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Abstract

1. Introduction

2. Principle of Digital Watermarks

3. Structure of a digital watermark

a. The general method

b. Image encryption by stream cipher

4. Results

5. Conclusion

6. References

ABSTRACT

framework for protecting valuable data. Digital watermarking a technology that can be

used for control, media identification, tracing and protecting content owner's rights

provides the solution

This paper presents overview on digital watermarking and a new method that

combines image encryption and watermarking technique for safe transmission purpose.

This method is based on the combination of public private keys and secret key ciphering,

and watermarking. The encryption algorithm with secret key is applied to the image. We

encrypt the secret key with an encryption method based on public-private keys. Then, this

secret key is embedded in the encrypted image. We apply and show the results of our

method to medical images.

INTRODUCTION encryption method. In the same way,

watermarking algorithms are well-

The amount of digital medical known.

images has increased rapidly in the The encryption can be done by

Internet. The necessity of fast and secure block or by stream. But the encryption

diagnosis is vital in the medical world. block methods have presented two

Nowadays, the transmission of images inconvenient applied to image. The first

became a daily routine and it is one was when you have homogeneous

necessary to find an efficient form to zones; all blocks of this kind are

transmit them over the net. In this paper encrypted on the same manner. The

we propose a new technique to encrypt second problem was that block

an image for safe transmission. encryption methods are not robust to

Our research deals with image noise. The stream cipher method is

encryption and watermarking. There are robust to moderate noise like JPEG

several methods to encrypt binary or compression with high quality factor. To

grey level images. Watermarking can be embed the encrypted secret key in the

an answer to make secure image image we have used a new DCT-based

transmission. For applications dealing watermarking method. We have chosen

with images, the watermarking objective to work in the frequency domain because

is to embed invisibly message inside the of the robustness to JPEG compression

image data. The length of the transmitted of the stream cypher method. An

message can be relatively important, in important application is the secure

fact, longer that just for identification. transfer of medical image.

Insertion can be made in a different way Firstly we present encryption

according to the length of message or algorithm per flux, then we explain how

desired robustness. The combination in to apply to images this method, we

the spatial and frequency domains for describe the combination method. We

the image watermarking is also possible. apply the methods and the combination

An encryption method which to medical images.

depends on the secrecy of the encryption

algorithm is not considered to be a true

What is Digital Watermarking? silently and psychologically deterring

criminals from making illegal copies.

Digital watermarking is a

technology for embedding various types Principle of Digital Watermarks

of information in digital content. In

A watermark on a bank note has

general, information for protecting

a different transparency than the rest of

copyrights and proving the validity of

the note when a light is shined on it.

data is embedded as a watermark.

However, this method is useless in the

All the information handled on digital world.

the Internet is provided as digital

Currently there are various

content. Such digital content can be

techniques for embedding digital

easily copied in a way that makes the

watermarks. Basically, they all digitally

new file indistinguishable from the

write desired information directly onto

original. Then the content can be

images or audio data in such a manner

reproduced in large quantities.

that the images or audio data are not

For example, if paper bank notes damaged. Embedding a watermark

or stock certificates could be easily should not result in a significant increase

copied and used, trust in their or reduction in the original data.

authenticity would greatly be reduced,

Digital watermarks are added to

resulting in a big loss. To prevent this,

images or audio data in such a way that

currencies and stock certificates contain

they are invisible or inaudible Ñ

watermarks. These watermarks are one

unidentifiable by human eye or ear.

of the methods for preventing counterfeit

Furthermore, they can be embedded in

and illegal use.

content with a variety of file formats.

