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saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia

irina Satilova, nino mWedliSvili,


luara ruxaZe, eliso yvavaZe

saqarTvelos
florisa da mcenareulobis
istoria
saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia

i r i n a Sa ti l o va , n i n o m We d l i S v i l i † ,
l u a r a r uxa Z e , e l i s o y va va Z e

saqarTvelos
florisa da mcenareulobis
istoria

Tbilisi
2012
UDC (uak) 561(479.22)(09)
p _ 152

saqarTveloSi paleobotanikuri kvlevebi


daiwyo gasuli saukunis 30-an wlebSi. SromaSi
Tavmoyrilia arsebuli masala saqarTvelos
namarxi florebis Sesaxeb. gansakuTrebiT
detaluradaa ganxiluli aRmosavleT parateTisis
stratotipul regionad miCneuli dasavleT
saqarTvelos flora, romelic warmodgenilia
rogorc makronaSTebiT, aseve palinomorfebiT.
zedamiocenuri, pliocenuri, pleistocenuri
da holocenuri naleqebis sruli Wrilebidan
gansazRvruli palinologiuri kampleqsebi inter-
pretirebulia landSaftur-fitocenologiuri me-
TodiT, ramac saSualeba mogvca droSi aRgvedgina
saqarTvelos floris, mcenareulobisa da havis
dinamika.
wignSi moyvanilia calkeuli stratigra-
fiuli erTeulebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli floris
siebi; palinologiuri diagramebi; rukebi namarxi
florebis adgilsapoveblebiT.

33redaqtorebi: daviT lorTqifaniZe


abesalom vekua

recenzenti: lamara maisuraZe

ISBN 978-9941-0-4206-5

ibeWdeba saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademiis


saredaqcio-sagamomcemlo sabWos gadawyvetilebiT

© saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa erovnuli akademia, 2012


© irina Satilo va, nino mWedliSvili†,
luara ruxaZ e, eliso yvavaZ e, 2012

2
Sinaarsi

Sesavali ................................................................................................................................ 5
paleozouri era.............................................................................................................. 7
karbonuli periodi ...................................................................................................... 7
mezozouri era.................................................................................................................11
iuruli periodi ............................................................................................................11
qvedaiuruli epoqa .............................................................................................................11
Suaiuruli epoqa ................................................................................................................. 13
carculi periodi ......................................................................................................... 24
qvedacarculi epoqa .........................................................................................................24
kainozouri era ............................................................................................................. 28
paleogenuri periodi .......................................................................................... 28
eocenuri epoqa ..................................................................................................................... 29
oligocenuri epoqa .......................................................................................................... 31
neogenuri periodi...................................................................................................... 39
miocenuri epoqa ...................................................................................................................40
qvedamiocenuri ................................................................................................................40
Suamiocenuri...................................................................................................................... 43
zedamiocenuri ................................................................................................................... 53
sarmatuli sarTuli ............................................................................................... 53
meoturi sarTuli..................................................................................................... 59
plioceni da eopleistoceni (dasavleTi saqarTvelo) ................... 77
pliocenuri epoqa .............................................................................................................. 77
ponturi sarTuli..................................................................................................... 77
kimeriuli sarTuli ............................................................................................... 82
kuialnikuri (egrisuli) sarTuli ............................................................. 98
eopleistocenuri epoqa .............................................................................................. 101
guriuli sarTuli.................................................................................................. 101

3
plioceni da eopleistoceni (aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo) .......... 109
pliocenuri epoqa ............................................................................................................ 109
aRCagiluri sarTuli ......................................................................................... 109
eopleistocenuri epoqa...............................................................................................110
afSeronuli sarTuli .........................................................................................110

pleistocenuri epoqa (dasavleTi saqarTvelo) ...................................116


Cauduri sarTuli ...................................................................................................117
Zvelevqsinuri da uzunlaruli sarTulebi ..................................... 126
karangatuli da axalevqsinuri sarTulebi..................................... 128

holocenuri epoqa........................................................................................................... 136


daskvnebi .......................................................................................................................... 164
literatura..................................................................................................................... 171

4
Sesavali

Tanamedrove saqarTvelos teritoria ganfenilia


amierkavkasiis Sua da dasavleT nawilSi, sadac gamoioyofa sami
ZiriTadi orografiuli erTeuli: didi da mcire kavkasionis
mTaTa sistemebi; maT Soris ganlagebuli kolxeTisa da qarTlis
mTaTaSua depresiebi da samxreT saqarTvelos vulkanuri zegani
(nax.1).

nax.1. saqarTvelos sqematuri ruka

saqarTvelos teritoriaze mkafiod gamoiyofa ori


ZiriTadi regioni - dasavleTi da aRmosavleTi, romlebic
xasiaTdeba mdidari da mravalferovani bunebrivi pirobebiT.
dasavleT saqarTvelo gamoirCeva Tbili da notio haviT,
romelic xels uwyobs tyis mdidari mcenareulobis ganviTarebas.
es aris egreT wodebuli kolxeTis botanikuri provincia anu
refugiumi, sadac dRemde SenarCunebulia mesameuli floris
zogierTi elementi. gansxvavebuli suraTia aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi, romlis teritoriis sakmaod did nawilze
gavrcelebulia mSrali havisTvis damaxasiaTebeli cenozebi.
1990 wels saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis
n.kecxovelis sax. botnikis institutis mier gamoica naSromi
„masalebi saqarTvelos florisa da mcenareulobis Sesaxeb“
(Шатилова, Рамишвили, 1990). wignSi warmodgenili arsebuli

5
paleobotanikuri masala ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi yvela
stratigrafiuli erTeulis floris detalurad gansaxilvelad.
samwuxarod zogierTi xarvezis Sevseba amjeradac ver moxerxda
(ZiriTadad es exeba paleozour da carcul floras). magram
sagulisxmoa, rom bolo 20 wlis ganmavlobaSi mopovebuli axali
palinologiuri masalis interpretaciam landSaftur-
fitocenologiuri meTodis gamoyenebiT, saSualeba mogvca
aRgvedgina florisa da mcenareulobis ganviTarebis TiTqmis
uwyveti procesi dawyebuli sarmatulidan holocenis CaTvliT.
xolo bioturi da abioturi faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT
dadginda is mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi, romlebmac gavlena iqonia
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove floris formirebaze.

6
paleozouri era
karbonuli periodi
saqarTvelos teritoriaze a.janeliZem gamoyo didi
kavkasionisa da antikavkasionis naoWa zonebi da maT Soris
ganlagebuli stabiluri zona e.w. saqarTvelos belti (Джанелидзе,
1942). dReisTvis e.gamyreliZis (И.Гамкрелидзе, 2000) mixedviT
gamoiyofa Semdegi erTeulebi: didi kavkasionis naoWa sistema
(kavkasioni), amierkavkasiis mTaTaSua regioni da mcire
kavkasionis naoWa sistema (antikavkasioni).
qvemoT moyvanilia (nax. 2) saqarTvelos teritoriis
teqtonikuri agebulebis sqematuri ruka (П. Гамкрелидзе, 1964).

nax.2. saqarTvelos teritoriis teqtonikuri agebulebis sqematuri ruka


(Гамкрелидзе, 1964)
I. didi kavkasionis antiklinoriumi; II. didi kavkasionis samxreTi ferdis
naoWa sistema; III. saqarTvelos belti (mTaTaSua depresia); IV. aWara-
TrialeTis sistema; V. arTvino-bolnisis belti.

saqarTvelos teritoriaze farTodaa gavrcelebuli


sxvadasxva asakis danaleqi qanebi. drois mixedviT isini moicaven
geologiur periodebs paleozouridan - holocenamde (cxr. I).
uZvelesi naleqebi gaSiSvlebulia Zirulis, xramis da loqis
kristaluri da metamorfuli masivebis saxiT da warmoadgenen
erTian formacias, romlis qveda nawili kambriulis wina asakisaa

7
(Адамия, 1968). denudaciis Semdgomi periodis ganmavlobaSi, roca
qveda da Suapaleozouri naleqebis udidesi nawili gadairecxa
Zirulis, xramisa da loqis masivebi gaxda sedimentaciis zona.
qveda da Suakarbonulis ganmavlobaSi auzSi ileqeboda vulkanuri
da danaleqi qanebi, romlebic Seicaven namarxi mcenareebis
naSTebs (nax. 3). maTi arseboba, rifuli kirqvebis linzebTan
erTad, miuTiTebs naleqebis sanapiro xasiaTze.
cxr. I. fanerozouli naleqebis stratigrafiuli sqema
jgufi sistema/periodi seqcia/epoqa
0 holocenuri
meoTxeuli
pleistocenuri
pliocenuri
neogenuri
kainozouri miocenuri
paleogenuri oligocenuri
eocenuri
65 paleocenuri
zeda
carculi
qveda
zeda – malmi
iuruli Sua – dogeri
mezozouri
qveda - liasi
zeda
triasuli Sua
225 qveda
zeda
permuli
qveda
zeda
karbonuli Sua
qveda
zeda
devonuri Sua
qveda
paleozouri
zeda
siluruli
qveda
zeda
ordoviciuli Sua
qveda
zeda
kambriuli Sua
600 qveda

8
saqarTveloSi uZvelesi namarxi flora daTariRebulia
paleozouriT. xramis masivis qveda da Suakarbonuli naleqebidan
mcenareTa naSTebi Seswavlilia uznaZis da novakis mier
(Схиртладзе, 1964; Адамия, 1968). gansazRvruli mcenareebis (cxr. II)
umetesi nawili damaxasiaTebelia paleozourisTvis, maT Soris
mxolod zogierTi gvxdeba agreTve permulSic.

nax.3. paleofloristuli naSTebis adgilsapoveblebi saqarTvelos


karbonul, mezozour da paleogenur naleqebSi.

ojaxi Lepidodendraceae-s warmomadgenlebi 40-m-de simaRlisa


da 2-m-de sisqis didi zomis mcenareebia, uxvad dixotomiurad
gantotvilebi, viwro da wagrZelebuli foTlebiT, romlebic
cvenis Semdeg totebze da Reroze tovebdnen foTlovan baliSebs.
lepidodendronebis stela iyo susti, amitom sayrdenis funqcias
asrulebda sqeli qerqi, romelic Sedgeboda ramodenime fenisagan.
anologiuri struqtura gvxvdeba zogierT Tanamedrove balaxebSi,
rac ar axasiaTebs xemcenareebs (Давиташвили, 1949).
sigilariebis warmomadgenlebs hqondaT swori Rero,
romlis zeda nawili iyo dixotomiurad gantotvili. am mcenareebs
axasiaTebda Taviseburi fesvovani warmonaqmni. maTi namarxi
naSTebi aRwerilia gvar Stigmaria-s saxeliT. stigmariebis
morfologiuri funqcia ar aris naTeli. maT ganixilaven, rogorc
fesvis mzidebs anu rizoforas, rac metnaklebad gamoxatulia
selaginelebSi (Криштофович, 1957). krasilovis (Красилов, 1972)
azriT paleozour stigmariebTan msgavsebas iCens Tanamedrove
gigrofiluri xeebis zedapiruli fesvTa sistema.

9
asterokalamitebi da kalamitebi didi zomis mcenareebia.
kalamitebs hqondaT meoradi qsilemis producirebis unari.
gantotvis mixedviT isini varirebdnen uxvad gantotvilebidan
aragantotvilebamde (Радченко, 1963).
gvar Lyginopteris miekuTvneba Teslovani gvimrebi. maT
hqondad namdvili Teslkvirti, romelic ijda foTolze. xolo
mikrofilebi inarCunebdnen msgavsebas sporofilebTan
(Криштофович, 1957).
saqrTvelos paleozour nalaqebSi aRmoCenilia agreTve
kordaitebis naSTebi. am mcenareebs hqondaT mZlavri, wiwvovanebis
magvari Rero, araukariasebrTanairi traqeebiT da kargad
ganviTarebuli guliT (Криштофович, 1957).

cxr. II. saqarTvelos karbonuli naleqebis mcenareTa sia (makronaSTebi)


klasi ojaxi saxeoba
Lepidodendron dichotomum Sternb.

Lepidodendraceae Lepidophloios laricinus Sternb.


Isoëtopsida
Lepidophloios vsevolodii Zal.

Sigillariaceae Stigmaria ficoides Sternb..

Asterocalamitaceae Asterocalamites scrobiculatus (Schl.) Zeill.


Equisetopsida
Calamitaceae Mesocalamites ramifer (Stur) Hirm.

Marattiopsida Asterothecaceae Asterotheca miltonii (Artis.) Zeill.


Lyginopteris bermudensiformis (Schl.) Patt.
f.geinitzii Stur
Lyginopteris bermudensiformis (Schl.) Patt.
f.schlotheimii Stur
Lyginopteridopsida Lyginopteridaceae Lyginopteris fragilis (Schln.) Patt.

Lyginopteris hoeninghausii (Brongn.)Patt.


Palmatopteris furcata (Brongn.)Pot.

Cordaitopsida Cordaitaceae Cordaites sp.

10
mezozouri era
iuruli periodi
saqarTvelos teritoriaze iuruli naleqebi (cxr. III)
araTanabradaa ganviTarebuli. yvelaze didi farTobi maT ukaviaT
didi kavkasionis samxreT ferdze da SedarebiT sustad arian
gavrcelebuli mcire kavkasionze (Гамкрелидзе, 2000).

cxr. III. saqarTvelos iuruli naleqebis stratigrafiuli sqema


(Кахадзе, 1947; Топчишвили, 1969; Топчишвили и др., 2006)

sistema seqcia sarTuli


140 tiTonuri
zeda - malmi kimerijuli
oqsforduli
kaloviuri
iuruli

baTuri
Sua - dogeri
baiosuri
aalenuri
toarsuli
plinsbaxuri
qveda - liasi
sinemuruli
180 hetanguri

qvedaiuruli epoqa
adreiurulis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos teritoria, garda
Zveli masivebisa (Zirulis, xramis, loqis), dafaruli iyo zRviT
(Кахадзе, 1947; Вахания, 1976). xmeleTis am amaRlebul ubnebze
gavrcelebuli mcenareebis naSTebi qvedaiurul naleqebSia
ganamarxebuli. samxreT saqarTveloSi namarxi flora napovnia
hetanguri asakis qarsian qviSaqvebSi (nax.3). Zirulis masivze
paleoflora dakavSirebulia amave asakis „qveda tufitebTan“
(Адамия,1968; Топчишвили, 1969; Сванидзе, 1965, 1971; Сванидзе,
Якобидзе, 1979). garda amisa dasavleT saqarTvelos liasuri
naleqebi Seswavlilia palinologiuri meTodiT (Карашвили, 1973,
1977).

11
qvedaiurul floraSi kalamitebi warmodgenilia erTi
saxeobiT - Neocalamites hoerensis. saqarTveloSi am mcenaris naSTebi
iSviaTia da upiratesad warmodgenilia ReroebiT, romlebic
naleqebSi ganlagebulia an Sreebis gaswvriv an perpendi-
kularulad.
iurul Rerosaxsrianebs SorisEEyvelaze gavrcelebuli
mcenarea Svita (Equisetum), romlis Tanamedrove da namarxi
formebis Sedarebam aCvena, rom maT Soris gansxvaveba
umniSvneloa, ris safuZvelzec delem (Делле, 1967) iuruli Svitebi
miakuTvna Tanamedrove gvar Equisetum-s. iuruli Svita
warmodgenilia patara da didi formebiT. am ukanasknels ekuTvnis
Equisetum beanii, romlis naSTebi iSviaTia saqarTveloSi. isini
Cveulebriv, dakavSirebulia imave SreebTan, rac Neocalamites.
arsebobs varaudi, rom orive mcenare izrdeboda Waobian
adgilebSi.
qvedaiurul floraSi gvimrebi warmodgenilia 25 formiT,
romelTa umetesoba gansazRvrulia palinologiuri meTodiT
(Карашвили, 1977). makronaSTebi ki ekuTvnis sistematikurad
gaurkvevel taqsons Cladophlebis, romelsac ukavSireben ojax
Osmundaceae-as. qvedaiurul naleqebSi gvimrebis naSTebis didi
raodenoba miuTiTebs, rom maTi adgilsamyofeli sedimentaciis
auzTan axlos mdebareobda (Сванидзе, 1996).
qvedaiurulSi gvari Ginkgo warmodgenilia ori formiT:
Ginkgo mziae da Ginkgo ex gr. huttonii. pirveli damaxasiaTebelia
mxolod saqarTvelosTvis. meore ki cnobilia iuruli florebis
bevri sxva adgilsapovebelidan. mcenaris saxelwodebidan Cans,
rom svaniZem (Сванидзе, 1996) Tavi Seikava saqarTveloSi napovni
naSTebis sruli identifikaciisagan, radgan namarxi masalis
reviziam cxadyo, rom foTlebi aRwerili Ginkgo huttonii-s saxeliT
ekuTvnis sxvadasxva saxeobebs (Долуденко, Лебедева, 1972; Самылина,
1970).
ojaxi Czekanowskiaceae ekuTvnis klass Ginkgoopsida-s. ukve
adreul mezozourSi am mcenarem miaRwia evoluciis maRal dones,
rac gamoixateboda „farulTeslovanebis msgavsad TeslCanasaxis
dacvis unarSi“ (Красилов, 1968). Cekanovskiebi zedatriasulidan
qvedaiurulamde dominirebdnen cimbiris paleofloristul
olqSi. Semdgom maTi roli Semcirda da zedaiurulSi mTlianad
gadaSendnen. saqarTveloSi Cekanovskiebi napovni iyo qveda da
SuaiurulSi. Cveulebriv am jgufis mcenareuli naSTebi Zalze
iSviaTia da cudi daculobisaa (Сванидзе, 1996).
12
iurul palinologiur kompleqsSi aRmoCenili iyo
Eucommidites troedssonii-is mtvris marcvlebi (Якобидзе и др., 1983).
pirvelad es forma aRwerilia evropis liasuri naleqebidan da
gansazRvrulia rogorc farulTeslovani. 1958 wels diagnozi
Seicvala palinomorfebis morfologiuri Tvisebebis
statistikuri analizis safuZvelze da Eucommidites troedssonii
miakuTvnes SiSvelTeslovanebs (Ярошенко, 1965). mogvianebiT am
saxeobis mtvris marcvlebi napovni iyo SiSvelTeslovanebis
mikropileSi (Котова, 1979).
svaniZis (Сванидзе, 1996) azriT adreiurulSi saqarTvelos
teritoriaze arsebobda mcenareTa ramdenime dajgufeba,
romlebsac reliefis sxvadasxva done hqondad aTvisebuli.
SualiasurSi hava iyo zomierad Tbili, rasac moyva
temperaturis vardna. es monacemebi emTxveva arsebul zogad
warmodgenas toarsul-aalenurSi civi da notio havis Sesaxeb,
romelic mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda iuruli drois Semdgomi
monakveTebis havisagan (Ясаманов, 1980, 1985).

Suaiuruli epoqa
qvedaiurulis Sua monakveTebSi adgili hqonda daRmaval
moZraobebs. mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoria dafaruli
iyo zRviT, romelic aRwevda Zirulis da loqis masivebamde, sadac
Camoyalibda wyalmarCxi zRvis reJimi. regresia daiwyo qveda
aalenurSi da susti orogenuli moZraobebis Sedegad warmoiSva
kordilierebi (Дзоценидзе, Схиртладзе, 1961; Кахадзе, 1947;
Топчишвили и др., 2006).
suraTi Seicvala baiosurSi. gvianliasuris orofazis
Semdeg adgili hqonda intensiur daZirvas da baiosuris
dasawyisSi saqarTvelos teritoriis didi nawili daifara zRviT.
mimdinareobda normaluri da vulkanogenuri naleqebis
dagroveba, rac gamowveuli iyo intensiuri wyalqveSa
vulkanizmiT. daZirvis procesi grZeldeboda TiTqmis mTeli
baiosuris ganmavlobaSi da am saukunis bolos Seicvala
sawinaaRmdugo mimarTulebis moZraobebiT - regresiiT.
baiosuri regresia gagrZelda baTurSic, roca
saqarTvelos TiTqmis mTeli teritoria gaTavisuflda zRvisagan.
gaCnda mtknari wylis calkeuli auzebi da Seiqmna xelsayreli
pirobebi torfebis dagrovebisTvis (Адамия и др., 1964). amis
Sedegia tyibulis, Saoris, gelaTis, maganas, tyvarCelis da bzifis

13
qvanaxSiris sabadoebi. axali monacemebis safuZvelze dadginda,
rom isini warmoiqmna erTian, daxSul, mtknari wylis did auzSi,
romelsac kavSiri ar hqonda Ria zRvasTan (Топчишвили и др., 2006).
am auzSi daleqili qanebi Seicaven mcenareul naSTebs. namarxi
flora aRwerilia agreTve loqis masivis baTuri naleqebidan
(Сванидзе и др. 1983; Зесашвили и др. 1977).
baTuri flora baiosurze bevrad mdidaria. varaudoben,
rom am dros saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebobda ramdenime
mcenareuli dajgufeba: mangroanebisa da marSebis; Waobiani
dablobebis mcenareuloba; mSrali dablobebis; mTiswineTis da
Rrma xeobebis (Шенгелия и др. 1987).
aq gvinda SevexoT mangroanebis naSTebis ganamarxebis
sakiTxs, romelic ganxilulia doludenkos (Долуденко, 1984) mier.
am avtoris azriT mangroanebs SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT warsuli
drois iseTi tipis cenozebi, romlebic sistematikuri
SemadgenlobiT da ekologiur-morfologiuri TvisebebiT
analogiuria Tanamedrove mcenareulobisa. xSirad mangroanebs
adareben yovelgvar xe-buCqnaris Tanasazogadoebas, romelic
izrdeboda moqceva-miqcevis zonaSi (Tu es mcenareuloba
balaxovania mas adareben marSebs).
teslenkom (Тесленко, 1979) indoeTSi yofnis dros
sagangebod Seiswavla sakiTxi mangroanebis sxvadasxva pirobebSi
ganamarxebis Sesaxeb da gaarkvia, rom moqcevis zonaSi ar
iqmneboda pirobebi foTlebis daleqvisTvis, radgan am dros isini
tivtivebdnen zedapirze, miqcevis dros ki talRebs isini mihqondaT
Ria okeaneSi. xolo xis fesvebs Soris darCenili naSTebi,
mTlianad iSlebodnen talRebis dartymisagan. ver namarxdebodnen
agreTve mtvris marcvlebi da sporebi, radgan talRebs
gadhqondaT isini mangroanebis zrdis zonis gareT. teslenkos
azriT, mcenaris erTaderTi nawili, romelsac SeuZlia
ganamarxeba aris fesvuri sistema. geologiuri warsulis
mcenareulobis TanamedrovesTan Sedareba mxolod
pnevmatoforebis aRmoCenis SemTxvevaSia SesaZlebeli.
rogorc adre aRvniSneT qvedaiurulis bolos da
Suaiurulis dasawyisSi hava iyo SedarebiT grili, magram
baiosurSi zRvis temperaturam aiwia. msgavsi pirobebi arsebobda
baTurSic, radgan tyeebSi dominirebdnen sagovanebi da
ginkgosebrTa warmomadgenlebi (Ясаманов, 1980).
Suaiurulis bolo monakveTia kaloviuri sarTuli (cxr.III).
kaloviuris transgresia kavkasiis geologiur istoriaSi

14
cnobilia, rogorc yvelaze vrceli. axali monacemebiT kaloviuri
transgresia daiwyo Sua baTuris bolos da TandaTanobiT
gavrcelda saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebSi. zRvisagan
Tavisufali darCa mxolod svaneTi da samxreT saqarTvelos
amaRlebuli ubnebi (Топчишвили и др. 2011).
kaloviuri naleqebi mdidaria mcenareuli naSTebiT,
romlebic Tavisi SemadgenlobiT mkveTrad gansxvavdeba baTuri
florisagan (Сванидзе, 1970а). kaloviurSi klebulobs gvimrebis
raodenoba. makronaSTebisa da palinologiuri kompleqsebis
mixedviT mcenareulobis SemadgenlobaSi izrdeba ojaxis
Cheirolepidiaceae-s (gvarebi Brachyphyllum, Pagiophyllum, Classopolis)
warmomadgenlebis roli.
zogadad, iuruli periodis istoriaSi sazRvari baTursa da
kaloviurs Soris iyo gardatexis momenti, romelic
dakavSirebulia, erTis mxvriv, farTo transgresiasTan da, meore
mxriv, CrdiloeTis naxevarsferoSi ariduli sartyelis
formirebasTan. mdidari masalis safuZvelze gairkva, rom gvar
Classopolis-is (ojaxi Cheirolepidiaceae) naSTebi dakavSirebulia im
regionebis naleqebTan, sadac mezozourSi gadioda ariduli da
naxevrad ariduli zona. aq ojaxi Cheirolepidiaceae-s
warmomadgenlebi xdebodnen dominantebi da qmnidnen dabal meCxer
tyeebs (Alvin et al.,1978; Мейн, 1987; Вахрамеев1980; Вахрамеев,
Долуденко, 1976).
saqarTvelos iuruli floris ganviTarebaSi gardatexis
momenti iyo agreTve sazRvari baTursa da kaloviurs Soris,
rodesac Semcirda gvimrebis raodenoba, mTlianad gadaSenda
ojaxi Czekanowskiaceae da ojaxebSi Ginkgoaceae da Cycadaceae
Semcirda gvarebis raodenoba. mdidari da mravalferovani
baTuri mcenareuloba Seicvala erTferovani sanapiro cenozebiT,
romelTa SemadgenlobaSi gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekava ojax
Cheirolepidiaceae-s warmomadgenlebs, rac dabali tenianobis
tropikuli havis arsebobaze miuTiTebs.
iurulis ganmavlobaSi evraziis teritoriaze arsebobda
ori paleofloristuli olqi: CrdiloeTiT - cimbiris da
samxreTiT - indo-evropuli (mogvianebiT gadarqmeuli indo-
siniurad). indo-evropulis farglebSi vaxrameevis Tanaxmad
(Вахрамеев, 1988) sami provincia arsebobda: aRmosavleT aziuri,
Suaaziuri da evropuli, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda
amierkavkasia.

15
svaniZis (Сванидзе, 1996) azriT saqarTvelos adreiuruli
flora iCenda msgavsebas rogorc evropuli, aseve Suaaziuri
provinciebis florebTan. amitom saqarTvelos teritoriis
romelime maTganTan mikuTvnebisagan avtorma Tavi Seikava.
tyvarCelis baTuri flora delem (Делле, 1967) evropul
provincias miakuTvna. misi azriT kaspiis da Savi zRvis teritoria
ar iyo damoukidebeli fitogeografiuli erTeuli, aramed
warmoadgenda gardamaval zonas. svaniZe ki saqarTvelos baTur
floras ganixilavs, rogorc damoukidebels, radgan mis
SemadgenlobaSi bevri axali taqsoni aqvs aRmoCenili.
svaniZis mixedviT kaloviuri flora Sereuli xasiaTisaa,
amitom, misi azriT, saqarTvelos teritoria warmoadgenda
gardamaval provincias evropulsa da Suaaziurs Soris.
saqarTvelos iuruli naleqebi mcenareTa sia (cxrili IV)
Sedgenilia Semdegi avtorebis mixedviT: Делле (1960, 1960а, 1967);
Долуденко (1984); Долуденко, Сванидзе (1969); Карашвили (1973, 1977);
Кoлаковский (1973); Лоладзе (1979); Лоладзе и др. (1978); Принада (1933);
Сванидзе (1960, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1970a, 1971, 1996); Сванидзе, Шенгелия
(1979,1987); Сванидзе, Якобидзе, (1979); Сванидзе и др. (1983); Шенгелия и
др, (1987); Якобидзе (1980, 1981); Якобидзе и др. 1983). sia eyrdnoba
taxtajanis sistemas (Тахтаджян, 1974, 1986, 1987; Тахтаджян и др. 1963).

cxr. IV. saqarTvelos iuruli naleqebis mcenareTa sia:


m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi

qveda Sua iuruli


klasi ojaxi Saxeoba iuruli baTuri kaloviuri
1 2 3 4 5 6
Lycopodiumsporites
p
pseudolaterale Tralau
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiumsporites
p
subrotundus (K.M.) Pocock
Lycopodium sp. p p
Selaginella rostratus Burakowa m
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae
Selaginella sp. p p
Neocalamites hoerensis
m m
(Schimp.) Halle
Sorocaulaceae Neocalamites aff.nathorsti
p
Erdtman
Equisetopsida Neocalamites sp. m
Equisetum beanii (Bumb.) Harris m m
Equisetum columnare Brongn. m
Equisetaceae
Equisetum laterale Phillips m
Equisetum sp. p pm p

16
1 2 3 4 5 6
Angiopteris iberica Delle et
m
Dolud.
Marattia muensterii (Goepp.)
m
Delle
Marattiopsida Marattiaceae Marattisporites scabratus
p
Couper
Marattisporites aff.hoerensis
p p
(Schimp.) Thomas
Marattisporites sp. p p
Osmunda papillata Bolch. p
Osmundacidites wellmanii
p
Couper
Osmundacidites sp. p
Osmundaceae
Osmundopsis prynadae Delle m m
Todites princeps (Presl.) Goth. m
Todites williamsonii
m
(Brongn.) Sew.
Klukia exilis (Phill.) Racib. m p
Klukia marginata Prynad. m
Klukia sp. p
Schizaeaceae
Klukisporites variegatus
p p
Couper
Klukisporites sp. p
Lygodiaceae Lygodium sp. p
Pteridaceae Pteridaceae gen.indet. p p p
Gleichenia delicata Bolch. p p
Gleichenia sphenopteroides
p
Brick.
Gleicheniaceae
Gleichenia sp. p
Polypodiopsida

Gleicheniidites granulatus
p p
Grig.
Matonidium goeppertii (Ett.)
m
Schenk.
Matonisporites
p p
phlebopteroides Couper
Matoniaceae Matonisporites sp. p p p
Phlebopteris exornatus Bolch. p
Phlebopteris polypodioides
m
(Brongn.) Brongn.
Phlebopteris sp. p
Camptotriletes cerebriformis
p
Naum.
Clathropteris obovata
p p
var.magna Tur.-Ket.
Clathropteris sp. m
Dictyophyllum nilssonii
m m
(Brongn.) Goepp.
Dipteridaceae
Dictyophyllum sp. p p
Dictyophyllidites harrisii
p p
Couper
Dictyophyllidites vulgaris
p
(Mal.) Sem.
Hausmannia sp. p p
Thaumatopteris sp. m

17
1 2 3 4 5 6
Polypodites cladophleboides Brick. p
Polypodites harrisii Couper p
Polypodiaceae
Polypodites sp. p
Polypodiaceae gen.indet. p
Hymenophyllum densigranulatum
Vin.
p
Hymeno- Hymenophyllum sp. p p
phyllaceae Trichomanes sp. p
Hymenophyllaceae gen.indet. p
Thyrsopte- Cibotium junctum K.-M. p p p
ridaceae Cibotium sp. p
Coniopteris angustiloba Brick. m
Coniopteris georgica Iakob. m
Coniopteris hymenophylloides
pm
Polypodiopsida

(Brongn.) Sew.
Coniopteris murrayana
m
(Brongn.) Brongn.
Coniopteris aff.divaricata (K.-
p
M.) Bolch.
Dicksoniaceae
Coniopteris sp. p p p
Dicksonia densa Bolch. p
Dicksonia aff.crocina Bolch. p
Dicksonia sp. p p
Eboracia sp. p p
Gonatosorus lobifolius Bur. m
Lobifolia lobifolia (Phill.)
m
Rass.et Lebed.
Cyathidites sustralis Couper p p
Cyathidites minor Couper p p p
Cyathidites remalis Balme p
Cyatheaceae
Cyathidites sp. p p
Hemitelia sp. p p
Cyatheaceae gen.indet. p
Calamospora mesozoica Couper p
Cladophlebis denticulata
m m
(Brongn.) Font.
Cladophlebis denticulata
m
var.caucasica Prynad.
Cladophlebis suluktensis Brick. m
Cladophlebis haiburnensis
m
(Lindl.et Hutt.) Goepp.
Cladophlebis whitbiensis
m m
(Brongn.) Brongn.
sistematikurad
Cladophlebis williamsonii
ganusazRvreli gvimrebi m
(Brongn.) Brongn.
Cladophlebis aff.kamenkensis
m
Thomas
Cladophlebis sp. m
Raphaelia diamensis Sew. m
Sphenopteris mokrynskyi Prynad. m
Sphenopteris cf.gracillima Heer m
Sphenopteris sp. m
Weichselia reticulata Stok.et
m
Webb.

18
1 2 3 4 5 6
Caytonanthus arberi (Thomas)
p
Harris
Lyginopteridopsida Caytonia oncodes Harris p
Caytonipollenites pallidus
p p

Caytoniaceae
(Reiss.) Couper
Sagenopteris colpodes Harris m
Sagenopteris heterophylla
m m
Dolud.et Svan.
Sagenopteris latus Iakob. m
Sagenopteris phillipsii
m m
(Brongn.) Presl.
Sagenopteris sp. m
Cycadopteris georgica Dolud. m
Cycadopteris jurensis (Kurr)
Hirmer (= Pachypteris m
gvarebi, romlebic bendukidzeae Dolud.et Svan.)
ekuTvnian Ctenozamites uznadzeae
m
Pteridospermae-s Dolud.et Svan.
Pachypteris lanceolata Brongn. m m
Pachypteris multiformis Delle m
Pachypteris aff.speciosa (Ett.)
m
Andrea
Baiera inaequilobata Delle m
Eratmophyllum tomasii
m
Dolud.et Svan.
Ginkgo digitata (Brongn.) Heer m
Ginkgo mziae Svan. m
Ginkgo katcharavai Svan. m
Ginkgo ex gr.huttonii (Sternb.)
m
Heer
Ginkgo sp. m
Ginkgoaceae

Ginkgocycadophytus sp. p p p
Phoenicopsis ex gr.angustifolia
Ginkgoopsida

m
Heer
Pseudotorellia cf.pulchella
m
(Heer) Vassil.
Pseudotorellia sp. m
Sphenobaiera colchica
m
(Prynad.) Delle
Sphenobaiera samylinae
m
Dolud.et Svan.
Sphenobaiera spectabilis
m
(Nath.) Fl.
Sphenobaiera tsagarelii Svan. m
Czekanowskia latifolia Tur.-Ket. m
Czekanow- Czekanowskia setacea Heer m
skiaceae Czekanowskia ex gr.rigida Heer m m
Czekanowskia sp. m
Brachyphyllum expansum
m
(Sternb.) Sew.
Pinopsida

Cheiro- Brachyphyllum aff.expansum


m
lepidiaceae (Sternb.) Sew.
Brachyphyllum aff.mamillare
m m
Brongn.

