding boys out to a trade has been abandoned. and. struggling on cheerfully after his "Vanity Fair" was refused by a dozen pub lishers. a Mirabeau. As he followed the trail to Pike's Peak. Webster received a fee that paid him liberally for all the time and trouble he had spent for his early client. just as a student crams for a particular ex amination. but. he gazed in wonder upon the en ormous herds of buffaloes which dotted the plains as far as the eye could reach. Burnett complied and charged a thousand francs." said Burr. a Von Moltke. not daunted by privations. to sculpture an Apollo Bel videre. making sketches for the paintings of Western scenes for which he had become famous. "I never heard of your case till this evening. toiling and waiting in a lonely garret. "Yes. a Michael Angelo. on account of the poverty of his client. a n intricate question of title. A rich man asked Howard Burnett to do a little something for his album. The thought haunted him and found its final embodiment in "The Last ." he replied. To-day very few boys learn any trade. They pick up what they know. in a quarter of that time. but it took me thirty years to learn how to do it in five minutes. who have the persistence to work and wait for half a century for their first great opportunities. "But it took you only five minutes. thus losing heavily on the books bought. and eagerly devouring it before the sap-bush f ire." ob jected the rich man.of Ralph Waldo Emerson's books had a remunerative sale. He won his case. working seven long years decorating the Sistine Chapel with his matchless "Creation" and the "Last Judgment. "Most certainly not. who can struggle on for forty years before he has a chance to show the world his vast reserve. Albert Bierstadt first crossed the Rocky Mountains with a band of pioneers in 1 859. destined to shake an empire. as they go along. walking two miles through the snow with rags tied around his feet for shoes. as he was passing through New York City. just to "get through. to borrow the history of the French Revolution. a Farragut.

of the Buffaloes" in 1890. The Gentleman Villain. Byron fainted. such perseverance. you have been to college. A chart is made out which sho ws just what must be done in the case of wars with the different nations. "I have just begun my education. studying expression for a year and a half. The accom plishments of such industry. and this is so arranged that the commander of the army here could telegraph to any officer to take such a train and go to such a place at a moment's notice. howev er noble. The pianist Thalberg said he never ventured to perform one of his celebrated pi eces in public until he had played it at least fifteen hundred times. Before Edmund Kean would consent to appear in that character which he acted wit h such consummate skill. Byron. Success is the child of drudgery and perseverance and depends upon "knowing how long it takes to suc ceed. solid foundation. There is a schedule of trains which will supersede all other schedules the moment war is declared. true to the plumb-line through all the tempests that lash its granite sides. A large part of every successful life must be spent in laying foundation stones underground. he practised constantly before a glass. which will stand the test of time. "that the Lord opened my mouth without any lea rning. changes the mulberry leaf to satin." said the President . As the great actor went on to delineate the terrible conseque nces of sin. unseen and unappreciated by those who tread about that historic shaft. apparentl y thrown away." Endurance is a much better test of character than any one act of heroism." A young man just graduated told the President of Trinity College that he had co mpleted his education. said he never looked upon so fearful and wicked a face. but he left therein an a rtistic thought for all time. When he appeared upon the sta ge. so deep must they dig to build on the living rock. in order to gain a hold by which the tree was anch ored to withstand the storms of centuries. and ev ery officer's place in the scheme is laid out beforehand. and had come to say good-by." said the former. The giant oak on the hillside was detained months or years in its upward growth while its root took a great turn around some rock." "A similar event. To perfect this great work he had spent twenty years." A learned clergyman was thus accosted by an illiterate preacher who despised ed ucation: "Sir. but it is this foundation. Fifty feet of Bunker Hill Monument is under ground." said a wealthy banker who had begun without a dollar. I presume?" "Yes. In Rome the foundation is often the most expensive part of an edifice. perhaps the most beautiful ever painted." was the reply. sir. It is simply asto . "Indeed. which enables it to stand upright. "I am thankful. Everything which endures. "and often I did not leave it for fifteen or eighte en hours." retorted the clergyman. He laid no claim whatever to genius. who went with Moore to see him. Da Vinci spent four years on the head of Mona Lisa. "happened in Balaam's time. would put to shame many a man wh o claims genius. he said it was all a question of hard work. "For years I was in my place of business by sunrise." Many an extraordinary man has been made out of a very ordinary boy: but in orde r to accomplish this we must begin with him while he is young. Said Captain Bingham: "You can have no idea of the wonderful machine that the G erman army is and how well it is prepared for war. must have a deep." Patience. it is said.

so determine d was he that his life should be rounded out to its fullest measure." The road to distinction must be paved with years of self-denial and hard work. If this change is so marked in the youth who has grown to matu rity.' I said into the phonograph 'specia. His on ly inheritance was poverty and hard work. had he only been fortunate enough early in life to have enjoyed the benefi ts of efficient and systematic training! Laziness begins in cobwebs and ends in iron chains. rough. or among the tramps. and added: "From eighteen to twenty hours a day for the last seven months I have worked on this single word 'specia. both physical. specia." On one occasion Webster made a remarkable speech before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at Harvard. I can see the result. can not be overestimated. and comes under the tutelage of a skilled educator before his habits become fixed or confirmed. yet he decided to make him self master of the situation. but refused." Webster was once urged to speak on a subject of great importance." The habit of seizing every bit of knowledge. Ole Bull said: "If I practise one day. if I practise three days. It exactly fitted the occasi on. specia. Even a few weeks' or months' drill of the rawest and roughest recruits in the l ate Civil War so straightened and dignified stooping and uncouth soldiers. the great author of the common school system of Massachusetts. Although he had spent many years of preparation for his life work. in the poorhouse. Gladstone was bound to win. if I practise two days. But he had an unquenchable thirst for knowledge and a determination to get on in the world. and amid all his public and private duties. if he has good material in him. B ut I held firm. and I have succeeded. and notwithstanding he had gained the coveted prize of a seat in Parliament." Webster replied. every opportunity. Webst er once repeated with effect an anecdote which he had heard fourteen years befor e. "But.' It was enough to drive one mad. Edison described his repeat ed efforts to make the phonograph reproduce an aspirated sound. and moral! How of ten a man who is in the penitentiary. "a very few words from you would do much to awaken public attention to it. slovenly. when a book was presented to him. saying he was very busy and had no time to master the subject. pecia. Horace Mann. that their own friends sc arcely knew them. and which he had not thought of in the meantime. was a remarkable example of that pluck and patience which can work and wait.nishing what training will do for a rough. and that hi s mind should have broad and liberal culture. and even dull lad. and grinding them all up i nto experience. "It is an ill mason that rejects any stone. an ornament to the human race instead of a foul blot and ugly scar. but after he had gone. and m ade them manly. erect. You will find use for all of it. uncouth. every occasion. but also studied Greek co nstantly and read every well-written book or paper he could obtain. pecia. he not only spent eleven terms more in the study of the law. and courteous in their bearing. his "impro . mental. or living out a miserable existence in the slums of our cities." replied hi s friend. He braided straw to earn m oney to buy books for which his soul thirsted. in spite of the consciousness of marvelous natural endowments wh ich would have been deemed sufficient by many young men. my friends can see it. no matter how insignificant it may seem at the time. it is because I do not allow myself to speak on any subject until my mind is imbued with it. "If there be so much weight in my words.' but t he instrument responded 'pecia. what a miracle is possible in the lad who is taken early and put under a c ourse of drill and systematic training. ha s slumbering within the rags possibilities which would have developed him into a magnificent man. the great public can see it.

Napoleon had applied for every vacant position for seven years bef ore he was recognized." The law of labor is equally b inding on genius and mediocrity. Cuyler. to stand the strain of a long fight. it was thought by many that Demosthenes did not possess any genius whatever. The easily discouraged. "and I find that the chie f difference between the successful and the failures lies in the single element of staying power. it is the fruit of labor and thought." "I have been watching the careers of young men by the thousand in this busy cit y of New York for over thirty years. "Many men. Dr.mptu" speech. My mind becomes pervade d with it. Demosthenes was once asked to speak on a great and sudden emergency. even to make remarks. All the genius I have lies just in this: when I have a subject in hand I study it profoundly. carefully written out. I explore it in all its bearings. was found in the book which he had forgotte n to take away. but meanwhile he studied with all his might. but replie d. to see if they are growing. will see the day. and so to never know you are beaten. supplementin g what was considered a thorough military education by researches and reflection s which in later years enabled him easily to teach the art of war to veterans wh o had never dreamed of his novel combinations. because he never allowed himself to speak on any s ubject without thorough preparation. but was refused. Reserves which carry us through great emergencies are the result of long workin g and long waiting. the opera. but p ull them up every now and then. "The spruce young spark. when called upo n. or some precious thing will be lost. Then the effort which I make the people are pleased to call the fruit of genius. "who thinks chiefly of his mustache and b oots and shiny hat. are all the time dropping to the rear--to perish or to be carried along on the stretcher of charity. Day and night it is before me.--"the power to do the grandest thing possible to your nature when you fee l you must. it was said. ridiculing the faithful young fellow who came to learn the business and make a man of himself because he will not join in wasting his time in dissipation." ." says Longfellow. but also wait. They who understand and practise Abraham Lincoln's homely maxim of 'pegging away' have achieved the solidest success. Alexander Hamilton said. he would take one minute to consider ho w best to do it. if his useless li fe is not earlier blasted by vicious indulgences." says Sizer." said Dr. said that if he had four minutes in which to perfor m an operation on which a life depended." The Duke of Wellington became so discouraged because he did not advance in the army that he applied for a much inferior position in the customs department. as children do flowers they have planted." In fact. Permanent success is oftener won by holding on than by sudden dash. however brilliant. the great surgeon. and s till find you have something left. or a fast horse. "I am not prepared.--to do well always. when he will be glad to accept a situation from the fellow-clerk whom he now ridicules and affects to despise. who are pushed back by a straw. but best in the crisis on which all things turn. "do not allow their principles to take root. when the latter shall stand in the firm. Nelaton. "Men give me credit for genius. Collyer declares that reserves mean to a man also achiev ement. and talki ng about the theater. dispensing benefits and acquiring fort une. he would never rise." We must not only work. because you never are beaten. In any meeting or assembly. of getting along nicely and easily during the day. without previously pr eparing himself.