Digital watermarks apply a Digital watermarking is the content

similar method to digital content. protection method for the multimedia

Watermarked content can prove its era.

origin, thereby protecting copyright. A

watermark also discourages piracy by

Structure of a digital watermark following illustration.

watermark is shown in the following

figures.

transferring medical images

The general method

digital watermark is called a carrier. A

Algorithms of flux ciphering (stream

digital watermark is not provided as a

ciphers) can be designed as being

separate file or a link. It is information

algorithms of ciphering by blocks, where

that is directly embedded in the carrier

the block has a unitary dimension (1 bit,

file. Therefore, the digital watermark

1 byte, etc.) or relatively small. Their

cannot be identified by simply viewing

main advantages are their extreme

the carrier image containing it. Special

speeds and their capacity to change

software is needed to embed and detect

every symbol of the plaintext. Besides,

such digital watermarks. Kowa’s

they are less numerous than those of

SteganoSign is one of these software

ciphering by blocks, they are useful in an

packages.

environment where mistakes are

Both images and audio data can frequents, because they have the

carry watermarks. A digital watermark advantage of not propagate them

can be detected as shown in the (diffusion). The most widespread and

used coding stream ciphers are the

synchronous, and the most widely used

is the RC4. The algorithm RC4 has been

thought in 1987 by Ron Rivest and has

been developed for the RSA Security. It whole of bits whose result is placed to

is based on the random permutations into the left extreme of the register.

the byte. The algorithm has a variable

key length (of 1 to 256 bytes). The key is

used to initialize a table of 256-byte

states. This table is used for the pseudo-

random byte generation to produce a

random pseudo flux with which the Figure 1: Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR)

interest in stream ciphers is most

Image encryption by stream cipher

commonly attributed to properties of the

Generally, the private key length of the

one-time pad, called the Vernam cipher.

stream ciphering can be eventually as

It uses a string of bits that is completely

long as the length of the message. The

random generated. The key stream has

method detail resides in the fact that for

the same length as the plaintext message.

every pixel the encryption depends

The random string is combined using

previously of the original pixel value, of

exclusive OR operations with the

the key, and of the k pixels previously

plaintext to produce the cipher text. The

ciphered. For every pixel p(n) of the

Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR),

original image, if k is the length of the

illustrated Figure 1, is a mechanism very

key, we calculate the pixel value p’(n) of

often applied in applications that require

the ciphered image using the equation:

very fast generation of a pseudo-random

sequence. The symmetrical ciphering

uses LFSR to generate some pseudo-

random bit sequences called register's With n Є [K, N], K Є [1, N] and (L) a

vector. This vector is generally the key sequence of coefficients generated by the

of the ciphering process and it is defined secret key, N is the number of image

the content of the register is baffled The above equation can be written where

toward the right of a position, and the k, recurrence order, corresponds to the

length of the key: key: k values of virtual grey levels on

which lean the k first pixels as if they

were their predecessors.

The chosen value of k must be

Where the αЄ(L)are the integer

larger enough to turn the system safe.

coefficients the order-2 to+2. The

Suppose k=64, we have still 2 bits per

principle of ciphering is illustrated in

coefficient, an effective 128-bit key. In

Figure 2.

relation to the initialization vector, we

showed that it was necessary for

ciphering the k first pixels, but it is

secondary for security point of view. We

did not give him the supplementary

place in the key, but their values are

deducted from the effective key of 128

Figure 2: Pixel encryption by stream bits, by an operation that we have

cipher. defined. This operation is based merely

Another information also appears on a sliding window that reads bits of the

in the key. Indeed, considering that the key. The window reads the first 8 bits for

ciphering of a pixel takes account of the the first virtual pixel, then it baffles itself

k previous pixels, we can not cipher the on the key, to read the next 8 new bits.

k first pixels of the picture in the same 3. DESCRIPTION OF THE

way. It is necessary to associate the COMBINATION

sequence of α (L) coefficient with a METHODS

sequence of k pixels therefore virtually In this section we describe how it is

Encrypted p’ (-L), for L Є [1, K], possible to combine the techniques of

Corresponding to the vector of encryption and watermarking in images.

initialization. We has showed that it is Indeed, we constructed a new method

possible, with this algorithm, to express with encryption algorithm with secret

p’ (n) only from initial data preceding key for the image, with encryption based

the pixel to be ciphered. Therefore, a on public private key for the secret key

vector of initialization is coded in the and with watermarking method.

For example, if a medical doctor M

wants to send, by network, a medical

image to a specialist S, it should be made

in a safe way. To do that, the doctor can

use a fast encryption algorithm with

secret key K to cipher the image. In

order to transfer K, M can encrypt the

key K by using encryption algorithm

with public key, like RSA for example.