19
1 2 3 4 5 6
Brachyphyllum sp. m
Classopolis aff.classoides
p p
Pflug.em.Poc.et Jans.
Classopolis sp. p p p
Elatides curvifolia (Dunk.) Nath. m
Elatides williamsonii
p
(Brongn.) Nath.
Elatides sp. m
Elatocladus ketovae Dolud. m
Elatocladus subzamioides
m
Cheirolepidiaceae (Moell.)Tur.-Ket.
Elatocladus cf.curvifolia (L.et
m
H.) Sew.
Elatocladus cf.indica Feistm. m
Elatocladus sp. m m
Haiburnia setosa (Phill.) Harris m
Pagiophyllum astrachanense
m m
Dolud.
Pagiophyllum gracilis Svan.et
m
Sheng.
Pagiophyllum peregrinum
m
(L.et H.) Sew.
Pagiophyllum williamsonii
m m
(Brongn.) Sew.
Pagiophyllum setosa (Phill.) Sew. m
Pagiophyllum sp. m
Pinopsida

Tomharrisia sp. m
Walchites gradatus Bolkh. p
Podozamites angustifolius
m
(Eichw.) Heer
Podozamites eichwaldii
Podozamitaceae

m
Schimp.
Podozamites gramineus Heer m
Podozamites lanceolatus (L.et
m m m
H.) Schimp.
Podozamites latifolia (Schenk.)
m
Prynad.
Podozamites sp. p p p
Stachyotaxus cf.elegans Nath. m
Palissyaceae
Stachyotaxus sp. m
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus sp. p
Taxaceae Taxites sp. m
Araucariodendron
m
angustifolium Krassil.
Araucarioxylon sp. m
Araucarites macropteris
Araucariaceae m
Feistm.
Araucarites vassilevskiae Tur.-
m
Ket.
Araucariaceae gen.indet. p p p
Paleopinus sp. p
Picea sp p p
Pinaceae
Piceites lateens Bolch. p p
.Piceites sp. p p

20
1 2 3 4 5 6
Pinus insignis Bolch. p
Pityophyllum latifolium Tur.-
m m
Ket.
Pityophyllum ex
Pinaceae m m
gr.nordenskioldii (Heer) Nat.
Pityostrobus sp. m
Pseudopinus sp. p
Pinopsida

Tsugaepollenites sp. p
Sciadopitys mesozoicus
Sciado- p p
(Couper) Zauer et Mtchedl.
pityaceae
Sciadopitys sp. p p
Taxodiaceae Taxodiaceae gen.indet. p
Widdringtonites karataviensis
m
Tur.-Ket.
Cupressaceae
Widdringtonites sp. m
Cupressaceae gen.indet. p
Carpolithes aff.minor Prynad. m
Carpolithes sp. m
Paleoconiferus asaccatus
p
Bolch.
Forma-taxa of conifers
Protoconiferus sp. p
Xenoxylon latiporosum
m
(Cram.) Goth.
Anthrophyopsis narulensis
m
Dolud.et Svan.
Ctenis pontica Delle m
Ctenis sp. m
Cycadites rectangularis
m
Brauns
Cycadites sp. m
Cycadolepis gracilis Iakob. m
Cycadolepis insignis Iakob. m
Cycadolepis ovalis Dolud. m m
Cycadolepis rugosa (Halle)
m m
Harris
Cycadolepis sp. m
Nilssonia grandifolia Delle m m
Cycadopsida

Cycadaceae

Nilssonia grandifolia Delle


m
f.rarinervis Delle
Nilssonia mediana Prynad. m
Nilssonia princeps (Oldh.et
m
Morr.) Sew.
Nilssonia variabilis Prynad. m
Nilssonia vittaeformis Prynad.
m
(=Nilssonia inouyei Yok.)
Nilssonia cf.kendalli Harris m
Nilssonia sp. m
Paracycas brevipinnata Delle m m
Paracycas ctenis (Harris)
m
Harris
Paracycas ctenis (Harris)
m
Harris f.spinulata Dolud.
Paracycas intermedia Dolud. m
Paracycas raripinnata Dolud. m

21
1 2 3 4 5 6
Pseudoctenis barulensis Dolud. m
Pseudoctenis latus Dolud. m m
Pseudoctenis magnifolius
m
Dolud.
Cycadopsida Pseudoctenis oleosa Harris m

Cycadaceae
Pseudoctenis weberi (Sew.)
m m
Prynad.
Pseudoctenis aff.eathiensis
m
(Rich.) Sew.
Pseudoctenis aff.lanei Thomas m
Pseudoctenis aff. magnifolius
m
Dolud.
Pseudoctenis sp. m
William- Williamsonia whitbiensis Nath. m
soniaceae Williamsonia sp. m
Anomozamites nitida Harris m
Anomozamites minor
m
(Brongn.) Nath.
Anomozamites variabilis
m
(Prynad.) Iakob.
Anomozamites sp. m
Bennettites sp. p
Nilssoniopteris angustifolia
m m
Dolud.
Nilssoniopteris longifolia
m
Dolud.
Nilssoniopteris muchlensis
m m
Dolud.
Nilssoniopteris stenophylla
m
Dolud.
Nilssoniopteris tkibulensis
m
Bennettitopsida

Iakob.
Bennettitaceae

Nilssoniopteris vulgaris Dolud. m m


Nilssoniopteris vittata
m m
(Brongn.) Fl.
Taeniopteris
sp.cf.Nilssoniopteris vittata m
(Brongn.) Fl.
Otozamites beanii (L.et H.)
m
Brongn.
Otozamites caucasicus Iakob. m
Otozamites graphicus (Leck.)
m m
Schimp.
Otozamites hislopii (Oldh.)
m
Feistm.
Otozamites latior Sap. m
Otozamites obtusus (L.et H.)
m
Brongn.
Otozamites sp. m m
Pseudocycas cessiensis Dolud. m m
Pseudocycas cf.saighanensis
m
Jakob. et Shukla
Pterophyllum aequale
m
(Brongn.) Nath.

22
1 2 3 4 5 6
Pterophyllum djanelidzei Svan. m m
Pterophyllum georgiense
m
Dolud.
Pterophyllum insigne Dolud. m
Pterophyllum kakhadzei Svan. m
Pterophyllum magnum Dolud. m
Pterophyllum mirabile Dolud. m
Pterophyllum narulense Svan. m
Pterophyllum papillatum
m
Dolud.
Pterophyllum paradoxum
m
Dolud.
Pterophyllum raripinnatum
m
Dolud.
Pterophyllum rionense Dolud. m
Pterophyllum aff.ptilum Harris m
Pterophyllum aff.subaequale
m
Bennettitopsida

Bennettitaceae

Hartz
Pterophyllum cf.andreanum
m m
Schimp.
Pterophyllum sp. m m m
Ptilophyllum acutifolium
m
Morr.
Ptilophyllum acutifolium
m
Morr. f.latum Delle
Ptilophyllum caucasicum
m m
Dolud. et Svan.
Ptilophyllum cutchense Morr. m
Ptilophyllum longifolium
m
Iakob.
Ptilophyllum okribense Dolud.
m
et Svan.
Ptilophyllum okribense
m
f.ratchense Dolud. et Svan.
Ptilophyllum
m
vachrameevii(Dolud.) Dolud.
Ptilophyllum cf.caucasicum
m
Dolud. et Svan.
Zamites sp. m

23
carculi periodi

qvedacarculi epoqa
carculi naleqebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli saqarTvelos
teritoriaze da iyofa or stratigrafiul erTeulad - qveda da
zeda (cxr.V). qvedacarculis ganmavlobaSi arsebobda
sedinentaciis sami auzi: 1. fliSuri auzi, romlis naleqebi
gavrcelebulia didi kavkasionis samxreT ferdze; 2.
epikontinenturi, romlis karbonatuli naleqebi gaSiSvlebulia
gagra-javis zonaSi; 3. evgeosinklinuri tipis auzi, romelic
warmoiSva qvedacarculis bolos da alburSi xasiaTdeboda
aqtiuri vulkanizmiT.
cxr. V. saqarTvelos carculi naleqebis stratigrafiuli sqema
( Гамбашидзе, 1984; Котетишвили, 1986)

Seqcia sarTuli
65 maastrixtuli
kampanuri
zeda santonuri
carculi koნiakuri
turonuli
senomanuri
alburi
apturi
qveda baremuli
carculi hotrivuli
valanJinuri
144 beriasuli

iurulis bolos saqarTvelos belti (amierkavkasiis


mTaTaSua regioni) gadaiqca xmeleTad, romelsac hqonda dabali,
magram nawilobriv peneplenizirebuli reliefi. amaRlebuli
ubnebis arsebobas varaudoben mdinare kelasuris da gumisTis
maxloblad da saqarTvelos beltze.
kimerijulis (zedaiuruli) meore naxevarSi kavkasionis
samxreTi ferdis sinklinebSi ganviTarda transgresia, romelic
beriasulSi gavrcelda saqarTvelos beltamde. amis Semdeg misi
farTobi nel-nela klebulobda da Sua alburSi miaRwia minimums.
qvedacarculi periodi Tavdeba alburi regresiiT, romelic

24
zogierT regionebSi senomanuramde gagrZelda (Эристави, 1952;
Котетишвили, 1986).
cxr. VI. saqarTvelos carculi naleqebis mcenareTa sia (makronaSTebi)
klasi ojaxi saxeoba
Matoniaceae Phlebopteris rarinerve Lol.
Gonatosorus dzirulensis Lol.
Gonatosorus lobifolium Bur.
Gonatosorus sp.
Polypodiopsida
Dicksoniaceae Lobifolia lobifolia (Phill.) Rass.et Lebed.
Lobifolia novopokrovskii (Pryn.) Rass.et
Lebed.
Lobifolia sp.
Cladophlebis whitbiensis (Brongn.)
Brongn.
sistematikurad ganusazRvreli
gvimrebi Cladophlebis aff.suluctensis Brick.
Cladophlebis sp.
Sagenopteris colpodes Harris
Lyginopteridopsida Caytoniaceae Sagenopteris heterophylla Dolud.et Svan.
Sagenopteris sp.
Elatides curvifolia (Dunk.) Nath.
Elatides sp.
Haiburnia setosa (Phill.) Harris
Cheirolepidiaceae
Pagiophyllum bellum Lol.
Pagiophyllum stenocaulum Lol.
Pagiophyllum setosum (Phill.) Sew.
Araucarites charatishvilii Lol.
Araucarites densicaulus Lol.
Araucarites heterocaulus Lol.
Araucariaceae
Araucarites latus Lol.
Araucarites vassilevskiae Tur.-Ket.
Pinopsida

Araucarites sp.
Glyptostrobus stenocaulus Lol.
Glyptostrobus aff.groenlandicus Heer
Glyptostrobus vulgaris Lol.
Glyptostrobus sp.
Taxodiaceae
Sequoia caucasica Lol.
Sequoia colchica Lol.
Sequoia delicate Lol.
Sequoia sp.
Thuites sp.
Widdringtonites georgiense Lol.
Cupressaceae
Widdringtonites karataviensis Tur.-Ket.
Widdringtonites aff.subtilis Heer.
Bennettitopsida Bennettitaceae Pterophyllum magnum Dolud.

saqarTveloSi paleobotanikuri masala (cxr. VI) cnobilia


apturi da alburi naleqebidan (nax.3). pirveli monacemebi ki
namarxi floris Sesaxeb ekuTvnis palibins (Палибин, 1940) da
mWedliSvils (Мчедлишвили, 1949). mogvianebiT namarxi masala iyo

25
Seswavlili svaniZisa da lolaZis mier (Сванидзе, Шарикадзе, 1973;
Лоладзе, 1978). iurul florasTan SedarebiT qvedacarculSi
sagrZnoblad mcirdeba ojaxebis Caytoniaceae, Cheirolepidiaceae,
Cycadaceae, Bennettitaceae sistematikuri mravalferovneba. amave
dros izrdeba ojaxebis Araucariaceae da Taxodiaceae roli.
lolaZis mixedviT (Лоладзе, 1979) adrecarculSi
saqarTvelos teritoria dafarulia Araucarites-s da Pagiopyllum-is
tyeebiT, rac miuTiTebs dabali tenianobis klimatur pirobebze.
miuxedavad amisa SeimCneva cvlilebebi floris SemadgenlobaSi.
kerZod, gvimrebisa da taqsodiumisebrTa rolis gazrda; gvari
Brachyphyllum-is gadaSeneba; gvari Pagiophyllum-is saxeobebis
raodenobis Semcireba. lolaZis azriT qvedaculis meore
naxevarSi, kaloviurisagan gansxvavebiT, hava ufro teniani da
grili iyo. Agvarebis Araucarites-is da Pagiophylum-is
warmomadgenlebi izrdebodnen mSral ferdobebze; gvimrebi da
taqsodiumisebrni ki ufro tenian pirobebs amjobinebdnen.
varaudoben, rom adrecarculSi arsebobda ori
paleofloristuli olqi: cimbirul-kanaduri da evropul-
siniuri, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda ramdenime provincia:
potomakiuri, Suaaziuri, aRmosavleT aziuri da evropuli. mTeli
adrecarculis ganmavlobaSi evropul provinciaSi gabatonebuli
iyo ariduli da naxevrad ariduli klimaturi pirobebi, razedac
floris taqsonomiuri Semadgenloba da mcenareebis qserofituli
agebuleba miuTiTebs (Мейн, 1987). saqarTvelos qvedacarcul
floras vaxrameevi (Вахрамеев, 1988) akuTvnebda evropul
provincias, xolo lolaZis (Лоладзе, 1983) mixedviT am asakis
floristuli kompleqsi msgavsia, rogorc evropuli, aseve
Suaaziuri provinciebis Tanadrouli florisa.
apturis da alburis ganmavlobaSi dedamiwis mcenareuloba
mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs ganicdida, rac farulTeslovanebis
swrafma gavrcelebam gamoiwvia. am dros gaCnda agreTve
wiwvovanebis axali formaciebi, romelSic dominirebdnen
fiWvisebrni. isini eguebodnen mzis intensiur ganaTebas da mSral
garemos. amave dros Semcirda ginkgosebrTa mravalferovneba da
TiTqmis mTlianad gadaSenda iseTi taqsonebi, rogorcaa
Czekanowskiaceae, Podozamites, Ptilophyllum, Bennettitaceae. sagrZnoblad
ganaxlda gvimrebis Semadgenlobac, romelTa Soris mTlianad

26
gaqra Coniopteris-ebi da gafarTovda ojaxebis Gleicheniaceae-s da
Schizaeaceae-s warmomadgenleTa areali (Синицын,1980).
monacemebi saqarTvelos gviancarculi floris Sesaxeb ar
arsebobs. samxreT-aRmosavleT amierkavkasiis senomanuri
nalaqebidan mcenaris naSTebi aRwerilia palibinis (Палибин, 1930,
1935) mier. mogvianebiT taxtajanma (Тахтаджян, 1966) Caatara igive
koleqciis revizia. am avtoris monacemebiT floris mTavari
komponentebi iyo Sequoia, Comptonia, Platanus. amaT garda avtori
sagangebod aRniSnavs taqsonebis Fagus-is da Lauraceae-s arsebobas.
amrigad, saqarTvelos mezozouri (iuruli, cerculi)
naleqebidan Segrovebuli paleobotanikuri masalis analizma
gviCvena, rom floris SemadgenlobaSi gamoiyofa ori jgofi:
pirvel jgufs miekuTvneba taqsonebi, romelTa gabatonebis dro
Semoifargla iuruli periodiT. maTgan mxolod zogierTma
ganagrZo arseboba carculSi, romlis Semdeg mezozouri
mcenareebi TiTqmis mTlianad gadaSendnen. Tumca maTi erTeuli
STamomavali dedamiwis Tanamedrove floraSic SemorCa.
meore jgufs miekuTvneba mcenareebi, romlebic dRemde
arseboben dedamiwis sxvadasxva regionebSi. mezozourSi maT
ekavaT daqvemdebarebuli mdgomareoba, magram miuxedavad amisa
aRmoCndnen progresuli elmentebi da kainozourSi daiwyo maTi
ayvavebis xana. mesameulis ganmavlobaSi sxva farulTeslovanebTan
erTad es mcenareebi batonobdnen saqarTvelos floraSi da
aRwevdnen ganviTarebis sxvadasxva stadiebs. meore jgufis
mcenareebidan zogierTi warmomadgeneli kolxeTis refugiumSi
dResac arsebobs da sxva, SedarebiT axalgazrda, formebTan erTad
gansazRvraven floris reliqtur xasiaTs.

27
kainozouri era
paleogenuri periodi
mesameulis dasawyosSi kavkasia iyo teTisis zRvis nawili.
es iyo uzarmazari sinklinuri auzi, romelic Seesabameboda
momaval alpur naoWa sartyels. igi xasiaTdeboda rTuli da
daserili sanapiro zoliT. mravalricxovani kunZulebi ki,
momavalSi alpuri sistemis mTebi, yofdnen teTiss calkeul
auzebad (Хайн, 1984). am zRvis wyali iyo Tbili, razedac marjnebisa
da msxvili numulitebiani kirqvebis arseboba miuTiTebs. wylis
temperaturas didi gavlena hqonda xmeleTis da kunZulebis
fitolandSaftze. didi kavkasionis samxreTi ferdi da aWara-
TrialeTi, rogorc teTisis calkeuli totebi, viTardeboda
damoukideblad, magram ganicdidnen saerTo orogenetuli fazebis
gavlenas.

cxr. VII. saqarTvelos paleogenuri naleqebis stratigrafiuli sqema


(И.Качарава, 1964; Казахашвили, 1984; З.Качарава, 2004).

seqcia sarTuli horizonti


23.8 miocenuri akvitanuri ufliscixis
qaturi
lignituri feradi wyeba
oligocenuri mesxeTuri cxruTa-waxanas qvedakorbulebiani
qviSaqvebi
solenuri
33.7 xadumi yaraTubani
priabonuli
biariculi
eocenuri
luteciuri
54.9 ipruli
ilerduli
paleocenuri Taneturi
65.0 monsuri

paleogenuri naleqebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli


saqarTvelos teritoriaze da warmodgenilia sxvadasxva
faciesebiT. numulitebis, planqtonuri foraminiferebis,
nanoplanqtonisa da moluskebis safuZvelze paleogeni iyofa sam

28
nawilad: paleoceni, eoceni da oligoceni (cxr. VII), romlebic,
Tavis mxvriv, dayofilia sarTulebad da horizontebad.
gamoyofili stratigrafiuli erTeulebi Sepirispirebulia
samxreT ruseTis da dasavleT evropis sinqronul naleqebTan
(И.Качарава, 1964; М.Качарава, 1977; Казахашвили, 1984; Салуквадзе, 2000;
З.Качарава, 2004; z.kaWarava, 2007); paleobotanikuri TvalsazrisiT
gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa aWara-TrialeTis naoWa zona, sadac
axalcixis depresiis eocenuri da oligocenuri naleqebi mdidaria
mcenareTa naSTebiT.

eocenuri epoqa
saqarTveloSi mesameuli asakis (paleogeni, neogeni)
danaleqi qanebidan yvelaze Zvelia axalcixis depresiis eoceniuri
naleqebi, romlebic Seicaven mcenareTa naSTebs. maTi namarxi
flora pirvelad iyo aRwerili uznaZis (Узнадзе, 1967) mier.
paleobotanikuri masala ZiriTadad warmodgenilia orlebniani
mcenareebis foTlebis aRnabeWdebiT, romelTa Soris yvelaze
xSiria Artocarpidium latifolium. floris Semadgenloba da namarxi
foTlebis xeSeSi struqtura, uznaZis azriT, maRali temperaturisa
da tenianobis moyvaruli maradmwvane mcenareebis ganviTarebaze
miuTiTebs.
SemdgomSi axalcixis depresiis eocenur floras swavlobda
avaqovi (Аваков, 1989, 2010). avtoris monacemebiT, makronaSTebis
Semcveli Sreebi linzebis saxiT aRmoCenilia breqCiebSi, romlTa
asaki faunis safuZvelze zedaeocenurad TariRdeba. mcenareTa
naSTebi napovni iyo agreTve stratigrafiulad zemoT ganlagebul
imave asakis Tixian SreebSic.
eocenuri floris taqsonebs avaqovi (1989) yofs or jgufad.
pirvels akuTvnebs eocenisTvis damaxasiaTebel formebs.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom zogierTi maTgani gadmosulia
paleocenidan, magram eocenurze axalgazrda florebSi aRar
gvxvdeba. meore jgufSi Sedian ojaxebis Myricaceae, Juglandaceae,
Fagaceae farTod gavrcelebuli taqsonebi. maTi warmomadgenlebi
oligocenur da ufro axalgazrda florebis kompleqsebis
SemadgenlobaSia aRmoCenili. zogierTi am gvaris STamomavali
saqarTvelos dRevandeli mcenareulobis reliqtur elements
warmoadgens. mesameulis ganmavlobaSi isini viTrdebodnen,
icvleboda maTi tolerantoba, magram Tavis Tavad es formebi
metyveleben imaze, rom ukve eocenurSi arsebobda mcenareTa
29
jgufi, romelmac daudo saTave ara marto neogenuri, aramed
Tanamedrove floris Camoyalibebasac.
axalcixis depresiis Sua da zedaeocenuri naleqebi
Seswavlilia palinologiuri meTodiT (Панова и др., 1984). kaxeTis
eocenuri naleqebis palinologiuri kompleqsebi aRwerilia
furcelaZis (Пурцеладзе, 1988) da Satilovas mier (Shatilova,
Mchedlishvili, 2011).
am monacemebis mixedviT floris SemadgenlobaSi gvimrebis
roli mcirea. wiwvovanebidan kompleqsis yvelaze xSiri
komponentebia subtropikuli jiSebi: Ginkgo, Podocarpus, Dacrydium,
Cedrus, Keteleeria. bevrad naklebi raodenobiT gvxvdeba zomieri
havisTvis damaxasiaTebeli mcenareebis (Abies, Picea Tsuga) mtvris
marcvlebi.
saqarTvelos eocenuri floris damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa
farulTeslovanebis siWarbe. kaxeTis eocenur naleqebSi am jgufis
mcenareebi Seadgenen 66%, SiSvelTeslovanebi -25% da sporovanebi
-9% (nax. 4). palinokimpleqsis aseTi Semadgenloba tipuria
paleogenisTvis (Заклинская, 1970).

nax. 4. farulTeslovanebis, SiSvelTeslovanebis da sporovani


mcenareebis procentuli raodenoba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos eocenuri
naleqebis palinologiur kompleqsebSi.

30
sakmaod rTulia eocenuri mcenareulobis tipis da
struqturis aRdgena. am sakiTxze msjeloba SeiZleba mxolod
miaxloebiT. rogorc Cans floris siidan (cxr. VIII), foTlebis
aRnabeWdebi da mtvris marcvlebi ZiriTadad ekuTvnis
xemcenareebs, amitom tyis gabatoneba mcenareul safarSi eWvs ar
iwvevs. avaqovis varaudiT formaciebi Semdegnairad iyo
gavrcelebuli: 1. tropikuli (an subtropikuli) zona
foTolmcvivani tyis, sklerofituli formaciis CanarTiT 2.
maradmwvane dafnisebrTa wvimiani tyis zona; 3. zomieri klimatis
zona foTolmcvivani da wiwvovani tyeebiT.
pirvel zonaSi, avaqovis varaudiT, Camoyalibda ori
formacia: musonuri foTolmcvivani tye da sklerofituli tye.
musonuri tyis SemadgenlobaSi aRsaniSnavia Celtis sp., Ailanthus gigas,
Cedrela caucasica, Meliosma sp., Ziziphus paradisiacus da sxva.
sklerofituli tyis komponentebia Myrica banksiaefolia, M. lignitum,
M. longifolia, M. ungeri, Echitonum sophiae.M hipsometrulad zemoT
ganlagebulia dafnisebrTa wvimiani tye, romlis SemadgenlobaSia:
Podocarpus isonervis, Engelhardia macroptera, Dryophyllum curticellense,
Castanopsis decheni, Daphnogene sezannensis, Laurophyllum achalcichensis,
Phoeba cf. pallida, Cinnamomum scheuchzeri. reliefis maRal doneebze
gavrcelebuli iyo foTolmcvivani da wiwvovani mcenareebi: Pinus,
Picea, Abies, Keteleeria, Sciadopitys, Cedrus, Betula, Corylus, Cornus, Tilia,
Acer. avaqovis azriT aqve iyo Wadris tyec.

oligocenuri epoqa
oligocenuri epoqa kavkasiis Tanamedrove reliefis
warmoSobis sawyis etapad iTvleba (Гамкрелидзе, 1949). am dros
naoWa sistemebSi daiwyo geosinklinebis formireba. saqarTvelos
belti (mTaTaSua depresia) daifara zRviT, sadac mimdinareobda
muqi feris arakarbonatuli, organul naSTebs sruliad
moklebuli e.w. maikopuri Tixebis daleqva. didi da mcire
kavkasioni warmoadgenda gadarecxvis ares da mxolod zogierT
adgilebSi rCeboda naxevrad zRviuri da lagunuri tipis patara
izolirebuli wyalsacavebi. magaliTad, aseTi iyo axalcixis
depresia (aWara-TrialeTis zona), sadac faunisturad
daTariRebuli paleogenuri naleqebi, warmodgenilia sruli
seriiT. yazaxaSvilis (Казахашвили, 1984) azriT, axalcixis
depresiis Wrilebi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc stratotipuli
(cxr. VII).

31
saqarTvelos oligocenuri naleqebi Raribia mcenareTa
makronaSTebiT. yvelaze sainteresoa qvedakorbulebiani Sreebis
Suaoligocenuri flora, aRmoCenili sof. Toris maxloblad
(borjomis xeoba). pirvelad es adgilsapovebeli aRwerili iyo
baTumis botanikuri baRis direqtoris kozlovskis mier. koleqcia
gadasces palibins da igi inaxeboda komarovis sax. botanikis
instotutSi (sankt-peterburgi). SemdgomSi namarxi masala
Seiswavla mWedliSvilma (Мчедлишвили, 1949 а). am avtoris azriT
Toris floris Semadgenloba Zalze Taviseburia da samxreT
naxevarsferos qserofituli olqis Tanamedrove tropikul
mcenareulobas waagavs. amave koleqciis reviziis Catarebis Semdeg
avaqovma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom mWedliSvilis mier Sedgenil
siaSi yvelaze sainteroso formaa Dryophyllum curticellense.
mogvianebiT Toris adgilsapovebeli Seiswavles
komleqsurad. foTlebis aRnabeWdebisa da palinomorfebis garda
gansazRvluli iyo fauna, romelmac daadastura naleqebis
Suaoligicenuri asaki (Казахашвили и др. 1983). mcenareTa
makronaSTebi warmodgenilia viwro xeSeSi da ganierfirfitiani
foTlebiT. mTlianad paleobotanikuri masala (makronaSTebi da
palinomorfebi) da qvanaxSiris linzebi miuTiTebs maradmwvane
tyeebis arsebobaze, romelic damaxasiaTebelia teniani
subtropiculi havisTvis.
paleobotanikuri masala sof. Toris adgilsapoveblidan
gansazrvrulia avaqovis mier (Аваков, 1989). avtoris azriT
mcenareTa naSTebis didi nawili ekuTvnis Dryophyllum curticellense-s
foTlebs. garda amisa aRmoCnda ojax Leguminosae-s (Fabaceae)
nayofis mcirericxovani aRnabeWdebi.
axalcixis depresiis oligocenuri naleqebi Seswavlili
iyo agreTve palinologiurad. md. abasTumanis xeobaSi
zedaeocenur naleqebze ganlagebulia moluskuri fauniT
daTariRebuli qveda oligoceni (Панова и др., 1984). am Wrilis
qveda SreebSi iyo napovni mdidari palinologiuri kompleqsi,
romelic Tavisi SemadgenlobiT aRmoCnda gardamavali eocenursa
da oligocenurs Soris. wiwvovanebidan kompleqsSi gabatonebulia
ojaxi Pinaceae (Cedrus, Picea, Pinus). iSviaTad gvxvdeba taqsonebis
Taxodiaceae, Podocarpus da Ephedra-s mtvris marcvlebi.
palinokompleqsis mTavar birTvs, eocenuris msgavsad, Seadgenen
farulTeslovanebi.
gansxvavebulia am Wrilis zeda Sreebis palinokompleqsis
Semadgenloba, romelSic gazrdilia wiwvovanebis (Pinus, Picea,

32
Cedrus, Keteleeria, Taxodiaceae) raodenoba, farulTeslovanebis
sistematikuri Semadgenloba ki mdidaria. gvarebi Myrica, Platycarya,
Castanopsis warmodgenilia ramodenime formiT. am WrilSi
pirvelad aRiniSneba tipuri oligocenuri formebi - Carya cf. exilis
da Juglans compacta. am kompleqsis asaki qvedaoligocenurad aris
gansazRvruli. zeda Sreebis namarxi masala bevrad Raribia da ar
iZleva srul warmodgenas floris Semadgenlobaze.
palinologiurad Seswavlili iyo agreTve oligocenuri
naleqebi soflebis anisa da yaraTubnis maxloblad. Wrili iwyeba
fauniT daTariRebuli yaraTubnis horizontiT. Sreebi
warmodgenilia monacrisfro-yviTeli qviSaqvebiT, romelic
moklebulia palinologiur masalas. mdidari kompleqsi iyo
aRmoCenili zemoT ganlagebul TixebSi. aqac, rogorc abasTumnis
WrilSi, Warboben wiwvovanebi. farulTeslovanebis Semadgenloba
mdidari da mravalferovania. ZiriTadad gvxvdeba subtropikuli
formebi: Comptonia, Platycarya, Engelhardia, Castanopsis pseudocingulum,
Quercus gracilis, Liquidambar, Rhus, Nyssa, Myrtaceae, Sapindaceae,
Sterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, Buxus, Oleaceae, Arecaceae. kompleqsis
damaxasiaTebeli niSania siTbozomieri formebis Platanus, Corylopsis,
Alnus, Carpinus, Juglans Acer, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus, monawileoba.
am Wrilis zeda SreebSi agreTve aRiniSneba wiwvovanebis
gabatoneba. farulTeslovanebSi izrdeba gvarebis Juglans da Carya-
s (gansakuTrebiT C.spackmaniana-s) roli. subtropikuli formebis
raodenoba stabiluria. matulobs sporovani mcenareebis ricxvi,
romelTa Soris Warboben gvarebi Pteris da Polypodium. naklebi
raodenobiT gvxvdeba Selaginella, Lycopodium, Osmunda, Cyathea,
Gleichenia-s sporebi.
gansxvavebuli kompleqsi iyo aRwerili cxruTa-waxanas
Wrilis qvedakorbulebiani Sreebidan, romlebic daTariRebulia
Suaoligocenurad. wiwvovanebidan aq gabatonebulia ojaxi
Taxodiaceae-s warmomadgenlebi. farulTeslovanebs Soris Warbobs
ojaxi Juglandaceae (Platycarya, Engelhardia, Carya, Juglans). Wrils
agrZelebs lignituri feradi wyeba, romelic warmoadgens
Suaoligocenuris zeda nawils. am wyebis Sreebi monoliTuri da
mZlavria (Гамкрелидзе, 1949).
paleogeografiuli movlenebis Sesaxeb, romlebsac adgili
hqonda eocenuris da oligocenuris sazRvarze, SeiZleba msjeloba
ZiriTadad faunisturi monacemebis safuZvelze (Качарава, Хугуа,
1991). kerZod, teqtonikuri moZraobebis Sedegad eocenis bolos
saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli auzi gamoeyo teTiss da

33
mogvianebiT SeuerTda borealur provincias. oligocenuri
transgresiis dadgomisTanave moxda Canacvleba siTbomoyvaruli
eocenuri biocenozebisa oligocenuri borealuri ekosistemebiT,
romelSic amowyda msxvili foraminiferebi (Казахашвили, 1984). es
monacemebi emTxveva palinologiuri Seswavlis Sedegebs, romlis
Tanaxmad qvedaoligocenurSi moxda wiwvovanebis da
siTbozomieri foTlovanebis rolis gazrda. ar aris
gamoricxuli, rom aRniSnuli movlena dakavSirebuli iyo
orogenetul procesebTan, romlis Sedegad warmoiSva axali
ekotopebi da Seiqmna am mcenareebis gavrcelebisaTvis
xelsayreli pirobebi.
amrigad, kainozouri florebis istoriaSi paleogenuri
epoqa gardamavali rgolia mezozoursa da neogenurs Soris. am
dros TiTqmis mTlianad gadaSendnen Zveli farulTeslovanebi da
aRmocendnen axali progresuli formebi, romlebmac dasabami
daudes axalgazrda florebs. paleogenis bolos mcenareTa im
Tanasazogadoebis Camoyalobeba daiwyo, romlebic Tavisi
struqturiT uaxlovdeboda neogenurs. geologiur procesebis
fonze, gansakuTrebiT eocenurisa da oligocenuris sazRvarze,
gaZlierda florebis diferenciaciis procesi. evraziis
teritoriaze ki daiwyo calkeuli paleofloristuli olqebis
formireba, romlebic zogadad dauaxlovdnen Tanamedroves.
cxr.VIII. saqarTvelos eocenuri da oligocenuri naleqebis mcenareTa
sia: m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi
oligo-
klasi ojaxi saxeoba eoceni
ceni
1 2 3 4 5
Briopsida Sphagnaceae Sphagnum sp. p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium sp. p p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella sp. p
Osmundaceae Osmunda sp. p
Ruffordia subcretacea (Sap.)Barth. m
Schizaeaceae
Schizaeaceae gen.indet. p
Anemiaceae Anemia sp. p
Lygodiaceae Lygodium sp. p p
Pteris sp. p p
Polypodiaceoisporites potonie
Pteridaceae p
W.Kr. (Pteris)
Polypodiopsida
Pteridaceae gen.indet. p
Gleicheniaceae Gleichenia sp. p p
Polypodium sp. p p
Polypodiisporites sellarius W.Kr.
p
(Polypodium)
Polypodiaceae
Polypodiisporites cf.tenella W.Kr.
p
(Polypodium)
Polypodiaceae gen.indet. p

34
1 2 3 4 5

Dicksoniaceae Dicksonia sp. p


Polypodiopsida Cyathea sp. p p
Cyatheaceae
Cyatheaceae gen.indet. p
Ginkgoopsida Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo sp. p p
Dacrydium sp. p
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus isonervis Avak. m
Podocarpus sp. p
Araucariaceae Araucaria sp. p
Abies sp. p p
Pinopsida

Cedrus sp. mp p
Keteleeria sp. p p
Pinaceae Picea sp. mp p
Pinus sp. mp p
Tsuga sp. p
Pinaceae gen.indet. p p
Sciadopitys sp. p p
Taxodiaceae
Taxodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Ephedrites sotzkianus Ung. m
Ephedraceae
Gnetopsida Ephedra sp. p p
Gnetaceae Gnetaceoipollenites sp. p
Casuarinidites cainosoicus Cook.
p
Casuarinaceae et Pike
Casuarinidites sp. p
Comptonia acutiloba Brongn. m
Comptonia sp. p p
Myrica acuminata Ung. m
Myrica banksiaefolia Ung. m m
Myrica esculentiformis Gladk. p
Myrica hakeaefolia (Ung.) Sap. m
Myrica lignitum (Ung.) Sap. m m
Myricaceae Myrica longifolia Ung. m m
Dicotyledoneae

Myrica pseudogranulata Gladk. p


Myrica ungeri Heer m
Myrica cf.carolinensis Gladk. p
Myrica sp. mp p
Myricacites sp. p
Momipites sp. (Myricaceae) p
Myricaceae gen.indet. p
Carya spackmaniana Trav. p
Carya cf.exilis Pan. p
Carya sp. p p
Juglandaceae Subtriporopollenites constans Pfl.
p
(Carya)
Engelhardia macroptera (Brong.)
m
Ung.
Engelhardia quieta (R.Pot.) Elsik p

35
1 2 3 4 5

Engelhardia sp. p
Juglans acuminata A.Br. m
Juglans compacta Pan. p
Juglans polyporata Vojc. p
Juglans sp. p p
Juglandaceae Platycarya sp. p p
Platycaryapollenites sp. p
Pterocarya sp. p
Momipites sp. (Juglandaceae) p p
Plicatopollis plicatus (Pfl.)W.Kr.
p
(Juglandaceae)
Juglandaceae gen.indet. p
Populus mutabilis Heer,
m
var.lancifolia A.Br.
Salicaceae Populus sp. m
Salix haidingeri Ett. m
Salix varians Goepp. m
Alnus sp. p p
Betula subpubescens Goepp. m
Betulaceae Carpinus sp. p p
Corylus sp. p
Dicotyledoneae

Ostrya sp. p
Castanea crenataeformis Samig. p
Castanea sp. p
Castanopsis decheni (O.Web.) Kr.
m
et Wld.
Castanopsis pseudocingulum
p p
(R.Pot.) Boitz.
Castanopsis cf.tribuloides ADC m
Castanopsis sp. p
Dryophyllum curticellense (Wat.) Sap. m m
Dryophyllum dewalquei Sap. m
Fagus sp. p
Pasania sp. p
Fagaceae Quercus gracilis Boitz. p p
Quercus lonchitis Ung. m
Quercus mauritanica Sap. et Mar. m
Quercus neriifolia A.Br. m
Quercus sp. p
Quercoides inamoenus Fred. p
Tricolpopollenites liblarensis
p
(R.Pot.) Pfl. (Fagaceae, Quercus?)
Tricolpopollenites sp. (Fagaceae?) p
Tricolporopollenites henrici
p
(R.Pot.) Pfl. (Quercus)
Tricolporopollenites sp.
p
(Fagaceae?)