YOUNG. no Anglo-Norman dynasty could have arisen. Meeting a man on the route." CHAPTER XLI THE MIGHT OF LITTLE THINGS Think naught a trifle. and our habits--o f promptness. and su perficiality--are the things acquired most readily and longest retained. which had been hanging up to dry. the guides sometimes demand absolute silence. sti ll pursuing. but was surprised to find that the In dian had not even seen the one he described. Still achieving.--NAPOLEON. be up and doing. "Let us. but for life. white man. A different result at Plataea would have delayed the progress of the human race more than ten cent uries. no British Empire. It was little Greece that rolled back the overflowing tide of Asiatic luxury an d despotism. "A pebble on the streamlet scant Has turned the course of many a river. earnestness. he asked him if he ha d seen a little. Men are led by trifles. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. Returning home.--WENDELL PHI LLIPS." says Palgrave's "History of Normandy and England. Among the lofty Alps. and with a small bobtailed do g. and germs of limitless mental growth. had been stolen. the three great essentials to success in menta l and physical labor are Practice. and thoroughness. whom man never saw. made her the mother of William the Conqueror. After careful observation he started to trac k the thief through the woods. "Not for school. though it small appear. To vary the language of another. And trifles." "Arletta's pretty feet. and asked him how he could give suc h a minute description of the man he had never seen. Patience. glistening in the brook. He that despiseth small things shall fall by little and little. we learn"." We may tell which way the wind blew before the Deluge by marking the ripple and cupping of the rain in the petrified sand now preserved forever. moment s make the year. We tell the ve ry path by which gigantic creatures. or of tardiness. it is said." "Had she not thus fascinated Duke Robert the Liberal. with a short gun. fickleness. old. lest the vibration of the voice bring down an avalanche. The man told him he had met such a man. It is but the littleness of man that sees no greatness in trifles." "The bad thing about a little sin is that it won't stay little. With a heart for any fate. The power of observation in the American Indian would put many an educated man to shame. Learn to labor and to wait. life. an Indian discovered that his venison. and Perseverance. then. but the greatest of these is Perseverance. of Normandy. "I knew the thief was a lit . giving instead to Europe and America models of the highest politica l freedom yet attained. Harold would not have fal len at Hastings.--EMERSON.--ECCLESIASTICUS . walked to the river's e dge to find their food.He only is independent in action who has been earnest and thorough in preparati on and self-culture. Small sands the mountain.

Who can calculate the future of the smalles t trifle when a mud crack swells to an Amazon and the stealing of a penny may en d on the scaffold? The act of a moment may cause a life's regret." says Gladstone. too small to be c learly seen without the aid of a magnifying-glass. the Straits of Mackinaw. Lawrence. Striking on opposite sides of the roof of a court-house in Wisconsin. Clair. yet such was the formation of the continent that a trifling cause was multiplied almost beyond the power of figures to express its momentous effect upon the des tinies of these companion raindrops. A little boy in Holla nd saw water trickling from a small hole near the bottom of a dike. were separated a few inches by a gentl e breeze. or that the sickness of an Italian chemi st's wife and her absurd craving for reptiles for food should begin the electric telegraph." said the Indian. and. so he h eld his hand over the hole for hours on a dark and dismal night until he could a ttract the attention of passers-by. There are moments in history which balance years of ordinary life. The commanding off icer and hundreds of his men were going to South America on a great ship. Niagara River. The beetling chalk cliffs of England were built by rhizopods. By gnawing through a dike. and thus warned them of their danger. but the soul returns never. Lake Michi gan. She gave the hint which led to the discovery of galvanic e lectricity.000 pounds produced the American Revolution. Green Bay. Lawrence River. while the other entered successively the Fox River. Clair River. a war that . such as n o one had ever seen before. floating on the waves. "has often depended upon the good or ba d digestion of a fine dinner. Madame Galvani noticed the contraction of the muscles of a skinned f rog which was accidentally touched at the moment her husband took a spark from a n electrical machine. Lake Erie. His name is still held in grateful remembran ce in Holland. A few bits of seaweed and driftwood. A cricket once saved a military expedition from destruction. Lake Huron. I knew the dog was small by his tracks and short steps. even a rat may drown a nation. and that he had a bob -tail by the mark it left in the dust where he sat. now so useful in the arts and in transmitting vocal or written langu age. falling side by side. which an Indian never does. I knew he was an old man by his short steps.tle man. I knew he was a white man by his turning out his toes in walking." Two drops of rain. A spark falling upon some combustibles led to the invention of gunpowder. What was so unlikely as that throwing an empty wine-flask in the fire should fu rnish the first notion of a locomotive. A trigger may be pulled in an instant. it broke its long silence by a shrill note. "The fate of a nation. they would have been dashed upon a ledge o f rock had it not been for a cricket which a soldier had brought on board. the St. How slight the influence of the breeze. Dana could interest a class for hours on a grain of sand. and fi nally reached the Gulf of St. When the little insect scented the land. St. Lake St. He realized that the leak would rapidly become larger if the water were not checked. t hrough the carelessness of the watch. Lake Ontario. and from a single bone. I knew he had a short gun by the mark it left on the tree where he had stood it u p. Detro it River. Agassiz could deduce the entire structure and habits of an animal which no man had ever seen so accurately that subsequent discoveri es of complete skeletons have not changed one of his conclusions. enabled Columbus to stay a mutiny of his sailors which threatened to prevent the discovery of a new world . one rolled southward through the Rock River and the Mississippi to the Gulf of M exico. "because he rolled up a stone to stand on in order to reach the venison." A stamp act to raise 60.

the Congress of the United States. The cackling of a goose aroused the sentinels and saved Rome from the Gauls. but they have wre cked many a career. I determined to make a machine that would work accurately. put the muzzle to his head. yet it may have cost you a friend fore ver. a quick temper. and. secured to the East India Company and afterwards to Great Britain a great and rich country with two hundred millions of people." said Edison. The quarrel of two Indian boys over a grassh opper led to the "Grasshopper War. but it laid Chicago in ashes. and represe ntative governments all over the world have come from King John signing the Magn a Charta. A famous ruby was offered to the English government. But it did not go off. he went to his room. loaded his pistol. grew out of a quarrel as to which of two vessels should first be served with water. telling them what I had discovered. and gave m y assistants the necessary instructions. finding no opening. Bentham says.cost England 100. Trembling with excitement he resolved to hold his life sacred. The phonograph is the result of the pricking of a finger. resolved that if the weapon went off he would regard i t as a Providence that he was spared. What a little thing fixes destiny! Trifles light as air often suggest to the thinking mind ideas which have revolu tionized the world. "I was singing to the mouthpiece of a telephone. If he had had that vote America would probably have lost its greatest pre acher. Some little weakness. He went to the window to point it in another di rection and try it again. and pulled the trigger. costing more than a hundred thousand lives. who. a re little things. but that he "facets" was slightly fractured. He pulled the trigger and it went off the first time. and rendered homeless a hundred thousand people. and it was rejected from the regalia of crown je one of t value of England. This young man became General Robert Clive. want of decision. to ma ke the most of it. . you say. for a ught we know. It was a little thing for the janitor to leave a lamp swinging in the cathedral at Pisa. the fate of many a kingdom. That invisible fracture reduced the the ruby thousands of dollars. an d the pain from a thistle warned a Scottish army of the approach of the Danes. and made but one stinging remark. "The turn of a sentence has decided many a friendship. Tha t's the whole story. The report of the weler was that it was the finest he had ever seen or heard of." Perhaps you turned a cold shoulder bu t once. when placed beside great abilities." What mighty contests rise from trivial thing s! A young man once went to India to seek his fortune. That set me to thinking. but in that steady swaying motion the boy Galileo saw the pendulum. "when the vibrat ions of my voice caused a fine steel point to pierce one of my fingers held just behind it. an d conceived the idea of thus measuring time. and never again to cheapen it. but. Henry Ward Beecher came within one vote of being elected superintendent of a ra ilway. If I could record the motions of the point and send it over the same surface afterward. with but a handful of European soldiers. A war between France and England.000 pounds. The Parliament of Great Britain. some self-indulgence. I saw no reason why the thing would not talk." It was a little thing for a cow to kick over a lantern left in a shanty.000.

The cry of the infant Moses attracted the attention of Pharoah's daughter. But for his change of course Columbus would have reached the coast of Florida. He must know all about the provisions. "I cannot see that you have made any progress since my last visit. and t o observe the difference between one monthly return and another. Those that d are lose a day are dangerously prodigal." "But they are trifles!" exclai med the visitor. From this hint came the telescope. One in a million--once in a lifetime--may do a heroic action." wrote Humboldt. "John. It is said that nothing could be more perfectly planned than his memorable march which led to the victory of Austerlitz. The web of a spider sugge sted to Captain Brown the idea of a suspension bridge. Ye arl of Crawford." The children of a spectacle-maker placed two or more pairs of the spectacles be fore each other in play. bring us anither hod o' lime. A single misspelled word prevented a deserving young man from obtaining a situation as instructor in a New England college." The absence of a comma in a bill which passed through Congress years ago cost o ur government a million dollars. "but trifles make per fection. and they were all to reach the point of destinati on at a precise moment. etc. and perfection is no trifle. A flight of birds probably prevented Columbus from discovering t his continent. every officer had his orders as to the exact route wh ich he should follow. the camp kettles. the exact day he was to arrive at a certain station. more energy to that limb. or Gerhard Dow a day in giving the right effect to a dewdrop on a cabbage leaf. those that dare misspend it. No thing was too small for his attention. th e horse fodder. brought out that muscle. pleasant words. genial smiles. the shoes. the biscuits. for to the Spanish seamen of that day it was good luck to follow in the wake of a flock of birds when on a vo yage of discovery.The sight of a stranded cuttlefish led Cuvier to an investigation which made hi m one of the greatest natural historians in the world. and gave the Jews a lawgiver. nothing to contingency." said the sculptor. "I have retouched this part. desperate. Every day is a little life. makes all the difference between success and failure. and good de eds. and our whole life but a day repeated. and told their father that distant objects looked large r. A bird alighting on the bough of a tree at the mouth o f the cave where Mahomet lay hid turned aside his pursuers. "But. "It may be so. "When they a re sent to me. "Never. I give up every occupation in order to read them in detail. The masons would call out. "had the flight of birds more importa nt consequences. and which seale d the fate of Europe for many years. Martin Alonzo Pinzon persuaded him t o follow a flight of parrots toward the southwest. and gave a prophet t o many nations. A missing marriage certificate kept the hod-carrier of Hugh Miller from establi shing his claim to the Earldom of Crawford. polished that. Everything was pl anned to a nicety before he attempted to execute it." replied the great artist. with more vital fidel ity to truth. No young girl e njoys her novel as much as I do these returns. so far as he could possibly avoid it. good wishes. a friendly letter. When he was growing anxious. When the bugle sounde d for the march to battle. He would often charge his absent officers t o send him perfectly accurate returns." said a gent leman to Michael Angelo. What is the happiness of your life made up of? Little courtesies. and t he exact hour he was to leave. given some expres sion to this lip. little kindne sses." Napoleon left nothing to chance. To details which his inferior officers though t too microscopic for their notice he gave the most exhaustive consideration." That infinite patience which made Michael Angelo spend a week in bringing out a muscle in a statue. Napoleon was a master of trifles. even to the smallest detail. softened that feature. .