If pub is a public key and priv a private Figure 3: Combination of public key

key for RSA, then M possesses the encryption, secret key encryption, and

public and private keys pubm and privm, watermarking.

and S the public and private keys pubs

and privs. Firstly, M generates a secret The specialist S receives the image and

key K for this session and ciphers the extracts from it the encrypted key K”.

image with this encryption algorithm. He can then authenticate M and decrypt

Secondly, M should encrypt the key K the key K” by using his self private key

with RSA algorithm by using his privs and the public key pubm of M.

private key, privm, in order to get an With the obtained key K, S can then

encrypted key K ‘. This encrypted key Decipher the image and visualize it.

K’ is encrypted twice with RSA by using If the specialist S wants to send

the public key pubs of his corresponding another image to the doctor M, he will

S in order to get K” .This encrypted key use a new secret key K1 for this new

K” is then embedded in the ciphered session. The process will be the same,

image by using a DCT-based but the private and public key for RSA

watermarking method. Finally, the will not be applied in the same order.

doctor sends this image to the specialist Even, if five keys are necessaries

S as presented in Figure 3. for each session, most of them are

transparent for the users. Indeed, the

private key can be associated to the

software used by the receptor, and for

the two correspondents it is not image, Figure 5.c. The difference

necessary to know the secret key which between the encrypted and the

is encrypted and embedded in the image. watermarked encrypted images is

However, for each session the value of presented Figure 5.d. We see the pixel

the key K must change. Otherwise, if the blocks where we have embedded our

key has no changing, all the people who message (encrypted key), the PSNR

have the software can decrypt the =42.12 dB. Finally, after decryption of

images. the watermarked encrypted image we

4. RESULTS obtain the image illustrated in Figure 5.e.

From the image, Figure 4.a, we have The difference between the original

applied the stream cypher algorithm with image and the decrypted watermarked

a key of 128 bits. We notice that the one is presented Figure 5.f. We see,

initial information is not any more Figure 5.f, that the differences between

visible. By comparing the histogram of this two images are spread out in the

the initial image, Figure 4.c with the image region where we have embedded

histogram of the encrypted image, the message, the PSNR=43 .71dB.

Figures 4.d, we remark that the Indeed, owing to the fact that the mean

probabilities of appearance of each grey value of the coefficients a (L) is equal to

level are equitably distributed. zero, the noise due to the watermarking

Consequently, the entropies of the is attenuated during the decryption

encrypted images are very hight (near 8 process.

bits/pixel). We present now the results of

the combination of encryption and

watermarking methods. From the

original image, Figure 5.a, we apply the

stream cypher method to obtain the

encrypted image, Figure 5.b. If we

decrypt this image, we can notice that

there is no difference. The length of the

key is 128 bits. Then, we embed the

RSA encrypted key in the encrypted

Figure 4

Figure 4: a) Original image, b) 5. CONCLUSION

Encrypted image with the stream cypher In this paper we have presented a

algorithm, with a key of 128 bits, c) method combining encryption and

Original image histogram, d) Histogram watermarking for image safe

of the encrypted image by stream cypher transmission purpose. To do that, we

algorithm. have used the advantage of both

encryption algorithms with secret key

and with public-private keys. In our

combination method, we have chosen to

encrypt the image with secret key

method, and to encrypt the secret key

with public and private key method.

The stream cypher method is robust to

moderate noise like JPEG compression

with hight quality factor. To embed the

encrypted secret key in the image we

have used a new DCT-based

watermarking method. We have chosen

to work in the frequency domain because

of the robustness to JPEG compression

Figure 5: a) Original medical image, b)

of the stream cypher method. We have

Encrypted image, c) Watermarked

applied part of our method (encryption)

encrypted image with the 128-bit key,

to medical images and finally we have

d) Difference between the encrypted

presented a result of the full combination

image and the watermarked encrypted

method on medical image.

image, e) Decryption of the watermarked

6. REFERENCES

encrypted image, f) Difference between

http://www.ewatermark.com

original image and the decrypted

B. Schneier. Applied cryptography.

watermarked one.

Wiley,

RSA,Security.

ttp://www.rsasecurity.com/.

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