36
1 2 3 4 5

Celtis sp. m
Ulmus sp. mp
Ulmaceae
Ulmaceae gen.indet. p
Ulmoideipites planeraeformis Anders. p
Artocarpidium latifolium Uzn. m
Moraceae
Moraceae gen.indet. p
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p
Liriodendron sp. p p
Magnolia aff.megafigurata
Magnoliaceae p
(W.Kr.)Ram.
Magnolia sp. p
Cinnamomum cinnamomeum
m
(Rossm.) Holl.
Cinnamomum scheuchzerii Heer m
Cinnamomum sp. m m
Daphnogene sezannensis Wat. m
Lauraceae
Laurophyllum achalcichensis
m
Avak.
Lindera antiqua (Heer) Lamotte m
Phoebe cf.pallida Nees m
Lauraceae gen.indet. p
Dicotyledoneae

Trochodendraceae Trochodendron sp. p p


Nymphaeaceae Nelumbo sp. p
Platanaceae Platanus sp. mp p
Corylopsis sp. p p
Hamamelidaceae Hamamelis sp. p p
Liquidambar sp. p p
Rosaceae Rosaceae gen.indet. p
Leguminosites cf. Brachiystegia
Fabaceae m
eurycoma Harms.
Ailanthus gigas Ung. m
Simarubaceae
Ailanthus sp. m
Meliaceae Cedrela caucasica Kutuzk. m
Anacardiaceae Rhus sp. p
Sapindaceae Sapindaceae gen.indet. p
Sabiaceae Meliosma sp. m
Mimosaceae Mimosites haeringiana Ett. m
Linaceae Linum sp. p
Aceraceae Acer sp. p
Aquifoliaceae Ilex sp. p p
Proteacidites crassiporus subsp.
p
Proteaceae pachysexinus Samoil.
Proteaceae gen.indet. p
Elaeodendron obovatifolium
Celastraceae m
Engelh.
Olacaceae Anacolosidites sp. p

37
1 2 3 4 5

Ceanothus cf.americanus L. m
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus paradisiacus (Ung.) Heer m
Zizyphus zizyphoides (Ung.) Heer m
Melastomaceae Astronia cf.cumingiana Vidal m
Vitaceae Parthenocissus sp. p p
Tiliaceae Tilia sp. p p
Bombacaceae Bombacaceae gen.indet. p p
Rhizophoraceae Rhizophora thinophylla Ett. m
Sterculiaceae Sterculiaceae gen.indet. p
Buxaceae Buxus sp. p
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus sp. p
Callistemophyllum speciosum Ett. m
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus oceanica Ung. m
Myrtaceae gen.indet. p p
Dicotyledoneae

Alangiaceae Alangium sp. p


Nyssaceae Nyssa sp. p p
Cornaceae Cornus cf.platyphylla Sap. m
Araliaceae Araliaceae gen.indet. p p
Chrisophyllum juglandoides Wat. m
Sapotaceae
Sapotaceae gen.indet. p p
Loranthaceae Loranthaceae gen.indet. p
Symplocaceae Symplocos sp. p
Rubiaceae Cephalanthus sp. p
Fraxinus sp. p
Oleaceae
Oleaceae gen.indet. p p
Acerates veterana Heer m
Apocynophyllum achalcichensis
m
Apocynaceae Avak.
cf. Aspidosperma anomalum Muell. m
Echitonium sophiae Web. m
Asteraceae Asteraceae gen.indet. p
Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton sp. p
Poaceae Phragmites provincialis Sap. m
Nipa sp. p
Sabal sp. p
Arecaceae (Phoenix sp.) p
Monocotyledoneae

Arecipites convexus (Thierg.)


p
W.Kr.
Arecipites cf.brandenburgensis
Arecaceae p
W.Kr.
Palmaepollenites tranquilus R.Pot. p
Monocolpopollenites dorogensis
p
(R.Pot.) Pf. (Sabal)
Monocolpopollenites cf.magnus
p
Pf. (Arecaceae)
Arecaceae gen.indet. p
Smilacaceae Smilax sagittifera Heer m
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p

38
1 2 3 4 5

Leiotriletes sp. p
Neogenisporites sp. p
Triletes asolidus W.Kr. p
Extratriporopollenites sp. p
Fupingopollenites
wackersdorfensis (Thiele-Pfeiffer) p
Liu Geng-wu.
Interpollis supplingensis W.Kr. p
Nudopollis thiergarti (R.Pot.) Pfl. p
Oculopollis sp. p
Pollenites cingulum R.Pot. p
Pollenites liblarensis Thoms. p
Retitricolpites sp. p
sistematikurad Retitricolporopollenites sp. p
ganusazRvreli formebi Rhoipites granulatus (Fred.) Boitz. p
Rhoipites sp. p p
Spinozonocolpites prominatus
p
Kedv.
Subtrudopollis sp. p
Triatriopollenites maculates Pfl. p
Triatriopollenites sp. p
Triporopollenites sp. p
Trudopollis menneri (Mart.) Zakl. p
Trudopollis pompeckji (R.Pot.)
p
Pfl.
Trudopollis sp. p
Verrutricolporites cf.tenuicrassus
p
Pokrovskaja
Verrutricolporites sp. p

neogenuri periodi

saqrTvelos teritoriaze neogenuri naleqebi farTodaa


gavrcelebuli. maTi geoqronologia efuZvneba mdidar
paleontologiur masalas. saqarTveloSi miRebul
stratigrafiul sqemebSi (Ананиашвили и др. 2000; Бадзошвили, 1986;
Булеишвили, 1960; Челидзе, 1974; Тактакишвили, 1984) zogierTi
regiosarTulebis sazRvrebi ar emTxveva aRmosavleT parateTisis
neogenuri naleqebisTvis miRebul sazRvrebs. kerZod, es exeba
sarmatuls, romlis volinuri qvesarTuli da besarabiulis qveda

39
Sreebi miCneulia Suamiocenurad. aseve sadavoa ponturis adgili,
romlis didi nawili daTariRebulia zedamiocenurad (Невесская и
др.2003; Семененко, 2009).
saqarTveloSi neogenuri florebi ZiriTadad
dakavSirebulia faunisturad daTariRebul SreebTan. Cven
naSromSi mcenareTa siebi mocemulia cal-calke TiToeuli
sarTulisTvis. siebis Sedgenisas miRebulia mxedvelobaSi is
cvlilebebi, romelic iyo Setanili namarxi mcenareebis
gansazRvraSi koleqciebis reviziebis Sedegad (Тахтаджян, 1974).

miocenuri epoqa

qvedamiocenuri

qveda da Suamiocenuris ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos


teritoriaze arsebobda ori xmeleTi _ CrdiloeTiT da
samxreTiT da kunZulebi, ganlagebuli mTaTaSua depresiaSi,
romelic iyo dafaruli zRviT (nax.5).
depresiis Rrma adgilebSi grovdeboda Tixebi,
daxasiaTebuli foraminiferebiT. periferiul nawilebSi Tixebs
enacvleboda qviSaqvebi, mdidari moluskuri fauniT (Адамия и др.,
1964). gori-kaspis regionSi es fauna iyo Seswavlili daviTaSvilis
mier (Давиташвили, 1933, 1934), romelmac gamoyo ori
stratigrafiuli erTeuli - sayaraulos da kowaxuris
horizontebi (cxr. IX).
mogvianebiT sof. ufliscixis midamoebSi (goris raioni)
sayaraulos qveS ganlagebul naleqebSi iyo napovni
xmelTaSuazRvis tipis fauna stenohaluri elementebiT. am faunis
Semcveli Sreebi gauparalelda dasavleT parateTisis akvitanur
sarTuls da gamoiyo rogorc ufliscixis sarTuli (Ананиашвили и
др., 2000; Курцхалия и др., 1972).
mcenareTa sia kowaxuris horizontis naleqebidan iyo
gamoqveynebuli mWedliSvilis (Мчедлишвили, 1955) mier. misi azriT
kompleqsi asaxavs mSrali da cxeli klimatis pirobebs. uznaZis

40
(Узнадзе, 1965) mixedviT siaSi moyvanili mcenreebidan yvela ar
aris qserofiti. kerZod, es exeba sakmaod mravalferovan
dafnisebrTa jgufis warmomadgenlebs.

nax. 5. saqarTvelos miocenuri drois (zedasarmatulis garda)


sqematuri paleogeografiuli ruka.

qvedamiocenuri flora Seiswavla jafariZem (Джапаридзе,


1982). mcenareTa naSTebi iyo aRmoCenili soflebis wedisis,
qvaxvrels, ufliscixisa da metexis maxloblad (nax.6). yvela
WrilSi floris Semcveli Sreebi ganlagebulia faunisturad
daTariRebuli akvitanuri (ufliscixis) da sayaraulos
regiosarTulebs Soris. namarxi masala warmodgenilia wiwvebiT,
nayofebiT da foTlebiT, romelTa Soris Warboben viwro
firfitis mqone formebi, uxeSi teqsturiT. koleqciis did nawils
Seadgenen Leguminosae-s tipis foTlebi, romlis gansazRvra ufro
zustad SeuZlebelia. mTlianad floras aqvs qserofituli ieri.
dafnisebrTa, maradmwvane wiflisebrTa da sxva
Termofiluri mcenareebi, romlebic paleogenurSi mTel
amierkavkasiaSi qmnidnen tenian subtropikul tyeebs,

41
adremiocenurSi ganagrZoben arsebobas aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
teritoriaze dabali tenianobis pirobebSic. ufro notio ubnebSi,
mdinareebis piras, izrdebodnen Quercus neriifolia, Myrica lignitum,
Pinus taedaeformis. mTaSi xarobda zomieri klimatis mcenareebi.
makrofloraSi maTi naSTebi iSviaTia, radgan am mcenareebis
adgilsapoveblebi moSorebuli iyo akumulaciis auzs.
adremiocenurSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos hava iyo
subtropikuli, mSrali zafxuliT da rbili zamTriT, romelic ar
aferxebda vegetaciis periods (Джапаридзе, 1982).

cxr. IX. saqarTvelos miocenuri naleqebis stratigrafiuli sqema


(Жгенти, 1981; Бадзошвили, 1986; Булеишвили, 1986; Ананиашвили и др., 2000;
Невесская и др., 2003; Семененко и др., 2009)

Seqcia sarTuli qvesarTuli


akmanauri
7.1 meoturi
bagerovuli
zeda
9.5 miocenuri xersonuli
sarmatuli besarabiuli
volinuri
13.0 konkuri
qarTveluri
Sua karaganuli
miocenuri
Cokrakuli
17.0 Tarxnuli
kowaxuris
Qveda maikopuri sayaraulos
23.8 miocenuri seria ufliscixis
(akvitanuri)

aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi (rusTavis raioni) paleogenuri


da maikopuri naleqebis kernuli masala iyo Seswavlili
palinologiurad. palinologiuri kompleqsebis safuZvelze
maikopuri seria gayofilia oTx nawilad (Дзиграшвили, 1974).

42
nax. 6. paleofloristuli naSTebis adgilsapoveblebi saqarTvelos
miocenur naleqebSi.

Suamiocenuri
Suamiocenuris dasawyisSi didi da mcire kavkasioni
gamovida geosinklinuri stadiidan da Camoyalibdnen mTis
sistemebad. daZirvas ganicdida saqarTvelos belti, romelic
TandaTanobiT gadaiqca mTaTaSua molasur depresiad.
saqarTvelos Suamiocenuri stratigrafiuli sqema mocemulia IX
cxrilSi.
paleobotanikuri TvalsazrisiT Suamiocenuris pirveli
naxevari (Tarxnuli, Cokrakuli) sustad aris Seswavlili.
dasavleT saqarTvelos (lanCxuTis raioni) Cokrakul naleqebSi
napovnia mxolod dafnisebrTa da ganusazRvreli orlebnianebis
xeSeSi foTlebis iSviaTi aRnabeWdebi (Узнадзе, 1965).
cageris raionSi (md. cxeniswylis auzi) Tarxnuli
horizontis naleqebi Seswavlilia palinologiuri meTodiT
(Ананиашвили, Пурцеладзе, 1976). kompleqsi Sedgeba, rogorc
maradmwvane, ise foTolmcvivani xemcenareebosagan. mTlianad
floras aqvs Termofiluri ieri.
paleobotanikurad gacilebiT ukeTesadaa Seswavlili
Suamiocenuris meore naxevris-karaganuli, qarTveluri da
konkuri regiosarTulebis flora (nax. 6). foTlebi, nayofebi da

43
yvavilebis nawilebi aRmosavleT (qarTlis depresia) da dasavleT
saqarTvelos Suamiocenuri naleqebidan aRwerilia avaqovis
(Аваков, 1967, 1979, 2008, 2010) mier. palinologiuri kompleqsebi
sxvadasxva Wrilebidan Seiswavla ramiSvilma (Рамишвили, 1982).
mTeli paleobotanikuri masala dakavSirebulia faunisturad
daTariRebul SreebTan.

nax. 7. dasavleT saqarTvelos Suamiocenuri naleqebis Semajamebeli


palinologiuri diagrama.

rogorc makronaSTebi, ise palinologiuri kompleqsebi


(nax.7) asaxaven tyis mcenareulobas, romlis SemadgenlobaSi
monawileoben maradmwvane da foTolmcvivani xeebi. tyis qveda
iaruss qmidnen gvimrebi, romlebic Tavisi simravliT, mdidari
SemadgenlobiT da wina epoqebis formebTan msagavsebiT aniWeben
Suamiocenur floras „arqaul iers“. zogierTi forma, romlis
mimsgavseba Tanamedrove taqsonebTan SeiZleba mxolod msxvili
sistematikuri erTeulebis doneze gansazRvrulia morfologiuri
(xelovnuri) sistemiT. aseTebia: Toroisporites lusaticus, Clavifera triplex,
Leiotriletes mioacenicus, L. wolfii, Divisisporites sp. da sxva. calke jgufs
Seadgenen gvimrebi: Anemia, Lygodium, Gleichenia, Hymenophyllum,
Dicksonia, Cyathea, romlebsac exla ukaviaT viwro reliqturi
areali. amaTgan mxolod Hymenophyllum-i SenarCunebulia
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove floraSi.
SiSvelTeslovanebi warmodgenilia ZiriTadad mTiani
regionebisTvis damaxasiaTebeli subtropikuli formebiT: Ginkgo,
Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Cathaya, Keteleeria, Cedrus. palinokompleqsebSi
fiWvis raodenoba sakmaod maRalia, gansakuTrebiT CokrakulSi.

44
bevrad naklebia axalgazrda florebisTvis tipuri gvarebis Abies,
Picea, Tsuga mtvris marcvlebi. taqsodiumisebrTa (gvarebi Sequoia,
Cryptomeria, Taxodium) palinomorfebis raodenoba TiTqmis igivea,
rac sahaero parkebis mqone wiwvovanebisa.
didi sistematikuri da ekologiuri mravalferovnebiT
gamoirCevian farulTeslovanebi. palinologiur kompleqsebSi
xSirad gvxdeba patara, samRariani „kastanoidis tipis“ mtvris
marcvlebi. isini aRwerilia xelovnuri sistemiT, rogorc
Tricolporopollenites cingulum. wiflisebrTa ojaxidan zogierTi mtvris
marcvlebi ekuTvnian Tanamedrove muxebs, zogierTebi ki
xmelTaSuazRvis regionebis Suamiocenuri naleqebisTvis
damaxasiaTebel gadaSenebul formebs: Tricolporopollenites microhenrici
da T. henrici.
rogorc makronaSTebiT, agreTve palinologiuri analizis
monacemebiT Sua miocenisTvis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli gvarebia
Comptonia da Myrica, romlis saxeobebi iCenen morfologiur
msgavsebas cimbiris da ungreTis paleogenur formebTan
(Гладкова,1965; Kedves, 1974).
ojax kaklisebrTa (Juglandaceae) gvarebs Soris yvelaze
damaxasiaTebelia Engelhardia da Platycarya, romelTa mtvris
marcvlebi gvxvdeba TiTqmis yvela WrilSi. zogi formebi
aRwerilia rogorc xelovnuri taqsonebi Momipites punctatus da
Triatriopollenites coryphaeus.
makronaSTebis da palinomorfebis mixedviT SuamiocenurSi
arsebobda ramodenime klimaturi sartyeli, sxvadasxva
mcenareulobiT. sanapiro zoli, mTis qveda da Sua sartyelebi
dafaruli iyo subtropikuli tyeebiT, romlis SemadgenlobaSi
Sediodnen Semdegi taqsonebi: Araliaceae, Sterculiaceae, Moraceae,
Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Sapotaceae, Symplocos, Mastixia, Magnolia.
gvimrebidan gabatonebuli iyo Cyathea, Dicksonia, Lygodium, Anemia,
Polypodium, Pteris.
cvilianisebrTa makronaSTebis simravle miuTiTebs imaze,
rom es mcenareebi tyeebs qmnidnen mdinareebis gaswvriv.
sklerofiluri formaciis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen mirtebi,
akacia, zogierTi muxa (Quercus lonchitis, Q. drymeja) da
ganusazRvreli cvilianisebrTa da mirtebis tipis viwro
foTlebis mqone mcenareebi. aqve izrdebodnen notio,

45
sebtropikuli havisTvis damaxasiaTebeli lianebi: Smilax da Sabia
(Аваков, 1967).
hipsometriulad zemoT gavrcelebuli iyo soTbozomieri
da zomieri havis mcenareebi, foTolmcvivanebi da wiwvovanebi:
Ginkgo, Dacrydium, Podocarpus, Platanus, Comptonia, Juglans, Pterocarya,
Castanea.
taqsodiumisebrTa mtvris marcvlebis didi raodenoba
miuTiTebs, rom Suamiocenuris ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos
TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze gabatonebuli iyo subtropikuli
teniani hava.
saqarTvelos Suamiocenuri floris Sedarebam mezobeli
teritoriis florebTan (amierkavkasiis aRmosavleTi da kavkasiis
CrdiloeTi) gviCvena, rom am florebis Semadgenloba iyo bevrad
Raribi. gansakuTrebiT, gvimrebiT da subtropikuli maradmwvane
mcenareebiT (Ананова, 1976; Джабарова, 1976; Манукян, 1978).
saqarTvelos Suamiocenuri flora da xmelTaSuazRvis
olqis sinqronuli florebi viTardebodnen TiTqmis erTnairad,
mkveTri cvlilebebis gareSe (Nagy, 1985, 1992). am drois florebi
ar iyo erTi tipis, rogorc paleogenurSi, magram iyo ufro
homogenuri, vidre neogenuri drois Semdgom epoqebSi, roca
diferenciaciis procesis zrdis Sedegad warmoiSva tipuri
floristuli kompleqsebis mqone calkeuli fitogeografiuli
provinciebi.

cxr. X. saqarTvelos qveda da Suamiocenuri naleqebis mcenareTa sia:


m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi
qveda Sua
klasi Ojaxi miocenuri miocenuri
1 2 3 4 5
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium sp. p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella sp. p
Echinatisporites miocaenicus
p
W.Kr. (Selaginella sp.)
Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum sp. p
Osmunda heeri Gaud. m
Osmundaceae
Polypodiopsida

Osmunda sp. p
Anemia cf.hirta (L.) Swartz. m
Anemia cf.mexicana Klastsch m
Anemiaceae
Anemia sp. p
Mohria sp. p

46
1 2 3 4 5

Lygodium digitatum Presl. p


Lygodium multivallatum (W.Kr.)
Lygodiaceae p
Ram.
Lygodium sp. p
Toroisporites lusaticus W.Kr. p
Pteris cretica L. p
Pteris parschlugiana Ung. m
Pteris sp. p
Polypodiaceosporites gracillimus
p
Nagy
Polypodiaceosporites helveticus
p
Pteridaceae W.Kr.
Polypodiaceosporites lusaticus
p
W.Kr.
Polypodiaceosporites
p
microverrucosus W.Kr.
Polypodiaceosporites triangulus
p
W.Kr.
Anogramma sp. p
Adiantaceae
Onychium sp. p
Clavifera triplex Bolch. p
Gleicheniaceae Gleichenia angulata Naum. p
Gleichenia sp. p
Polypodiopsida

Polypodium verrucatum Ram. p


Polypodium sp. p
Polypodiisporites potoniei Nagy p
Verrucatosporites alienus (R.Pot.)
Polypodiaceae p
Th.et Pfl.
Verrucatosporites favus (R.Pot.)
p
Th.et Pfl.
Verrucatosporites histiopteroides
p
W.Kr.
Hymenophyllum rotundum
Hymeno- p
N.Mtchedl.
phyllaceae
Hymenophyllum sp. p
Thyrsopteridaceae Cibotium guriensis Purc. p
Dicksonia antarctica A.Br. p
Dicksonia reticulata Purc. p
Dicksoniaceae
Dicksonia unitotuberata Purc. p
Dicksonia sp p
Cyathea sp. p
Divisisporites sp. p
Cyatheaceae
Leiotriletes miocenicus Nagy p
Leiotriletes wolfii W.Kr. p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium wegmanni A.Brongn. m
Cyclosorus stiriacus (Ung.)
m
Ching et Takht.
Aspidiaceae Cystopteris sp. p
Lastrea (Cyclosorus) fischeri
m
Heer
Woodwardia roessneriana (Ung.)
Blechnaceae m
Heer

47
1 2 3 4 5
Ginkgoopsida Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo sp. p
Dacrydium sp. p
Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus sp. p
Abies sp. p
Cathaya sp. p
Cedrus sauerae N.Mtchedl. p
Cedrus sp. p
Keteleeria caucasica Ram. p
Picea metechensis Charat. m
Picea sp. p
Pinaceae
Pinus nikitini Budant. m
Pinus taedaeformis (Ung.) Heer m
Pinus cf.engelhardti Menz. m
Pinopsida
Pinus sp. m mp
Pseudolarix aff.kaemferi Gord. p
Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.)
p
Mast.
Cryptomeria japonica Don p
Cryptomeria sp. p
Glytostrobus europaeus
m
Taxodiaceae (Brongn.) Heer
Sequoia sp. p
Taxodium dubium (Sternb.) Heer m
Taxodium sp. p
Libocedrus salicornioides (Ung.)
Cupressaceae m m
Heer
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae Ephedra sp. p
Comptonia aborigena Glad. p
Comptonia acutiloba Brongn. m
Comptonia grandis Glad. p
Comptonia imperfecta Glad. p
Comptonia sp. p
Myrica acuminata Ung. m
Myrica intermedia Glad. p
Myricaceae
Dicotyledoneae

Myrica laevigata (Heer) Sap. m


Myrica lignitum (Ung.) Sap. m
Myrica longifolia Ung. m
Myrica pseudogranulata Glad. p
Myrica swanteviti (Ung.)
m
Avakov
Myrica ungeri Heer m
Carya sp. p
Cyclocarya sp. p
Juglandaceae
Engelhardia brongniartii Sap. m m
Engelhardia gorensis Djap. m

48
1 2 3 4 5
Engelhardia schlickumi Weyland m
Engelhardia wallichiana Lindl. p
Engelhardia sp. p
Juglans regia L. p
Juglans sp. p
Juglandaceae Momipites punctatus Nagy
p
(Engelhardia sp.)
Platycarya miocenicus (Nagy)
p
Ram.
Platycarya sp. p
Triatriopollenites coryphaeus
p
(R.Pot.) Th.et Pfl.
Populus latior A.Br. m
Salicaceae Populus sp. m
Salix angusta A.Br. m
Alnus sp. p
Betula sp. p
Carpinus betulus L. p
Carpinus grandis Ung. m
Betulaceae
Carpinus neilreichii Kov. m
Carpinus sp. mp
Dicotyledoneae

Corylus sp. p
Ostrya sp. p
Castanea sp. p
Castanopsis decheni (O.Web.)
m
Kr.et Wld.
Castanopsis cf.echidnocarpa
m
A.DC
Castanopsis brevicuspis Miq. m
Castanopsis sp. p
Lithocarpus sp. p
Fagus sp. p
Quercus accutissima Carruth. m
Fagaceae Quercus drymeja Ung. m
Quercus furcinervis (Rossm.) Heer m
Quercus lonchitis Ung. m
Quercus neriifolia A.Br. m m
Quercus sp. mp
Tricolporopollenites cingulum
p
(R.Pot.) Th.et Pfl.
Tricolporopollenites henrici
p
(R.Pot.) Th.et Pfl.
Tricolporopollenites
p
microhenrici (R.Pot.)Th.et Pfl.
Ulmus minuta Goepp. m
Ulmus pyramidalis Goepp. m
Ulmaceae Ulmus sp. p
Zelkova sp. p

49
1 2 3 4 5
Ficus sp. p
Moraceae
Moraceae gen.indet. p
Loranthaceae Viscum caucasicum Djap. m
Magnolia attenuata Web. m
Magnolia dianae Ung. m
Magnolia dzundzeana (Pal.)
m
Takht.
Magnoliaceae Magnolia megafigurata (Krutsch)
p
Ram.
Magnolia neogenica (W.Kr.)
p
Ram.
Magnolia sp. m m
Cinnamomum lanceolatum
m m
(Ung.) Heer
Cinnamomum polymorphum
m
Heer
Cinnamomum scheuchzeri Heer m
Laurus agatophyllum Ung. m
Lindera antiqua (Heer) Lamotte m
Lauraceae Litsea primigenia (Ung.)
m
Takht.
Ocotea heeri (Gaud.) Takht. m
Dicotyledoneae

Ocotea kolakovskyi Harut. m


Ocotea cf.pulchella Mart. m
Persea braunii Heer m
Lauraceae gen.indet. m
Nymphaeaceae Nuphar sp. p
Ternstroemia mocanerifolia
Theaceae m
Kol.
Platanaceae Platanus cf.orientalis L. m
Liquidambar europaeum A.Br. m
Liquidambar orientalis L. p
Hamamelidaceae
Liquidambar styraciflua L. p
Sycopsis colchica Ram. p
Rosa sp. m
Rosaceae Sorbus sp. m
Rosaceae gen.indet. p
Acacia colchica Avakov m
Dalbergia bella Heer m
Dalbergia sp. m
Fabaceae
Wisteria fallax (Nath.) Tanai et
m
Onoe
Leguminosites sp.. m
Podogonium oehningense
Caesalpiniaceae m
(Koen.) Kirch.
Cedrela denticulata Djap. m
Meliaceae
Cedrela dorofeevi Djap. m

50
1 2 3 4 5
Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae gen.indet. p
Cotinus cf.coggygria Scop. m
Cotinus sp. m
Anacardiaceae
Rhus meriani Heer m
Rhus sp. m
Cupania japonica Tanai m
Sapindus bilinicus Ett. m
Sapindus cupanoides Ett. m
Sapindaceae
Sapindus densifolius Heer m
Sapindus falcifolius (A.Br.) Heer m
Sapindus cf.inaequilatera Rusby m
Sabiaceae Sabia cf.parvifolia Wall. m
Ilex cf.opaca Ait. m
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex sp. p
Staphyleaceae Staphylea sp. p
Berchemia multinervis (A.Br.)
m
Rhamnaceae Heer
Frangula cf.alnus Mill. m
Parthenocissus
p
Vitaceae quinquefoliiformis Lub.
Vitis sp p
Tiliaceae Tilia sp. mp
Dicotyledoneae

Sterculiaceae Sterculia sp. p


Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus sp. p
Eugenia haeringiana Ung. m
Myrtophyllum armazii Avakov m
Myrtophyllum sp. m
Myrtaceae
Myrtus rectinervis Sap. m
Daplopollis mirtoides W.Kr. p
Myrtaceae gen.indet. p
Combretaceae Combretum caucasicum Avakov m
Melastomaceae Meriania vsatii Avakov m
Mastixiaceae Mastixia sp. p
Aucuba cf.japonica Thunb. m
Cornaceae
Cornus cf.capitata Wall. m
Brassaiopsis sp. p
Araliaceae Araliaceae gen.indet. p
Tricolpopollenites edmundi
p
(R.Pot.) Th.et Pf.
Apiaceae Apiaceae gen.indet. p
Clethra iberica Djap. m
Clethraceae
Clethra maximoviczii Nat. m
Myrsinaceae Rapanea iberica Avakov m
Bumelia oblongifolia Ett. m
Sapotaceae gen.indet. p
Sapotaceae
Sapotacepodaepollenites
p
obscurus (Th.et Pf.) Nagy

51
1 2 3 4 5
Symplocaceae Symplocos paniculata Wall. p
Periplocaceae Periploca sp. m
Allamanda uacilai Avakov m
Apocynophyllum helveticum
m
Heer
Apocynophyllum sp. m
Apocynaceae Plumiera caucasica Avakov m
Tabernaemontana telaginensis
Dicotyledoneae

m
Avakov
Apocynaceae gen.indet. m
Phyllites sp. (Apocynaceae?) m
Fraxinus sp. mp
Oleaceae
Syringa cf.vulgaris L. m
Lonicera sp. m
Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum sp. mp
Lamiaceae Lamiaceae gen.indet. p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p
Artemisia sp. p
Asteraceae
Asteraceae gen.indet. p
Smilax minuta Djap. m
Liliaceae Smilax usanetensis Avakov m
Monocotyledoneae

Liliaceae gen.indet. mp
Poaceae Poaceae gen.indet. p
Arecipites monosulcoides W.Kr. p
Arecaceae
Arecaceae gen.indet. p
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p
Typhaceae Typha sp. p

52
zedamiocenuri
am TavSi makronaSTebisa da palinologiis monacemebis
safuZvelze ganxilulia florisa da mcenareulobis istoria
sarmatuli da meoturi epoqebis ganmavlobaSi. palinologiuri
kompleqsebi iyo interpretirebuli landSaftur-
fitocenologiuri meTodiT, romelsac safuZvlad udevs
mcenareulobis zonaluri gavrcelebis kanoni (Борзенкова, 1992). es
meTodi zusti paleoklimaturi parametrebis aRdgenis saSualebas
ar iZleva, magram kargad asaxavs mcenareTa zonebis
gadaadgilebas, ris gamoc is gansakuTrebiT efeqturia mTiani
regionebis paleobotanikuri masalis interpretaciisaTvis.
paleoklimaturi rekonstruqciebi agebulia TiToeuli zonisTvis
cal-calke, maTi mcenareulobis Semadgenlobis gaTvaliswinebiT
(Shatilova et al., 2004a).
landSaftur-fitocenologiuri meTodi gamoyenebuli iyo
agreTve zeda kainozouris postsarmatuli naleqebis
palinokompleqsebis interpretaciis dros, risi saSualebiTac
aRdgenilia havis da mcenareulobis TiTqmis uwyveti istoria
sarmatulidan holocenis CaTvliT da gamoyofilia ganviTarebis
etapebi (1-X111).

s a rm a tul i s a r T ul i

sarmatuli naleqebi farTodaa gavrcelebuli


amierkavkasiis mTaTaSua molasur depresiaSi. faunisturi
monacemebis safuZvelze isini iyofa samad: qveda - volinur, Sua -
besarabiul da zeda - xersonul qvesarTulad (cxr.IX). qveda da
Sua sarmatulis zRviuri faciesi gavrcelebulia saqarTvelos
mTel teritoriaze. zedasarmatulis zRviuri naleqebi ki cnobilia
mxolod dasavleT saqarTveloSi da kaxeTSi (md. iori), e.w.
„zRviuri wyebis“ saxeliT (Булеишвили, 1960; Грузинская и др., 1986).
dasavleT saqarTvelos sarmatuli naleqebidan (nax.6)
foTlebis aRnabeWdebi pirvelad aRwera uznaZem (Узнадзе, 1965).
makronaSTebiT mdidari afxazeTis florebi soflebis gvadas,
mugudZirxvas da barmiSis midamoebidan Seaiswavla kolakovskim
(Колаковский, Шакрыл, 1972). erT-erTi patara adgilsapovebeli sof.
jirxvasTan aRwerilia ratianis mier (Ратиани, 1972). afxazeTis

53
sarmatuli florebi gamoirCeva originalurobiT, sistematikuri
simdidriT da subtropikuli mcenareebis siWarbiT.
zogi wiwvovanebis naSTebi warmodgenilia foTlebis
lignitizirebuli fitolemebiT, ramac mklevarebs gauadvila
epidermisis anatomiuri preparatebis miReba da bagis agebulebis
Seswavla. am monacemebis safuZvelze dadgenil iqna axali
taqsonebi: gvari Colchidia da saxeobebi Sequoia corniculata, Cathaya
europaea da C. abchasica (Колаковский, 1970; Колаковский, Шакрыл, 1968,
1970, 1974; Свешникова, 1964).
sarmatulSi afxazeTis teritoriaze mTis qveda sartyeli
dafaruli iyo maradmwvane subtropikuli tyeebiT, romelTa
SemadgenlobaSi gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ekavaT ojaxebs
Lauraceae da Myrsinaceae. es ukanaskneli namarx masalaSi
warmodgenilia Rapanea-s xeSeSi foTlebiT. sakmaod farTo
areali hqondaT gvarebs Ocotea da Persea. maTi Tanamedrove
saxeobebi gavrcelebulia centralur da samxreT amerikaSi,
xmelTaSuazRvis regionebSi da samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi.
mravalferovan Tanasazogadoebebs qmnidnen siTbozomieri da
zomieri havis mcenareebi. maTi areali ZiriTadad maRali
sartyeliT da civi xeobebiT Semoifargla. am ekologiur jgufs
ekuTvnodnen: Carpinus, Castanea, Fagus, Cryptomeria, Abies, Cathaya,
Colchidia da sxva.
afxazeTis sarmatul floraSi mcirericxovan jgufs
warmoadgenen hemiqserofitebi: Arbutus elegans f. andrachne, Celtis
magnifica, Smilax aspera, Thelycrania sanguinea, Quercus pseudorobur da
SesaZlebelia, zRvispireTis kirqviani kldeebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli fiWvi Pinus paraeuxina.
subtropikuli da zogierTi tropikuli jiSis arseboba
afxazeTis sarmatul florebs amsgavsebs evropis oligocenur-
miocenur kompleqss. analogiuri movlena axasiaTebs agreTve
saqarTvelos adre-Suamiocenur florebs, rac imis dasturia, rom
zogierTi subtropikuli jiSi, romelic dRes gvxvdeba mxolod
refugiumSi, neogenur epoqaSi sargeblobda farTo zonaluri
gavrcelebiT. amis kargi magaliTia Mastixia da zogi sxva mcenare,
romelic SenarCunebulia malaias mTebSi (Колаковский , Шакрыл,
1976).
mdidari paleobotanikuri masala (makronaSTebi)
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qveda da Suasarmatul naleqebidan
Segrovebuli iyo WeliZis mier (Челидзе, 1972, 1979, 1987). am avtoris
monacemebis mixedviT qarTlis sarmatul florebSi gabatonebuli

54
iyo Magnolia, Lauraceae, Podogonium, Myrtus, Apocynophyllum. 25
saxeobis naSTebi napovnia agreTve kaxeTis (sof. norio) sarmatul
naleqebSic. maT Soris erTia gvimra, ori wiwvovani, danarCeni ki
farulTeslovanebi. norios floraSi, romelsac mTlianobaSi
hqonda subtropikuli ieri, sakmaod did rols TamaSobdnen
gvarebi Laurus, Cinnamomum da Myrica.
gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs goderZis flora,romelic
Tavisi simdidriT da mravalferovnebiT wlebis ganmavlobaSi
mklevarebis yuradRebis sagania. magram, m. uznaZis azriT goderZis
unikaluri flora bolomde ar aris Seswavlili (Узнадзе,
Цагарели, 1979).
goderZis namarxi flora mdidaria merqanis naSTebiT da
foTlebis aRnabeWdebiT, romelTa kargi daculoba adasturebs,
rom ganamarxeba xdeboda adgilze vulkanis amofrqvevis dros.
namarxi merqanis Seswavlam gaamdidra floris sia wiwvovanebiT
da ojaxis Icacinaceae-s warmomadgenlebiT, romelTa foTlebi ar
aris napovni (Шилкина, 1958).
goderZis floraSi gamoiyofa sami ekologiuri elementi:
subtropikuli, romelic warmoadgens floris mniSvnelovan
nawils; siTbozomieri mcenareebis jgufi Seadgens 17%; da zomieri
elementi-15%.
subtropikuli mcenareebis Semadgenloba mravalferovania.
ojaxi Lauraceae-s foTlebis siWarbe miuTiTebs, rom dafnisebrTa
tyeebs hqondad farTo gavrceleba. am tyeebis komponentebi iyo
agreTve sxva mcenareebi, dafnisebrTa msgavsi foTlebiT.
goderZis floris Tanamedrove analogebi binadroben
samxreT-aRmosavleT aziaSi, Crdilo-aRmosavleT indoeTSi,
Crdilo amerikaSi, antilis da kanaris kunZulebze,
xmelTaSuazRvis regionSi da kavkasiaSi (Узнадзе, Цагарели, 1979).
sof. valesTan goderZis tufogenuri wyebis qveda Sreebidan
mcenareTa naSTebi Seiswavla WeliZem (Челидзе, 1970). misi
monacemebiT, floris SemadgenlobaSi Warbadaa siTbozomieri
foTolmcvivani mcenareebi. subtropikuli jiSebi ki, avtoris
varaudiT, warmodgenili iyo buCqebiT. am floris mTavari
damaxasiaTebeli niSania mSrali ferdobebis mcenareebis
gabatoneba.
ferflis petrografiuli analizis safuZvelze goderZis
wyeba daTariRebulia (Схиртладзе, 1958) zedamiocenurad (sarmatul-
meoturi). am naleqebis asaki dadasturebulia hiparionebis faunis
Seswavlis safuZvelze (Габуния, Лазарашвили, 1962).