Wellington. was "great in little things. Madame de Staël. driving famine from Ireland again and again. John Robinson. and a prism. it is said. falling like dew upon a thought. and which involved his clients in litigation. and the blemish would have changed the history of the world. At that when he found een detained. but in the aggregate forming a mass of evidence. A single potato. It seemed a small thing to drive William Brewster. think. Cromwell was tion. a small balance. having squandered all his property. Wollaston." "I give these books for the founding of a college in this colony". "T here is my laboratory. "and a small drop of ink. "for want of a horseshoe nail. Had he not b who can tell what the history of Great Britain would have been? From the careful and persistent accumulation of innumerable facts. on which st ood a few watch glasses. and asked to be shown over those laboratories of his in which science had been enriched by so many great discoveries. a lens." A hymn chanted by the barefooted friars in the t emple of Jupiter at Rome led to the famous "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . who feared n ot to attack the proudest monarchs in their capitols. "For want of a nail the shoe was lost. The history of many a failure could be written in three words. and often great losses! How m any wills are contested from the carelessness of lawyers in the omission or shad ing of words. For want of a shoe the horse was lost. a Darwin extracts h is law of evolution. he gave his personal attention to the minutest detail. While other generals trusted to subordinates. and a Linnaeus constructs the science of botany." "Words are things" says Byron. and a blow-pipe. but as Pilgrims they bec ame the founders of a mighty people. An eminent foreign savant called on Dr. Black discovered latent he at." A burnt stick and a barn door served Wilkie in lieu of p encil and paper. and if Cleopatra's had been an inch shorter Mark Antony might never have become infatuated with her wonderful charms. a few poems from Lowell an d Whittier." He knew no such things as trifle s. has multiplied into food for millions. A pan of w ater and two thermometers were the tools by which Dr. A few immortal sentences from Garrison and Phillips. and gave a nation an altered destiny. F or want of a horse the rider was lost. and the poor people of Austerfield and Scrooby into perpetual exile." says Poor Richard. carried to England by Sir Walter Raleigh in th e sixteenth century. was beautiful enough to spare the tip of he r nose. or ambiguous use of language! Not even Helen of Troy. and a sheet of pasteboard enabled Newton to unfold the composition of light and the origin of colors." How many a lawyer has failed from the lack of details i n deeds and important papers. and the leaven is at work which will not cease its action until the whipping-post and bodily servitude are abolished forever. about to sail for America when a law was passed prohibiting emigra time he was a profligate." A single remark dropped by an unknown person in the street led to the successfu l story of "The Bread-winners. such were th e words of ten ministers who in the year 1700 assembled at the village of Branfo . each trivial in itself. But that he could not leave England he reformed his life. the lack of little words which seemed like surplus age. perhaps millions. pointing to an old tea tray on the table. too. "Lack of detail. Anne Boleyn's fascinating smile split the great Churc h of Rome in twain. shrank from the political influence of one independent woman in private life. test papers. and all. produces that which makes thousands. Napoleon. and. said. when the doctor took him into a little study.

every plant. This boy was George Kemp. hill. while w e are sensitive and neglectful of our weaknesses. called the boy ba ck. Many an honorable career has re sulted from a kind word spoken in season or the warm grasp of a friendly hand.--Laffitte. and gave him a situation from which he rose until he became the greatest ban ker of Paris. The microscope reveals as great a world below as the telescope above . and shot it. These notes may appear a t housand years hence. "Least of all seeds. and. stream. Yet it is our greatest weaknes s which measures our real strength. every scene upon the street. Goodyear discovered how to vulcanize rubber by forget ting." A poor boy applied for a situation at a bank in Paris. Hogarth would make sketches of rare faces and characteristi cs upon his finger-nails upon the streets. A ship-worm boring a piece of wood suggested to Sir Isa mbard Brunel the idea of a tunnel under the Thames at London. and many a ship has survived the shocks of icebergs and the storms o f ocean only to founder in a smooth sea from holes made by tiny insects. and a single drop of water is a miniature ocean. Great men are noted for their attention to trifles. Sir Walter Scott once saw a shepherd boy plodding sturdily along. threw his soul into the design of the magnificent monument erecte d in Edinburgh to the memory of the author of "Waverley. however large and strong all the others may be. There is a phonograph in our natures which catches. who became so enthusiastic in his study of sculpture that he walked fifty miles and back to se e a beautiful statue. The strength of a chain lies in its weakest link. a skillet containing a compound which he had befo re considered worthless. reproduced in our descendants. Each of the worthy fathers deposited a few bo oks upon the table around which they were sitting. Small things become great when a great soul sees them. . and registers foreve r the slightest enunciation. until it became red hot. he picked up a pin. All of nature's laws govern the smallest atoms. A soldier who escapes the bullets of a thousand battles may die from the scratc h of a pin. however thoughtless and transient. As he l eft the door. Goethe once asked a monarch to excuse him. In nature there is not hing small. every syllable we utter. he invented a hulling machine which has revolu tionized the rice business. such was the founding of Yale College. The eye is a perpetual camera imprinting upon the sensitive mental plates and p acking away in the brain for future use every face. greatest of all harvests. every tree. and asked him to ride. It is the little rift within the lute That by and by will make the music mute. A single noble or heroic act of one man has sometimes elevated a nation." seems to be one of the great la ws of nature. to a truly great mind there a re no little things. He did not forget the kindness of Sir Walter. while he went to an adjoining room to jot d own a stray thought. Tracks of extinct animals in the old red sandstone led Hugh Miller on and on until he became the g reatest geologist of his time. and renders it immortal. The bank president saw this. when th e latter died. Bits of glass arranged to amuse children led to the disc overy of the kaleidoscope. during an interview. A Massachusetts soldier in the Civil War observed a bird hulling rice. mountain. but was refused. in all their beautiful or te rrible detail. in fact. We are all inclined to be proud of our strong points. taking its bill for a model. flo wer.rd. Trifles light as air suggest to the keen observer the solut ion of mighty problems. a few miles east of New Haven. Indeed. All life comes from microscopic beginnings. everything wh ich comes within its range.

The other part. but t he larger part of the real pay of a real man's work is outside of the pay envelo pe. He is cheating himself.' As she passed along the way. "If the laborer gets no more than the wages his employer offers him. One part of this outside salary is the opportunity of the employee to absorb th e secrets of his employer's success. There is no estimating the value of such training. in expanding your exp erience. and to learn from his mistakes." A man's or a boy's work is materi al with which to build character and manhood. so efficiently. not a mere mill for grinding out a salary of dollars and cents. It is the opport unity. the opportunity to become a larger. that will help you to make a large man of yourself. is dishonest." CHAPTER XLII THE SALARY YOU DO NOT FIND IN YOUR PAY ENVELOPE The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. "It was only a glad 'good-morning. for in that position he absorbed the secrets of strategy and diplomacy which later were used so effec tively for his country. and Germany a ta ngle of petty states. in the quality of his daily work. t ry as he may. and the best o f all." "Only a thought in passing--a smile. he cheats himself. and strengthening and developing the intellect. broader. are brought into systematic. w . rather. never accepting the lowest or second best. I have never known an employee to rise rapidly. he might have remained a perpetual clerk. or encouraging word. is the opportunity for growth. whose pay envelope was his goal. will make all the difference to you between fai lure and success. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. slowly silence all. no mat ter how small your remuneration. ever widening. It is life's school for practical training of the faculties. or even to get beyond mediocrit y. the executive faculties. that Germany p rized his services more than those of the ambassador himself. can never give him back. for development. I would say: "Don't think too much of the amo unt of salary your employer gives you at the start. He worked so assiduously. in enlarging and ennobling yourself. and the one whom he most defrauds is himself. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. he is chea ted. more efficient man. TENNYSON.And. But it spread the morning's glory Over the livelong day. If Bismarck had ea rned only his salary. where the practical f aculties. so vital to every young ma n starting on the journey of life. of the possib le salary you can give yourself. while he is being paid for learning his trade or profession. for mental expansion." A boy or a man who works simply for his salary. in increasing your skill. If I were allowed but one utterance on this subject. is an advantage beyond computation. my employee friend. of that which all the after years. The opportunity for growth in a disciplinary institution. Think. vigorous exercis e at a definite time and for a definite number of hours. That is necessity. Bismarck was said to have really founded the German Empire when working for a s mall salary as secretary to the German legation in Russia. who could not see infinitely more in his wor k than what he found in the envelope on Saturday night. and is actuated by no higher mo tive. Has lifted many a bur den no other gift could have stirred. stretching the mind.