55
nax. 8. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc
maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis (a) da mcenareebis
calkeuli ekologiur-klimaturi jgufebis (b) rolis cvalebadobisa
dasavleT saqarTvelos mcenareul safarSi sarmatulis ganmavlobaSi.

didi xnis ganmavlobaSi cnobebi sarmatuli floris Sesaxeb


efuZvneboda mxolod namarxi mcenareebis makronaSTebs.
palinologiurad sarmati ar iyo Seswavlili, Tu ar CaTvliT
mwir monacemebs, romlebic miRebulia qarTlis depresiis kernuli
masalis palinologiuri analizis Sedegad (Мчедлишвили,
Мчедлишвили, 1953). avtorebis mier iyo gansazRvruli 28 forma,
romelTagan 3 ekuTvnoda sporovan mcenareebs, 7 wiwvovanebs da 18
farulTeslovanebs. dRes Cven vflobT mdidr palinologiur
masalas, rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelos
sarmatuli naleqebidan (Шатилова и др.1999; Kokolashvili, Shatilova,
2009; Maissuradze et al., 2008; Shatilova et al., 2004b, 2008, 2009, 2010;
Shatilova, Kokolashvili, 2011). palinologiurma kvlevam sagrZnoblad
gaamdidra Cveni warmodgena sarmatul floraze, gansakuTrebiT
gvimrebis da wiwvovanebis Sesaxeb, romelTa sporebi da mtvris
marcvlebi ukeTesad inaxeba, vidre makronaSTebi.
farulTeslovanebidan did interess iwvevs ojax Icacinaceae-s

56
palinomorfebis arseboba. dRemde am taqsonis Sesaxeb cnobebi
efuZvneboda mxolod merqnis Seswavlis Sedegebs.
sarmatuli palinologiuri kompleqsebi interpreti-
rebulia landSaftur-fitocenologiuri meTodiT, ris safuZvel-
zec Sedgenelia ori tipis diagrama (nax, 8, 9). mrudeebi diagramebis
marcxena mxares (a) Seesabameba sarmatuli drois or mTavar
formacias. pirveli warmoadgens dablobebis, qveda da Sua
sartyelebis polidominantur tyes, romlis SemdgenlobaSi iyo
subtropikuli da siTbozomieri mcenareebi _ wiwvovanebi da
farulTeslovanebi; meore ki - zomieri klimatis wiwvovan tyeebs.
diagramebze calkea mocemuli fiWvis procentuli raodenobis
mrudi, rogorc intrazonaluri da tenianobis maCvenebeli
mcenaris. diagramebis marjvena mxare (b) Seesabameba mcenareTa im
jgufebs, romelSic gaerTianebulia erTnairi ekologiur-
klimaturi Tvisebebis mqone jiSebi.

nax. 9. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis (a) da mcenareebis
calkeul ekologiur-klimaturi jgufebis (b) rolis cvalebadobisa
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mcenareul safarSi sarmatulis ganmavlobaSi.
dasavleT saqarTvelos palinologiuri diagrama asaxavs
mcenareulobis da klimatis stabiluri ganviTarebis process
sarmatulis ganmavlobaSi. gabatonebul formacias warmoadgenda

57
polidominanturi tye, romlis areali bevrad aRemateboda
wiwvovanebisas. mxolod Suasarmatulis bolos SeimCneva
muqwiwvovanebis arealis gafarToeba, rac dakavSirebuli unda
yofiliyo orogenetul moZraobebTan, romlebsac hqonda adgili
kavkasiis regionSi. balaxovnebis roli sarmatulis ganmavlobaSi
iyo umniSvnelo (nax. 8,b).
sul sxvanairi dinamika hqonda mcenareulobas aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze (nax.9a,b). qveda da Suasarmatulis
palinokompleqsebi asaxaven polidominanturi da fiWvis tyeebis
arealebis sakmaod did cvlilebebs. es movlena gansakuTrebiT
gaZlierda zedasarmatulSi, roca sagrZnoblad gafarTovda
balaxovani cenozebis areali da tyeebis SemadgenlobaSi Semcirda
subtropikuli xemcenareebis da gvimrebis raodeoba. aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze am cvlilebebis gamomwvevi faqtori
iyo havis progresirebadi qserofitizacia. amaze metyvelebs
agreTve postsarmatuli naleqebidan mopovebuli ZuZumwovrebis
faunis Semadgenloba (Меладзе,1967).
kavkasiis zeda kainozouri eris istoriaSi gardatexis
momenti dadga Sua da zedasarmatulis sazRvarze. am dros
amierkavkasiis mTaTaSua molasuri depresia, orogenetuli
moZraobebis Sedegad, gadaiqca xmeleTad, romelic Zirulis
masivma or did - aRmosavleT da dasavleT - regionad gayo (nax.10).

nax. 10. saqarTvelos teritoriis gviansarmatuli drois sqematuri


paleogeografiuli ruka.

58
dasavleTiT warmoiSva rionis ube, sadac pleistocenis
bolomde mimdinareobda zRviuri naleqebis akumulacia. am ubis
garSemo xmeleTi Semofargluli iyo maRali mTebiT, ris gamo igi
gadaiqca izolirebul regionad. Tbili da notio hava xels
uwyobda aq mdidari tyis mcenareulobis ganviTarebas.
zedasarmatuli droidan iwyeba kolxeTis refugiumis istoria,
sadac dRemde bevri mesameuli reliqti SemorCa.
Zirulis masivis aRmosavleTiT saqarTvelos teritoria
gadaiqca xmeleTad, sadac mimdinareobda mZlavri kontinenturi
naleqebis dagroveba. xmeleTi dafaruli iyo mSrali havisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli mcenareulobiT.
amrigad, sarmatulis Semdeg aRmosavleT da dasavleT
saqarTvelos mcenareuloba viTardeboda erTmaneTisagan
damoukideblad, gansxvavebul klimatur pirobebSi.

me o tur i s a r T ul i

meoturi sarTulis zRviuri naleqebi cnobilia mxolod


dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze (nax. 6). faunis safuZvelze
gamoiyofa ori qvesarTuli: bagerovuli da akmanauri (cxr. IX).
meoturi naleqebidan makronaSTebi da palinologiuri
kompleqsebi bevr mklevars aqvs Seswavlili: Колаковский и др.
(1970); Мчедлишвили (1956); Пурцеладзе (1977); Пурцеладзе, Цагарели
(1974); Челидзе, Квавадзе (1983, 1986, 1987); Шатилова и др. (1999, 2000);
Shatilova et al. (2008a).
samxreT saqarTveloSi goderZis tufogenuri wyebis zeda
nawili meoturad aris daTariRebuli. am Sreebidan sof.
qisaTibTan uznaZis (Узнадзе, 1965) mier aRwerilia 25 forma: 3
gvimra, 2 erTlebniani, danarCeni foTolmcvivani xeebia,
Cinnamomum-is garda.
meotur floraSi, sarmatulTan SedarebiT, sagrZnoblad
gazrdilia zomieri havis wiwvovanebis areali (Abies, Picea, Tsuga),
Tumca subtropikuli formebis sistematikuri Semadgenloba ar
Secvlila. am jgufs kvlav warmoadgendnen gvarebis Podocarpus,
Dacrydium, Cathaya, Araucaria, Keteleeria, Phyllocladus saxeobebi (nax. 11).
amave dros sagrZnoblad Semcirda subtropikuli foTlovani
mcenareebis raodenoba. gadaSenebis procesi ZiriTadad Seexo
ojaxebs Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Berberidaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Fabaceae,

59
Anacardiaceae, Sapindaceae, Icacinaceae, Rhamnaceae, Thymelleaceae,
Myrtaceae, Myrsinaceae, Symplocaceae, Apocinaceae. miuxedavad amisa
meoturSi notio-subtropikuli formacia rCeba sakmaod mdidari.
saqarTvelos zedamiocenuri palinokompleqsebis
damaxasiaTebeli taqsonia ojaxi Hamamelidaceae. Cvens mier
aRwerilia 24 forma, romlebic ekuTvnis 3 qveojaxs-
Hamamelidoideae, Exbucklandioideae, Altingioideae da 14 gvars (Shatilova,
Stuchlik, 2001; Shatilova, Mchedlishvili, 2007, 2011а).
aRsaniSnavia, rom kainozourSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze
am ojaxis ganviTarebis sami ZiriTadi etapi gamoiyofa. sawyisi
etapi moicavs eocen - oligocenur - Suamiocenurs. am dros
saqarTvelos floraSi cnobilia 4 gvari: Hamamelis, Corylopsis,
Sycopsis, Liquidambar.
meore etapi _ zedamiocenuri ojaxis ayvavebis periodia.
sarmatulis ganmavlobaSi ojax Hamamelidaceae-as warmomadgenlebi
monawileobas iRebdnen, rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT
saqarTvelos mcenareuli safaris formirebaSi. meoturSi ki
taqsonebis raodenoba ar Seicvala, magram areali, ZiriTadad,
Semoifagrla mxolod dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriiT.

nax. 11. dasavleT saqarTvelos zedamiocenuri (sarmatuli da meoturi) da


qvedaponturi (evpatoruli) naleqebis Semajamebeli palinologiuri
diagrama.
mesame etapi iyo ojaxis Hamamelidaceae gadaSenebis dro,
romelic aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi damTavrda daaxlovebiT
SuapliocenurSi. am asakis Siraqis floraSi aRwerilia Hamamelis-
is makronaSTebi (Колаковский, Ратиани, 1967). dasavleT
saqarTveloSi ki Hamamelidaceae-s warmomadgenlebi Sua
pleistocenuramde darCnen floris SemadgenlobaSi.

60
saqarTvelos zedamiocenurisTvis meore damaxasiaTebeli
taqsonia gvari Fupingopollenites (Shatilova, Mchedlishvili, 2009;
Шатилова, Мчедлишвили, 2011a). es aris ganusazRvreli
farulTeslovani, romelic kainozourSi gavrcelebuli iyo
evraziis teritoriaze. am mcenaris namarxi naSTebi cnobilia
mxolod mtvris marcvlebis saxiT, romlebic aRwerilia
sxvadasxva saxelebiT (Koreneva, Kartashova, 1978; Nagy, 1969, 1985;
Rossignol-Strick, 1973; Щекина, 1979). 1980 wels literaturaSi cnobili
yvela forma iyo gaerTianebuli erT taqsonSi-Tricolporopollenites
wackersdorfensis (Thiele-Pfeiffer, 1980). mogvianebiT CineTSi
ganusazRvreli farulTeslovanisTvis SemoiRes axali gvari
Fupingopollenites, romlis SemadgenlobaSi gaerTianda 4 saxeoba (Liu
Geng– wu, 1985,1986). SemdgomSi, saxeoba Alangium sibiricum Lub.,
romlis mtvris marcvlebi aRwerilia cimbiris paleogenuri
naleqebidan (Любомирова, 1972), miakuTvnes ganusazRvrel
farulTeslovans da aRweres axali taqsoni Tricolporopollenites
sibiricum (Lub.) Nagy (1992). amJamad evropaSi damkvidrda es
saxelwodeba (Jimenez-Moreno et al., 2007; Planderova, 1990).
varaudoben, rom ucnobi mcenare warmoiSva SuaeocenurSi
CineTis teritoriaze. oligocenurSi daiwyo am formis eqspansia
da miocenurSi gavrcelda aziis TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze, garda
ariduli regionebisa (Liu Geng-wu, 1985).
saqarTveloSi Fupingopollenites cnobilia eocenidan.
sarmatrulSi, misi ayvavebis periodSi, es gvari warmodgenilia
ori saxeobiT: Fupingopollenites wackersdorfensis (Thiele-Pfeiffer) Liu
Geng-wu da F. minutus Liu Geng-wu. am or formasTan identurobis
gamo mtvris marcvlebi saqarTvelos zedamiocenuri nalaqebidan
Cven mivakuTvneT gvar Fupingopollenites. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi
es gvari gadaSenda Suasarmatulis Semdeg. am dros klimatis
qserofitizaciis gamo Semcirda tyis da gafarTovda balaxovani
formaciebis areali
dasavleT saqarTveloSi, sadac sarmatulis Semdeg
SenarCunda Tbili da notio hava, romelic xels uwyobda tyis
mcenareulobis ganviTarebas, Fupingopollenites SemorCa meoturis
bolomde. bevr sxva sebtropikul mcenaresTan erTad es gvari
gadaSenda meoturis da ponturis sazRvarze, roca adgili hqonda
sakmaod Zlier klimatur fluqtuacias, dakavSirebuls, ZiriTadad,
tenianobis SemcirebasTan (Shatilova, Mchedlishvili, 2007; Шатилова,
Мчедлишвили, 2011a).
.

61
nax. 12. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc
maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealebis cvalebadobisa
meoturis ganmavlobaSi.
meoturi drois mcenareulobis da klimatis dinamika
aRdgenili iyo agreTve landSaftur-fitocenologiuri meTodiT.
rogorc adre avRniSneT, sarmatulis Semdeg dasavleT
saqarTvelo gadaiqca maRalmTian izolirebul regionad.
miuxedavad imisa, rom gagrZelda sarmatulis msgavsi formaciebis
arseboba, maTi areali, Semadgenloba, calkeuli mcenareebis
roli da ganawilebis kanonzomiereba gansxvavebuli iyo (nax. 12).
kerZod, muqwiwvovanebis gavrcelebis farTobi sagrZnoblad
gaizarda. amave dros sarmatulTan SedarebiT, polidominantur
formacias mTlianobaSi hqonda ufro viwro da naklebad
stabiluri areali. tye iyo warmodgenili wiwvovani da
foTlovani subtropikuli da siTbozomieri mcenareebiT.
subtropikul mcenareebs ZiriTadad ekavaT zRvispira dablobebi
da qveda sartyeli, optimaluri klimaturi pirobebiT. reliefis

62
ufro maRal doneze subtropikuli tye Seicvala siTbozomieri
cenozebiT, romlebsac aTvisebuli hqondaT Sua sartyeli.
polidominanturi tyis mTavari komponentebi iyo: Podocarpus,
Dacrydium, Cedrus, Keteleeria, Cathaya, ojaxis Taxodiaceae-s
warmomadgenlebi, Carya, Quercus, Fagus, Castanea, Juglans, Platanus,
Nyssa da ojaxis Hamamelidaceae-s sxvadasxva gvarebi. tyis qveda
iaruss qmnidnen gvimrebi: Dicksonia, Gleichenia, Anemia, Polypodium,
Pteris da sxva. sakmaod farTo gavrcelebiT sargeblobdnen semi-
higrofiluri cenozebi, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi iyo: Castanopsis,
zogi Carya, Pterocarya, Alnus, Libocedrus salicornoides, Lauraceae da sxva
(Колаковский и др. 1970).
Suasarmatuli drois mcenareulobis msgavsi dinamika
SenarCunebuli iyo meoturis dasawyisSi. es iyo pirveli
klimaturi optimumi, rodesac polidominantur tyes aTvisebuli
hqonda yvelaze didi da TiTqmis ucvleli farTobi. zedameoturis
dasawyisi SeiZleba miviCnioT meore klimatur optimumad, Tumca
am dros polidominanturi tyis areali iyo naklebad stabiluri.
meoturis bolos mcenareul safarSi gaizarda fiWvis roli.
am movlenas Cven vukavSirebT klimatis cvlilebebs, rasac adgili
hqonda meoturis da ponturis sazRvarze _ evpatoriul dros (nax.
11,14,15). zogoerTi mklevari (Чепалыга, 1987) gvianmiocenuri epoqis
bolo monakveTebs parateTisis auzebis regresias, e.w. mesinur
kriziss ukavSirebs. arsebobs meore Tvalsazrisi, romlis
Tanaxmad es movlena zeda ponturis - bosforuli epoqis
sinqronulia (Борзенкова, 1992; Зубаков, 1990).
zogadad meoturSi dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze
subtropikuli pirobebi gabatonebuli iyo, ZiriTadad, zRvispira
dablobebze da qveda sartyelSi. reliefis SedarebiT maRal
doneebze hava iyo siTbozomieri da zomieri.
sxva gardamavali periodebis msgavsad, meoturi
mcenareuloba, erTis mxriv, inarCunebda wina epoqebis zogierT
niSnebs da, meores mxriv, iZenda axals, damaxasiaTebels, Semdgomi
geologiuri epoqebis mcenareulobisaTvis. mTlianad sarmatuli
da meoturi drois namarxi florebi (cxr.XI) asaxaven
saqarTvelos gviankainozouri mcenareulobis ganviTarebis
erTian etaps (I).

63
cxr. XI. saqarTvelos sarmatuli da meoturi naleqebis mcenareTa sia:
m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi
sarma- meo-
klasi ojaxi saxeoba tuli turi
1 2 3 4 5
Bryopsida Sphagnaceae
Sphagnum sp. p p
Lycopodium alpinum L. p
Lycopodium annotinum L. p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium selago L. p
Lycopodium serratum Tunb. p p
Lycopodium sp. p p
Selaginella atrivirides Spring. p p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. p
Selaginella aff.eggersii Sodiro p
Selaginella sp. p p
Equisetopsida Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. mp
Ophio- Ophio- Botrychium sp. mp p
glossopsida glossaceae Ophioglossum sp. p
Osmunda cinnamomea L. p
Osmunda regalis L. p
Osmundaceae Osmunda schlemnitziensis Pettko m
Osmunda strozzi Gaud. m
Osmunda sp. mp p
Schizaeaceae Schizaea sp. p p
Anemia sp. p p
Anemiaceae
Mohria sp. p p
Lygodium digitatum Presl. p p
Lygodiaceae Lygodium japonicum Sw. p p
Lygodium aff.multiwallatum (W.Kr.) Ram. p
Lygodium sp. p p
Cryptogramma crispa (L.) Br. p
Cryptogramma sp. p p
Pteridacidites boerzoeniensis (Nagy)
p p
Polypodiopsida

Shat., Stuch. (Pteris aff.quadriaurita Retz.)


Pteridacidites dentatiformis Shat.,
p
Stuch. (Pteris dentata Forsk)
Pteridacidites georgiensis Shat., Stuch.
p
(Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites grandifoliiformis Shat.,
p p
Stuch. (Pteris grandifolia L.)
Pteridacidites helveticus(Nagy) St.et Sh.
Pteridaceae p
(Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites longifoliiformis Shat.,
p
Stuch. (Pteris longifolia L.)
Pteridacidites remotifolioides Shat.,
p
Stuch. (Pteris remotifolia Bak.)
Pteridacidites venustaeformis Shat.,
p p
Stuch. (Pteris venusta Kze.)
Pteridacidites aff.verus (N.Mtchedl.)
p p
Shat., Stuch. (Pteris aff.crenata Sw.)
Pteridacidites aff.vittatoides Shat.,
p
Stuch. (Pteris vittata L.)
Marsileaceae Marsilea sp. p

64
1 2 3 4 5
Adiantum reniforme L.var.foss. Sap.et Mar. m
Adiantum sp. mp p
Adiantaceae Anogramma sp. p p
Onychium sp. p
Pityrogramma sp. p p
Clavifera aff.tuberosa Bolch. p
Clavifera sp. p
Gleicheniaceae Gleichenia angulata Naum. p
Gleichenia sp. p p
Gleicheniaceae gen.indet. p p
Matoniaceae Matonia sp. p
Polypodium aureum L. p p
Polypodium australe Fee p
Polypodium palaeoserratum Kol. m
Polypodium pliocenicum Ram. p
Polypodiaceae Polypodium verrucatum Ram. p
Polypodium sp. mp p
Verrucatosporites histiopteroides W.Kr. p p
Pyrossia sp. p
Polypodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Vandenboschia cf.radicans (Swartz)
m
Hymeno- Copel.
phyllaceae Vandenboschia fomini (Pal.) Kol. m
Hymenophyllum sp. p p
Polypodiopsida

Cibotium guriensis Purc. p


Thyrsopteridaceae
Cibotium sp. p
Dicksonia antarctica R.Br. p p
Dicksonia luculenta Purc. p
Dicksonia reticulata Purc. p p
Dicksoniaceae
Dicksonia spanditocincta Purc. p p
Dicksonia unitotuberata Purc. p p
Dicksonia sp p
Alsophyla sp. p p
Cyatheaceae Cyathea sp. p p
Hemitelia sp. p
Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridium oeningense (Ung.) Kol. m
Asplenium wegmanni A.Brongn. m
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium sp. p mp
Aspidium sp. m
Athyrium sp. p
Cyclosorus stiriacus (Ung.) Ching et
m
Takht.
Cyclosorus sp. m
Aspidiaceae Cystopteris sp. p p
Dryopteris sp. p p
Lastrea (Cyclosorus) fischeri Heer m
Lastrea sp. m
Polystichum sp. p
Woodsia sp. mp
Davalliaceae Microlepia sp p
Blechnaceae Woodwardia roessneriana (Ung.) Heer m
Salviniaceae Salvinia sp. p
Filicales fam.indet. p

65
1 2 3 4 5
Ginkgo biloba L. p p
Ginkgoopsida Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo occidentalis Samyl. m m
Ginkgo sp. p p
Dacrydium sp. p p
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus sp. (aff.javanicus Merril.) m
Podocarpus sp. p p
Phyllocladaceae Phyllocladus sp. p p
Taxus grandis Kräus. m
Taxaceae
Torreya sp. m
Araucariaceae Araucaria sp. p p
Abies alba Mill. p p
Abies cephalonica Loud. p p
Abies ciliticaeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. p p
Abies sp. cf.A.firma S. et L. m
Abies sp. mp p
Cathaya abchasica Sveshn. m m
Cathaya europaea Sveshn. m
Cathaya aff.argyrophylla C.et K. p p
Cedrus atlantica Manetti p p
Cedrus deodara Loud. p p
Cedrus sauerae N.Mtchedl. p p
Cedrus sp. mp
Colchidia angustissima Kol.et Schak. m
Colchidia longicellulata Kol.et Schak. m
Colchidia (?) ambigua Kol. m
Keteleeria caucasica Ram. p p
Pinopsida

Picea complanataeformis N.Mtchedl. p p


Picea minor N.Mtchedl. p p
Picea mioorientalis Uzn. p
Pinaceae

Picea orientalis L. p
Picea sp. mp p
Piceoxylon piceoides Schilk. m
Pinus euxina Kol. m
Pinus halepensis Mill. p
Pinus irinae Kol.et Schak. m
Pinus paraeuxina Kol. m
Pinus pithyusa Stev. m p
Pinus praepithyusa Palib. m
Pinus rjabinini Palib. m
Pinus thomasiana (Goepp.) E.Reich. m
Pinus sp. mp mp
Pityoxylon goderzicum Schilk. m
Pseudolarix aff.kaemferi Gord. p
Pseudolarix sp. p
Pseudotsuga sp. p
Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. p p
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. p p
Tsuga meierii Mched. p
Tsuga patens Downie p
Tsuga pattoniana Engelm. p p
Tsuga shatilovae Mched. p
Tsuga sp. mp

66
1 2 3 4 5
Sciadopityaceae Sciadopitys sp. p mp
Cryptomeria japonica Don mp mp
Cryptomeria sp. m
Cunninghamia sp. p
Glyptostrobus ungeri Heer m
Glytostrobus sp. mp p
Sequoia corniculata Kol.et Schak. m
Sequoia langsdorfii (Brongn.) Heer m m
Taxodiaceae
Sequoia sp. p mp
Sequoiadendron sp. p p
Taxodium distichum foss. A.Br. m
Taxodium distichum miocenicum Heer m
Pinopsida

Taxodium dubium (Sternb.) Heer m m


Taxodium sp. p mp
Taxodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Cupressus palaeosempervirens Kol.et Schak. m
Cupressus sempervirens L. foss. m
Cupressus sp. p p
Helia salicornioides Ung. m
Juniperus sp. p
Cupressaceae Libocedrus pliocenica Kink. m
Libocedrus salicornioides (Ung.) Heer m
Libocedrus sp. p
Thuja barmyschensis Kol.et Schak. m
Thuja occidentalis L. m
Cupressaceae gen.indet. p p
Ephedra distachya L. p
Ephedra aff.equisetina Bge. p
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae
Ephedra aff.strobilaceae Bge. p
Ephedra sp. p p
Casuarinaceae Casuarinaceae gen.indet. p
Comptonia sp. p mp
Myrica banksiaefolia Ung. m
Myrica laevigata (Heer) Sap. m
Myrica lignitum (Ung.) Sap. m m
Myrica palaeogale Pilar. m
Myricaceae
Myrica sismondae Mesch. m
Myrica studeri Heer m
Myrica sp. (cf. M.acuminata Ung.) m
Dicotyledoneae

Myrica sp. p p
Myricaceae gen.indet. p
Carya aquatica (Michx.) Nutt. p p
Carya bilinica Ung. m
Carya cordiformis (Wangh.) C.Koch p p
Carya denticulata (Web.) Iljinsk. m m
Carya ovata (Mill.) C.Koch p
Carya serraefolia (Kr.) Goepp. m
Juglandaceae
Carya aff.pecan (March.) Engl. p
Carya sp. p mp
Cyclocarya sp. p p
Engelhardia spicata Blume p
Engelhardia wallichiana Lindl. p
Engelhardia sp. p p

67
1 2 3 4 5
Juglans cinerea L. p mp
Juglans regia L. p p
Juglans zaisanica Iljinsk. m m
Juglans sp. p
Platycarya sp. p p
Juglandaceae Pterocarya castaneifolia (Goepp.) Schlecht. m
Pterocarya paradisiaca (Ung.) Iljinsk. m
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.) Kunth. p p
Pterocarya rhoifolia Sieb.et Zucc. p
Pterocarya stenoptera DC. p p
Pterocarya sp. p p
Populus balsamoides Goepp. m m
Populus populina (Brongn.) Knobl. m
Populus sp. m
Salix coriacea Uzn.et Tsag. m
Salicaceae Salix integra Goepp. m
Salix macrophylla Heer m
Salix media A.Br. m
Salix varians Goepp. m m
Salix sp. mp mp
Alnus angustifolia Kol. m
Alnus feroniae (Ung.) Czecz. m
Alnus subcordata C.A.M. m m
Alnus sp. mp p
Dicotyledoneae

Betula caudata Goepp. m


Betula macrophylla (Goepp.) Heer m
Betula sp. p p
Carpinus betulus L. p p
Carpinus caucasica Grossh. p p
Carpinus colchica Kol. m
Carpinus grandis Ung. m m
Betulaceae Carpinus orientalis Mill. p p
Carpinus pliofauriei Rat. m
Carpinus subcordata Nath. m m
Carpinus uniserrata (Kol.) Rat.et Kol. m m
Carpinus subyedoensis Konno m
Carpinus sp. p p
Corylus aff.colurna L. p
Corylus aff.ferox Wall. p
Corylus sp. p p
Ostrya angustifolia Andr. m
Ostrya atlantides Ung. m
Ostrya sp. p p
Castanea atavia Ung. m m
Castanea pliosativa Kol. m
Castanea sp. p p
Castanopsis abchasica Kol. m
Castanopsis adjarica Kol. m
Fagaceae
Castanopsis bifurcata Kol. m
Castanopsis decheni (O.Web.) Kr.et Wld. m
Castanopsis elisabethae Kol. m
Castanopsis furcinervis (Rossm.) Kr.et Wld. m
Castanopsis guriaca (Ung.) Iljinsk. m m

68
1 2 3 4 5
Castanopsis aff.pavlodarensis Macul. m
Castanopsis sp. (cf. C.echidnocarpa A.DC) m
Castanopsis sp. p p
Lithocarpus longifolia (Kol.) Kol. m
Lithocarpus sp. p
Fagus attenuata Goepp. m
Fagus orientalis Lipsky p p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky var.palibinii Iljinsk. m m
Fagus cf.sylvatica Schilk. m
Fagus sp. mp p
Quercus cerris Kol. m
Fagaceae Quercus cruciaca A.Br. m
Quercus drymeja Ung. m
Quercus euboea Palib. m
Quercus ilex L. m m
Quercus kubinyi (Kov.) Cz. m
Quercus lonchitis Ung. m
Quercus neriifolia A.Br. m m
Quercus pseudocastanea Goepp. m
Quercus pseudorobur Kov. m
Quercus sosnowskyi Kol. m
Quercus sp. mp mp
Quercinium lithocarpoides Schilk. m
Celtis japetii Ung. m
Dicotyledoneae

Celtis magnifica Kol. m


Celtis sp. p p
Ulmus bronii Ung. m
Ulmus carpinoides Goepp. m
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. p p
Ulmaceae Ulmus longifolia Ung. m
Ulmus sp. p p
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dipp. mp p
Zelkova ungeri Kov. m m
Zelkova zelkovifolia (Ung.) Büzek et
m m
Kotlaba
Zelkova sp. p p
Eucommiaceae Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. p p
Ficus insignis Ett. m
Ficus lanceolata Heer m
Moraceae Ficus sp. p p
Morus sp. p
Moraceae gen.indet p p
Cannabaceae Cannabis sp. p
Polygonum sp. mp p
Polygonaceae
Polygonaceae gen.indet. p
Stellaria sp. p
Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. p p
Atriplex sp. p
Chenopodiaceae Kochia sp. p
Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Liriodendron tulipifera L. p p
Magnoliaceae Magnolia attenuata Web. m
Magnolia dianae Ung. m

69
1 2 3 4 5
Magnolia dzundzeana (Pal.) Takht. m
Magnolia euxina Palib. m m
Magnolia grandiflora L. p
Magnoliaceae Magnolia megafigurata (Krutsch) Ram. p p
Magnolia mirabilis Kol. m
Magnolia sinuata Kirchh. m
Magnolia sp. p mp
Annonaceae Annona sp. p p
Kadzura irregularinervia Kol. m
Schizandra grossheimii Kol. m
Schizandraceae
Schizandra sp. cf.S.propinqua Hook et
m
Thoms.
Actinodaphne dolichophylla Takht. m m
Appolonias barbusana (Cav.) A.Br. m
Apollonias georgica Uzn.et Tsag. m
Cinnamomum cinnamomeum (Rossm.) Holl. m m
Cinnamomum japonicum Kol.et Schak. m
Cinnamomum lanceolatum (Ung.) Heer m m
Cinnamomum sp. p p
Cinnamomophyllum cf. lanceolatum
m
(Ung.) Kol.
Cinnamomophyllum marginatum
m
Kol.et Schak.
Cryptocarya abchasica Schak. m
Dicotyledoneae

Daphnogene abchasica Schak. m


Daphnogene cinnamomifolia (Brongn.) Ung. m
Daphnogene kolakovskyi Schak. m
Daphnogene sp. m
Laurinum cinnamomoides Schilk. m
Laurinum hufelandioides Schilk. m
Laurinum goderdzicum Schilk. m
Laurophyllum aniboides Kol.et Schak. m
Lauraceae Laurophyllum perseoides Kol.et Schak. m
Laurophyllum princeps (Heer) Kr.et Wld. m
Laurus lalages Ung. m
Laurus nobilis L. m
Laurus pliocenica (Sap.et Mar.) Kol. m m
Laurus sp. mp m
Lindera antiqua (Heer) Lamotte m
Lindera neglecta Web. m
Litsea barmyschensis Schak. m
Litsea dermatophyllon Web. m
Litsea magnifica Sap. m
Litsea pontica Kol. m
Litsea primigenia (Ung.) Takht. m m
Machilus ugoana Huzioka m
Neolitsea magnifica (Sap.) Takht. m m
Neolitsea sp.(cf.N.palaeosericea Takht.) m m
Ocotea curviparia Kol.et Schak. m
Ocotea givulescui Kol.et Schak. m
Ocotea heeri (Gaud.) Takht. m m
Ocotea pulchella Mart. m
Ocotea sp.(cf.O.rhombifolia Kol.) m

70
1 2 3 4 5
Persea colchica Kol. m
Persea pliocenica (Laur.) Kol. m m
Persea sarmatica Schak. m
Lauraceae
Persea schakrylii Kol. m
Persea sp. p
Lauraceae gen.indet. p p
Berberis sp. m
Mahonia marginata (Lesq.) Arnold m
Berberidaceae
Mahonia cf.aquifolium Nutt. m
Berberidaceae gen.indet. p
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sp. p p
Cocculus frangonervis Uzn.et Tsag. m
Cocculus laurifolium DC foss.Uzn.et Tsag. m
Menispermaceae Cocculus sp. m
Menispermites sp. m
Menispermum sp. p p
Nuphar luteum (L.) Smith p
Nuphar sp. p p
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaea polyrhiza Sap. m
Nymphaea sp. p
Nymphaeaceae gen.indet. p p
Aristolochia colchica Kol. m
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia sp. m m
Camellia abchasica Kol. m
Theaceae
Dicotyledoneae

Camellia sp. p
Brassicaceae Brassicaceae gen.indet. p
Papaveraceae Papaver sp. p
Platanus aceroides Goepp. m
Platanus lineariloba Kol. m m
Platanaceae
Platanus platanifolia (Ett.) Knobl. m
Platanus sp. p p
Eupteleaceae Euptelea sp. p p
Altingia aff.excelsa Nor. p
Chunia aff.bucklandoides H.T.Chang p p
Corylopsis aff.cordata Merill et Li p p
Corylopsis aff.pauciflora Sieb.et Zucc. p p
Disanthus aff.cercidifolius Maxim. p p
Disanthus aff.cercidifolius Maxim. var. minor
Shat. et Mched.
p
Distylium aff.racemosum Sieb.et Zucc. p
Hamamelidaceae

Distyliopsis aff.dunii (Hamsl.) P.K.Endr. p p


Eustigma aff.oblongifolium Gard.et
p p
Champ.
Fortunearia aff.sinensis Rehd.et Wils. p p
Fothergilla aff.gardenii Murr. p p
Hamamelis aff.japonica Sieb.et Zucc. p p
Hamamelis meschetiensis Uzn. m
Liquidambar europaea A.Br. m m
Liquidambar formosana Hance p p
Liquidambar orientalis Mill. p p
Liquidambar styraciflua L. p p
Liquidambar aff.turgaica Kupr. p p
Parrotia fagifolia Heer m

71
1 2 3 4 5
Parrotia pristina (Ett.) Stur. m
Parrotia aff.persica (DC) C.A.M. p p
Hamame-
Parrotiopsis jaquemontiana (Decne) Rehd. m
lidaceae
Sycopsis colchica Ram. p p
Hamamelidaceae gen.indet. p p
Cercidiphyllaceae Cercidiphyllum sp. p
Hydrangeaceae Hydrangea maeotica Tsag. m
Ribes cf.orientalis Desf. m
Saxifragaceae
Saxifragaceae gen.indet. p
Amelanchier vulgaris Moench. m
Crataegus sp. m
Eriobotrya miojaponica Hu et Chaney m
Malus parahupensis Hu et Chaney m
Malus sp. m
Photinia serrulata Lindl. m
Prunus officinalis (cf.P.laurocerasus) Roem. m
Pyracantha coccinea Roem.foss. m
Rosaceae Pyrus malus L. m
Pyrus theobroma Ung. m
Robinia regeli Heer m
Rosa canina L. m
Rosa pimpinellifolia L. m
Rubus sp. m
Sorbus aucuparia L. m
Dicotyledoneae

Spiraea cf.salicifolia L. m
Rosaceae gen.indet. mp mp
Caesalpinites schaparenkoi Kol. m
Cassiophyllum berenices (Ung.) Kr. m m
Cassiophyllum magnum Kol. m
Cassiophyllum phaseolites (Ung.) Kol. m
Cassia ambigua Ung. m
Caesalpiniaceae Cassia lignitum Ung. m
Cassia phaseolites Ung. m m
Cassia sp. m
Cercis sp. m
Podogonium knorrii Heer m m
Caesalpiniaceae gen.indet. p
Acacia sp. p
Dalbergia bella Heer m
Dalbergia derrisaecarpa Kol. m
Dalbergia rectinervis Ett. m
Dalbergia sarmatica Kol. m
Dalbergia sp. m
Fabaceae Colutea orientalis Mill. m
Gleditschia allemanica Heer m
Pithecolobiophyllum sarmatica Kol. m
Sophora miojaponica Hu et Chaney m
Sophora europaea Ung. m m
Sophora sarmatica Pimen. m
Fabaceae gen.indet. mp p
Geraniaceae Geranium sp. p p
Euphorbiaceae Sapium germanicum Kirchh. m
Rutaceae Rutaceae gen.indet. m

72
1 2 3 4 5
Ailanthus dryandroides Heer m
Simaroubaceae
Simaroubaceae gen.indet. p
Pistacia miocenica Sap. m m
Rhus fatalievii Kol. m
Rhus herthae Ung. m
Anacardiaceae
Rhus meriani Heer m
Rhus noeggerathii Web. m
Rhus sp. p mp
Acer integrilobum Web. m
Acer integerrimum (Viv.) Mass. m
Acer laetum C.A.M. m
Acer cf.pseudoplatanus L. m m
Aceraceae
Acer santagatae Mass. m
Acer subcampestre Goepp. m
Acer trilobatum A.Br. m m
Acer sp. mp p
Sapindus cupanoides Ett. m
Sapindus falcifolius (A.Br.) Heer m m
Sapindus graecus Ung. m
Sapindus heliconius Ung. m
Sapindaceae
Sapindus radobojanus Ung. m
Sapindus undulatus Heer m
Sapindus ungeri Ett. m
Sapindus sp. p p
Dicotyledoneae

Sabiaceae Sabia parvifolia Wall.var.foss. m


Hippocastanaceae Aesculus sp. p p
Cyrillaceae Cyrilla sp. p
Ilex colchica Pojark.var.foss. m m
Ilex falsani Sap.et Mar. m m
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex simile Kol. m
Ilex sp. p p
Citronella aff.mucronata D.Don m
Icacinoxylon citronelloides Schilk. m
Icacinaceae
Icacinoxylon goderdzicum Schilk. m
Icacinaceae gen.indet. p
Celastrus barmischensis Kol. m
Celastraceae Celastrus sp. m
Euonymus sp. p p
Staphyleaceae Staphylea sp. p p
Buxus pliocenica Sap.et Mar. m
Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens L. m p
Buxus sp, p
Berchemia cuspidata Kol. m
Berchemia multinervis (A.Br.) Heer m m
Frangula alnus Mill. m
Hovenia thunbergii (Nath.) Baik. m
Hovenia sp. m
Rhamnaceae Paliurus spina-christi Mill. m
Rhamnus deperdita Ung. m
Rhamnus gaudini Heer m
Rhamnus graeffii Heer m
Rhamnus mioalaternus Uzn. m
Rhamnus rectinervis Heer m

73
1 2 3 4 5
Rhamnus sp. cf.R.vinogradovii Palib. m
Rhamnus sp. p mp
Sageretia caucasica Pal. m
Rhamnaceae
Ventilago sp. m
Ziziphus tiliaefolius Heer m
Zizyphus sp. m
Cissus sosnowskyi Kol. m
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)
p p
Planch.
Vitaceae Parthenocissus sp. p p
Vitis cf.subintegra Sap. m
Vitis teutonica A.Br. m
Vitis sp. p p
Tilia caucasica Rupr. p p
Tilia cordata Mill. p p
Tiliaceae Tilia aff.platyphyllos Scop. p
Tilia aff.taquetii C.K.Schneid. p p
Tilia sp. p p
Hibiscus splendens Baik. m
Malvaceae
Malvaceae gen.indet. p
Sterculia sp. p p
Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae gen.indet. p p
Daphne kimmerica Kol. m
Daphne minima Kol. m
Dicotyledoneae

Thymelaceae Daphne sp. p


Pimelia adjarica Palib. m
Pimelia crassipes Heer m
Elaeagnus argentea Push. p
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus sp. p p
Violaceae Viola sp. p
Cucurbitaceae Trichosanthes sp. m
Eugenia aizoon Ung. m
Eugenia haeringiana Ung. m
Myrtophyllum warderi Jasq. m
Myrtaceae
Myrtophyllum sp. m
Myrtus sp. mp p
Myrtaceae gen.indet. mp p
Epilobium sp. p p
Onagraceae
Onagra sp. p p
Punicaceae Punica granatum L. m
Alangium aff.kurzii Craib. p p
Alangiaceae Alangium aff.simplex Nagy p
Alangium sp. p
Mastixia microphylla Kol. m
Mastixiaceae
Mastixia sp. p
Nyssa disseminata (Ludw.) Kirchh. m
Nyssa longifolia Uzn.et Tsag. m
Nyssaceae
Nyssa punctata Heer. m
Nyssa sp. p p
Cornus sp. p
Svida graeffi (Heer) Steph. m
Cornaceae
Thelycrania sanguinea (L.) Fourr. m m
Cornaceae gen.indet. p p

74
1 2 3 4 5
Acanthopanax mirabilis (Kol.) Kol. m
Acanthopanax serratus Kol. m
Acanthopanax sp. p p
Aralia hispida Michx. p
Aralia sp. p p
Brassaiopsis sp. p
Dendropanax sp. p p
Araliaceae Fatsia sp. p
Hedera colchica C.Koch, var.foss. m
Hedera sp. p p
Schefflera colchica Kol. m
Schefflera integrifolia Kol. m
Schefflera sarmatica Kol. m
Tricolpopollenites edmundi (R.Pot.) Th.et Pf. p
Araliaceae gen.indet. p p
Bifora sp. p
Hydrocotyle reniforma Tsag. m
Apiaceae
Turgenia sp. p
Apiaceae gen.indet. p p
Arbutus guriense Uzn. m m
Arbutus elegans Kol.forma andrachne m
Epigaea baikovskaja Iljinsk. m
Leucothoe protogaea (Ung.) Schimp. m
Ericaceae Rhododendron sp. mp p
Dicotyledoneae

Vaccinium integerrimus Uzn.et Tsag. m


Vaccinium longifolium Uzn. m
Vaccinium protoarctostaphyllos Kol. m
Ericaceae gen.indet. p
Ardisia snigerevskaiae Takht. m
Myrsine centraurorum Ung. m
Myrsine doryphora Ung. m
Myrsinaceae Myrsine radobojana Ung. m
Myrsine spatulata Palib. m
Rapanea caucasica Pashkov m
Rapanea kubanensis Pashkov m
Bumelia minor Ung. m
Sapotaceae Bumelia cf.lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. m
Sapotaceae gen.indet. p p
Diospyros anceps Heer m
Diospyros brachysepala A.Br. m m
Ebenaceae Diospyros colchica Uzn.et Tsag. m
Diospyros lotoides Uzn. m m
Diospyros sp. m
Styrax neiburgi (Pal.) Baik. m
Styracaceae Styrax parrotiaefolia Uzn. m
Styrax pseudoofficinale Baik. m
Symplocos bzybica Kol. m
Symplocos palaeotheifolia Kol. m
Symplocaceae Symplocos paniculata Wall. p
Symplocos simile Kol. m
Symplocos sp. p p
Periploca helenae Kol. m
Periplocaceae
Periploca sp. m

75
1 2 3 4 5
Verbenaceae Vitex goderdzica Tsag. m
Apocynophyllum ibericum Palib. m
Apocynophyllum linearifolium Kol. m m
Apocynophyllum wrightianum Kol. m
Apocynaceae Apocynophyllum sp. m
Echitonium sophiae Web. m
Dryoxylon symplocoides Schilk. m
Apocynaceae gen.indet. p
Fraxinus sp. p mp
Jasminum pliocenicum Laur. m
Ligustrum sp. (cf.L.vulgare L.) m
Oleaceae
Osmanthus kolakovskyi Takht. m
Phillyrea media L. m
Dicotyledoneae

Oleaceae gen.indet. p
Scrophulariaceae Paulownia caucasica Pal. m
Lonicera similifolia Kol. m
Caprifoliaceae Lonicera sp. p p
Viburnum sp. p mp
Lamiaceae Lamiaceae gen.indet. p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p
Valerianaceae Valeriana sp. p
Campanulaceae Campanulaceae gen.indet. p
Cephalaria sp. p
Dipsacus sp. p
Dipsacaceae
Knautia sp. p p
Scabiosa sp. p p
Achillea sp. p
Artemisia sp. mp p
Asteraceae Aster sp. m
Centaurea sp. p
Asteraceae gen.indet. p p
Potamogeton crispus L. p
Potamo-
Potamogeton pectinatus L. m
getonaceae
Potamogeton sp. p
Smilax aspera L. m
Smilax excelsa L.var.foss. m
Smilax grandifolia (Ung.) Heer m
Liliaceae
Smilax protolancaefolia Kol. m
Monocotyledoneae

Smilax sp. m
Liliaceae gen.indet. p p
Phragmites oenigensis Heer m m
Poaceae Sasa kodorica Kol. m m
Poaceae gen.indet. p p
Livistona palibinii Takht. m
Nipa sp. p p
Arecaceae
Palmophyllum sp. m
Arecaceae gen.indet. p p
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p p
Typha latifolia L. p
Typha latissima A.Br. m m
Typhaceae Typha sp. p p
Cyperaceae Cyperaceae gen.indet. p p
Fupingopollenites wackersdorfensis (Thiele-
The forms of indeterminate Pfeiffer) Liu Geng-wu
p p
taxonimical position Fupingopollenites minutus Liu Geng-wu p

76
plioceni da eopleistoceni (dasavleTi saqarTvelo)

pliocenuri epoqa
dasavleT saqarTvelos pliocenuri epoqa imsaxurebs
gansakuTrebul yuradRebas, radgan am teritoriaze, aRmosavleT
parateTisis sxva regionebTan SedarebiT, faunisturad
daTariRebuli calkeuli sarTulebis naleqebi warmodgenilia
srulad.

cxr. XII. saqarTvelos pliocenuri da eopleistocenuri naleqebis


stratigrafiuli sqema (Тактакишвили, 1984; Булеишвили, 1986a; Невесская и
др., 2003; Семененко и др., 2009)
dasavleTi aRmosavleTi
seqcia sarTuli saqarTvelo saqarTvelo
qvesarTuli/horizonti sarTuli

eopleis- naderbazeTis
guriuli afSeronuli
tocenuri xvarbeTis
1.8

alaznis
seria
cixisferdის
kuialnikuri
eweriს aRCagiluri
(egrisuli)
3.4 skurdumის
pliocenuri

kamiSburunuli
kimeriuli wiTelwyaros wyeba
5.3 azovuri
bosforuli
portaferuli
ponturi
novoros odesuri duSeTis (Siraqis) wyeba
iuli evpatoriuli
7.1
miocenuri meoturi zeda

Savi zRvis naleqebisTvis miRebuli stratigrafiuli sqemis


Tanaxmad pliocenuri iyofa sam nawilad: pontur, kimeriul da
kuialnikur anu egrisul sarTulebad (Тактакишвили, 1984).

p o n tur i s a r T ul i

dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze farTod


gavrcelebuli ponturi naleqebi daTariRebulia mdidari
moluskuri fauniT, romlis safuZvelze isini danawevrebulia
qvesarTulebad da horizontebad (cxr. XII).
77
ponturi naleqebis mcenareTa naSTebi pirvelad aRwera
palibinma (Палибин, 1930а) da mWedliSvilma (Мчедлишвили, 1954).
namarxi flora iyo napovni guriaSi da afxazeTSi biWvinTis
koncxze (nax.13). mogvianebiT biWvinTis flora Seiswavla
kolakovskim (Колаковский, 1962).
mcenareTa naSTebiT yvelaze mdidaria kodoris flora
(sof. meore aTaras midamoebi), romelic wlebis ganmavlobaSi
kolakovskis (Колаковский, 1964) kvlevis sagani iyo. am mecnieris
azriT, evraziis pliocenur florebs Soris kodoris flora
yvelaze mdidaria da originaluri. kompleqsis Semadgenloba
adasturebs refugiumis arsebobas CrdiloeT ganedebSi
gadaSenebuli saxeobebisTvis (Колаковский, 1964, gv.5).

nax. 13. paleofloristuli naSTebis adgilsapoveblebi saqarTvelos


pliocenur da eopleistocenur naleqebSi.
kodoris flora ZiriTadad Sedgeba subtropikuli
mcenareebisagan (30,5%). namarxi masala gansakuTrebiT kargad
asaxavs dablobebis, Walis da mTis qveda sartyelis
mcenareulobis xasiaTs. am dajgufebebSi kolakovski gamoyofs
Quercus neriifolia-s formacias, romlis SemadgenlobaSi sakmaod did
rols TamaSobdnen Salix varians, Alnus subcordata, Myrica lignitum.
zRvispira dablobebze da mdinareebis xeobebSi batonobdnen muxa-
giqoriani tyeebi, romlis mTavari komponentebi iyo Quercus
codorica da Carya denticulata. Waobiani cenozebis dominantebad
iTvleba Alnus subcordata da Salix varians, romelTa foTlebi da
mWada qmnian mTel Sreebs.

78
qveda sartyelis tyeebs kolakovski yofda or tipad: tenian
da semiqserofilurad. teniani tyeebis flora iyo Zalian mdidari.
aq xarobda iseTi mcenareebi, rogoricaa Tectocarya lusatica,
Symplocos, Ocotea, Persea, Pasania, Cyclobalanopsis da mravalricxovani
surosebrni. didi teritoria ekava dafnisebrTa Tanasazogadoebas.
qveda sartyelSi gavrcelebuli iyo agreTve xeSeSafoTlovani
formacia makvisis elementebiT. fiWvis cenozebis areali
Semofargluli iyo kirqviani kldeebiT.
palinologiurad ponturi naleqebi Seswavlilia
ramiSvilis mier (Рамишвили, 1969). avtorma aRwera qvedaponturi
(odesuri) da zedaponturi (bosforuli) qvesarTulis
palinokompleqsebi. amjerad, Cveni monacemebi eyrdnoba, rogorc
Zvel, aseve axal, bevrad mdidar palinologiur masalas (Шатилова
и др., 2000; Shatilova et al., 2001, 2007; Шатилова, Мчедлишвили, 2011),
romelic ponturi naleqebis sruli Wrilebidan gvaqvs
mopovebuli.
makronaSTebis da palinomorfebis siebis Sedarebam
gamoamJRavna maT Soris arsebuli garkveuli gansxvaveba. kodoris
da biWvinTis florebSi gvimrebis, balaxebisa da muqwiwvovanebis
naSTebi TiTqmis umniSvneloa. amave dros makronaSTebi gacilebiT
ukeTes warmodgenas iZleva maradmwvane mcenareebis,
gansakuTrebiT dafnisebrTa, Semadgenlobaze, radgan maTi xeSeSi
foTlebi inaxeba ukeTesad, vidre mtvris marcvlebi. am or meTods
Soris mTavari gansxvaveba informaciis moculobaSia.
makronaSTebis ganamarxeba xdeboda an mcenaris zrdis adgilas an
masala iyo motanili uaxloesi teritoriebidan. kolakovskis
azriT kodoris flora asaxavs ZiriTadad Walis tyeebis da
Waobebis lokalur mcenareulobas, amitom es monacemebi ar
SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli mTeli regionis klimaturi pirobebis
aRsadgenad. egreT wodebuli dafnis Srec ki ar aris tropikuli
klimatis an mcenareulobis did teritoriebze gavrcelebis
maCvenebeli (Колаковский, 1964). rac Seexeba ponturi naleqebis
palinokompleqsebs, isini warmoadgenen paleokolxeTis TiTqmis
mTeli teritoriis mtvris marcvlebis produqcias dablobebidan
tyis zeda sartyelamde.
dasavleT saqarTvelos pontur naleqebSi palinomorfebi,
rogorc wesi, gvxvdeba yvela SreSi da asaxaven klimatisa da
mcenareulobis dinamikas am sarTulis naleqebis dagrovebis

79
TiTqmis mTeli periodis ganmavlobaSi. igives Tqma SeuZlebelia
makronaSTebze, romelTa adgilsapoveblebi xSirad
dakavSirebulia calkeul SreebTan, romelTa simZlavre bevrad
naklebia mTeli sarTulis naleqebis simZlavreze.
qvedaponturi naleqebi gavrcelebulia dasavleT
saqarTvelos TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze, magram mxolod sam
WrilSi (md. otafi, zana da sof. bia) novorosiuli qvesarTuli
warmodgenilia srulad (nax. 13). danarCen WrilebSi mas aklia
evpatoriuli Sreebi da amitom qvedaponturi iwyeba odesuri
horizontiT (Тактакишвили, 1984; Челидзе, 1974; Шенгелия, 1976).

nax. 14. dasavleT saqarTvelos pliocenuri naleqebis Semajamebeli


palinologiuri diagrama.
zanasa da otafis Wrilebis palinokompleqsebis analizma
gamoamJRavna cvlilebebi, romlebsac adgili hqonda miocenuris
da pliocenuris sazRvarze (nax. 11). ponturis dasawyisSi
(evpatoriuli) meoturis mdidari mcenareuloba Seicvala Raribi
cenozebiT, romlebSic gabatonda fiWvi. odesurSi ki gafarTovda
muqwiwvovanebis areali (nax. 14,15). es movlena dakavSirebuli iyo
tenianobis momatebasTan da temperaturis vardnasTan, rac,
SesaZlebelia, gamoiwvia qvedaponturSi dawyebulma acivebam mTel
CrdiloeT naxevarsferoSi (Борзенкова 1992; Зубаков, 1990).
odesuris Semdeg klimati gaxda Tbili da notio,
gansakuTrebiT Sua portaferulSi. am dros polidominantur
tyeebs ekavaT farTo da stabiluri areali. es iyo ponturi drois
pirveli klimaturi optimumi, romelic, Cveni azriT, kodoris
floris Tanadroulia.
Suaponturis gviani periodi da bosforulis dasawyisi
xasiaTdeboda polidominanturi da muqwiwvovani tyeebis

80
arealebis xSiri cvalebadobiT, rac SesaZloa, ukavSirdeba
klimatur fluqtuaciebs. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom es iyo mizezi
zedaponturi asakis biWvinTis floris gaRaribebisa kodoris
florasTan SedarebiT. miuxedavaT amisa, Cveni azriT, biWvinTis
makrofloris kompleqsi adasturebs meore klimaturi optimumis
arsebobas.
dasavleT saqarTvelos ponturi naleqebis
palinokompleqsebis Sedarebam Savi zRvis CrdiloeTi regionebis
Tanadroul palinokompleqsebTan dagvanaxa, rom orive regionis
teritoriaze ponturis ganmavlobaSi adgili hqonda klimatis
riTmul cvlilebebs. magram dasavleT saqarTveloSi am
cvlilebebis sixSire da amplituda iyo ufro susti. kolxeTisa da
Savi zRvis CrdiloeT regionebis klimatebs Soris ZiriTadi
gansxvaveba iyo tenianobis xarisxSi. CrdiloeTiT ponturSi
mimdinareobda qserofitizaciis procesi (Щекина, 1979), maSin roca
dasavleT saqarTveloSi igive periodSi adgili hqonda
atmosferuli naleqebis matebas da temperaturis TandaTanobiT
vardnas.

nax. 15. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa ponturis
ganmavlobaSi.

81
k im e r i uli sa r T ul i

kimeriulis ganmavlobaSi zRvis akvatoria TandaTan


Semcirda. saerTo regresiis fonze ki mimdinareobda sanapiro
zolis ryeva, amis Sedegad kimeriuli uTanxmod aris ganlagebuli
Zvel naleqebze (Челидзе, 1964).kimeriulis Wrilebi gavrcelebulia
igive regionebSi, romelSic ponturi, magram maT ukaviaT naklebi
farTobi. kimeriulis sruli Wrilebi cnobilia afxazeTSi da
guriaSi, xolo sarTulis calkeuli gaSiSvlebebi aRwerilia
samegreloSic. mTavari gansxvaveba pontur da kimeriul naleqebs
Soris maTi faciesebis xasiaTSia. saxeldobr, kimeriuli naleqebi
ufro wyalmarCxia, rac miuTiTebs zRvis regresiaze da xmeleTis
gafarToebaze (Тактакишвили, 1984).
arsebobs kimeriuli naleqebis ori stratigrafiuli sqema.
daviTaSvili (Давиташвили, 1933) yofda sarTuls sam nawilad:
azovurad, ampilakiurad da pantikapiurad. samad yofda kimeriul
sarTuls gabuniac, magram afxazeTis, samegrelos da guriis
Wrilebis horizontebisTvis xmarobda sxvadasxva saxelebs
(Габуния, 1953).
TaqTaqiSvilma Seadgina kimeriulis axali stratigrafiuli
sqema. man gamoyo ori horizonti: azovuri da kamiSburunuli,
romelSic gaaerTiana ampilakiuri da pantikapiuri horizontebi
(Тактакишвили, 1984).
mcenareebis makronaSTebi aRwerilia palibinis (Палибин,
1930a), mWedliSvilis (Мчедлишвили, 1949a) da uznaZis (Узнадзе, 1965)
mier. namarxi floris yvelaze mdidari adgilsapovebeli
mdebareobs mdinare duabze. misi asaki TaqTaqiSvilma
zedakimeriulad (kamiSburunulad) gansazRvra. duabis floris
sinqronulia gulrifSis floris kompleqsi (Колаковский, 1956,
1958; Колаковский, Шакрыл, 1978). palinologiurad kimeriuli
naleqebi pirvelad Seiswavla mWedliSvilma (Мчедлишвили, 1963).
amJamad Cvens gankargulebaSia dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva
regionebis kimeriuli naleqebidan mopovebuli mdidari
palinologiuri masala, romlis interpretacia landSaftur-
fitocenologiuri meTodiT saSualebas iZleva aRvadginoT
mcenareulobis da klimatis dinamika (Шатилова и др., 2000; Shatilova
et al., 2002; Shatilova, Mchedlishvili, 2007a). migvaCnia, rom azovuri
periodis bolos da kamiSburunulis dasawyisSi sakvlev regionSi
82
subtropikulTan miaxloebuli pirobebi arsebobda. drois am
monakveTs Cven vukavSirebT globalur optimums (Борзенкова, 1992),
roca dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze mimdinareobda duabis
floris ganamarxeba.

nax. 16. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa
kimeriulis ganmavlobaSi.
kodoris florasTan SedarebiT, duabis kompleqsi ufro
Raribia. es SeiZleba aixsnas portaferulis bolos da
bosforulis dasawyisSi klimatis acivebiT. amis gamo dasavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze gadaSenda mTeli rigi subtropikuli
farulTeslovanebi, romelTa naSTebi ar iyo napovni biWvinTisa
da duabis florebSi. Semcirda gvarebis raodenoba ojaxebSi:
Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Berberidaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Hamamelidaceae,
Araliaceae, Fabaceae, Anacardiaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Arecaceae. miuxedavad
amisa, kolakovskis azriT, kimeriuli drois landSaftSi
maradmwvane mcenareebs kvlav ekavaT sakmaod didi adgili
(Колаковский, Шакрыл, 1978). es daskvna miRebuli iyo duabis
makrofloris safuZvelze, romelic asaxavs klimaturi optimumis

83
pirobebs. kimeriuli drois sxvadasxva monakveTebSi
subtropikuli mcenareebi gavrcelebuli iyo ZiriTadad dab-
lobebSi da mTis qveda sartyelSi, sadac isini Tavs afarebdnen
refugiumebs, romelTa areali icvleboda klimaturi pirobebis
gavleniT. kolakovskis (Колаковский, 1956) varaudiT kimeriuli
drois polidominantur tyeebSi didi mravalferovnebiT
gamoirCeodnen siTbozomieri havis mcenareebi. avtori gamoyofs
sam ZiriTad jgufs: 1. musonuri klimatis saxeobebi,
damaxasiaTebeli Tanamedrove aziis mTebisTvis; 2. tenianobis-
moyvaruli jiSebi, ekologiurad daaxloebuli amerikis
dablobebze da Walis tyeebSi gavrcelebul saxeobebTan; 3. sicivis
amtani, magram zafxulis maRali temperaturis moyvaruli jiSebi,
ekologiurad msgavsi xmelTaSuazRvis subtropikuli tyeebis
komponentebisa.
duabis Sreebis zemoT ganlagebul kamiSburunuli naleqebis
palinologiuri kompleqsi asaxavs mcenareulobas, romelSic
dominirebda fiWvi. momdevno periodSi kimeriuli mcenareulobis
xasiaTi mkveTrad Seicvala. gansakuTrebiT es exeba
polidominantur tyeebs, romelTa Semadgenlobidan gaqra
subtropikuli elementebis mniSvnelovani raodenoba.
amrigad, ponturi, azovuri da kamiSburunulis qveda
Sreebis palinologiuri kompleqsebi asaxaven dasavleT
saqarTvelos mcenareulobis ganviTarebis II etaps. xolo
kamiSburunulis zeda Sreebis da Semdgomi kuialnikuri sarTulis
- skurdumis horizontis - palinokompleqsebi Seesabameba
mcenareulobis ganviTarebis III etaps.
aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi kimeriulad TariRdeba Siraqis
flora, romlis SemadgenlobaSi iyo gansazRvruli 34
farulTeslovanis makronaSTebi. flora asaxavs patara regionis
mcenareulobas sadac Walis tyis SemadgenlobaSi iyo Alnus hoernesi,
Populus populina, Acer saliense, Ulmus carpinifolia, Zelkova ungeri. mSral
dablobebze da ferdobebze gavrcelebuli iyo makvisi, Sibliaki da
ariduli meCxeri tyeebi, maradmwvane da foTolmcvivani jiSebiT:
dafna, sklerofiluri muxa, wyavmaza, fasta, CitavaSla da sxva.
Siraqis teritoriaze pliocenurSi varaudoben ori tipis
mcenreulobis arsebobas-Walis tyeebs da aridul formacias,
romlis dominantebi iyo wvrilfoTlovani xemcenareebi, rac
cxeli sezonis arsebobaze miuTiTebs (Колаковский, Ратиани, 1967).

84
cxr. XIII. saqarTvelos ponturi da kimeriuli naleqebis mcenareTa sia:
m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi
klasi ojaxi saxeoba ponturi kimeriuli
1 2 3 4 5
Briopsida Sphagnaceae
Sphagnum sp. p p
Lycopodium alpinum L. p p
Lycopodium annotinum L. p p
Lycopodium clavatum L. p p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium densum Sw. p
Lycopodium selago L. p p
Lycopodium serratum Tunb. p p
Selaginella atrivirides Spring. p p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella pliocenica Dorof. m m
Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. p p
Selaginella sp. p
Equisetopsida Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. p
Botrychium sp. p p
Ophioglos-
Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossum lusitanicum L. p
saceae
Ophioglossum sp p
Osmunda cinnamomea L. p
Osmunda claytoniana L p
Osmundaceae Osmunda heeri Gaud. m
Osmunda regalis L. p p
Todea sp. p p
Schizaeaceae Schizaea sp. p
Anemiaceae Anemia p
Lygodium japonicum Sw. p p
Lygodiaceae
Lygodium sp. p
Cryptogramma acrostichoides R.Br. p
Cryptogramma crispa (L.)R.Br. p p
Cryptogramma sp. p p
Pteridacidites boerzoenyensis (Nagy)
p p
St., Sh. (Pteris aff.quadriaurita Retz.)
Pteridacidites dentatiformis Sh., St.
Polypodiopsida

p p
(Pteris dentata Forsk)
Pteridacidites grandifoliiformis St.,
p p
Sh. (Pteris grandifolia L.)
Pteridacidites guriensis Sh., St.
p p
(Pteris aff.togoensis Hieron)
Pteridaceae

Pteridacidites kimmeriensis Sh., St.


p p
(Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites longifoliiformis Sh., St.
p p
(Pteris longifolia L.)
Pteridacidites rarotuberculatum Sh.,
p
St. (Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites remotifolioides Sh., St.
p p
(Pteris remotifolia Bak.)
Pteridacidites spiniverrucatum St.,
p
Sh. (Pteris pellucida Pr.)
Pteridacidites variabilis St.et Sh.
p p
(Pteris cretica L.)
Pteridacidites venustaeformis St., Sh.
p p
(Pteris venusta Kze.)

85
1 2 3 4 5
Pteridacidites verus (N.Mtchedl.) Sh.,
p p
St. (Pteris aff.crenata Sw.)
Pteridaceae
Pteridacidites vittatoides Sh., St.
p
(Pteris vittata L.)
Parkeriaceae Ceratopteris duabensis Kol. m
Anogramma sp. p p
Adiantaceae
Pityrogramma sp. p p
Gleichenia angulata Naum. p
Gleicheniaceae Gleichenia sp. p
Polypodium aureum L. p p
Polypodium palaeopectinatum Kol. m
Polypodium palaeoserratum Kol. m
Polypodium pliocenicum Ram. p p
Polypodium serratum (Wild.) Futo
p
(=P.australe Fee)
Polypodiaceae
Polypodium verrucatum Ram. p p
Polypodium tuberculatum N.Mtchedl. p
Polypodium vulgare L. p p
Polypodium sp. p p
Verrucatosporites histiopteroides W.Kr. p p
Pyrossia sp. p p
Hymenophyllum rotundum
Polypodiopsida

Hymenophyl- p p
N.Mtchedl.
laceae Hymenophyllum sp. p
Thyrsopteri- Cibotium glaucum (Sw.) Hr.et Arn. p
daceae Cibotium sp. p
Dicksonia antarctica R.Br. p p
Dicksonia luculenta Purc. p p
Dicksoniaceae Dicksonia reticulata Purc. p p
Dicksonia unitotuberata Purc. p p
Dicksonia aff. fibrosa Col. p
Alsophylla sp. p p
Cyatheaceae
Cyathea sp. p p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p
Athyrium sp. p p
Cyclophorus sp. p
Cyclosorus (Lastrea) fischeri Heer m
Cystopteris sp. p p
Aspidiaceae Dryopteris sp. p p
Gymnocarpium sp. p
Lastrea sp. m
Struthiopteris filicastrum All. m
Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S.F.Gray p
Woodsia sp. p
Woodwardia radicans (L.) Smith. p
Blechnaceae Woodwardia roessneriana (Ung.) Heer m
Woodwardia sp. m p

86
1 2 3 4 5

Azolla sp. p
Polypodiopsida Salviniaceae Salvinia palaeopilosa Shap. m
Salvinia sp. p
Ginkgo biloba L. p p
Ginkgoopsida Ginkgoaceae
Ginkgo occidentalis Samyl. m m
Dacrydium sp. p p
Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus sp. p mp
Phyllocladaceae Phyllocladus sp. p
Cephalotaxux sp. p
Taxaceae Taxus sp. p p
Torreya nucifera Sieb.et Zucc. foss.
m
Kink.
Araucariaceae Araucaria sp. p p
Abies alba Mill. p p
Abies cephalonica Loud. mp p
Abies ciliticaeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. p p
Abies sp. cf. A. protofirma Tanai m
Abies sp. mp m
Cathaya abchasica Sveshn. m
Cathaya argyrophylla C. et K. p p
Cathaya sp. p
Cedrus atlantica Manetti p p
Cedrus deodara Loud. p p
Cedrus libani Laws. p p
Pinopsida

Cedrus sauerae N.Mtchedl. p p


Keteleeria caucasica Ram. p p
Picea complanataeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Picea minor N.Mtchedl. p p
Pinaceae

Picea orientalis L. p p
Picea sp. p mp
Pinus euxina Kol. m m
Pinus geanthracis (Goep.) E.Reich. m
Pinus hordaceae (Rossm.) Engelm.et
m
Menzel.
Pinus longisquama Kol. m
Pinus palaeopentaphylla Tanai et Onoe m
Pinus pithyusa Stev. p
Pinus pontica Kol. m
Pinus sp. mp mp
Pseudolarix sp. p p
Pseudotsuga sp. p p
Tsuga aculeata Anan. p p
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. p p
Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. p p
Tsuga inordinata Mched. p
Tsuga korenevae Mched. p

87
1 2 3 4 5
Tsuga meierii Mched. p p
Tsuga patens Downie p p

Pinaceae
Tsuga pattoniana Engelm. p p
Tsuga shatilovae Mched. p p
Tsuga sivakii Mched. p
Tsuga tortuosa Mched. p p
Tsuga aff. blaringhemi Flous p
Sciadopityaceae Sciadopitys sp. p p
Cryptomeria japonica Don mp mp
Cunninghamia sp. p
Pinopsida

Glyptostrobus europaeus (Brongn.)


m m
Heer
Taxodiaceae

Glyptostrobus sp. p p
Metasequoia sp. p p
Sequoia sp. mp p
Sequoiadendron sp. p
Taxodium distichum foss. A.Br. m
Taxodium sp. p p
Taxodiaceae gen. indet. p p
Cupressus cf.sempervirens L. m
Libocedrus salicornioides (Ung.) Heer m m
Cupressaceae Juniperus sp. p p
Thuja cf.occidentalis L. m
Cupressaceae gen. indet. p p
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae Ephedra sp. p p
Comptonia sp. p p
Myrica carolinensis Mill. p p
Myricaceae

Myrica lignitum (Ung.) Sap. m


Myrica palaeogale Pilar. m
Myrica salicina Ung. m
Myrica sp. p p
Alfaroa sp. p p
Carya aquatica (Michx.) Nutt. p p
Carya bilinica Ung. m
Dicotyledoneae

Carya cordiformis (Wangh.) C.Koch p p


Carya denticulata (Web.) Iljinsk. m
Carya minor Sap.et Mar. m
Juglandaceae

Carya mirabilis Kol. m


Carya ovata (Mill.) C. Koch p p
Carya serraefolia (Goepp.) Krausel m m
Carya aff. glabra (Mill.) Sweet. p
Carya aff. pecan (Marh.) Engl. p
Carya sp. p p
Cyclocarya aff. paliurus (Batalin) Iljinsk. p
Engelhardia sp. p p
Platycarya sp. p p
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.) Kunth. p mp

88
1 2 3 4 5
Pterocarya rhoifolia Sieb. et Zucc. p p
Pterocarya stenoptera DC

Juglandaceae
p p
Juglans cinerea L. p mp
Juglans colchica Kol. m
Juglans regia L. p p
Juglans zaisanica Iljinsk. m m
Populus balsamoides Goepp. m m
Salicaceae Populus leucophylla Ung. m
Populus populina (Brongn.) Knob. m m
Salix cinerea L. m
Salix integra Goepp. m m
Salix varians Goepp. m m
Salix sp. p p
Alnus angustifolia Kol. m
Alnus hoernesi Stur m
Alnus cordata Desf. m
Alnus subcordata C.A.May m m
Alnus ducalis (Gaudin) Knob. m
Alnus aff. barbata C.A.May m
Alnus sp. p mp
Dicotyledoneae

Betula pubescens Ehrh. p p


Betula subpubescens Goepp. m
Betula sp. p mp
Carpinus betulus L. p p
Betulaceae

Carpinus caucasica Grossh. p p


Carpinus cuspidens (Sap.)Kol.
m
var.breviserrata Kol.
Carpinus grandis Ung. m m
Carpinus duabensis Dorof. m
Carpinus orientalis Mill. p p
Carpinus pliofauriei Rat. m
Carpinus uniserrata (Kol.) Rat. et
m m
Kol.
Carpinus sp. p p
Corylus avellana L. mp p
Corylus protocolchica Kol. m
Corylus sp. p p
Ostrya angustifolia Andrean. m m
Ostrya sp. p p
Castanea atavia Ung. m m
Castanea pliosativa Kol. m
Fagaceae

Castanea sativa Mill. p p


Castanopsis bifurcata Kol. m
Castanopsis elisabethae Kol. m m
Castanopsis decheni (O.Web.) Kr. et
m
Wld.