president of the Western Union Telegraph Company. you could not possibly do without being employed in some kind of an institution which has the motive. suddenly jumping. John Wanamaker. a re compense so munificent that what your employer pays you will seem insignificant beside it. you pay yourself in valuable experience. Rober t C. the high purpose which emanates from you in its performance. stronger. How small and narrow and really blind to his own interests must be the youth wh o can weigh a question of salary against all those privileges he receives in exc hange for the meager services he is able to render his employer. from the grand spirit which yo u bring to it. It he is looking for efficient employees. says: "Th e man who brings to his occupation a loyal desire to do his best is certain to s ucceed.--just as soon as it is p rofitable. and high purpose they brought to their tasks. into high and responsible positions. the machinery. Clowry. They were satisfied with a dollar or two apie ce a week. Why? Sim ply because. which he regarded . the ideal employer gives those who work for him a great deal that is not found in the pay envelope. on small salaries. as if by magic. and in making himself a better. Often we see bright boys who have worked. to a bsorb the secrets of the business. Ogden. and other lesser powers in the commercial world would have attained their present commanding success had they hesitated and haggled about a dollar o r two of salary when they began their life-work? If they had. too. at the start. he shows that it would be profitable to employ him in some higher form of occupation. in the enthusiasm. but opportunity. efficient man. you are paid! The youth who is always haggling over the question of how many dollars and cent s he will sell his services for. in splendid discipline. split hairs about salaries. ignorant boy into a strong. perhaps for years. and in increased insight into business methods. And instead of paying for the opportunity of unfolding and developing from a green. You can draw from the faithfulness of your work. in e xpanding his experience. determination. and. sympathy. He pays you in dollars. Bourke Cockran. Do not fear that your employer will not recognize your merit and advance you as rapidly as you deserve." Do you think that kings of business like Andrew Carnegie. Colonel Robert C. he is pretty sure to secure it. Then. The few dollars he finds in his pay envelope are to this larger salary as the c hips which fly from the sculptor's chisel are to the angel which he is trying to call out of the marble. wor ked without pay as a messenger boy for months for experience. It was not sa lary. himself a remarkable example of success. more useful m an.--a chance to show what was in him. better. in character building.hich. No. level-headed. hardly enough to live on. th ey were paying themselves vastly more in the fine quality of their work. little realizes how he is cheating himself by n ot looking at the larger salary he can pay himself in increasing his skill. in f ine training. while their employers were paying them but a few dollars a week. when there is p rofit in his promotion. perhaps. while they were learning the lessons that m ade them what they are to-day. in self-expressio n. that each wanted. By doing the thing at hand surpassingly well. He gives them encouragement. He inspir es them with the possibility of doing something higher. they would now pro bably be working on comparatively small salaries for other people. W. the patronage to give you th e disciplining and training you need to bring out your strongest qualities. in increased efficiency.--and what emp loyer is not?--it will be to his own interest to do so. the boys who rise in the world are not those who.

enlargement. to work here overtime to do the thing s which others neglect! Why should you stay here nights and help pack goods. they laid up $117. h e was called into the office of the head of the house. to do as little as p ossible for the largest amount of salary. he was taken into the firm as a partner. to watch their methods. or an inclination to shirk. They told him they would think the matter over and see what th ey could do for him. when my time should be completed. expansion. compared with which the three dollars and fifty cents looked contemptible. an opportunity to absorb knowledge and valuable secrets on every hand. The chance actually to do with his own hands the thing which he wanted to learn. a little late r. bu t remember that that is a very small part of the consideration. an am bition to rise. and a new contract with h im for a term of years at three thousand dollars a year was proposed. but the boy who walked one hundred miles to New York to get a job saw in every opportunity a great occasion. At the end of a year. know ." he said. when it is not expected of you?" Would he then have ris en above them. for he could not tell when fate might be taking his measure fo r a larger place. "I walked fro m my home in New England to New York. I had a proposit ion from another large concern in New York to act as its foreign representative at a salary of three thousand dollars a year. I accep ted an offer from the firm to remain for five years at a salary of seven dollars and a half a week. He put himself into training. He felt that the opportunity was the salary. You have actuall y gotten an opportunity to get right into the very heart of the great activities of a large concern. studying methods. to get close to men who do things. He never allowed anything of importance to escape hi s attention. It is not difficult to see a proprietor in the boy who sweeps the store or wait s on customers--if the qualities that make a proprietor are in him--by watching him work for a single day. an opportunity to drink in. and that. for he was bound some day to be a partn er or to have a store of his own. knowledge wherever you go in the establishment.--this was his salary. At the end of his co ntract. he was watching others. George. I should be glad to talk with him in regard to his proposition. and asking questions of everybody he came in contact with in the store. always looki ng out for the main chance. just think of yourself as actually starting out in business for yourself. who probably said to him." When his contract was nearly up. to be somebody. A millionaire merchant of New York told me the story of his rise. throu gh your eyes and your ears. When you get a job. however.as worth infinitely more than salary--and scores of our most successful men have cheerfully done the same thing.000. Long before this time had expired. but that he did not accept it because he wouldn't br eak his contract. as really working for yourself. When he was not working. Suppose that this boy had listened to his associates. He told me that he and his wi fe lived on eight dollars a week in New York. he felt within him the ability to become a great merchant. I told the manager that I was then under contract. Incredible as it may seem. to see the way in which princely merc hants do business. and all that sort of thing. Get as much salary as you can. The young man told his employers that the manager of another house had offered him that am ount a year or more before. "where I secured a place to swee p out a store for three dollars and a half a week. You can tell by the spirit which he brings to his tas k whether there is in him the capacity for growth. and the contract was closed. He told me that he did not go out of N ew York City for twelve years. to absorb their processes. to make th eir secrets his own. that he preferred to study the store. but that. and to abso rb every bit of knowledge that he could. so eager was he to learn how everything was done. many times: "What a fool you are. by saving and investments. that they were prepared to enter into a ten-year contract with him at ten tho usand dollars a year. they notified him. and became a millionaire. leaving them in the ranks of perpetual employees? No. during a large part of this time. and he determined that he would be. The very first time he swept out the store.

the skill. every bit of knowledge y ou can absorb. of giving the best thing in you to your employer. You may still succeed when others have lost confidence in you. Just make up your mind that you are going to be a sponge in that institution an d absorb every particle of information and knowledge possible. the power you have gained. you will always be conscious that you have done a little. and no amount of juggling with yourself can induce that inward monitor which says "righ t" to the well-done thing and "wrong" to the botched work. your inventiveness . There is something within you that you cannot bribe. a habit of adjusting means to ends . a divine sen se of justice and right that can not be blindfolded. which means the ultimate attainment of your maximum efficiency. never mind. you should regard as a part of your future capital which will be worth more than money capital when you start out for yourself. larger. If you work with this spirit. the best possible comes back to you in skill. Resolve that you will call upon all of your resourcefulness.ledge that will be invaluable to you in the future. and it is perfectly right for me to shirk when my employer is not in sight or to clip my hours when I can. In the absence of money ca . shirking your work. Every hint and every suggestion which you can pick up. of capital which is worth vastly more than money cap ital--the chance to make a man of yourself. it is impossible for you to rob your employer by clipping yo ur hours. your ingenuity. and power. more effective man. Nothing will ever compensat e you for the loss of faith in yourself. the eff iciency. no one can rob you of your greatest reward. If you think you are being kept back. Your employer may pinch you on salary. On the other hand. if you do not believe in yourself. anyway. that you will enter into your work with a spirit of e nthusiasm and a zest which know no bounds. This striving for excellence will make you grow. a habit of thoroughness. training. which are to mean everything to you in the future. whatever it may be. I do not get e nough salary. by carelessness or indifference. acumen. mean thing. up-to-date. will help you expand into a broader. of system. The constant stretching of the mind over prob lems which interest you. to alter its verdict in your favor. if you give your best to your employer. Don't say to yourself. that you will b e progressive. It will call out your resource s. he can not shut off your perceptive faculties. but he can not close your eyes and ears. but never when you have lost confidence in yourself. and you will be surprised to see how quickly you will attract the attention of those above you. You will never again have the same confidence in your ability to succee d. your career is a t an end so far as its upward tendency is concerned. Then again. he can not keep you from absorbi ng the secrets of his business which may have been purchased by him at an enormo us cost of toil and sacrifice and even of several failures. In ot her words. a habit of putting your best into everythi ng you do. If you do not respect yourself. if you are working for too small a salary . of close observation. without robbing y ourself of infinitely more. call out the best thing in you." for this means a loss of selfrespect. all of which advantages you wi ll carry with you to your next position. shrewdness. if favoritism puts some one into a position above you which you have justly ea rned. the chance to have a clean record be hind you instead of a smirched one. a habit of reading human nature. an employee's reputation is his capital. to devise new and better ways of doing things. "I am not paid for doing this extra work. the consciousness of doing your level best. you will form a like habit of accuracy.

he is starting out in life with a heavy handicap. because they do not realize the tremendous power of a clean name. square. There is nothing like a good. loyal. but he told them that the opportunity was what he was after. solid. substantial reputation. but here is an instance of a young man who attracted the attent ion of others even outside of the firm he worked for. The salary is of very little importance to you in comparison with the reputatio n for integrity and efficiency you have left behind you and the experience you h ave gained while earning the salary. according to its nature. In other words. . or at the jobber's when w e ask for credit. hard work.pital. and who has gone on the principle that the more he could get out of an employer--the more salary he could get with less effort--the shrewder. Contrast the condition of a young man starting out for himself who has looked u pon his position as a sacred trust. never thinking of the salary. got a position in a publishing house a t fifteen dollars a week. not the salary. which. backed. w ho has done just as little work for his salary as possible. Young men are sometimes surprised at their rapid advancement. The very reputation of the first young man is splendid credit. an untarnished past. of a good reputation which is backing them. and true to his employer's intere sts--with that of another young man of equal ability starting out for himself. It sticks to us through life. even a purely commercial success. His work attracted the attention of a publisher who offered him sixty dollars a week. but it also follows him when he goes into business for hims elf. They can not unde rstand it. if it does not drag him down to failure. It is always backing us up and helping us in all sorts of ways . buttressed. he went to a third large publishing house at ten thousand doll ars a year. but he carried with him to th e new position the same habits of painstaking. Employees sometimes think that they get no credit for trying to do more than th ey are paid for. his reputation means everything. and also with an interest in the business. will make his burden infinitely greater. and very soon advanced him to seventy-five. It not only follows him around from one employer to another. We fi nd it waiting at the bank when we try to borrow money. He beat his employer. and is always helping us. and supported by a splendid past. The result was. for such a small salary. These are the great things. He must work all the harder to overcome the handicap of a bad reputatio n. smarter man he was. He is backed up by the good opinion of everybody that knows him. a great opportunity. and success. why should not he beat others? Ev erybody knows that he has not been honest at heart with his employer. that in less than two years from the time he was receiving sixt y dollars a week. and is always either helping or hindering him. a clean record. just because he was trying to earn a great deal more than he was paid for doing. a smirched record. an untarnished reputation--a reputation for being a dead-in-earnest hard worker. and worked five years before he received thirty-five d ollars a week. so much the harder to attain. I know a young man who came to New York. The other employees and his friends called him a fool for staying at the office after hours and taking work home nights and holidays. not loyal or true. but regarding the opportunity as everything. People are afraid of the other: they can not trust him.

Those w ho do not care how they do their work. Regard your work as a great life school for the broadening. a burning zeal. Look upon it as a man-builder. and you can not afford to ruin yourself and your whole future just because your employer is not what he ought to be. will never ma ke a key to unlock the door to anything but failure and disgrace. beauty. never accepting the lowest or second best. Never mind what kind of a man he is. a charact er-builder. You c an not afford to strike false blows which may mar the angel that sleeps in the s tone. if they can only get through with it and get their salary for it. A youth might just as well exc use himself for his boorish manners and ungentlemanly conduct on the ground that other people were mean and ungentlemanly to him. Your reputation is the foundation for your future success. and if you slip rotten hours. and not as a mere living-getter. the image you evolve from the block must stand as an expression of yourself.In olden times boys had to give years of their time in order to learn a trade. The habit of insisting upon the best of which you are capable. Whether it is beautiful or hideous. The foundation must be clean. resolve that you will approach your task in the spirit of a master. of your ideals. . you have nothing to do with your employer's character or his method of doing things. pay very dearly for their trifling. There is nothing else so valuable to you as an opportunity to build a name for yourself. will make all the difference to you between med iocrity or failure. N ow the boy is paid for learning his trade. rounding into symmetry. and it rests with yo u whether you will use it or abuse it. and often would pay their employer for the opportunity. Remember that you ar e a sculptor and that every act is a chisel blow upon life's marble block. of your God-given faculties. Take no chances of marring your reputation by the picayune and unworthy endeavo r "to get square" with a stingy or mean employer. these will ta ke the drudgery out of it and make it a delight. w hich are uncut diamonds sacredly intrusted to you for the polishing and bringing out of their hidden wealth and beauty. no mat ter how small your remuneration. and firm. English boys used to thi nk it was a great opportunity to be able to get into a good concern. solid. but yo u can do right yourself. and they are not wanted. de epening. You may not be able to make him a gentleman. My young friends. to shirk at every opportunity. botched work. and slighted. The fact is that your present position. to sneak away and hide during business hours. to loiter when out on business for their employer. Many employees may not think it is so very bad to clip their hours. You may not be able to make him do what is right. that whether he is a man of high ideals or not. you will be one. of always dema nding of yourself the highest. The quality which you put into your work will determine the quality of your lif e. is the key that will unlock the door above you. your superstr ucture will topple. but often when they try to get another place their reputat ion has gone before them. but you ca n be one yourself. whether you will make of it a stepping-st one or a stumbling-block. No matter how mean and s tingy he may be. divine or brutal. with a chan ce to work without salary for years in order to learn their business or trade. they cut very sorry figures in life. botched work into the foundation. If you bring to your work the spirit of an arti st instead of an artisan. Regard the living-getting. an absorbing enthusiasm. harmony. to go to their work in the morning all used up from dissipation. Slighted work. Others excuse themselves for poor work on the ground that their employer does n ot appreciate their services and is mean to them. your way of doing your work. your opportunity for the time is with him. money-ma king part of your career as a mere incidental as compared with the man-making pa rt of it. and success.

larger. Many young employees. has not learned the first principles of success or happiness. The hardest work in the world is th at which is grudgingly done. that you will express in your work the highest thing in you. grander re muneration possible for them outside of their pay envelope. I have known employees actually to work harder in scheming. and had given the largest. trying to keep from working hard in the performance of their duties. and all the qualities which make the leader. the most liberal service possible to their employers. shirking. Everywhere we see people who are haunted by the ghosts of half-finished jobs. t he dishonest work done away back in their youth. inefficient. Their leader ship faculties. and instead of getting this larger. They deliberately adopt a shirking. their planning ability. Keep your standard up. fling your life into it with all the ene rgy and enthusiasm you can muster. by giving him pinched service. that is. and become small. you will certainly think m ore of yourself after getting the approval of that still small voice within you which says "right" to the noble act. or thinks more of you for your conscientiousness. low motive for which to work. their ingenuity and re sourcefulness. the l arge. who has not learne d the secret of taking the drudgery out of his work by putting the best of himse lf into it. nothing broad. It may be necessary to secure your bread and butter. bring the entire man to your task. your sense of the right. they blight their own growth. but . with nothing large or magnanimous. instead of the strong. remain undeveloped. progressive in their nature. grand. more important salary . complete man. The effort always to do your best will enla rge your capacity for doing things. full. Start out with a tacit understanding with yourself that you will be a man. they prefer the consequent arrested development . weak men. for the sake of "get ting square" with their employer. do-as-litt le-as-possible policy. than they would have worked if they had tried to do their best. to trip them up. just because they do not get quite as much salary as they think they should. mean service into his work. if they will. the botched work. but you have somethin g infinitely higher to satisfy than that. the demand in you to do your level best. to be a man. the fa ir thing. You can not afford to debase or demoralize yourself by bringing out your mean si de. Poor work injures your employer a little. These covered-up defects are al ways coming back to humiliate them later. str angle their own prospects. It is a lofty ideal that redeems the life from the curse of commonness and i mparts a touch of nobility to the personality. and will encourage you to push ahead toward larger triumphs. deliberately throw away all of the other. Never mind whether your employer appreciates the high quality of your work or n ot. narrow. Let ot her people do the poor jobs.The smallest people in the world are those who work for salary alone. These should speak so loud in you that the mere bread-and-butter quest ion will be insignificant in comparison. While trying to "get square" with their employer. or how unappreciative your employer. The littl e money you get in your pay envelope is a pretty small. the best thing in you. The great failure army is full of people who have tried to get square with their employers for the small salary and lack of appreciation. their initiative. be all there. rutty men and women. and go through life half men instead of full men--sma ll. noble. inventiveness. narrow. The m an who has not learned to fling his whole soul into his task. No matter how small your salary. the lowest and most despicable thing in you. which they can pay themselves. to do the square thing. and to bar their prog ress. complete men they might be. No one can respect himself or have that sublime faith in himself which makes fo r high achievement while he puts half-hearted.

indisputable law. but keep pushing on. in self-confidence. then you will have a courage born of conviction. ordered him to mount his own horse and deliver it with all possible speed. of personal nobi lity and integrity which have never been tarnished. or how splendid the education. . but a sufficient caus e--a cause as large as the result. who had unwavering faith in their power to accomplish the tasks the y undertook. y our power is gone. what the world thinks of you. how larg e the genius. their persistence in finding and m aking real the thing they believed in and which the world often denounced as chi merical or impossible. go to it in the spirit of a master. or of your ai ms. Others are with you comparatively littl e through life. No matter if they call you a visionary. Be proud of your work and go to it every morning superbly equi pped. an d in persistent endeavor to attain it. as for you to hope to achieve anything significant in life while harboring grav e doubts and fears as to your ability. in your own marvelous possibilities. If you ne ver lose that. your health. There must be a strong. Determine to do your l evel best and never to demoralize yourself by doing your second best. The miracles of civilization have been performed by men and women of great self -confidence. their determination. There is no room for chance in God's world of system and supreme order.it may ruin you. or a dreamer. the world will. other people's confidence. sooner or later. the achievement will never rise hig her than the confidence. A soldier once took a message to Napoleon in such great haste that the horse he rode dropped dead before he delivered the paper. Co unt that man an enemy who shakes your faith in yourself." asked Mirabeau. A stream can not rise higher than its source. You forsake yourself when you lose your confidence. make way fo r you. handing it to the messenger. assuming it. It would be as reasonable for Napoleon to have expected to get his army over th e Alps by sitting down and declaring that the undertaking was too great for him. You may lose your p roperty. He can who thinks he can. a crank. of your plans. and he can't who thinks he ca n't. What your employer thinks of you. Everything must have not only a cause. Napoleon dictated his answer a nd. It does not matter what other people think of you. firm self-faith first. your reputation. There is no law by which you can achieve success in anything without expecting it. for when your confidence is gone. even. of a conqueror. No matter how great the ability. but ther e is always hope for you so long as you keep a firm faith in yourself. A great success must have a great source in expectation. The race would have been centuries behind what it is to-day had it not been for their grit. You have to live with yourself day and night through your whole existence. in your ability to do t he thing you have set your heart upon doing. and you can not afford to tie that divine thing in you to a scoundrel . Conduct yourself in such a way that you can always look yourself in the face wi thout wincing. you must beli eve in yourself. Your achievement will never rise higher than your self-faith. or the thing will never come. This is an inexorable. is not half as important as what you think of yourself. demanding it. unless it be to succeed i n everything everywhere?" Nothing else will so nerve you to accomplish great thi ngs as to believe in your own greatness. CHAPTER XLIII EXPECT GREAT THINGS OF YOURSELF "Why. "should we call ourselves men. Never allow anybody or any misfortune to shake your belief in yourself.

which are always tripping the self-depr . make ourselves become whatever we long to be. or de mand enough of or for themselves." says Marie Corelli. "Nay. and undertakes his work with t he assurance of success. and playing it royall y. " They do not realize how they weaken themselves by this mental attitude of self -depreciation or self-effacement. do sm all things. There is no law which can cause a pyg my's thinking to produce a giant. The statue follows the model.The messenger looked at the magnificent animal. work of mediocrity. with its superb trappings. There is something in the atmosphere of the man who has a large and true estima te of himself. and said. One reason why the es. "then we s hall be used as clods of clay for braver feet to tread on. You will never become a giant if you only make a pygmy's claim for yourself. something in his very a ppearance that wins half the battle before a blow is struck. and he shall have abundance. who think that what others have is too good for them. because they do not expect or demand enough of themselves. human race as a whole has not measured up to its possibiliti one reason why we see everywhere splendid ability doing the is because people do not think half enough of themselves. They have grown up under this conviction of their inferiority. affirmative man. "For unto every one that hath shall be given. but this is too gorgeous. if you only expect small things of yourself. Things get out of t he way of the vigorous. A vast number of men and women who are really capable of doing great things. If you are ambitious to do big things. nor to what extent w e can really be masters of ourselves. but were reserved for those especially favored by fortune. and assume the part it demands. who believes that he is going to win out. do not realize our e of the universe. will lower your whole standard of life and paralyze your abi lity. "Nothing is too good or too magnificent for a French soldier." The persistent thought that you are not as good as others. t hat they are not expected to have as good things as those who are "more favored." The world is full of people like this poor French soldier. ineffective being. They do not claim enough. that you are a weak. Most people have been educated to think that it was not intended they should ha ve the best there is in the world. positive. to its promise. A man who is self-reliant. optimistic. that the good and the beautiful things of lif e were not designed for them. and of c ourse they will be inferior until they claim superiority as their birthright. We fail to see that we can control our own destiny: make ourselves do whatever is possible. We divinity. General. expect enough. "If we choose to be no more than clods of clay. you must make a large program for your self. The model is the inward vision. live mediocre lives." There is everything in assuming the part we wish to play. He draws to himself the literal fulfilment of the promise. nor comprehend to what heights of sublimity we were intended and expected to rise. that we are a part of the great causation principl We do not think highly enough of our superb birthright. They do not know how to call out their best. that it does not fit their humble condition." Napoleon said. magnetizes conditions. too magnificent for a common sold ier.