89
1 2 3 4 5
Castanopsis furcinervis (Rossm.) Kr.
m m
et Wld.
Castanopsis sp. p p
Cyclobalanopsis kryshtofovichii Kol. m
Lithocarpus palaeouncinata (Kol.) Kol. m
Lithocarpus sp. p
Fagus attenuata Goepp. m m
Fagus orientalis Lipsky p mp
Fagus orientalis Lipsky var. palibini
m m
Iljinsk.
Fagaceae
Quercus castaneifolia C.A.M. m
Quercus cerrisicarpa Kol. m
Quercus iberica Stev. m
Quercus kodorica Kol. m m
Quercus kubinyi (Kol.) Cz. m
Quercus microcerrisicarpa Kol. m
Quercus neriifolia A.Br. m m
Quercus pliovariabilis Kol. m
Quercus pseudocastanea Goepp. m m
Quercus sosnowskyi Kol. m m
Quercus sp. p p
Dicotyledoneae

Celtis magnifica Kol. m


Celtis japetii Ung. m
Celtis sp. p p
Ulmus carpinoides Goepp. m m
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. p p
Ulmus laevis Pall. p
Ulmaceae

Ulmus longifolia Ung. m m


Ulmus paralaciniata Hu et Chaney m
Ulmus sp. p p
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dipp. p p
Zelkova ungeri Kov. m
Zelkova zelkovifolia (Ung.) Buzek et
m
Kotlaba
Zelkova sp. p p
Eucommiaceae Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. mp p
Artocarpus kimmerica Kol. m
Ficus kolakovskyi Dorof. et Negru m
Moraceae Ficus sp. p p
Morus alba L. p p
Moraceae gen.indet. p p
Cannabis sp. p
Cannabaceae
Humulus lupulus L. p
Polygonum lapathifolium L. m
Polygonaceae
Polygonum sp. p p
Stellaria sp. p
Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. p p
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p p

90
1 2 3 4 5
Liriodendron tulipifera L. p p
Magnolia denudata Desr. p p
Magnolia georgica Kol. m m
Magnolia grandiflora L. p p
Magnoliaceae Magnolia kobus DC m
Magnolia mirabilis Kol. m
Magnolia vittae Kol. m
Magnolia cf.accuminata L. p
Magnolia sp. p mp
Kadsura palaeojaponica Kol. m
Schizandraceae
Schizandra grossheimii Kol. m m
Aniba longifolia Kol. et Schak. m
Cinnamomophyllum cinnamomeum
m m
(Rossm.) Kol.
Cinnamomophyllum lanceolatum
m m
(Ung.) Kol.
Cinnamomophyllum radobojanum
m
(Ung.)Kol.
Cinnamomophyllum
m
cf.Cinnamomum loureirii Nees
Cinnamomum japonicum Kol.et
m
Schak.
Dicotyledoneae

Cinnamomum sp. p p
Daphnogene buchii (Heer) Kol. et
m m
Schak.
Daphnogene marginatum (Kol. et
m m
Schak.) Kol. et Schak.
Daphnogene polymorpha (A.Br.)
m
Etting.
Lauraceae

Daphnogene sp. m
Laurophyllum abchasicum Kol. et
m
Schak.
Laurophyllum duabense Kol. et
m
Schak.
Laurophyllum nobile Kol.et Schak. m
Laurophyllum ocoteafolium (Ett.)
m
Kol.
Laurophyllum pithyusum Kol.et
m
Schak.
Laurophyllum ponticum Kol.et
m
Schak.
Laurophyllum simile Kol. et Schak. m
Laurophyllum primigenia (Ung.) Kol. m m
Laurophyllum sp. m
Laurus pliocenica (Sap.et Mar.) Kol. m
Laurus sp. p p
Lindera antiqua (Heer) Lamotte m
Lindera ovata Kol. m
Litsea magnifica Sap. m m

91
1 2 3 4 5
Litsea pontica Kol. m
Nectandra euxina Kol. m
Nectandra sp. m
Oreodaphne heeri Gaud. m

Lauraceae
Oreodaphne rhombifolia Kol. m
Persea braunii Heer m
Persea colchica Kol. m
Persea pliocenica (Laur.) Kol. m
Persea styracifolia (Weber) Kol. m
Persea sp. aff. P. superta Sap. m
Persea sp. p p
Saxifragaceae Saxifragaceae gen.indet. p p
Ranunculus reidii Szafer m
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus sp.
p mp
Mahonia heterophylla Kol. m
Berberidaceae
Mahonia spinulosa Kol. m
Menispermum sp. p p
Menisper-
maceae Sinomenium cantalense (E.M. Reid)
m
Dorof.
Nelumbo sp. p p
Nymphaeaceae Nuphar luteum (L.) Smith p p
Dicotyledoneae

Nymphaea sp. p p
Ceratophyl- Ceratophyllum cf.demersum L.
m
laceae
Aristolochia africanii Kol. m
Aristolochiaceae Aristolochia colchica Kol. m
Aristolochia sp. m
Actinidia arguta (S. et Z.) Planch. m
Actinidiaceae
Actinidia faveolata C. et E.M. Reid m
Camellia abchasica (Kol.) Kol. m
Eurya cf. japonica Thunb. m
Theaceae
Schima wallichii (DC) Choisy m
Ternstroemia mocanerifolia Kol. m
Hypericaceae Hypericum sp. m
Platanus aceroides Goepp. m
Platanus linearifoba Kol. m
Platanaceae
Platanus orientalis L. p
Platanus platanifolia (Ett.) Knob. m
Corylopsis aff.cordata Merrill et Li p p
Hamamelidaceae

Fortunearia colchica Kol. m


Fothergilla aff.gardenii Murr. p p
Hamamelis cachetica Kol. m
Hamamelis miomollis Hu et Chaney m
Parrotia pristina (Ett.) Stur m
Sycopsis colchica Ram. p p

92
1 2 3 4 5
Altingia aff.excelsa Nor. p p

Hamamelidaceae
Liquidambar europaea A.Br. m m
Liquidambar formosana Hance p p
Liquidambar orientalis Mill. p mp
Liquidambar styraciflua L. p p
Liquidambar aff.turgaica Kupr. p
Cercidiphyllaceae Cercidiphyllum sp. p
Cerasus sp. m
Cotoneaster palaeobacillaris Kol. m
Crataegus sp. m
Laurocerasus pliocenicum Kol. m
Photinia kodorica Kol. m
Photinia cf.integrifolia Lindl. m
Rosaceae
Rosa sp. p
Rubus kodorica Kol. m
Rubus meriani (Heer) Kol. m
Rubus sp. m
Spiraea salicifolia L. m
Rosaceae gen. indet. p p
Caesalpinia macrophylloides Kol. m
Caesalpiniaceae Cassiophyllum berenices (Ung.) Kr. m
Ceratonia emarginata A.Br. m
Acacia sp. p
Dicotyledoneae

Dalbergia bella Heer m


Dalbergia derrisaecarpa Kol. m
Dalbergia rectinervis Ett. m
Desmodium maximum (Ung.) Kol. m
Fabaceae m
Gleditchia allemanica Heer
Gymnocladus meoreatharica Kol. m
Pithecolobiophyllum abchasica Kol. m
Sophora europaea Ung. m
Sophora miojaponica Hu et Chang m
Geraniaceae Geranium sp. p p
Euphorbiaceae Croton ratianii Kol. m
Phellodendron amurense Rupr. mp
Rutaceae
Phellodendron sp. p
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus sp. m
Cedrela sarmatica Kov. m m
Meliaceae
Melia sp. p
Cotinus coggygria (L.) Scop. m
Pistacia miochinensis Hu et Chang m
Pistacia terebinthus L. m
Pistacia sp. p
Anacardiaceae Rhus cf.rhomboidalis Sap. m
Rhus sp. cf.R.chinensis Mill. m
Rhus sp. p p
Toxicodendron quercifolia (Michx.)
m
Greene

93
1 2 3 4 5
Acer integerrimum (Viv.) Mass. m
Acer laetum CAM pliocenicum
m
Sap.et Mar.
Aceraceae Acer pseudomonospessulanum Ung. m
Acer trilobatum (Sterb.) A.Br. m
Acer sp. mp mp
Sapindaceae Sapindus falcifolium (A.Br.) Heer m
Meliosma caucasica Dorof. m
Sabiaceae
Meliosma kimmerica Kol. m
Ilex cassineformis Kol. m
Ilex colchica Pojark. p
Ilex falsani Sap.et Mar. m
Ilex georgica Kol. m
Ilex gracilis Kol. m
Ilex horrida Sap. m
Aquifoliaceae Ilex microcassine Kol. m
Ilex palaeotriflora Kol. m
Ilex (?) parschlugiana Ung. m
Ilex raridentata Kol. m
Ilex simile Kol. m
Dicotyledoneae

Ilex cf.diplosperma Hu Shiu Ying m


Ilex sp. p p
Celastrus curvinervia (Kol.) Kol. m
Celastraceae
Euonymus sp. p p
Staphylea colchica Stev. mp p
Staphyleaceae
Staphylea protocolchica Kol. m
Buxus sempervirens L. foss. Englh.
m
Buxaceae et Kinkelin
Buxus sp. p
Berchemia multinervis (A.Br.) Heer m
Ceanothus abchasica Kol. m
Ceanothus ebuloides O.Weber m m
Ceanothus tiliaefolium Ung. m
Rhamnaceae
Ceanothus sp. m
Frangula rectinervis (Heer) Kol. m
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. m
Rhamnus sp. p p
Ampelopsis abchasica Kol. m
Ampelopsis europaea Dorof. m
Ampelopsis ludwigii (A.Br.) Dorof. m
Cissus sp. cf. C. adnata Plench. m
Vitaceae
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)
p p
Planch.
Vitis subintegra Sap. m
Vitis sp. p p

94
1 2 3 4 5
Leeaceae Leea vladimerii (Kol.) Kol. m
Elaeocarpus palaeolanceolata Kol. m
Elaeocarpaceae
Elaeocarpus palaeolittoralis Kol. m
Tilia caucasica Rupr. p p
Tilia cordata Mill. p p
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. p p
Tiliaceae
Tilia aff. taqueti C. Schneid. p p
Tilia tomentosa Moench. p
Tilia sp. p p
Malvaceae Malva sp. p
Sterculia ramesiana Sap. m
Sterculiaceae Sterculia rarinervis Kol. m
Sterculia sp. p p
Daphne kimmerica Kol. m
Thymellaceae Daphne odora Thunb. m
Daphne cf. pontica L. m
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus sp. p
Violaceae Viola sp. m
Trichosanthes fragilis Reid. m
Cucurbitaceae
Trichosanthes kodorica Kol. m
Dicotyledoneae

Trapaceae Trapa sp. m


Haloragaceae Myriophyllum sp. m
Myrtus rectinervis Sap. m
Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae gen.indet. p p
Chamaenerium sp. p
Epilobium sp. p
Onagraceae
Ludwigia sp. p
Onagra sp. p p
Alangiaceae Alangium aff. kurzii Craib. p p
Nyssa dissemonata (Ludw.) Kirchh. m
Nyssa europaea Ung. m
Nyssaceae
Nyssa sylvatica L. p p
Nyssa sp. p p
Bothrocaryum controversum
m
(Hemsl.) Pojark.
Cornaceae Cornus sp. p p
Thelycrania sanguinea (L.) Fourr. m m
Thelycrania lusatica Kirchh m
Acanthopanax mirabilis (Kol.) comb.
m
nov.
Araliaceae

Acanthopanax kimmericus Kol. m


Acanthopanax sp. p p
Aralia cf. hispida Michx. mp
Aralia cf. continentalis Katagawa m

95
1 2 3 4 5
Aralia cf. cordata Thunb. m
Aralia cf. hypoleuca Presl. m
Aralia (Brassaiopsis) abchasica Kol. m
Aralia (Brassaiopsis) angustiloba
m
Kol.
Aralia sp. p p
Boerlagiodendron grandidentatum
m
Kol.
Brassaiopsis mirabilis Kol. m
Brassaiopsis sp. cf. B. glomeratula
Araliaceae m
(Bl.) Regel.
Brassaiopsis sp. p p
Dendropanax sp. p p
Hedera multinervis Kol. m
Hedera sp. p p
Fatsia sp. p p
Pentapanax fibriatum Kol. m
Pentapanax simile Kol. m
Schefflera colchica Kol. m
Schefflera integrifolia Kol. m
Schefflera pontica Kol. m
Araliaceae gen.indet. p
Dicotyledoneae

Caucalis sp. p p
Heracleocarpum protoponticum Kol. m
Apiaceae Turgenia latifolia Hostm. p p
Apiaceae gen. indet. p p
Arbutus elegans Kol. m
Rhododendron sp. p p
Vaccinium minimum Kol. m
Ericaceae
Vaccinium protoarctostaphyllos Kol. m
Vaccinium raridentatum Sap. m
Ericaceae gen. indet. p p
Myrsine colchica Kol. m
Myrsinaceae
Rapanea kubanensis Pashkov m
Bumelia minor Ung. m
Sapotaceae
Sapotaceae gen.indet. p p
Diospyros anceps Heer. m
Ebenaceae
Diospiros brachysepala A.Br. m
Halesia crassa (C. et E.M.Reid)
m
Kirchh.
Halesia aff. diptera Ellis m
Styracaceae Halesia kodorica Kol. m
Styrax raridentata Kol. m
Styrax aff. japonica S. et L. m
Symplocos abchasica Kol. m
Symplocaceae
Symplocos antiqua Kol. m

96
1 2 3 4 5
Symplocos kimmerica Kol. m
Symplocos lidiae Kol. m
Symplocaceae Symplocos paniculata Wall. p p
Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L. Her p p
Symplocos sp. p p
Periplocaceae Periploca graeca L. m
Apocynophyllum apocynophyllum
m
(Web.)Wld.
Apocynophyllum decheni
m
Apocynaceae (Web.)Wld.
Apocynophyllum kimmericum Kol. m
Apocynophyllum linearifolium Kol. m
Apocynophyllum sp. m
Forsythia cf.viridissima Lindl. m
Fraxinus sp. p p
Oleaceae
Ligustrum vulgare L. mp
Phillyrea media L. m
Dicotyledoneae

Convolvulaceae Convolvulus sp. p


Callitrichaceae Callitriche sp. cf.C.verna L. m
Lonicera sp. m p
Viburnum lantana L. m
Viburnum pliocenicum (Sap. et Mar.)
m m
Kol.
Caprifoliaceae Viburnum tenuilobatum (Sap.) Kol. m
Viburnum sp. p p
Sambucus ebulus L. m
Sambucus sp. m
Ajuga antiqua C.et E.M.Reid m
Lamiaceae Lycopus sp. p
Lamiaceae gen. indet. p
Solanaceae Solanum sp. m
Cephalaria sp. p p
Dipsacaceae Dipsacus sp. p
Knautia sp. p p
Scabiosa sp. p p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p p
Campanulaceae Campanulaceae gen.indet. p
Artemisia sp. p p
Asteraceae Asteraceae gen.indet. p p
Potamogeton crispus L. m
Potamo- Potamogeton pectinatus L. m
Monocotyledoneae

getonaceae Potamogeton sp. m


Ruppia maritima L. m
Smilax aspera L. m
Liliaceae
Smilax minima Kol. m
Phragmites oeningensis Heer m
Poaceae Sasa kodorica Kol. m
Poaceae gen. indet. p p

97
1 2 3 4 5

Chamaerops humilis L. m
Arecaceae Nipa sp. p

Monocotyledoneae
Arecaceae gen.indet. p p
Sparganium nanum Dorof. m
Sparganiaceae
Sparganium sp. p p
Typha latifolia L. p p
Typhaceae
Typha latissima A.Br. m
Cladium mariscus (L.) R.Br. m m
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae gen. indet. p

k uia l n i k ur i (e gr i s uli ) s a r T ul i

dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze kuialnikuri sarTuli


warmodgenilia bevrad ufro mZlavri wyebiT, vidre stratotipul
regionSi (ukraina, odesis midamoebi). amis safuZvelze
TaqTaqiSvilma (Тактакишвили, 1978, 1978а) dasavleT seqarTvelos
kuialnikuri, gamoyo rogorc calke stratigrafiuli erTeuli -
egrisuli sarTulis saxeliT da gayo samad: skurdumis, eweris da
cixisferdis anu dreisenebian horizontebad (cxr. XII). cnobebi
kuialnikuri floris Sesaxeb ZiriTadad efuZvneba palinologiur
monacemebs (Шатилова, 1967, 1984; Shatilova et al., 1998, 2005).
skurdumis dasawyisSi flora inarCunebs msgavsebas
zedakimeriulis meore naxevris florasTan. es aris dro,
romelic enacvleba fiWvis gabatonebis periods (nax.14,16).
fiWvis gabatonebis Semdgomi periodi emTxveva skurdumis
saukunis bolo monakveTs (nax.17). Cveni varaudiT, orive
SemTxvevaSi es movlena dakavSirebuli iyo kavkasionis mTebis
peneplenizaciis procesTan, romelsac, zogierTi avtoris
monacemebiT (Милановский, 1968; Цагарели, Астахов, 1971), adgili
hqonda zedapliocenurSi. amis gamo nawilobriv dairRva
kolxeTis izolacia. CrdiloeTidan mSrali haeris SemoWras moyva
tenismoyvaruli mcenareebis gadaSeneba. subtropikulma
formaciam, rogorc damoukidebelma erTeulma, dasavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze Sewyvita arseboba da reliqtebis saxiT
SemorCa. amis Semdeg daiwyo siTbozomieri foTolmcvivani jiSebis
sruli gabatoneba. palinologiuri monacemebis mixedviT sazRvari

98
kimeriul da kuialnikur sarTulebs Soris unda gatardes
skurdumis Tavze. am sazRvars, makrofaunaze dayrdnobiT, amave
doneze atarebda daviTaSvili (Давиташвили, 1933).

nax. 17. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa
kuialnikuris ganmavlobaSi.
amrigad, kimeriulis zeda Sreebis da skurdumis naleqebis
palinokompleqsebi asaxaven mcenareulobis ganviTarebis erTian
III etaps, romelic sxva zedaneogenur epoqebTan SedarebiT dabali
tenianobiT xasiaTdeboda.
SuakuialnikurSi Seicvala klimatis xasiaTi. moimata
tenianobam, magram temperatura naklebad stabiluri gaxda (etapi
IV). am dros adgili hqonda polidominanturi da muqwiwvovani
tyeebis arealebis meryeobas, romlebsac gansakuTrebiT didi
farTobi ekavaT Sua ewerSi. am movlenis axsna SeiZleba bevri
mizebiT, romelTa Soris, albaT, ori maTgani iyo umTavresi.
pirveli mizezia orogenetuli moZraobebi, romelsac adgili
hqonda gvianneogenurSi (Антонов и др., 1977; Когошвили, 1977;
Милановский, 1977; Цагарели, 1980). am dros warmoiqmna maRalmTiani

99
reliefi da gaCnda axali ekotopebi muqwiwvovanebisTvis
xelsayleli pirobebiT. dResdReoboT am mcenareebis optimaluri
ganviTarebis zona ganlagebulia 1400-1900 m simaRleze. meore
mizezia temperaturis dacema da tenianobis momateba, ramac xeli
Seuwyo muqwiwvovanebis qvemoT Camosvlas. doluxanovis
(Долуханов, 1989) monacemebiT naZvi da soWi ekologiurad
plastiuri mcenareebia da warsulSi maTi populaciebi xSirad
migrirebdnen sxvadasxva doneebze.
eweris bolos temperatura gaizarda da gaCnda pirobebi
polidominanturi tyeebis arealis gafarToebisTvis. am tyeebis
mTavari komponentebi iyo: ojaxis Taxodiaceae-s warmomadgenlebi,
Fagus, Quercus, Zelkova, Carya, Carpinus da sxva. ponturi da kimeriuli
mcenareulobis mTavari jiSis - kedaris, ise rogorc sxva
Termofilur wiwvovanebis, roli Semcirda. Walis da Waobis
tyeebSi gabatonebuli mdgomareoba SeiZines mcenareebma: Carya,
Taxodium, Pterocarya, Ulmus, Alnus, iSviaTad Nyssa da Liquidambar.
sruliad gansxvavebulia zedakuialnikuris mcenareuloba.
am dros mTis TiTqmis yvela sartyelebze gavrcelebuli iyo
muqwiwvovani tye, romlis gabatoneba gagrZelda guriulSic (etapi
V).
amgvarad, rogorc zemoT moyvanili monacemebidan Cans,
kuialnikuri (egrisuli) drois mcenareuloba mkveTrad
gansxvavdeboda wina epoqebis mcenareulobisagan, upirvel
yovlisa, subtropokuli formaciis ar arsebobiT da Tavisi
dinamikiT. kuialnikuris damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyo xSiri da
mkveTri klimaturi fluqtuaciebi, rac ar axasiaTebda neogenuris
wina epoqebs. ukve Sua kuialnikurSi adgili hqonda temperaturis
dacemas da muqwiwvovanebis arealis gafarToebas. magram am
periodSi es movlena ar iyo ise mkveTrad gamoxatuli, rogorc
zedakuialnikurSi da qvedaguriulSi. gamomdinare aqedan drois
orive monakveTi gavaerTianeT da gamovyaviT V etapi, romelic,
SesaZloa, Seesabameba dunais zedapliocenur savaraudo
gamyinvarebas. (Venzo, 1964).

100
eopleistocenuri epoqa

gur i ul i s a r T ul i

guriuli sarTulis naleqebi cnobilia dasavleT


saqarTvelos mxolod erT regionSi-guriaSi (nax. 13). pirvelad es
stratigrafiuli erTeli aRwerili iyo 1930 wels da iyofoda or
nawilad: xvarbeTis da naderbazeTis Sreebad (Ильин, 1930).
SemdgomSi mosazreba guriuli sarTulis moculobis Sesaxeb
mravaljer Seicvala (Китовани, 1976; Китовани и др. 1991). guriulis
dayofis mravali cdis miuxedavad, TaqTaqiSvils (Тактакишвили,
1984) yvelaze mizanSewonilad miaCnia am naleqebis danawileba
xvarbeTis anu pirgulebian-mikromelaniebian da naderbazeTis anu
digresodaknebian horizontebad.
xvarbeTis Sreebi xSirad TanxmobiT adevs cixisferdis
horizonts (zeda egrisuli) da warmodgenilia Tixian-qviSaqvebiani
naleqebiT, romlebic mdidaria gastropodebis Pyrgula, Micromelania
niJarebiT. qvedaguriuli naleqebi gavrcelebulia mxolod guriis
samxreT nawilSi. naderbazeTis wyeba ki, piriqiT, cnobilia mTel
regionSi da xasiaTdeba orsagdulianebis mdidari fauniT,
romelTa Soris Warbobs gvaris Digressodacna warmomadgenlebi.
cnobebi guriuli floris Sesaxeb dafuZvnebulia mxolod
palinologiur monacemebze (Шатилова, 1967, 1984; Shatilova et al.,
2002a).
kuialnikuris Semdeg dasavleT saqarTvelos floris
Semadgenloba TiTqmis ar Secvlila (cx.X1V). mTavari gansxvaveba
am ori epoqis florebs Soris mcenareulobis xasiaTSia, rac
guriulSi mezofiluri elementebis rolis gazrdiT gamoixata.
qvedaguriulis pirvel naxevarSi gabatonebuli iyo
muqwiwvovani tye. siTbozomieri mcenareebis areali ki SedarebiT
Semcirebuli iyo. guriulis qveda Sreebis da cixisferdis
horizontis (kuialnikuri sarTuli) palinologiuri kompleqsebi
asaxaven mcenareulobis ganviTarebis erTi da igive etaps (V),
romelsac Cven savaraudod vukavSirebT dunais gamyinvarebas (nax.
14, 18, 19).
qvedaguriulis meore naxevarSi da zeda guriulis
dasawyisSi (etapi VI) adgili hqonda muqwiwvovanebisa da
polidominanturi tyis arealebis cvalebadobas, Tumca

101
mTlianobaSi batonobda polidominanturi tye. klimati iyo
siTbozomieri da teniani. Cveni varaudiT VI etapi sinqroniulia
dunai-guncuri gamyinvarebaTaSorisi epoqisa.

nax. 18. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa guriulis
ganmavlobaSi.
stabiluri pirobebiT gamoirCeoda zedaguriulis pirveli
naxevari. am dros polidominanturi cenozebis SemadgenlobaSi
Warbobdnen: Fagus, Quercus, Carya, Juglans. subtropikuli
mcenareebidan aRsaniSnavia: Liquidambar, Aralia, Engelhardia, Platycarya,
Eucommia, Magnolia, Alangium, Symplocos, Fortunearia. mdidari iyo
agreTve wiwvovanebis Semadgenlobac: Tsuga, Abies, Picea, Sciadopitys,
Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae, Dacrydium, Podocarpus, Phyllocladus.
zedaguriulis es monakveTi SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc
klimaturi optimumi.
zedaguriulis bolos suraTi Seicvala (etapi VII).
sagrZnoblad gaizarda muqwiwvovanebis areali,
farTofoTlovanebs Soris dominirebdnen kakali da wifeli.
mcenareulobis amgvari xasiaTi miuTiTebs temperaturis dacemaze,
rac SesaZlebelia dakavSirebuli iyo guncur gamyinvarebasTan.

102
nax. 19. dasavleT saqarTvelos eopleistocenurisa da pleistocenuri
naleqebis Semajamebeli palinologiuri diagrama.
guriulis bolo monakveTis klimatis cvalebadobam
gamoiwvia floris gaRaribeba. gvimrebis, wiwvovanebis da
farulTeslovanebis Semadgenlobidan gaqra bevri pliocenuri
reliqti. radikalur cvlilebas adgili hqonda agreTve
mcenareulobis struqturaSi. polidominanturi tye gaiyo or
ZiriTad formaciad. qveda sartyelSi da dablobebze gavrcelda
Sereuli siTbozomieri tye; Sua sartyelSi gabatonda wifeli,
romelmac am droidan daiwyo oligo-monodominanturi formaciis
Camoyalibeba. zeda sartyeli, rogorc, wina epoqebSi, dakavebuli
hqonda muqwiwivovanebs: Abies, Picea, Tsuga.

103
cxr. XIV. dasavleT saqarTvelos kuialnikuri (egrisuli) da guriuli
naleqebis mcenareTa sia: m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi

kuialni-
klasi ojaxi saxeoba guriuli
kuri
1 2 3 4 5
Sphagnum aff.cuspidatum Ehrh.et
p
Briopsida Sphagnaceae Hoffm.
Sphagnum sp. p
Lycopodium alpinum L. p p
Lycopodium annotinum L. p p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium clavatum L. p p
Lycopodium selago L. p p
Lycopodium serratum Tunb. p p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p p
Selaginella sanguinolenta (L.) Spring. p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae
Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. p p
Selaginella aff.sibirica (Milde) Hieron p
Ophioglossop- Ophioglos- Botrychium sp. p p
sida saceae Ophioglossum sp p p
Osmunda cinnamomea L. p p
Osmundaceae Osmunda aff.claytoniana L p p
Osmunda regalis L. p p
Cryptogramma arctostichoides R.Br. p p
Cryptogramma crispa (L.) R.Br. p p
Cryptogramma sp. p p
Pteridacidites boerzoenyensis (Nagy)
p p
St., Sh. (Pteris aff.quadriaurita Retz.)
Pteridacidites dentatiformis Sh., St.
p
(Pteris dentata Forsk)
Pteridacidites grandifoliiformis St.,
Sh. (Pteris grandifolia L.) p
Pteridacidites guriensis Sh., St.
p p
(Pteris aff.togoensis Hieron)
Polypodiopsida

Pteridacidites kimmeriensis Sh.,St.


p
(Pteris sp.)
Pteridaceae

Pteridacidites longifoliiformis Sh.,


p
St. (Pteris longifolia L.)
Pteridacidites rarotuberculatum Sh.,
p
St.(Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites remotifolioides Sh.,
p p
St.(Pteris sp.)
Pteridacidites spiniverrucatum St.,
p
Sh (Pteris pellucida Pr.)
Pteridacidites variabilis St., Sh.
p p
(Pteris cretica L.)
Pteridacidites venustaeformis St., Sh.
p p
(Pteris venusta Kze.)
Pteridacidites verus (N.Mtchedl.)
p p
Sh., St. (Pteris aff.crenata Sw.)
Pteridacidites vittatoides Sh., St.
p p
(Pteris vittata L.)

104
1 2 3 4 5
Anogramma sp. p p
Adiantaceae
Pityrogramma sp. p
Polypodium aureum L. p p
Polypodium australe Fee. p p
Polypodium pliocenicum Ram. p p
Polypodium verrucatum Ram. p p
Polypodiaceae
Polypodium vulgare L. p p
Polypodium sp. p p
Verrucatosporites histiopteroides
p p
W.Kr.
Hymenophyl-
Hymenophyllum sp. p
laceae
Dicksonia antarctica R.Br. p
Dicksonia reticulata Purc. p p
Dicksoniaceae Dicksonia unitotuberata Purc. p p
Dicksonia aff. fibrosa Kol. p
Dicksonia sp. p p
Cyatheaceae Cyathea sp. p p
Thelypteraceae Thelypteris sp. p p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p p
Athyrium sp. p p
Polypodiopsida

Cystopteris sp. p p
Dryopteris sp. p p
Aspidiaceae Gymnocarpium sp. p p
Polystichum sp. p
Woodsia alpina (Bolton) S.F.Gray p p
Woodsia aff.polystichoides Eaton. p
Dacrydium sp. p p
Podocarpaceae
Podocarpus sp. p p
Phyllocladaceae Phyllocladus sp. p p
Abies alba Mill. p p
Abies aff.cephalonica Loud. p p
Abies ciliticaeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. p p
Cedrus deodara Loud. p p
Cedrus aff.libani Laws. p
Cedrus sauerae N.Mtchedl. p p
Pinaceae

Keteleeria caucasica Ram. p p


Picea complanataeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Picea minor N.Mtchedl. p p
Picea orientalis L. p p
Picea aff.schrenkiana F.et M. p p
Pinus sp. p p
Pseudotsuga sp. p p
Tsuga aculeata Anan. p p

105
1 2 3 4 5
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. p p
Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. p p
Tsuga inordinata Mched. p p
Tsuga korenevae Mched. p p
Tsuga meierii Mched. p p

Pinaceae
Tsuga patens Downie p p
Tsuga pattoniana Engelm. p p
Tsuga shatilovae Mched. p p
Tsuga sivakii Mched. p p
Tsuga tortuosa Mched. p p
Polypodiopsida

Tsuga aff. blaringhemi Flous p p


Tsuga aff.yunnanensis Mast. p p
Sciadopitys verticillatiformis Scht.et
Sciadopityaceae p p
Ram.
Cryptomeria japonica Don p p
Cunninghamia sp. p
Glyptostrobus sp. p
Taxodiaceae Metasequoia sp. p p
Sequoia sp. p p
Taxodium sp. p p
Taxodiaceae gen. indet. p p
Juniperus sp. p
Cupressaceae Libocedrus sp. p
Cupressaceae gen. indet. p p
Ephedra distachya L. p p
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae
Ephedra sp. p p
Comptonia sp. p
Myricaceae
Myrica sp. p p
Carya aquatica (Michx.) Nutt. p p
Carya cordiformis (Wangh.) C.Koch p p
Carya ovata (Mill.) C.Koch p p
Carya aff. glabra (Mill.) Sweet. p p
Carya aff.texana DC p
Carya sp. p p
Cyclocarya aff. paliurus (Batalin)
Dicotyledoneae

p p
Iljinsk.
Engelhardia sp. p p
Juglandaceae Juglans cinerea L. p p
Juglans nigra L. p p
Juglans regia L. p p
Juglans aff.rupestris Engelm. p
Platycarya sp. p p
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.)
p p
Kunth.
Pterocarya aff.rhoifolia Sieb. et Zucc. p p
Pterocarya aff.stenoptera DC p p
Pterocarya sp. p p

106
1 2 3 4 5
Salicaceae Salix sp. p p
Alnus sp. p p
Betula sp. p p
Carpinus betulus L. p p
Betulaceae Carpinus caucasica Grossh. p p
Carpinus orientalis Mill. p p
Corylus avellana L. p p
Corylus sp. p p
Castanea sativa Mill. p p
Fagaceae Fagus orientalis Lipsky p p
Quercus sp. p p
Celtis sp. p p
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. p p
Ulmus laevis Pall. p p
Ulmus propinqua Koidz. p
Ulmaceae
Ulmus sp. p p
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dipp. p p
Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Macino p
Zelkova sp. p p
Eucommiaceae Eucommia aff.ulmoides Oliv. p
Moraceae Morus alba L. p p
Polygonum persicaria L. p p
Dicotyledoneae

Polygonaceae
Polygonum sp. p p
Caryophyllaceae Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. p p
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Liriodendron tulipifera L. p p
Magnolia denudata Desr. p p
Magnoliaceae
Magnolia grandiflora L. p p
Magnolia sp. p p
Annonaceae Annona sp. p p
Ranunculaceae Helleborus sp. p
Menispermaceae Menispermum sp. p
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaeaceae gen.indet. p
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis L. p p
Altingia aff.excelsa Nor. p
Fortunearia aff.sinensis Reid.et Wils. p
Hamameli-
daceae Liquidambar formosana Hance p p
Liquidambar styraciflua L. p p
Parrotia persica (DC) C.A.M. p
Kerria sp. p
Rosaceae
Rosaceae gen. indet. p p
Geraniaceae Geraniaceae gen.indet. p p
Rhus toxicodendron L. p p
Anacardiaceae
Rhus sp. p p
Aceraceae Acer aff.platanoides L. p p
Aquifoliaceae Ilex sp. p p
Celastraceae Euonymus sp. p p
Staphyleaceae Staphylea colchica Stev. p p

107
1 2 3 4 5
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)
p
Vitaceae Planch.
Vitis aff.forestalensis Trav. p
Tilia caucasica Rupr. p p
Tilia cordata Mill. p p
Tilia ledebourii Borb. p
Tiliaceae Tilia platyphyllos Scop. p p
Tilia tomentosa Moench. p p
Tilia aff.grandipollinia Trav. p p
Tilia aff. taqueti C. Schneid. p p
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus sp. p
Onagraceae Epilobium sp. p p
Alangiaceae Alangium aff. kurzii Craib. p p
Nyssa sylvatica L. p
Nyssaceae Nyssa aff.ingentipollinia Trav. p
Nyssa sp. p p
Dicotyledoneae

Cornaceae Cornus sp. p p


Aralia aff.hispida Michx. p p
Araliaceae Hedera colchica C.Koch. p
Fatsia sp. p
Turgenia latifolia Hoffm. p
Apiaceae
Apiaceae gen. indet. p p
Ericaceae Rhododendron sp. p p
Symplocos cf.paniculata Wall. p p
Symplocaceae Symplocos cf.tinctoria (L.) L’ Her p p
Symplocos sp. p p
Fraxinus sp. p p
Oleaceae
Ligustrum vulgare L. p
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus sp. p
Lonicera sp. p p
Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum sp. p
Lamiaceae Lamiaceae gen. indet. p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p p
Cephalaria sp. p p
Dipsacaceae Knautia sp. p p
Scabiosa sp. p p
Artemisia sp. p p
Asteraceae
Asteraceae gen.indet. p p
Liliaceae Liliaceae gen.indet. p
Monocotyle- Poaceae Poaceae gen. indet. p p
doneae Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p p
Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. p p

108
plioceni da eopleistoceni (aRmosavleTi
saqarTvelo)

pliocenuri epoqa

a RC a gi l ur i s a r T ul i

TiTqmis mTeli pliocenuris ganmavlobaSi aRmosavleT


saqarTvelo warmoadgenda xmeleTs. mimdinareobda mZlavri
kontinentaluri wyebebis akumulacia, romlebsac dResac ukaviaT
sakmaod didi farTobi. erTi da igive asakis naleqebs aqvT
sxvadasxva saxeli, geografiuli adgilmdebareobis mixedviT.
meotur-ponturi asakis Sreebs qarTlis teritoriaze gamoyofen
duSeTis wyebis saxeliT, romelic aRmosavleTiT gadadis Siraqis
wyebaSi.mdinare ioris midamoebSi aRCagiluri sarTulis Sreebi
warmodgenilia zRviuri da kontinentaluri naleqebiT (cxr.XII).
moluskuri faunis safuZvelze sarTuli iyofa sam nawilad. qveda
nawili Seicavs erTferovan faunas, romelic SuaaRCagilurSi
icvleba mdidari da mravalferovani kompleqsiT. zedaaRCagiluri
fauna ki auzis gamtknarebaze miuTiTebs (Булеишвили, 1960; Джикия,
1977).
pirveli monacemebi aRCagiluri floris Sesaxeb ekuTvnis
palibins (Палибин, Цирина, 1934; Палибин и др. 1934). SemdgomSi
makronaSTebi (nax. 13) iyo aRwerili uznaZis (Узнадзе, 1965),
ratianis (Ратиани, 1972a, ) da doliZis (Долидзе, 1970, 1999) mier.
ratianis monacemebiT aRCagilur floraSi sagrZnoblad izrdeba
xmelTaSuazRvis elementebis roli. qserofitizacia, romelic
daiwyo zedamiocenurSi, gaZlierda pliocenurSi da mcena-
reulobam SeinarCuna xmelTaSuazRviseburi ieri.
doliZis (Долидзе, 1999) azriT aRCagilur dros aRmosavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze (kaxeTi) arsebobda Semdegi dajgu-
febebi: Walis tye, mezofiluri formacia da subtropikuli
qserofituli cenozebi - stepebi da meCxeri tyeebi. qveda da Sua
sartyelebSi gavrcelebuli iyo farTofoTlovani tye da
wiwvovani formacia, romlis arsebobis Sesaxeb SeiZleba msjeloba
mxolod palinologiuri analizis safuZvelze (palinologiuri
analizi Sesrulebulia yvavaZis mier).
ioris zeganis aRCagiluri naleqebi Seswavlilia agreTve
palinologiurad (Векуа, Квавадзе, 1992; Kvavadze, Vekua, 1993).