Your own mental picture of yourself is a good measure of yourself and your poss ibilities. The whole mental army waits until confidence leads the way. As time goes on. all his power. in peaceful industry. As the savage Indian thought that the power of every enemy he conquered entered into himself. and with such vigorous determination. shrinking nature. Confidence is the Napoleon of the mental army. negative man. and a lack of confidence undermine. A stream can not r ise higher than its fountain-head. and ability increase in a direct ratio to the number of his achievements. the assumption of power. no firm s elf-faith. and make each successive triu mph easier of achievement than its predecessor. no spirit of daring. perpetual thinking along the l ine of the ambition. This very assertion of superiority. Courage. and it is just this little difference between doing pretty well and flin ging all oneself. so in reality does every conquest in war. the mental attitude that claims success as an inalienable b irthright. If you doubt your ability to do what you set out to do. Here is wher e power originates.eciating. "Everything he undertakes succeeds. i n commerce. Even a race-horse can not win the prize after it has once lost confidence in it self. and imparts to others confidence that he can do the thing he attempts. Fear. so definitely . the affirmation of belief in yourself. There is jus t uncertainty enough as to whether they will succeed to take the edge off their effort. assurance. They do not have that superb confidence in th emselves which never looks back." By the force of his character and the creative p ower of his thought. he is reenforced not only by the power o f his own thought. if you have a timid. in science. A man's confidence measures the height of his possibilities. and timidity must be turned out of your mind. ability. that nothing on earth can turn you from your purpose until you attain it. such a man wrings success from the most adverse circumstanc es. if you fear to let yourself out and take chances." or "Everyt hing he touches turns to gold. if you lack boldness. . Power is largely a question of strong. but also by that of all who know him. His friends and acquain tances affirm and reaffirm his ability to succeed. vigorous. It doubles and trebles the power of all the other faculties. into his career. or in art add to the conqueror's power to do the next thing. and put so much grit into your resolutio n. aggressiveness. you can never win anything very great unti l you change your whole mental attitude and learn to have great faith in yoursel f. confi dence. The reason why so many men fail is because they do not commit themselves with a determination to win at any cost. if you think that other s are better fitted to do it than you. parallel with the aim--the great life purpose. in invention. which burns all bridges behind it. will strengthen the whole man and give power to a combination of facu lties which doubt. His self-poise. doubt. If there is no out-reach to your mind. if you think that you lack positiveness. that makes the difference betw een mediocrity and a grand achievement. born of self-confidence. We often hear it said of a man. you will never accomplish much. if the neg atives preponderate in your vocabulary. Set the mind toward the thing you would accomplish so resolutely. A man who carries in his very presence an air of victory. radiates assurance. Confidence begets confidence. fear. initiative. is the prod which brings out the last ou nce of reserve force.

habitual thinking. the invincible purpose. This lon ging kept the courage up and made self-sacrifice easier until the thing dreamed of--the mental vision--was realized. of or for himself. Many people make a very poor showing in life. As it is the fierceness of the heat that melts the iron ore and makes it possib le to weld it or mold it into shape. No lukewarm energy or indifferent ambition ever accomplished anything. Their mental attitude was set so stubbornly toward thei r goal that the doubts and fears which dog and hinder and frighten the man who h olds a low estimate of himself. When a man ceases to believe in himself--gives up the f ight--you can not do much for him except to try to restore what he has lost--his .The deed must first live in the thought or it will never be a reality. There mu st be vigor in our expectation. so it is the concen trated aim. but we must believe it with all our he arts. there is no backbone in thei r endeavor--no grit in their ambition. They hav e wrought--created--what they have and what they are out of their constructive t hought and their unquenchable faith in themselves. as it is the intensity of the electrical fo rce that dissolves the diamond--the hardest known substance. that wins success. We must resolve with the energy that does things. One must have that determination which never looks back and which knows no defe at. Not only must the desire for the thing we long for be kept uppermost. We must have a positive conviction that we can attain success. vigorous concept of the thing we want to do is a tremendous initial step. vigorous. We are very apt to think of men who have been unusually successful in any line as greatly favored by fortune. and a st rong. and expects but little. There must be vigor of conception or an indifferent execution. Their resolutions are spineless. The very intensity of your confidence in your ability to do the thing you attem pt is definitely related to the degree of your achievement. persistent thought of and belief in their ability to accomplish w hat they had undertaken. and the world made way for them. because there is no vim. It is th eir mental attitude outpictured and made tangible in their environment. the man of mighty fai th gets much. demands. we should find that when they first started out in active life they held the confid ent. "According to your faith be it unto you. that resolution which burns all bridges behind it and is willing to risk eve rything upon the effort. in our determination. with no light in sight. The man of weak faith gets little. who asks. A thought that is timidly born will be timidly executed. and we try to account for it in all sorts of ways but the right one. but there must be strongly concentrated intensity of effort to attain our object." Our faith is a very good measure of w hat we get out of life. got out of their path. no vigor in their efforts. positive. Nothing was ever accompli shed by a half-hearted desire. in our faith. We must not only believe we can succeed. If we were to analyze the marvelous successes of many of our self-made men. The fact is that their success represents their expectations of themselves--the sum of their creative. All the greatest achievements in the world began in longing--in dreamings and h opings which for a time were nursed in despair. in our endea vor.

between "I hope and "I will"--this little difference measur power. unhesitati ngly. then we would reach the heights where superio rity dwells. between the man who wavers and to" and "I can. yearn for. then he is in a positio n to express power. Faith unites man with the Infinite. b This difference between uncertainty sion. Whatever we long for. to fling the whole weight of his being into his work. we tend to become just in exact proportion to the intensity and persistence o f the thought. between mediocrity and excellence. It can make a one-talent man a success. He can not do this with a wavering. hence its superior vision. The fact that a man believes implicitly that he can do what may seem impossible or very difficult to others. and it comes from the consciou sness of possessing the ability requisite for what one undertakes. while a ten-talent man without it would fail. When a man lives so near to th e Supreme that the divine Presence is felt all the time. shows that there is something within him that make s him equal to the work he has undertaken. If he starts at all. It sees what is in visible to those who follow in the valleys. The man who does things must be able to project himself with a mighty force. There or who nd" to equal is a great difference between a man who thinks that "perhaps" he can do. and no one can accomplish great things in l ife unless he works in oneness with the Infinite. It is knowledge. You can not do much with him until he comprehends that he is bigger than any fate. One reason why the careers of most of us are so pinched and narrow. a mysterious destiny which decides things whether he will or not. struggle for." between "I'll try" es the distance between weakness and etween commonness and superiority. every issue must be met wholly. ever gathering momentum agai nst the obstacles which confront him. between vacillation and deci the man who decides things. he is success. There is nothing which will multiply one's ability like self-faith. no positiveness in his energy. an irresistible force. It was the sustaining power of a mighty self-faith that enabled Columbus to bea r the jeers and imputations of the Spanish cabinet. There is no vigor in his initiative. We ought to think upward. who feels within himself a pulsating power.self-faith--and to get out of his head the idea that there is a fate which toss es him hither and thither. We are timid about venturing. is because we do not have a large faith in ourselves and in our power to accomplish. "will try" to do a thing. to any emergency. unstable mind. into inferiority by thinking d ownward. who is "bou do it. he moves with uncertainty. The man whose mind is set firmly toward achievement does not approp riate success. a doubter. has no projectile power. A firm self-faith helps a man to project himself with a force that is almost ir resistible. doubting. and hold persistently in the min d. Self-confidence is not egotism. Civilization to-day rests upon self-confidence. that sustained him when his . A balancer. Faith walks on the mountain tops. We are not bold en ough. that he has within himself a power mightier than any force outsi de of him. We are held back by too much caution. and certainty. We think ourselves into smallness. and a man who "knows" he can do it.

it has been the great tonic in the world of invention. toward his vocation. The cause of whatever comes to you in life is within you. that enabled him to hold steadily to his purpose. and mines to victory at Manil a Bay. until he catches a glimpse of his higher. his mental attitude a nd energy have created it." It was this self-faith which gave courage and determination to Fulton to attemp t his first trip up the Hudson in the Clermont. nobler self. They are the stirrings of the divinity within us. It has enabled the inventor and the discoverer to go on and on amidst troubles and trials which otherwise w ould have utterly disheartened them. b y their foolish convictions of inefficiency. remem ber that he has usually thought himself into his position. But they are. Were we to think upward we should reach the heights where superiority dwells. It comes because there is an affinity within you for it. Whenever you see a person who has been unusually successful in any field. than by almost anything else. his aspiration. entering in his diary d ay after day--"This day we sailed west. torpedoes. because there is something inside you that attracts it. until he rea lizes that his ambition. is always seeking you. the call to something better. the signs of ability to match them. for t here is no power in the universe that can help a man do a thing when he thinks h e can not do it. of power t o make them real. what he stands for in his community has come from his attitude toward life. to believe that his yearnings and hungerings and aspirations for higher. it led Nelson and Grant to victory. The only inferiority in us is what we put into ourselves. Self-faith must lead the way. nobler things have any basis in reality or any real. to go higher.sailors were in mutiny and he was at their mercy in a little vessel on an unknow n sea. are proofs of his ability to reach the ideal which haunts him. There is where it is created. past the defenses of the enem y in Mobile Bay. before thousands of his fellow c itizens. who had gathered to howl and jeer at his expected failure. it carried Farragut. The Creator would not have mocked us with the yearning f or infinite achievement without giving us the ability and the opportunity for re alizing it. which was our course. The thing you long for and work for comes to you because your thought h as created it. Perhaps there is no other one thing which keeps so many people back as their lo w estimate of themselves. It is one of the most difficult things to a mortal to really believe in his own bigness. No man gets very far in the world or expresses great power until self-faith is born in him. in his own grandeur. lashed to the rigging. Self-faith has been the miracle-worker of the ages. It has held innumerable heroes to their tas ks until the glorious deeds were accomplished. toward his fellow men. He believed he could do the thing he attempted though the whole world was against him. ult imate end. Your own comes to you. it has won a thousand triumphs i n war and science which were deemed impossible by doubters and the faint-hearted . in fact. any more than he would have mocked the wild birds with an instinct t o fly south in the winter without giving them a sunny South to match the instinc t. discovery. What miracles self-confidence has wrought! What impossible deeds it has helped to perform! It took Dewey past cannons. We think ourselves into smallness. You can not go beyond the limits you set for yourself. toward himsel . They are more handicapped by their limiting thought. and art. If only we better und erstood our divinity we should all have this larger faith which is the distincti on of the brave soul.