109
nimuSebi aRebulia qvabebis xerxemlianTa faunis
adgilsapovebelis SuaaRCagiluri naleqebidan, romlis Seswavlis
Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom ioris zeganis didi nawili dafaruli iyo
savanismagvari mcenareulobiT da balaxovani stepebiT. qveda
sartyeli dakavebuli hqonda Walis tyes, romlis ZiriTadi
komponenti iyo muryani da Wadari. mSral niadagebze
gavrcelebuli iyo wifeli, muxa, kakali. tyis qveda iaruss
qmnidnen Ilex, Rhododendron, Carpinus orientalis da sxva. gvarebis Betula,
Pinus, Cedrus, Abies Sequoia da Picea-s mtvris marcvlebis arseboba
miuTiTebs Sua da zeda sartyelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli
mcenareulobis ganviTarebaze.
SuaaRCagiluris klimati uaxlovdeboda xmelTaSuazRvis
klimats, rbili notio zamTriT da mSrali, cxeli zafxuliT (Векуа,
Квавадзе, 1981).

eopleistocenuri epoqa

a fS e r o n uli sa r T ul i

afSeronuli naleqebi gavrcelebulia aRmosavleT kaxeTis


teritoriaze, sadac isini TanxmobiT agrZeleben aRCagilurs
(Булеишвили, 1960). misi mcenareTa naSTebi aRwera uznaZem (Узнадзе,
1965). floris SemadgenlobaSi aRnusxuli 12 formidan, mxolod
Acer pseudomonospessulanum ar gvxvdeba saqarTvelos Tanamedrove
floraSi.
ZiriTadi cnobebi afSeronul floraze efuZneba
palinologiur monacemebs. dmanisSi Zvlebis Semcveli Sreebidan
(sur. 13), romlis asaki gansazRvrulia 1.8Ma (Savi zRvis regionSi
es asaki Seesabameba guriuli Sreebis qveda sazRvars)
palinologiuri analizis saSualebiT Seswavlilia afTaris
koprolitebi (Kvavadze, Vekua, 1993).
koprolitis palinologiuri speqtri Seicavs
mravalricxovani taqsonebis mtvris marcvlebs, romelic
miekuTvneba sxvadasxva ekologiur jgufs. gabatonebulia
balaxebis palinomorfebi (60-52%); xemcenareebis raodenoba
Seadgens 32-38%. Pinus, Alnus, Fagus-is mtvris marcvlebi gvxdeba

110
TiTqmis Tanabari raodenobiT. ufro maRal procentul
raodenobas aRwevs Castanea, Tilia, Carpinus; erTeuli egzemplarebiT
warmodgenilia Ulmus da Salix. buCqebs Soris Warboben
Rhododendron, Corylus, Vaccinium. balaxovnebidan aRsaniSnavia
taqsonebis Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia,
Fabaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae, Plumbaginaceae,
Ranunculaceae,Onagraceae, Geraniaceae-s warmomadgenlebi.
sporebs Soris Warboben erTRariani formebi
perisporiumis gareSe. gvxvdeba agreTve sporebi daculi
eqTegziniT. ZiriTadad isini ekuTvnis gvarebs Asplenium, Athyrium,
Blechnum, Dryopteris, Polystichum. ramdenime saxeobiTaa warmodgenili
gvari Lycopodium: L. alpinum, L. clavatum, L. selago, Lycopodium sp.
gansazRvruli iyo agreTve Bothrychium sp., Selaginella selaginoides da
Sphagnum-is sporebi. palinologiuri monacemebis ekologiuri
analizis saSualebiT aRdgenilia mcenareulobis xasiaTi.
taqsonebi Selaginella selaginoides, Lycopodium alpinum da
Bothrychium miuTiTeben alpuri da, SesaZlebelia, subnivaluri
sartyelis arsebobaze. mTis tyeebis komponentebi iyo Abies, Betula,
Pinus da minarevis saxiT wifeli. mTis Sua sartyeli dafaruli iyo
farTofoTlovani jiSebiT _ wifeli, rcxila da Tela.
hipsometriulad qvemoT batonobda wabli, muxa da cacxvi. am tipis
mcenareuloba izrdeboda agreTve javaxeTis qedze da dmanisis
platoze. mdeloebi da stepebi vrceldeboda qveda sartyelSi da
dablobebze. afSeronulSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelos samxreTi
nawilis klimati iyo Tbili, maRali sinotiviT mTebSi da mSrali
_ dablobebze (Kvavadze, Vekua, 1993; Kvavadze, 1997).

111
cxr. XV. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos aRCagiluri da afSeronuli
naleqebis mcenareTa sia: m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi

aRCagi- afSero-
klasi ojaxi saxeoba
luri nuli
1 2 3 4 5

Briopsida Sphagnaceae Sphagnum sp. m p


Lycopodium alpinum L. p
Lycopodium aquifolium Scop. m
Lycopodium clavatum L. p
Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium selago L. p
Lycopodium serratum Tunb. p
Lycopodium sp. p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p
Selaginella selaginoides (L.)Link p
Selaginella aff.sibirica (Milde)
m
Hieron
Selaginella sp. m
Ophioglossopsida Ophioglossaceae Bothrychium sp. p
Pteridaceae Pteris sp. p
Polypodiaceae Polypodiaceae gen.indet. mp p
Polypodiopsida
Dennstaedti- Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. m
aceae Pteridium sp. m p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p
Athyrium sp. p
Cyclosorus (Lastrea) fischeri
m
Aspidiaceae

(Heer) Kol.
Polypodiopsida

Dryopteris mediterranea Fomin m


Dryopteris sp. p
Polystichum sp. p
Woodsia aff.polystichoides
p
Eaton
Blechnum spicata With. m
Blechnaceae
Blechnum sp. p
Abies sp. m p
Cedrus sp. mp p
Picea orientalis L. mp m
Picea sp. mp p
Pinaceae

Pinus eldarica Medw. m


Pinopsida

Pinus pithyusa Stev. m


Pinus sp. mp p
Pseudotsuga sp. p
Tsuga sp. mp
Sequoia langsdorfii (Brongn.)
Taxodiaceae m
Heer
Juniperus sp. mp p
Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae gen. indet. mp
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae Ephedra sp. mp

112
1 2 3 4 5
Myricaceae Myricaceae gen.indet. mp
Carya sp. mp
Juglans acuminata A.Br. m

Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L. m mp
Juglans sp. m p
Pterocarya paradisiaca (Ung.)
m
Iljinsk.
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.)
m m
Kunth.
Populus alba L. m
Populus nigra L. m
Populus populina (Brongn.)
m
Knobl.
Populus tremula L. m m
Salix alba L. m
Salix apoda Trautv. m
Salicaceae

Salix caprea L. m
Salix caucasica L. m
Salix cinerea L. m
Salix integra Goepp. m
Salix pentandra L. m
Dicotyledoneae

Salix purpurea L. m
Salix triandra L. m
Salix varians Goepp. m
Salix sp. m p
Alnus ducalis (Gaud.) Knobl. m
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaerth. m
Alnus hoernesi Stur m
Alnus subcordata C.A.M. m
Alnus sp. p p
Betula alba L. m
Betulaceae

Betula raddeana Trautv. m


Betula sp. p p
Carpinus grandis Ung. m
Carpinus caucasica Grossh. p p
Carpinus orientalis Mill. mp p
Corylus avellana L. m m
Corylus colurna L. m
Corylus sp. mp p
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. m
Castanea sativa Mill. m
Fagaceae

Castanea sp. p p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky mp p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky var.
m m
palibini Iljinsk.

113
1 2 3 4 5
Fagus sp. m
Quercus cerris L. m

Fagaceae
Quercus iberica Stev. m
Quercus pseudocastanea Goepp. m
Quercus robur L. m
Quercus sosnowskyi Kol. m
Quercus sp. mp
Celtis sp. m p
Ulmus campestris L. m
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. m
Ulmus longifolia Ung. m
Ulmus suberosa Moench. mp
Ulmaceae Ulmus sp. p
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.)
m
Dipp.
Zelkova crenata Spath. m m
Zelkova zelkovifolia (Ung.)
m
Buzek et Kotlaba
Morus alba L. m
Morus andrussowii Palib. et
Moraceae m
Dicotyledoneae

Zyr.
Moraceae gen.indet. m
Urticaceae Urtica sp. p
Polygonum persicaria L. mp p
Polygonaceae
Polygonaceae gen.indet. m p
Plumbaginaceae Plumbago sp. p
Caryophyllaceae Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. mp mp
Chenopodium sp. p p
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. mp mp
Cinnamomum cinnamomeum
Lauraceae m
(Rossm.) Holl.
Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae gen.indet. p
Platanaceae Platanus sp. mp p
Liquidambar europaea A.Br. m
Hamameli-
Liquidambar sp. m
daceae
Hamamelidaceae gen.indet. m
Amelanchier vulgaris Moench. m
Cotoneaster racemiflora (Desf.)
m
C.Koch
Crataegus sp. m
Rosaceae Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. m
Laurocerasus pliocenica (Laur.)
m
Kol.
Rosa sp. m
Prunus mahaleb L. m

114
1 2 3 4 5
Prunus persica S.et L. m
Prunus spinosa L. m
Pyracantha coccinea Roem. m
Pyrus caucasica Fed. m
Rosaceae
Pyrus communis L. m m
Sorbus caucasigena Kom. m
Spiraea salicifolia L. m
Rosaceae gen. indet. p
Geraniaceae Geraniaceae gen.indet. p
Caesalpiniaceae Cercis siliquastrum L. m
Gleditschia caspica Desf. m
Lespedeza bicolor Trun. m
Fabaceae
Onobrychis radiata N.B. m
Fabaceae gen.indet. m p
Cotinus coggygria (L.) Scop. m
Anacardiaceae Pistacia lentiscus L. m
Pistacia terebinthus L. m
Acer decipiens A.Br. m
Acer ibericum N.B. m
Aceraceae Acer insigne Boiss.et Buhse m
Dicotyledoneae

Acer saliense (Andr.) Kol.et Rat. m


Acer tataricum L. m m
Aquifoliaceae Ilex horrida Sap. m
Euonymus latifolia Scop. m
Celastraceae
Euonymus sp. m
Frangula alnus Mill. m
Frangula grandifolia (F.etM.)
m
Grub.
Paliurus aculeatus LAM. m
Rhamnaceae Rhamnus cathartica L. m
Rhamnus microcarpa Boiss. m
Ziziphus jujuba Mill. m
Ziziphus sp. m
Vitaceae Vitis silvestris Gmel. m
Tilia caucasica Rupr. p p
Tiliaceae Tilia platyphyllos Scop. m
Tilia sp. mp p
Elaeagnaceae Hippophaë sp. m
Onagraceae Onagraceae gen.indet. m p
Punicaceae Punica granatum L. m
Cornus mas L. m
Cornaceae
Cornus sp. p
Araliaceae Hedera colchica C.Koch. m
Apiaceae Apiaceae gen. indet. p
Rhododendron sp. mp p
Ericaceae Vaccinium sp. p
Ericaceae gen.indet. m

115
1 2 3 4 5
Myrsinaceae Myrsinaceae gen.indet. m
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L. m
Periplocaceae Periploca graeca L. m
Fraxinus excelsior L. m
Oleaceae
Ligustrum vulgare L. m
Sambucus racemosa L. m
Dicotyledoneae

Viburnum orientalis Pall. m


Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum opulus L. m
Caprifoliaceae gen.indet. m
Lamiaceae Lamiaceae gen. indet. mp p
Scrophulariaceae Linaria sp. m
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. mp p
Valeriana sp. m
Valerianaceae
Valerianaceae gen.indet. m
Artemisia sp. mp p
Asteraceae
Asteraceae gen.indet. mp p
Phragmites communis Trin. m
Poaceae
Poaceae gen. indet. mp p
Monocotyle- Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. m
doneae
Carex sp. mp
Cyperaceae Cyperaceae gen.indet. mp p

pleistocenuri epoqa (dasavleTi saqarTvelo)


pleistocenuri zRviuri naleqebi cnobilia mxolod
dasavleT saqarTveloSi. faunisturi monacemebis safuZvelze
gamoiyofa Semdegi stratigrafiuli erTeulebi: Cauduri,
Zvelevqsinuri, uzunlaruli, karangatuli da axalevqsinuri (cxr.
XV1).
cxr. XVI. dasavleT saqarTvelos pleistocenuri naleqebis
stratigrafiuli sqema (Китовани и др., 1991)
seqcia sarTulebi horizontebi

0.01 axalevqsinuri
zeda
karangatuli
pleistocenuri

0.1 qveda
uzunlaruli
omfareTiს
Zvelevqsinuri
0.4 urekiს
wvermaRalaს
Cauduri
0.9 natanebiს

116
pleistocenurisTvis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli niSania
gamyinvareba. kavkasiaSi gamyimvarebis periodebis raodenobaze
arsebobs sxvadasxva mosazreba. maruaSvilis (Маруашвили и др.,
1991) azriT yvelaze SesamCnevia risuli (Suapleistocenuri) da
vurmuli (zedapleistocenuri) gamyinvarebis kvali. mindeluriT
dawyebuli, sami gamyinvarebis morenebis arsebobas, aRniSnavda
wereTeli (Церетели, 1966, 1977). am avtoris mixedviT kavkasiis
gamyinvareba ruseTis dablobis asinqronulia, magram Tavsdeba
erT yinulovan ciklSi.

C a ud ur i s a r T ul i

dasavleT saqarTvelos Cauduri auzi guriulze patara


zomis iyo, magram ufro didi vidre Tanamedrove Savi zRva.
moluskuri faunis safuzvelze Cauduri sarTuli iyofa or
nawilad: qveda anu natanebis da zeda anu wvermaRalas
horizontebad (Китовани и др., 1982, Китовани и др., 1986, 1991).

nax. 20 paleofloristuli naSTebis adgilsapoveblebi saqarTvelos


pleistocenur naleqebSi.

Cauduri naleqebidan namarxi masala pirvelad Seagrova


palibinma (Палибин, 1930a, 1931) iakobis mTaze da gadasca yara-
murzas (Кара-Мурза, 1941). am avtoris mier gansazRvruli iyo 21
mcenare, romelTagan mxolod Alnus velutinum-i ar gvxvdeba

117
Tanamedrove floraSi. SemdgomSi es adgilsapovebeli veRar
dafiqsirda. amitom dasavleT saqarTveloSi amJamad cnobilia
makronaSTebis Semcveli ori Wrili: mdinare WaxvaTaze da sof.
xvarbeTis midamoebSi (nax. 20). orive maTgani Seswavlilia
CoCievas mier (Чочиева, 1965, 1975, 1985). Cauduri naleqebi Zalian
mdidaria palinomorfebiTac. palinologiuri masala iyo
aRwerili rogorc bunebrivi Wrilebidan, ise burRilebidan
(Мамацашвили, 1975; Мчедлишвили, 1984; Шатилова, 1967, 1974;
Шатилова, Мчедлишвили, 1980; Shatilova et al., 2006).
Cauduri mcenareulobis ganviTareba, romelic aRdgenilia
landSaftur-fitocenologiuri meTodiT saSualebas gvaZlevs
gamoiyos sami etapi: VII, VIII da IX (nax. 21). guriulis bolos da
Cauduris dasawyisSi (nax.18,19,21) sxva danarCeni cenozebis arealis
Semcirebis fonze mcenareuli safaris ZiriTadi formacia iyo
muqwiwvovani tye (etapi VII).
qvedaCauduris meore naxevari (etapiVIII) gamoirCeva
gansxvavebuli mcenareulobiT. Sua sartyelSi gavrcelda wiflis
tye, romlis formireba daiwyo ukve zedaguriulSi, roca
orogenetuli procesebis gavleniT (Когошвили, 1977; Цагарели 1980)
warmoiSva axali ekologiuri niSebi, sadac wiflis
ganviTarebisTvis optimaluri porobebi Seiqmna. zogadad,
wiflnarebis ganviTarebis procesi ar iyo Tanabari. Cauduris
dasawyisSi (etapi V11) muqwiwvovan da farTofoTlovan tyeebSi
wifeli iyo minarevi. mogvianebiT (etapi VIII) Camoyalibda oligo-
monodominanturi formacia, magram misi areali ar iyo stabiluri.
Cveni varaudiT, es movlena gamoiwvia temperaturis cvalebadobam,
radgan dRes Fagus orientalis-sis zeda sazRvari
damokidebulia,rogorc am faqtorze, ise zamTris naleqebis
raodenobaze. maqsimalur ganviTarebas es mcenare aRwevs roca
zafxulis temperatura 17-200C-is farglebSia, xolo naleqebis
wliuri raodenoba ara naklebia 700-1400 mm-s (Долуханов, 1989).
amgvarad, Cveni daskvna, rom wiflis arastabiluri areali iyo
dakavSirebuli temperaturul fluqtuaciebTan, marTebulia,
radgan tenianoba mTeli Cauduris ganmavlobaSi iyo maRali da
TiTqmis ucvleli.
qvedaCauduris meore naxevrisTvis (etapi VIII)
damaxasiaTebeli taqsonia ojaxi Taxodiaceae, romlis
warmomadgenlebs ekavaT didi areali WaxvaTas da gansakuTrebiT
xvarbeTis makrofloris daleqvis dros. bolo periodi iyo,
albaT, klimaturi optimumi, razedac am makrofloris

118
SemadgenlobaSi subtropikuli pliocenuri reliqtebis arsebobac
miuTiTebs (Чочиева, 1975, 1985).
xvarbeTis makrofloraSi ojaxi Taxodiaceae-s naSTebis
siWarbe doluxanovis (Долуханов, 1989) azriT gamowveuli iyo
acivebiT, ris gamo es mcenareebi migrirebdnen qveda sartyelSi.
Cveni varaudiT, mTavari faqtori gaxda wiflis cenozebis
Camoyalibeba Sua sartyelSi, sadac warmoiSva am mcenarisaTvis
xelsayreli pirobebi. wifelma gandevna taqsodiumisebrni da sxva
Termofiluri mcenareebi tyis qveda sartyelSi. aq Camoyalibda
Sereuli tyis formacia, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Taxodiaceae-s
garda iyo Juglans, Zelkova, Acer, Tilia da pliocenuri reliqtebi:
Myrica, Platycarya, Engelhardia, Magnolia, Nyssa, Liquidambar, Symplocos,
Carya.

nax. 21. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa Cauduris
ganmavlobaSi.

119
zedaCaudurSi (etapi IX) dasavleT saqarTvelos floris da
mcenareulobis Semadgenloba mkveTrad Seicvala. sagrZnoblad
Semcirda pliocenuri reliqtebis Semadgenloba da ojaxis
Taxodiaceae gvarebis raodenoba. agreTve Semcirda gvaris Tsuga-s
saxeobebis raodenoba, ris gamo am mcenarem mTlianad dakarga
tyis dominantis pozicia (Мчедлишвили, 1984).
qvedaCaudurSi mcenareulobis zonaloba iyo mkveTrad
gamoxatuli. zeda da Sua sartyelSi klimati iyo zomieri, romelic
reliefis qveda doneebze icvleboda siTbozomieriT. tenianoba
iyo maRali. zedaCaudurSi, ki piriqiT, mcenreulobis zonaloba
iyo TiTqmis waSlili da mTis yvela doneze dominirebda
muqwiwvovani tye, romlis gavrcelebis farglebSi batonobda
zomieri hava.
sakiTxi qvedapleistocenurSi gamyinvarebis ricxvis Sesaxeb
bevr mklevars aqvs ganxiluli (Федоров, 1978; Церетели, 1966;
Зубаков, 1986). borzenkovas (Борзенкова, 1992) azriT am dros adgili
hqonda or klasikur gamyinvarebas (guncurs da mindelurs),
romlebic gayofilia gamyinvarebaTaSorisi periodiT.
dasavleT saqarTvelos eopleistocenuri da
qvedapleistocenuri naleqebis palinologiuri monacemebis
analizis safuZvelze SeiZleba gamoiyos: guncuri gamyinvareba,
guncur-mindeluri gamyinvarebaTaSorisi epoqa da mindeluri
gamyinvareba. pirvels asakobrivad Seesabameba guriulis zeda da
Cauduris qveda Sreebi (etapi VII); meores - qveda Cauduris zeda
nawili - yvelaze Tbili VIII etapi, xolo mindelur gamyinvarebas
_ mTeli zeda Cauduri anu wvermaRalas Sreebi (etapi IX).

120
cxr. XVII. dasavleT saqarTvelos Cauduri naleqebis mcenareTa sia:
m – makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi
qveda zeda
klasi ojaxi saxeoba Caoduri Caoduri
1 2 3 4 5
Lycopodium clavatum L. p p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae Lycopodium selago L. p p
Lycopodium sp. p
Selaginella fusca N.Mtchedl. p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella selaginoides (L.) Link. p
Selaginella sp. p
Ophioglos- Bothrychium sp. p p
Ophioglossaceae
sopsida Ophioglossum sp p
Osmunda cinnamomea L. p p
Osmundaceae
Osmunda regalis L. p p
Cryptogramma arctostichoides R.Br. p
Cryptogramma crispa (L.)R.Br. p p
Pteridaceae
Pteris cretica L.
p p
(Pteridacidites variabilis St.et Sh.)
Polypodium aureum L. p
Polypodium australe Fee. p p
Polypodiaceae
Polypodium vulgare L. p p
Polypodiopsida Polypodium sp. p
Cyatheaceae Cyathea sp. p
Thelypteridaceae Thelypteris sp. p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p
Athyrium sp. p
Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. p
Aspidiaceae Dryopteris sp. p
Gymnocarpium sp. p
Polystichum sp. p
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus sp. p
Taxaceae Taxus sp. mp
Abies aff.cephalonica Loud. p p
Abies ciliticaeformis N.Mtchedl. p p
Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. mp p
Cedrus deodara Loud. p p
Cedrus sauerae N.Mtchedl. p
Picea minor N.Mtchedl. p
Pinopsida

Picea orientalis L.
Pinaceae

mp p
Pinus sosnowskyi Nakai p
Pinus sp. p p
Pseudotsuga sp. p
Tsuga aculeata Anan. p
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. mp p
Tsuga diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast. mp p
Tsuga europaea (Menzel) Szafer m
Tsuga inordinata Mched. p
Tsuga korenevae Mched. p p

121
1 2 3 4 5
Tsuga meierii Mched. p p
Tsuga patens Downie p p

Pinaceae
Tsuga shatilovae Mched. p p
Tsuga sivakii Mched. p
Tsuga tortuosa Mched. p
Tsuga aff. blaringhemi Flous p
Tsuga aff.yunnanensis (Frangh.) Mast. p
Athrotaxis annae Choch. m
Athrotaxis sp. m
Cryptomeria japonica Don p p
Cryptomeria sp. mp
Cunninghamia sp. p
Taxodiaceae

Metasequoia cf.glyptostroboides Hu
m
et Cheng
Pinopsida

Metasequoia sp. mp
Sequoia langsdorfii (Brongn.) Heer m
Sequoia cf.sempervirens (Lamb.) Endl. m
Sequoia sp. mp p
Sequoiadendron sp. mp
Taxodium sp. p p
Cupressus cf.sempervirens L. m
Cupressus sp. mp
Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb.et Zucc. m
Cupressaceae

Chamaecyparis cf.pisifera Sieb.et Zucc. m


Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (Lamb.)
m
Spach
Chamaecyparis sp. m
Juniperus sp. mp
Libocedrus sp. p
Thuja occidentalis L. m
Ephedra distachya L. p
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae
Ephedra sp. p p
Myricaceae Myrica sp. p
Carya aquatica (Michx.) Nutt. p p
Carya aff.texana DC p
Carya sp. mp
Engelhardia sp. p
Juglans cinerea L. mp
Dycotyledoneae

Juglandaceae Juglans nigra L. p


Juglans regia L. p p
Platycarya sp. p
Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.) Kunth. mp p
Pterocarya rhoifolia Sieb. et Zucc. p
Pterocarya stenoptera DC p
Pterocarya sp. p
Populus tremula L. m
Salicaceae Salix caprea L. m
Salix sp. p

122
1 2 3 4 5
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaerth. m
Alnus sp. mp p
Betula sp. mp p
Carpinus betulus L. m
Carpinus caucasica Grossh. p p
Betulaceae Carpinus orientalis Mill. mp p
Carpinus sp. m
Corylis avellana L. mp p
Corylus cf.colurna L. m
Corylus aff.maxima Mill. p
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. m
Castanea sativa Mill. mp
Fagus orientalis Lipsky p p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky var. palibini
m
Iljinsk.
Quercus cerris L. m
Fagaceae Quercus hartwissiana Stev. m
Quercus aff.castaneifolia C.A.Mey p
Quercus aff.petraea Liebl. p
Quercus aff.pontica C.Koch p
Quercus aff.pseudorobur Kov. m
Quercus sp. mp p
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. mp
Ulmus laevis Pall. p
Dycotyledoneae

Ulmaceae
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dipp. p p
Zelkova serrata (Thunb.) Macino p
Ficus sp. p
Moraceae
Morus alba L. p
Polygonum sp. mp
Polygonaceae
Rumex sp. m
Stellaria sp. p
Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. p
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p
Magnolia denudata Desr. p
Magnoliaceae
Magnolia aff.acuminata L. p
Ranunculus sp. mp
Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum sp. p
Euryale ferox Salisb. m
Nymphaeaceae
Nuphar sp. p
Eurya cf.stigmosa (Ludw.) Mai m
Theaceae
Stuartia emarginata Choch. m
Papaveraceae Papaver sp. m
Hypericaceae Hypericum sp. m
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis L. p
Hamamelidaceae Liquidambar styraciflua L. p
Laurocerasus officinalis (L.) Roem. m
Prunus sp. m
Rosa canina L. p
Rosaceae Rosa sp. p
Rubus cf.idaeus L. m
Rubus sp. m
Sanguisorba sp. p

123
1 2 3 4 5
Geraniaceae Geranium sp. p p
Rutaceae Phellodendron aff.amurense Rupr. p
Anacardiaceae Rhus sp. p
Acer campestre L. m
Acer ibericum M.B. m
Acer polymorphum pliocenicum
m
Aceraceae Sap.
Acer pseudoplatanus L. m
Acer cf.velutinum Boiss. m
Acer sp. mp
Hippocastanaceae Aesculus hippocastanum L. mp
Ilex colchica Pojark, p p
Aquifoliaceae Ilex cf.aquifolium L. m
Ilex sp. p
Celastraceae Euonymus sp. p
Staphyleaceae Staphylea colchica Stev. p
Buxaceae Buxus sempervirens L. m
Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)
p
Vitaceae Planch.
Vitis silvesrtis Gmel. m
Tilia caucasica Rupr.
Dycotyledoneae

p p
Tilia cordata Mill. mp
Tilia ledebouri Borb. p
Tiliaceae
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. p
Tilia tomentosa Moench. p
Tilia aff.grandipollinia Trav. p
Violaceae Viola sp. p
Epilobium sp. p
Onagraceae Chamaenerium aff.angustifolium (L.)
p
Scop.
Trapa lydiae Choch. m
Trapaceae
Trapa sp. m
Nyssaceae Nyssa sp. p
Cornaceae Cornus sp. p
Hedera colchica C.Koch. mp
Hedera helix L. mp
Araliaceae
Fatsia aff.japonica (Thunb.) Decne et
p
Planch.
Bifora sp. m
Heracleum guriensis Choch. m
Apiaceae
Heracleum sp, m
Turgenia latifolia Hoffm. p
Rhododendron ponticum L. m
Ericaceae
Vaccinium sp. p
Ebenaceae Diospyros lotus L. m

124
1 2 3 4 5
Symplocos chvarbetica Choch. m
Symplocaceae Symplocos cf.paniculata Wall. p
Symplocos cf.tinctoria (L.) L’ Her p
Symplocos sp. p
Fraxinus oxycarpa Willd. p
Oleaceae Fraxinus sp. p
Ligustrum vulgare L. p
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus sp. p
Dycotyledoneae

Lycopus europaeus L. m
Lamiaceae Lycopus exaltatus L. m
Lycopus sp. p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p p
Lonicera sp. p
Caprifoliaceae
Sambucus sp. m
Valerianaceae Valeriana sp. p p
Cephalaria sp. p p
Dipsacaceae Knautia sp. p p
Scabiosa sp. p p
Artemisia sp. p p
Asteraceae
Eupatorium cannabinum L. m
Najadaceae Najas marina L. m
Liliaceae Liliaceae gen.indet. p p
Iridaceae Iris sp. p p
Phragmites communis Trin. m
Monocotyledoneae

Poaceae
Poaceae gen. indet. p p
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p p
Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. p
Carex cf.riparia Currtt. m
Carex sp. m
Cyperaceae Dulichium spathaceum Pers. m
Dulichium vespiforme Reid. m
Scirpus sp. p

125
Z ve le v q s in ur i da uz un la r ul i sa r T ul e bi

dasavleT saqarTveloSi zedaCaudurs (wvermaRalas


horizonti) Tavze adevs Zvelevqsinuri sarTuli. aseTi mimdevroba
Cans bunebriv WrilebSi, zRviur terasebze da kolxeTis dablobze
(Имнадзе, 1975; Имнадзе и др. 1975; Китовани и др. 1982, 1991; Лалиев,
1957; Мамаладзе, 1975; Церетели, 1966; Федоров, 1978).
Zvelevqsinuris flora aRdgenilia palinologiuri
monacemebis safuZvelze (Мамацашвили, 1975; Чочиева, Мамацашвили,
1977, 1991; Чочиева и др., 1982; Шатилова, 1974; Шатилова, Мчедлишвили,
1980; Шатилова, Рамишвили, 1990; Shatilova et al., 2010a). rogorc
bunebriv, ise burRilebis WrilebSi, Zvelevqsinuris
palinokompleqsebSi maRal procentul Semadgenlobas aRweven
naZvi, soWi da taqsodiumisebrni, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi
Cauduris Semdeg rCeba oTxi gvari: Taxodium, Cryptomerya,
Glyptostrobus da Sequoia (nax. 19).
taqsodiumisebrTa mtvris marcvlebis siWarbe zRvispira
dablobebze Walisa da Waobiani tyeebis farTo ganviTarebis
maCvenebelia. Sereul wiwvovan-farTofoTlovan cenozebs
dakavebuli hqonda mTis qveda sartyeli. am tyeebis mTavari
komponentebi iyo Sequoia, Cryptomerya da agreTve muryani, lafani,
Tela. Sua sartyelSi batonobda wifeli, hipsometriulad zemoT ki
muqwiwvovanebi - soWi da naZvi. cuga, minarevis saxiT,
warmodgenili iyo mxolod ori saxeobiT. Zvelevqsinuris Sua
monakveTebSi adgili hqonda muqwiwvovanebis arealis
gafarToebas, rac, albaT, dakavSirebuli iyo temperaturis
dawevasTan (nax.22).
Zvelevqsinurs Tavze adevs uzunlaruli. am sarTulis
flora Seswavlilia palinologiuri analiziT da makronaSTebiT
(Чочиева, 1980; Шатилова, 1982; Шатилова, Мчедлишвили, 1980; Shatilova
et al. 2010a).
uzunlarulSi Seicvala mcenareulobis xasiaTi. Walis da
Waobiani tyeebis mTavari komponenti gaxda muryani, qveda da Sua
sartylis farTofoTlovan cenozebs ki qmnidnen Fagus orientalis,
Castanea sativa, Carpinus caucasica. mcenareul safarSi Semcirda
taqsodiumisebrTa roli, magram, ZvelevqsinurTan SedarebiT,
Sereuli tye ufro mdidari da mravalferovani iyo (cxr. XVIII)

126
nax. 22. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc
maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa
Suapleistocenuris ganmavlobaSi.