our animal natures can not see. potencies which our doubts and fears veil from us. but will also make you successful and happy." That is. that hold us down and keep us in mediocrity--doing petty things when we are capable of sublime deeds. It is doubt and fear. and gotten a glimpse of the great source of things. believe that your des tiny is inside of you. If we had faith enough we could cure all our ills and accomplish the maximum of our possibilities. it is a miracle worker. and our lives would be one triumphal march to the goa l of our ambition. Then there will be no poverty in the world. wasted your time and money. If we had faith enough we should travel Godward infinitely faster than we do. if you were gullible. It has dip ped in the realms of our finer life our higher and diviner kingdom. that you f loundered and blundered and did a lot of foolish things. no failures. and matched with honest effort. tran scends all limitations. Faith is assured. The time will come when every human being will have unbounded faith and will li ve the life triumphant. the result of his estimate of his powers and possibilities. it would be this--"Believe in yourself with all your might. Faith is that something within us which does not guess. CHAPTER XLIV THE NEXT TIME YOU THINK YOU ARE A FAILURE If you made a botch of last year. powers. All things a re possible to him who has faith. but knows. and the discords of life will all vanish. because faith sees. It looks beyond all boundaries. from quitting his upward life struggle. developed. . if awakened. timidity and cowardice. Faith never fails. arou sed. Our faith knows because it sees what we can not see. It knows bec ause it sees what our coarser selves. It gives him a glimpse of his possibiliti es to keep him from losing heart. because it sees the way out. but feel a great consciousness of added power because we have touched omnipotence. if you feel that it was a failure. It is the prophet within us. penetrates all obstacles and sees the goal. If I could give the young people of America but one word of advice. the divine messenger appointed to accompany man through life to guide and direct and encourage him. All through the Bible we find emphasized the miracle-working power of faith. that there is a power within you which. Above all else. Fa ith in himself indicates that a man has a glimpse of forces within him which eit her annihilate the obstacles in the way. that we are not only encouraged to go on. will not only make a noble man o r woman of you. recognizes the power that means accomplishment. such unconquerable forces. sees the solution of its problem. it is the outcome of his self-faith. of his inward vision of himself. The men who have done the great things in the world have been profound believer s in themselves. don't drag these ghosts a long with you to handicap you and destroy your happiness all through the future. It sees resources. is never a fraid. m ade imprudent investments. Faith opens the door that enables us to look into the soul's limitless possibil ities and reveals such powers there. or make them seem insignificant in comp arison with his ability to overcome them.f. If we had faith in God and in ourselves we could remove al l mountains of difficulty.

we climb up only to fall back. and we have to start all over again. Form a habit of expelling from your mind thoughts or suggestions which call up unpleasant subjects or bitter memories. Resolve that you will close the door on everything in the past that pains and c an not help you. and never look back. bury them! To-day is a good time to "leave the low-vaulted past. that we are underlings. and which have a bad influence upon you. unfortunate. Most people are their own worst enemies. who voluntarily ta kes an inferior position because he thinks the best things were intended for som ebody else. that hinders your progress. There is only one thing to do with a disagreeable. Free yourself from everything which handicaps you. keeps you ba ck and makes you unhappy. blunders and unfortunate mistakes. te ar through our mentalities. whenever we have a dis couraging day or an unfortunate experience. and never allow the hideou s pictures of distressing conditions to enter our minds again. We work and live like the frog in the well. The man is inferior who admits that he is inferior. to forget bitter memories. whenever things go wrong with us. Every one ought to make it a life-rule to wipe out from his memory everything t hat has been unpleasant. We control our own des tiny. indecision or discouragement. Everything d epends upon our courage. in our holding a hopeful. doubt. There are no F ates. There is no use in castigating yourself for not having done better. Throw away all useless baggage. like a bull in a china shop. to keep going when things looked da rk and when seemingly insurmountable obstacles confronted us.Haven't you wasted enough energy worrying over what can not be helped? Don't le t these things sap any more of your vitality. has been disagreeable. There is no fate or destiny which puts one man down and another up. but in ourselves. harmful experience. it is that we h ave had courage and pluck enough to push on. tearing-down thoughts and unfortunate moods. our faith in ourselves. But there is no victory in retreating. and yet. drop everything that i s a drag. If there is anything we ever feel grateful for. waste any more of your time or des troy any more of your happiness. or with memories that worry us and which kill our efficiency. a loss or any misfortune. We ought to forget everything that has kep t us back. and often lose all we gain. we let the tearing-down thought. outside of our own mentality. "It is not in our stars." He only is beaten who a dmits it. and that is--forget it! There are many times in the life of a person who does things that are worth whi le when he gets terribly discouraged and thinks it easier to go back than to pus h on. despondency. and tha t is to forget them. any way open for retreat to tempt our weakness." to drop the yesterdays. . Don't be mortgaged to the past. We should never leave any bridges u nburned behind us. We are all the time "queering" our lif e game by our vicious. perhaps breaking up and destroying the work of years of building up. Enter upon to-morrow with a clean slate and a free mind. fear. One of the worst things that can ever happen to a person is to get it into his head that he was born unlucky and that the Fates are against him. optim istic outlook. There is only one thing to do with bitter experiences. has made us suffer. We are our own Fates.

even by your manner. They sometimes arouse slumbering energies within us which th inking does not stir up--especially if we have not been trained to think deeply. They are for those who have never disc overed themselves and their God-like qualities. these are thoughts and ide als that make a strong man. efficiency. No matter what other people may think about your ability. strength. They make a more lasting impression upon the mind. never allow yourself to doubt that you can do or become what you long to. Never regar d yourself as weak. accompanies the spoken word--especially if earnes tly. vigorous ly. "Now. as seeing objects o f nature makes a more lasting impression upon the mind than thinking about them. This form of suggestion--talking to oneself vigorously. poorly of yourself. this thing is right up to me. your ability will increa se. even vehemently. I've got to make good. but as perfect. . handle yourself without gloves. The way to get the best out of yourself is to put things right up to yourself. who has been in touch with divinity. A vividness." You will be surprised to see how quickly this sort of self-suggestion will brac e you up and put new spirit in you. and talk to yourself as you would to a son of yo urs who has great ability but who is not using half of it. capable. to show the man in me or the coward. and you can do this to a remarkable degree by the powe r of self-suggestion. Ne ver even think of the possibility of going through life a failure or a partial f ailure. Never allow yourself to think meanly. the gi ving audible expression to our yearnings. a certain force. power. Stoutly assert that there is a place for you in the world. that you think you are destined to do little thin gs all your life. We become so accustomed to our silent thoughts that the voicing of them. complete. Failure and misery are not for the man who has seen the God-side of hims elf. overcoming our deficiencies. Increase your self-confiden ce in every possible way.You will find that just in proportion as you increase your confidence in yourse lf by the affirmation of what you wish to be and to do. narrowly. you are more likely to carry it to reality than if you mere ly resolve in silence. When you go into an undertaking just say to yourself. inefficient. Nev er admit. and that you are goi ng to fill it like a man. There is a force in words spoken aloud which is not stirred by going over the s ame words mentally. j ust as words which pass through the eye from the printed page make a greater imp ression on the brain than we get by thinking the same words. makes a much deeper impression upon us . earnestly--seems to aro use the sleeping forces in the subconscious self more effectually than thinking the same thing. It is marvelous what mental strength can be developed by the perpetual affirmat ion of vigorous fitness. vehemently uttered--which is not apparent to many in merely thinking about what the words express. diseased. Train yourself to expect great things of yourself. If you repeat a firm resolve to yourself aloud. to focus the mind closely. There is no backing out. The audible self-encouragement treatment may be used with marvelous results in correcting our weaknesses.

Though he had little opportunity for schoolin g when he was a small boy. his standards droop and his ambition oo ze out. when he feels that his stamina and ambition are deteriorating. because you are not as progressive and up-to-date a s you ought to be. that he ha s made some foolish mistake or has failed to use good sense and good judgment in any transaction. Say to yourself that you are never again g oing to allow yourself to harbor any thoughts of self-depreciation or timidity o r inferiority. that you are attractive and that you know how to act in the presence of others. There is no fault. You are only half-alive. "You are capable of something much better than what you are doing. You like to take things easy." By years of stern discipline of this kind he has done wonders with himself. Yo u are going stale. your ideals are getting dull. Nobody ever amo unts to much who lets his energies flag. At first it may seem silly to you to be talking to yourself. your standards are dropping. however great or small. think to some purpose! Do not mull and mope like this. you are becoming lazy. I am going to keep right after you. and you may distrust your own ability. you ar . and has a good hear t-to-heart talk with himself something after this fashion: "Now young man. You are letting a lot of good chances slip by you. because there is no thing inferior or peculiar about you. For example. encourage or push him. that you are going to hold your head up and go about as though yo u were a king. you will be greatly helped by assuring yourself in your daily self-talks that you are not t imid. "If others have done this. g et a move on you!" This young man says that every morning when he finds his standards are down and he feels lazy and indifferent he "hauls himself over the coals. mainly sin ce he was twenty-one. this inertia." as he calls it . Bestir yourself. an d the worst of it all is that when you do a poor job. brush off the brain ash. If so. you are the embodiment of courage and bravery. that. Now. but you will deriv e so much benefit from it that you will have recourse to it in remedying all you r defects. young man. Assu re yourself that there is no reason why you should be timid. He forces himself to do the most disagreeable tasks first. When he feels that he is not doing all that he ought to. "In short. I have never known any one else who carried on such a vigo rous campaign in self-victory. you can do it. get the cobwebs out of your head. Think. It is the very first thing he attends to. a conqueror. This lethargy. You must make this a red-letter day. think. man. instead of crawling about like a whipped cur. he goes off alone to the country. you may be naturally timid and shrin k from meeting people. and does not allow h imself to skip hard problems. don't be a coward. He began as a poor boy living in the slums of New York with no one to take an inter est in him. self-development. self-culture as this young man has. You must sta rt out to-day with a firm resolution to make the returns from your work greater to-night than ever before. in order to force himself up to a higher standard and put himself in tune for the day. You are not making good." he says to himself. You will have to watch yourself very closely or you will be left behind. you do not feel as troubled as you used t o. "Now. or are careless about your dress and indifferent in your manner. This take-it-easy sort of policy will never land you at the go al you started for.I have a friend who has helped himself wonderfully by talking to himself about his conduct. until you are doing yourself justice. self-training. on the contrary. this indifference will seriously cripple your career if you're not very careful. which will not succumb to persistent audible suggestion. he has given himself a splendid education. to the woods if possible. you need a good talking-to. a bracing-up all along the line.

simpl y because there are so many days when they do not "feel like it" or when they ar e discouraged or "blue. the forming of the right thought habits. their own power. health instead of disease. belittle. as the habit of constantly affirming their own importance. and success. and go the other way. the ir own divinity. which repel people and repel business. d o not accurately measure our ability. We avoid morose. and if you acknowledge in your thought that you are a failure. and optimism. and yet. and your ability. Everywhere we see people with great ambitions doing very ordinary things. It is a great thing to learn to focus the min d upon the beautiful instead of the ugly. the standard which you hold for yourself. to kee . It is perfectly possible for a well-trained mind to completely rout the worst c ase of the "blues" in a few minutes. I know of nothing so helpful for the timid. do not put the right estimate upon our pos sibilities. your individuality. We berate ourselves. diviner man in us. it helps you to become o ne. You will be surprised to see how you can increase your courage. hope. The art of arts is learning how to clear the mind of its enemies--enemies of ou r comfort. There are thousands of people who have lost everything they valued in the world . You can not get away from your ideals. all the material results of their lives' endeavor. your confidence . The best way to keep out darkness is to keep the life filled with light. stoutly affirm your ability to begin things. Try this experiment the very next time you get discouraged or think that you ar e a failure. gloomy people just as we avoid a picture which makes a disagre eable impression upon us. A great many people fail to reach a success which matches their ability because they are victims of their moods. if you will be sincere with yourself and strong and persiste nt in your affirmations. we keep them closed and try to eject the darkness by main fo rce. This is not always easy. and to pus h them to a finish. Every time you think you are a failure. And always put your resolve into action at the first opportu nity. for your thought is your life pattern and you can not get away from it. If you lack initiative." A man who is at the mercy of a capricious disposition can never be a leader. that your work does not amount to much--turn about face. a power among men. life instead of death. efface ourselves. happiness. upon ha rmony instead of discord. that you don't have the same oppor tunity that other people have---your convictions will control the result. a determination to push ahead which know s no retreat. those who lack faith in themselves. It requires only skilful t hinking.e going to assert your manhood. and w ith such wealth they can never be poor. but it is possible to everybody. because we do not s ee the larger. Stop and face the other way. unconquerable spirits. that you can't do an ything worth while. Resolve th at you will go no further in that direction. The trouble is that we do not think half enough of ourselves. because they posse ss stout hearts. but the trouble with most of us is that ins tead of flinging open the mental blinds and letting in the sun of cheerfulness. they are just as far from real failure as before their loss. that luck is against you. the true instead of the false.

The next time you feel jaded. as though life had been a disappointme nt instead of a priceless boon. or violating in so me way the laws of digestion. This c ondition is caused by the clamoring of exhausted nerve cells for nourishment. all the disagreeable past. and that you inherit an abundance of all that is good. do not brood over your troubles or dwell upon the things which happen to annoy you at the time. uplifting. Let go of everything that is u npleasant. Talk to yourself in the same dead-in-ear nest way that you would talk to your own child or a dear friend who was deep in the mire of despondency. dejected face. When you look at it squarely. long-continued excitement. that you do feel like it. Just say to yourself. su ggestions." yo u will probably find. life-giving ones. Multitudes of people suffer from despondency and melancholy. overeating. persistently. death-dealing thoughts. Persist in this af firmation. When you are feeling "blue" or discouraged. that you are normal an d that you are in a position to do your best. due to their irregular. it is very foolish--almost criminal--to go about this beautiful world. happie . just get b y yourself--if possible after taking a good bath and dressing yourself becomingl y--and give yourself a good talking-to. Resolve that no matter what happens you are going to be ha ppy. either from overwork. if you look for the reason. and things to delight and cheer us. to get rid of all that is sour and unwholesome. Think the pleasantest. get as complete a change of environ ment as possible. contemplate beauty and loveliness. keep the mind fil led with truth. or from vicious habits of some kind. or recreation. We should early form the habit of erasing from the mind all disagreeable. We should blot out from our mental gallery all discordant pictures and repla ce them with the harmonious. that you will feel like it. all the rubbish that is troubling you. just rise up in arms aga inst the enemies of your peace and happiness. for God made all that is. suffering tortures from melancholy. The next time you get into trouble. that you are going to enjoy yourself. Say it deliberately. or over-stimulated nerves from dissipation. affirm it vig orously and it will come true. due to overstraining wor k. discouraged. vicious habits and a lack of refreshing sleep. to shut out ugliness. keep it filled with harmony. all the mistakes. Opposite thoughts can not occupy the mind at the same time. We should start out every morning with a clean sla te. completely played out and "blue. No matter whether you feel like it or not. as a result of a run-down condition physically.p out discord. Drive out the black . just try the experiment of affirming vigorously. and whatever doesn't seem to b e good is not like its creator and therefore can not be real. just affirm that you must feel like it. Whatever you do. to shut out error. unhea lthy. The "blues" are often caused by exhausted nerve cells. re st. The next time you feel the "blues" or a fit of depression coming on." Do not let anybody or anything shake your faith that you can conquer all the en emies of your peace and happiness. hideous pictures which haunt your mind. that your condition is largely due to exhausted vitality. contemplate all that is sweet and whole some. that all tha t is real must be good. It's right up to me and I am going to face the situati on. "I am a man and I am going to do the work of a man. with a sad. or are discouraged and think you are a fail ure. summon all the force you can muste r and drive them out. You will be surprised to see how unfortunate suggestions and adverse conditions will melt away before it. crowded with splendid opportunities. Sweep away all depressing thoughts.

" Do not say that you are goin g to be happy in the future. but they can not be depended upon. "I was intended for happiness. which doubts and wavers. You must believe what you affirm and try to realise it. "I am a success. and never prostituted his ability nor gambled with his re putation. and the sun of joy will light up your whole being. as was this poor backwoods boy? What a powerful illust ration of the fact that character is the greatest force in the world! A man assumes importance and becomes a power in the world just as soon as it is found that he stands for something. The trouble with so many men to-day is that they do not stand for anything outs ide their vocation. the reputation of Lincoln grow s larger and his character means more to the world every year? It is because he kept his record clean. that we possess the good things we long for. mad e for it. who exerted such a power for good. that he will not lend his name to anything which he can not indorse. loving thoughts toward others. th e shadows which darkened your mind will flee away. for this is the mental state that creates. I am myself a part of the great creative." If. not that we possess all the qualities of good. I am this or that. Success is my birthright. am good fortune. Hold the most charitable. They may be well educated. whose name is a synonym for all that is clean .st things possible. because my real. no mat ter how great his wealth. well up in their specialties. "I shall be a success sometime ". It is not difficult to find a lawyer or a physician who knows a good deal. Why is it that. but you cannot bank on them. sustaining principle of the universe. Force your mind toward your goal. There is som e flaw in them which takes the edge off their virtue. who was such a livi ng force in civilization. hold it there steadily. but it is not so easy to find one who is a man bef ore he is a lawyer or a physician. is that he has kept his record clean. in all history. If we could only realize that the very attitude of assuming that we are the real embodiment of the thing we lo ng to be or to attain. Stoutly. and I am happy now. Where. say. Say the kindest. creates nothing. "I am health. may have a lot of expert knowledge. The negative mind. Assert your actual possession of the things you need. you will not be helped by affirmation. pleasantest things. Do not say. everlastingly affirm that you will become what your ambiti ons indicate as fitting and possible. no matter how much he has achieve d. however. who is eminent in his profession. constantly. for any amount of money or for any influence or pos ition." but do not believe it. persistently . that he is not for sale. is there an example of a man who was merely rich. myself. Mak e a strenuous effort to radiate joy and gladness to everybody about you." says Walt Whitman. you affirm. You will soon begin to feel a wonderful uplift. in spite of the ravages of time. I am prosperity. divine s elf and my Father are one"--what a revolution would come to earth's toilers! CHAPTER XLV STAND FOR SOMETHING The greatest thing that can be said of a man. of the qualities you long to have. good fortune. that he will not l ease his manhood for salary. Say to yourself. but that we are these qualities--with the con stant affirming. "I myself am good luck. "I. They may be fairly honest.

Mr. his name white. or power. Roos evelt knew perfectly well that he would make many mistakes and many enemies. or preferment unless it came to him clean. sneaking. but how comparatively rare it is to find one whose record is as clean as a hound's tooth. What the world wants is men who have principle underlying their expertness--principle under their law. to live in constant terror of discovery. to be a man. their business. Roosevelt--men w ho hew close to the chalk-line of right and hold the line plumb to truth. to be envied a s rich and powerful. clean life. whether he succeeded in what he undertook or failed. pl ace. with never a fear of disclosures. me n who stand for something outside of their offices and stores. with no trace of jobbery on it. unscrupulous politicians. but it is not so easy to find a real man. He had all sor ts of opportunities for political graft. who has n