Suapleistocenuri Tbili da notio haviT xasiaTdeboda.


ZveleqvsinurSi temperatura ufro dabali iyo, vidre
uzunlarulSi. Cveni varaudiT es periodi Seesabameba klimatur
optimums.
Suapleistocenuris ganmavlobaSi gamoiyofa ori etapi.
pirveli (etapi X), albaT, Seesabameboda mindelur-risul
interglacials, meore (etapi X1) ki – risul-vurmuls
sof. gordis midamoebSi gavrcelebuli tbiuri naleqebi
daTariRebulia Suapleistocenurad. am naleqebis
palinokompleqsebSi aRmoCenilia taqsodiumisebrTa mtvris
marcvlebi (Маруашвили и др. 1975, 1991).

127
k a ra n ga tul i d a a x a le v qs i n ur i s a r T ul e bi

karangatuli da axalevqsinuri sarTulebi warmodgenilia


zRviuri da terasuli naleqebiT. karangatuli flora
Seswavlilia makronaSTebiT (Ратиани, 1979) da palinologiuri
meTodiT (Арсланов и др., 1976; Квавадзе, Рухадзе 1999; Шатилова,
Бадзошвили 1966; Шатилова, 1974).
zedapleistocenurSi mesameuli drois reliqtebis ricxvi
mkveTrad Semcirda. cnobilia mxolod oTxi taqsoni: Cedrus
deodara, Carya aquatica, Parrotia pristina da Taxodium, romelTa
makronaSTebi aRmoCenili iyo agreTve kolxeTis dablobis
karangatul torfebSi (Слука, 1978). Savi zRvis regionSi
karangatulis Semdeg taqsodiumisebrni mTlianad gadaSendnen
(Koreneva, Kartashova, 1978).
adrekarangatulSi mTis zeda sartyeli aTvisebuli hqonda
muqwiwvovan formacias, sadac dominantebad Camoyalibdnen naZvi
da soWi (nax. 19,23). Sua sartyelSi gabatonda wifeli, qveda
sartyelSi da dablobebze ki Sereuli farTofoTlovani cenozebi.
Waobiani formacia, romlis SemadgenlobaSi gvxdeba Alnus barbata,
A. hoernesi, A. glutinosa, Pterocarya pterocarpa, Ulmus foliacea, U. scabra da
Taxodium-i did teritoriaze iyo gavrcelebuli.
adrekarangatuli epoqa, uzunlarulTan erTad, Cveni azriT,
Seesabameba risul-vurmul interglacials (etapi X1), romelic
gamoirCeoda Tbili, magram SedarebiT mSrali haviT (Маруашвили
и др.,1991).
gviankarangatulSi pirobebi Seicvala da daiwyo
muqwiwvovanebis migracia zevidan qveda sartyelebSi. es movlena,
SesaZlebelia, miviCnioT vurmuli gamyinvarebis pirvel gavlenad,
romelsac moyva sami stadiali, temperaturis progresuli
dacemiT (etapi XII).
axalevqsinurSi klimaturi pirobebis Sesaxeb cnobebi
emyareba Savi zRvis fskeridan amoRebuli naleqebis
palinologiur analizs. kompleqsis SemadgenlobaSi maRali
procentuli raodenobiT warmodgenilia Chenopodiaceae-s da
Artemisia-s mtvris marcvlebi (Нейштадт и др., 1965)
gvianpleistocenurSi am taqsonebis arseboba Savi zRvis regionSi,
civ klimatur pirobebze da myinvarebis aqtivobaze miuTiTebs.

128
cnobilia, rom gamyinvarebis maqsimumis dros zRvis done vardeba
da gaTavisuflebuli xmeleTis nawils ikaveben holofitebi.

nax. 23. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebadobisa
zedapleistocenuris ganmavlobaSi.
neiStatdis monacemebi emTxveva korenevas daskvnas
(Коренева, 1983). am avtoris azriT pleistocenurSi Savi zRvis
regresia ZiriTadad dakavSirebuli iyo gamyinvarebebTan, ris
gavleniTac iqmneboda specifikuri klimaturi pirobebi, romelic
vrceldeboda did farTobebze. mSrali haeri dabal
temperaturasTan erTad xels uwyobda gansakuTrebuli tipis
mcenareulobis warmoSobas - periglaciurs, romlis
SemadgenlobaSi iyo avSani da nacarqaTama.
saqarTvelos teritoriaze gvianpleistocenur acivebaze
miuTiTebs agreTve tbiur-aluviuri naleqebis palinologiuri
analizis Sedegebi (Тумаджанов, Гогичаишвили, 1969). avtorebs
Seswavlil naleqebSi aqvT gamoyofili ramdenime zona,
romelTagan yvelaze dabali zona Seesabameba vurmul epoqas. am

129
dros aRmosavleT saqarTvelos dablobebze ganviTarebuli iyo
civi tye-stepis tipis mcenareuloba, farTofoTlovani tyeebis
umniSvnelo gavrcelebiT. zedapleistocenurSi civi pirobebis
arsebobaze metyvelebs agreTve arqeologiuri da liTologiuri
monacemebi (Церетели, Майсурадзе 1980).
amgvarad, yvela zemoTmoyvanili monacemis safuZvelze
SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom zedapleistocenuris meore naxevarSi
saqarTvelos hava iyo ufro civi, vidre meoTxeuli drois wina
epoqebisa. veliCkos (Величко, 1973) Tanaxmad kontinentalizaciis
procesi, romelsac Tan sdevda aciveba, vrceldeboda uzarmazar
teritoriaze. am movlenis gavleniT Cndeba specifiuri tipis
mcenareuloba (balaxovan-buCqnari), romelic aRwevda Savi zRvis
regionamde. msgavsi mcenareuloba, gavrcelebuli iyo albaT,
upiratesad aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi. kolxeTSi, sadac
temperatura da tenianoba iyo ufro maRali, havis aciveba
ZiriTadad iwvevda wiwvovanebis migracias dabal sartyelebSi. am
dros farTofoTlovanebi Tavs afarebdnen Tbil xeobebs.
interstadialebis xelsayrel pirobebSi ki vrceldebodnen did
teritoriebze da myinvaris ukan daxevis Semdeg ikavebdnen
ganTavisuflebul adgilebs.
dasavleT saqarTvelos Sua da zeda pleistocenurSi
gamoiyofa sami etapi (X—XII). es etapebi erTmaneTisagan
ganasxvavdebodnen, ZiriTadad, temperaturuli monacemebiT, rac
dakavSirebuli iyo gamyinvarebis da gamyinvarebaTaSoris
periodebTan. Tbili etapebi (X, XI), romlebic Seesabameboda
Zvelevqsinur, uzunlarul da qvedakarangatul epoqebs, Cveni
varaudiT, iyo dakavSirebuli mindelur-risul da risul-vurmul
interglacialebTan. civi XII etapi, romelic daiwyo zeda
karangatulidan da gagrZelda axalevqsinuris bolomde,
Seesabameba vurmuli gamyinvarebis periods. risuli gamyinvarebis
kvali paleobotanikuri monacemebiT ar aris dafiqsirebuli.

130
cxr. XVIII. dasavleT saqarTvelos Zvelevqsinuri, uzunlaruli,
karangatuli da axalevqsinuri naleqebis mcenareTa sia: m –
makronaSTebi; p – palinomorfebi.
Zveli uzunla- karanga- axali
klasi ojaxi saxeoba evqsinuri ruli tuli evqsinuri
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Bryopsida Sphagnaceae Sphagnum sp. p
Lycopodium clavatum L. p p p p
Lycopodiop- Lycopodi-
Lycopodium selago L. p p p p
sida aceae
Lycopodium sp. p
Selaginella fusca
p
Selaginel- N.Mtchedl.
Isoëtopsida
laceae Selaginella selaginoides
p p p p
(L.) Link.
Ophioglos- Ophioglos- Bothrychium sp. p p p p
sopsida saceae Ophioglossum sp. p p p
Osmunda cinnamomea L. p
Osmundaceae
Osmunda regalis L. p p p p
Cryptogramma crispa
p p p
(L.)R.Br.
Pteridaceae Pteris cretica L.
(Pteridacidites variabilis p p p p
St., Sh.)
Polypodium australe
p p p p
Fee.
Polypodiaceae

Polypodium
p
pliocenicum Ram.
Polypodium vulgare L. p p p
Polypodium sp. p p p
Polypodiopsida

Polypodiaceae gen.indet. p
Dennstaedti-
Pteridium sp. p p
aceae
Thelypteri-
Thelypteris sp. p p p
daceae
Asplenium trichomanes L. p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p
Onoclea sp. p
Athyrium filix femina
p p
(L.) Röth
Cystopteris sp. p
Aspidiaceae

Dryopteris filix-mas
p
(L.) Schott
Dryopteris sp. p
Woodsia aff.alpina
p
(Bolt.) Grey
Woodsia glabella R.Br. p
Taxaceae Taxus sp. p
Abies cephalonica Loud. mp p
Pinopsida
Pinaceae Cedrus deodara Loud. p p p
Picea orientalis L. p p p p

131
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Picea sp. m
Pinus sosnowskyi Nakai mp
Pinus sp. p p p p
Pinaceae Tsuga diversifolia
p p
(Maxim.) Mast.
Tsuga shatilovae
p p
Mched.
Pinopsida Cryptomeria japonica
p p
Don
Glyptostrobus sp. p
Taxodiaceae Sequoia sp. p p
Taxodium sp. p p p
Taxodiaceae gen.indet.. p
Juniperus sp. p
Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae gen.indet. p p
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae Ephedra sp. p p p p
Carya aquatica (Michx.)
p p p
Nutt.
Carya aff.texana DC p
Juglandaceae
Juglans regia L. p p p
Pterocarya pterocarpa
p p mp p
(Michx.) Kunth.
Populus tremula L. m m
Salix alba L. m m
Salicaceae Salix caprea L. m
Salix triandra L. p
Salix sp. p p p
Alnus barbata C.A.M. mp mp
Alnus glutinosa (L.)
p p
Gaerth.
Dycotyledoneae

Alnus hoernesi Stur m


Betula pubescens Ehrh, p
Betula litwinowii
m m
A.Dol.
Betula cf. verrucosa
m
Ehrh.
Betula sp. p p p p
Betulaceae
Carpinus betulus L. m
Carpinus caucasica
m p p
Grossh.
Carpinus orientalis
p mp p p
Mill.
Corylus avellana L. p mp p p
Corylus colchica Alb. m
Corylus sp. p
Ostrya carpinifolia
m
Scop.
Castanea atavia Ung. m
Fagaceae
Castanea pliosativa Kol. m

132
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Castanea sativa Mill. p mp p
Fagus antipovii Heer m
Fagus orientalis Lipsky p mp p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky
m
var. palibini Iljinsk.
Quercus
p
Fagaceae aff.hartwissiana Stev.
Quercus aff.iberica
p p p
Stev.
Quercus aff.pontica
p p p
C.Koch
Quercus pseudorobur
m
Kov.
Quercus sp.
m
(cf.Q.sosnowskyi Kol.)
Quercus sp. p p
Ulmus foliacea Gilib. p p mp p
Ulmus scabra Mill. p p p
Ulmaceae Ulmus sp. m p
Zelkova carpinifolia
p p p p
(Pall.) Dipp.
Ficus sp. p
Moraceae Morus alba L. p p p p
Dycotyledoneae

Moraceae gen.indet. p
Urticaceae Urtica sp. p p p
Polygonum persicaria L. p p p
Polygonaceae Polygonum viviparum L. p p p p
Polygonum sp. p
Caryophyl- Caryophyllaceae
p p p p
laceae gen.indet.
Chenopodi- Chenopodiaceae
p p p p
aceae gen.indet.
Magnoliaceae Magnolia sp. mp
Ranuncu- Ranunculaceae
p
laceae gen.indet.
Laurus nobilis L. m
Lauraceae
Laurus sp. m
Nuphar luteum L. p p
Nympha- Nuphar sp. p
eaceae Nymphaeaceae
p
gen.indet.
Papaveraceae Papaveraceae gen.indet. p
Brassicaceae Brassicaceae gen.indet. p
Hypericum inodorum
Hypericaceae p
Willd.
Platanaceae Platanus sp. p
Corylopsis aff.cordata
p
Hamameli- Merrill et Li
daceae Liquidambar styraciflua L. p
Parrotia pristina Ett. m

133
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Pyracantha coccinea
m m
Roem.
Rosa canina L. p
Rosa sp. p p p
Rubus sp.. m
Rosaceae
Sanguisorba sp. p p p
Sorbus aucuparia L. m
Sorbus subfusca
m
(Ledeb.) Boiss.
Sorbus sp. p p
Fabaceae Fabaceae gen.indet. p p p
Geraniaceae Geranium sp. p p p p
Rhus toxicodendron L. p
Anacardiaceae
Rhus sp. p p p p
Acer laetum CAM
pliocenicum Sap.et m
Mar.
Aceraceae Acer trautvetteri Medw. m
Acer aff.platanoides L. p p
Acer sp. p p p
Ilex colchica Pojark. p p p p
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex sp. p p
Dycotyledoneae

Celastraceae Euonymus sp. p p p p


Staphyleaceae Staphylea sp. p p p
Buxus colchica
m
Buxaceae A.Pojark.
Buxus sp. p p
Frangula cf.alnus Mull. m
Rhamnaceae
Rhamnus sp. p p
Tilia caucasica Rupr. p p p p
Tilia cordata Mill. p
Tiliaceae Tilia ledebouri Borb. p p
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. p p
Tilia tomentosa Moench. p
Thymellaceae Daphne sp. p
Violaceae Viola sp. p p
Malvaceae Malva sp. p p
Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus sp. p p
Onagraceae Epilobium sp. p p p p
Trapa lydiae Choch.
Trapaceae Trapa cf.colchica
p p
N.Alb.
Cornaceae Cornus sp. p p p
Hedera colchica
mp mp
C.Koch.
Araliaceae Hedera sp. p p
Fatsia aff.japonica
p
(Thunb.) Decne et Planch.

134
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Turgenia latifolia
p p p p
Apiaceae Hostm.
Apiaceae gen.indet. p p p p
Rhododendron
p p
ponticum L.
Ericaceae Rhododendron sp. p p
Vaccinium sp. p
Ericaceae gen.indet. p
Fraxinus ornus L. p
Fraxinus oxycarpa
p
Oleaceae Willd.
Fraxinus sp. p p p
Dycotyledoneae

Ligustrum sp. p
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus sp. p
Plantaginaceae Plantago sp. p p p p
Lonicera sp. p
Caprifoliaceae
Viburnum sp. p
Lycopus sp. p p
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae gen. indet. p p p p
Valerianaceae Valeriana sp. p p p p
Cephalaria sp. p p p p
Dipsacus sp. p p
Dipsacaceae
Knautia sp. p p p p
Dipsacaceae gen.indet. p
Achillea sp. p
Asteraceae Artemisia sp. p p p p
Asteraceae gen.indet. p p p p
Smilax excelsa L. m
Liliaceae
Liliaceae gen.indet.
Monocotyledoneae

p p p p
Iridaceae Iris sp. p
Arundo sp. m
Poaceae
Poaceae gen. indet. p p p p
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p p
Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. p
Cyperaceae Cyperaceae gen.indet. p

135
holocenuri epoqa
dasavleT saqarTveloSi palinologiurad Seswavlilia 26
profili. nimuSebi iyo aRebuli Savi zRvis sanapiro zolis
zRviuri, lagunuri, aluvialuri da Waobiani naleqebidan (nax. 24).
palinologiuri diagramebis sinTezis da analizis Sedegad
SemuSavebulia holocenuris stratigrafiuli sqema da aRdgenilia
klimaturi fluqtuaciebi ukanaskneli 11 500 wlisTvis.

nax. 24. saqarTvelos ruqa da Seswavlili profilebis da arqeologiuri


Zeglebis mdebareoba
monacemebi saqarTvelos holocenuri palinologiuri
kompleqsebis Sesaxeb pirvelad gamoqveynda 1974 wels (Шатилова,
1974). mogvianebiT daiwyo Savi zRvis Selfis da estuariebis
Seswavla. burRvas awarmoebda samecniero-kleviTi gemi
„geoqimiki“. 1978-1984 wlebis ganmavlobaSi fskeridan amoRebuli
iyo umdidresi masala, romlis gamokvleva mimdinareobda
paleogeografiuli, paleontologiuri, geomorfologiuri,
geoqronologiuri, da klimatostratigrafiuli meTodebiT
(Балабанов и др. 1981; Балабанов, Гей, 1981; Балабанов, Квавадзе, 1985;
Квавадзе и др.,1984; Квавадзе, Джейранашвили, 1985; Островский и др.,
1979; Fedorov, 1988).
palinologiuri da sedimentologiuri Seswavlis Sedegad
gairkva, rom yvelaze dabali done Sav zRvas hqonda 18-17 aTasi
wlis winaT. am regresiis ganmavlobaSi, romelic Seesabameboda

136
vurmuli gamyinvarebis bolo fazas, zRvis done iyo Tanamedroveze
120 m-iT dabali. acivebis Semdeg daiwyo intensiuri daTboba da
myinvarebis dnoba, rasac mohyva Savi zRvis axali transgresia.
holocenis dasawyisSi (11 500 wlis winaT) zRvis donem aiwia 70 m-
iT (Tvalchrelidze et al., 2004). dRes saqarTvelos holocenis kvlevis
mTavari mimarTulebebia: zRvis donis cvalebadobis dadgena;
transgresuli fazebis dros klimatis aRdgena da adamianis
sameurneo moRaweobis Seswavla.
kavkasiaSi, da kerZod saqarTveloSi, sawarmoo ekonomika,
romelic Tanamedrove civilizaciis safuZvelia, warmoiSva
holocenuris adreul etapze da mas xeli Seuwyo klimaturma
pirobebma (Трифонов, Караханян, 2004). saqarTveloSi pirveli
agraruli dasaxleba radiokarbonuli meTodiT TariRdeba Zv.w.
me-6 aTaswleulis dasawyisiT (Hansen et al., 2007; jalabaZe da sxv.
.2010; Kvavadze et al.2010a)..
Savi zRvis Selfidan Seswavlili iyo wvrili qviSaqvebis,
Slamis da Tixebis nimuSebi (Квавадзе, Рухадзе, 1989). burRilebSi
holocenuri naleqebis done meryeobs 12 m-dan (burRili 120) 27 m-
de (burRili 511). palinologiurad iyo gamokvleuli 26 burRilis
masala. aqedan 7 ganlagebulia gagris midamoebSi (burRilebi 603,
607, 609, 613, 424 da gagra-1). burRili 471 mdebareobs kontinentur
zonasTan axlos (cxr.X1X).
gagridan samxreT-dasavleTiT ganlagebulia gudauTas
Selfis zona, sadac burRilebis (120 da 521) siRrme 9.5m da 31.8 m-s
aRwevs.
axali aTonis midamoebSi masala iyo aRebuli 511
burRilidan (21.1 m siRrmeze). aqve aluviur _ zRviur terasasTan
axlos ganlagebulia burRilebi 55, 39, 182, 128 da 149.
soxumis Selfis masala aRebulia 9.8 da 14.9 metris
siRrmeebidan (burRilebi 721, 723). aq holocenuri naleqebi
sruladaa warmodgenili. aqve kontinentze, SelfTan axlos
ganlagebulia 36-e burRili (cxr. X1X).
saqarTvelos sanapiro zolis yvelaze samxreTi seqtoria
qobuleTis regioni, sadac mdinare Coloqis da kintriSis
SesarTavebs Soris Selfze dadgmulia 22-e burRili (siRrme 7.3 m).
burRilebi 35 da 39 ganlagebulia kontinentis teritoriaze. am
regionSi Seswavlilia agreTve profilebi ispani 2 da sufsa 1, 2, 3.

137
cxr. XIX. Seswavlili holocenuri asakis profilebis monacemTa baza.

danaleqis nimuSis
profilis nimuSebis aRebis danaleqis
fenis maqs. raode-
saxelwodeba TariRi da intervali tipi
siRrme noba
gagris monakveTi:
gagra-603 1981, yovel 50 sm 25.5m 5 zRviuri
zRviuri +
gagra-1 1971, yovel 10 sm 70 sm 10
torfi
gagra-607 1981, yovel 50 sm 37m 12 zRviuri
gagra-609 1981, yovel 50 sm 15m 12 zRviuri
gagra-613 1981, yovel 50 sm 32m 9 zRviuri
gagra-424 1978, yovel 50 sm 12m 5 zRviuri
gagra-471 1978, yovel 10 sm 28m 66 torfi
gudauTas monakveTi:
gudauTa-120 1983, yovel 50 sm 9.5m 17 zRviuri
gudauTa-521 1983, yovel 50 sm 31.8m 20 zRviuri
axali aTonis monakveTi:
axali aToni -511 1984, yovel 10 sm 21.1m 35 zRviuri
axali aToni -55 1982, yovel 50 sm 24m 12 aluvialuri
axali aToni -128 1983, yovel 50 sm 9m 6 aluvialuri
axali aToni -182 1983, yovel 50 sm 16m 7 aluvialuri
axali aToni - 49 1983, yovel 50 sm 17m 4 aluvialuri
axali aToni -39 1983, yovel 50 sm 12.5m 8 aluvialuri
soxumis monakveTi:
soxumi-721 1980, yovel 10 sm 21m 60 zRviuri
soxumi -723 1980, yovel 10 sm 26m 50 zRviuri
aluvialuri+
soxumi -36 1980, yovel 10 sm 45m 120
torfi
qobuleTis monakveTi:
qobuleTi-22 1984, yovel 10 sm 22.6m 99 zRviuri
aluvialuri+
qobuleTi-35 1984, yovel 10 sm 120m 120
torfi
aluvialuri+
qobuleTi-39 1984, yovel 10 sm 27m 25
torfi
ispani II 2003, yovel 10 sm 9.5m 47 torfi
aluvialuri+
sufsa-1 1972, yovel 20 sm 6.5m 33
tbiuri
aluvialuri+
sufsa -2 1972, yovel 20 sm 7.8m 42
tbiuri
sufsa -3 1972, yovel 20 sm 3m 17 aluvialuri
sufsa -4 1972, yovel 20 sm 2.1m 17 aluvialuri

138
zRviur da kontinentur naleqebSi napovni organuli
naSTebis radiokarbonuli meTodiT daTariRebis Sedegebi
mocemulia XX-e cxrilSi (arakalibruli asaki, 14 C yr BP).
5 regionis holocenuri naleqebis palinologiuri
analizis Sedegad gamoyofilia 5 palinozona (nax. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29).
pirveli palinozona Seesabameba pre-borealur; meore-
borealurs; mesame-atlantikurs; meoTxe-subborealurs; mexuTe-
subatlantikur periodebs.
cxr. XX. Savi zRvis aRmosavleTi nawilis Selfuri naleqebis kernuli
masalis radiokarbonuli daTariRebis monacemebi
aRebuli
gaanalizebuli
WaburRili sinjis siRrme asaki (14C yr BP
masala
(m)
gagra-416 4.5 torfi 245080
soxumi-723 6.4 niJarebi 333550
soxumi-723 7.5 arqeologiuri 350050
gagra-1 6.5 torfi 3690120
gagra-609 24.4 niJarebi 4000140
gagra-607 21.1 niJarebi 4140160
axali aToni-55 15 niJarebi 520080
gagra-607 34.5 niJarebi 5410320
soxumi-723 11.2 niJarebi 554060
axali aToni -55 23 niJarebi 6780120
soxumi -723 14 niJarebi 7630250
soxumi -723 20.1 niJarebi 8690300
soxumi -722 26 torfi 931080
gudauTa-120 17 niJarebi 11000150
subsa-1 2.20 xis merqani 1260120
ispani-II 5.20 xis merqani 194040
ispani-II 6.95 xis merqani 406040
ispani-II 9.45 xis merqani 490040

pirveli palinozona gansxvavdeba gviani driasulis


naleqebisgan, romlebsac axasiaTebs maRalmTiani mcenareebis
mtvris marcvlebis siWarbe, Termofiluri mcenareebis
palinomorfebis raodenobis matebiT, gansakuTrebiT wablis da
muxis. mTlianobaSi pirveli palinozonisTvis damaxasiaTebelia
Fagus-Carpinus-Abies-is mtvris siWarbe. palinozona iyofa or
qvezonad. pirveli asaxavs ufro mSrali klimatis pirobebs, vidre

139
meore. mTlianad, preborealur naleqebSi gadaleqili mtvris
marcvlebis raodenoba Seadgens 25-27% (kompleqsis saerTo
raodenobidan), rac bevrad naklebia vidre gvian driasulSia
(46%-ze).
meore palinozona faravs borealur periods da
xasiaTdeba Abies – Fagus-Picea komleqsiT. yvela diagramis
mixedviT Semcirebulia mTis wina zonis elementebis roli da
momatebulia maRalmTiani tyeebis komponentebis mtvris
marcvlebis raodenoba. gagrasTan, sadac mTebi axlosaa zRvis
napirTan, subalpuri mcenareuloba (arynari) speqtrebSi kargadaa
gamoxatuli. meore palinozona asaxavs yvelaze civ klimatur
pirobebs da iyofa sam qvezonad. pirveli da mesame Seesabameba
ufro mSral periods, vidre meore. mTlianad, palinozonaSi
gadaleqili mtvris marcvlebi aRwevs maRal procentul
raodenobas (60-62%).

nax. 25. mdinare kolxidkas SesarTavTan aRmoCenili lagunuri da


Waobiani naleqebis (gagris midamoebi) palinologiuri diagrama (471
WaburRilis kernuli masalis safuZvlze)

mesame palinozona Seesabameba atlantikur periods da


asaxavs radikalur cvlilebebs. TiTqmis yvela palinologiuri
diagramis mixedviT saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze daiwyo
wablisa da muxis gabatoneba. mTlianobaSi es aris Castanea-Alnus-
Quercus-is zona, romelSic sagrZnoblad matulobs Termofiluri
mcenareebis mtvris raodenoba: Pterocarya pterocarpa, Juglans regia,

140
Tilia caucasica, Zelkova carpinifolia. mesame palinozona iyofa sam
qvezonad. amaTgan meore asaxavs gril pirobebs, rac diagramebze
gamoixateba maRamTis elementebis (soWi, wifeli da naZvi) maRali
procentuli raodenobiT. mTeli holocenuris ganmavlobaSi
atlantikuri periodi, gansakuTrebiT misi meore naxevari, iyo
yvelaze Tbili da notio. gadaleqili mtvris marcvlebis
raodenoba mesame palinozonis naleqebSi dabalia (>20%).

nax. 26. Selfis naleqebis paliნologiuri diagrama gudauTas midamoebSi


(WaburRili 521)

saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamoyofil meoTxe palinozonas


axasiaTebs qveda zolis tyis ganadgurebis kvali da igi
subborealur period miekuTneba. Ddiagramebze naTlad Cans
Pteridium aquilinum da Rhododendron luteum-is mtvris marcvlebis
raodenobis zrda. aRniSnuli mcenareebi, rogorc wesi, adamianis
mier gakaful tyis adgilze vrceldebian. Ggarda amisa, SeimCneva
maRalmTis tyis elementebis mtvris mateba, rac klimaturi
pirobebis gauaresebis niSania. magaliTad, palinologiur
speqtrebSi imata wiflis da soWis monawileobam. Aam dros maT
ukve subdominantebis roli hqondaT. amasTanave, saqarTvelos
Savi zRvis sanapiroze subborealuri periodis pirveli naxevris
klimati, wina da Semdgom periodebTan SedarebiT, iyo mSrali.

141
zogierTi diagramis mixedviT, subborealuri periodi iyofa or
qvezonad. amaTgan pirveli gamoirCeva ufro mSrali klimatiT.
gadaleqili mtvris marcvlebis raodenoba aRwevs 45%.
mexuTe palinozona Seesabameba subatlantikur periods.
dasavleT saqarTvelos CrdiloeT regionebSi zona gamoxatulia
Alnus-Pinus-Castanea-s kompeqsiT, mis samxreT nawilSi ki-Pinus-Alnus-
Castanea-Ti (qobuleTis raioni). speqtrebSi minimumamdea
Semcirebulia maRalmTiani mcenareebis roli. soWi, naZvi da aryi
warmodgenilia mtvris erTeuli marcvlebiT. yvelaze detalurad
mexuTe palinozona Seswavlilia gagris regionSi. am masalis
mixedviT igi iyofa sam qvezonad. meore asaxavs yvelaze Tbil da
notio pirobebs, roca sagrZnoblad matulobs Pterocarya
pterocarpa-s mtvris marcvlebis raodenoba. mexuTe palinozonis
SreebSi gadaleqili formebi aRweven mxolod 20%.
aRwerili palinozonebi asaxaven Savi zRvis aRmosavleTi
nawilis havis da mcenareulobis ganviTarebis suraTs
holocenuris ganmavlobaSi. mTebis axlo ganlagebam xeli Seuwyo
am regionis calkeuli sartyelebis formaciebis dinamikis
aRdgenas. es aixsneba zRviuri palinokompleqsebis TaviseburebiT,
romlebic ufro kargad asaxaven mTeli regionis mcenareulobas,
vidre kontinenturi naleqebis speqtrebi.
zRviuri, lagunuri da aluviuri naleqebis analizis
Sedegad dadgenili palinozonebi gvaZleven saSualebas
aRvadginoT mTavari movlenebi, romlebsac adgili hqondaT
kavkasiaSi holocenuris ganmavlobaSi. kerZod, zRviuri naleqebis
palinokompleqsebi kargad asaxaven dominantebis cvlas TiTqmis
yvela sartylis formaciebSi, rac aixsneba zRvis siaxloviT. am
SemTxvevaSi es wyalsacavi TamaSobda mtvris damWeris (trapis)
rols, romelSic uwyvetliv xdeboda mtvris marcvlebis
akumulacia bolo aTi aTaseuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi. Zalzed
mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom Sav zRvaSi danaleqebis akumulacia
ar wydeboda, ris SedegedaT maTSi aisaxa yvela is garemo
pirobebis cvlileba, romelsac adgili qonda holoceuri
periodis dros. palinologiuri monacemebis statistikurma
damuSavebam, romelic Sesrulda programa “paleoklimati-1”-is
(Букреева, 1990) gamoyenebiT, mogveca saSualeba aRgvedgina
klimatis ricxviTi monacemebi da tyis zeda sazRvris meryeoba
klimatis fluqtuaciebTan dakavSirebiT (Квавадзе и др., 1992, 1994).

142
zRvis masalis palinospeqtrebis safuZvelze gakeTebul
paleoekologiur rekonstruqciebs amagrebs da avsebs, rogorc
sanapiro zolis lagunuri da aluviuri naleqebis, ise afxazeTis
mTiani regionebis palinologiuri sxva monacemebi (Квавадзе и др.,
1992).
sedimentologiis monacemebis mixedviT, adreul
holocenuris pirvel etapze (Tvalchrelidze et al., 2004) Savi zRvis
done dRevandelTan SedarebiT 50-60 m-iT dabali iyo, xolo tyis
gavrcelebis sazRvari aseve 800-850 m-iT dabali (Квавадзе и др., 1992,
1994; Kvavadze, Connor, 2005). adreuli holocenuris
palinologiuri speqtrebis Sedarebam gvian driasulTan
gamoamJRavna rcxilis, muxis, wablis da lafanis arealebis gazrda,
rac miuTiTebs Tbil da nestian pirobebze. gvian driasulSi
ivlisis saSualo temperatura sanapiro zolSi iyo 18.30 C,
preborealurSi ki 23.30 C.

nax. 27. Selfis naleqebis palinologiuri diagrama axali aTonis


midamoebSi (WaburRili 511).
landSaftis ganviTarebis meore etapi Seesabameba
borealur periods, roca xangrZlivi daTboba Sewyda xanmokle
acivebiT. zRvis donem daiwia 1-1,5 m-iT, sagrZnoblad daiwia tyis
qveda sazRvarmac. gavrcelda wiflis da soWis tyeebi. sanapiro
zolSi ivlisSi temperatura iyo 19.40 C, ianvris-3.30 C, wliuri

143
temperatura ki 10.70 Seadgenda. naleqebis raodenoba erT wels,
daaxloebiT, 1827 mm udrida.
mesame etapi emTxveva atlantikur periods, romelic iyo
xangrZlivi (TiTqmis sami aTasi weli) da xasiaTdeboda
sartylebis swrafi migraciiT zeviT. muqwiwvovanebis zeda
sazRvarma aiwia da formacia mTlianad moTavsda yofil alpur
sartyelSi. amave dros gaizarda wablis, muxis, lafanis da Zelqvis
areali (Kvavadze, Connor, 2005). sanapiro zolSi gafarTovda
Waobebis teritoria. gaizarda temperatura da tenianoba, romlis
maCveneblebma maqsimums miaRwies 6000-5500 wlis winaT. borealur
periodTan SedarebiT TiTqmis ormagi gaxda sanapiro zolis
zamTris temperatura da miaRwia 6-6.50 C. intensiurad
mimdinareobda klimatis daTboba mTebSi. afxazeTSi, aWaraSi da
svaneTSi holocenis optimumis dros tyis sazRvarma aiwia 300 m-iT
(Квавадзе, Рухадзе, 1989; Маргалитадзе, 1995; Connor et al., 2007), samxreT
saqarTvelos maRalmTianeTSi ki ara nakleb 400-500 m-isa (Kvavadze
2006; Kvavadze et al.2007).
atlantikuri periodis ganmavlobaSi zRvis done swrafad
iwevda da 6000-5500 wlebs Soris ramodenime metriT aRemateboda
Tanamedroves (Tvalchrelidze et al., 2004). swored atlantikuri Tbili
da teniani periodis dasawyisSi ganviTarda adreuli
samiwaTmoqmedo dasaxlebebi. namosaxlarebis gadaWrili goras da
aruxlos kulturuli fenebis palinologiurma gamokvlevam
daadgina, rom aq 7.5-8 aTass wlis winaT iyo Tbili da notio hava.
Tanamedrove stepebis adgilas izrdebodnen muryani, lafani,
rcxila da muxa (Гогичаишвили, 1984, 1990). garda marclovnebis
kulturebisa, ganviTarebuli iyo mevenaxeobac (Kvavadze et al.2010a).
gadaWrili goras qveda SreebSi aRmoCenilia dazgiT moqsovili
selis naWris nakuwi da xeliT moqsovili selis naWris aRnabeWdi
keramikul WurWelze (jalabaZe da sxv. 2010). es aRmoCena, selis
marcvlebTan erTad (Русишвили, 1990), miuTiTebs adgilobriv
feiqrobaze (jalabaZe da sxv. 2010). seli (Linum) izrdeba mxolod
teniani klimatis pirobebSi (Zohary, Hopf, 1993). selis boWko da
Salis feradi qsovilis mravalricxovani mikronaSTebi iyo
aRmoCenili kulturuli Sreebisa da WurWlis SigTavsis
palinologiuri kvlevis dros. keramikuli WurWlebidan
organuli masalis analizi miuTiTebs agreTve mefutkreobis

144
ganviTarebaze, radgan aq Taflis naSTi da futkris bususebia
aRmoCenili.

nax. 28. Selfis naleqebis palinologiuri diagrama soxumis midamoebSi


(WaburRili 723).

Zalian saintereso aRmoCnda agreTve samxreT saqarTvelos


da qarTlis arqeologiuri Zeglebis Seswavlis Sedegebi (yvavaZe
2011). javaxeTis da mesxeTis teritoriaze mtkvar-araqsis kulturis
periodis Zeglebis masalis kvlevam aCvena, rom am dros
miwaTmoqmedeba, mebaReoba, mevenaxeoba da mefutkreoba kargad iyo
ganviTarebuli 2000-2800 m simaRleze. Aim dros aq qarTuli muxa
da cacxvi izrdeboda (Kvavadze 2006; Kvavadze et al.2007), romlebic
amJamad gavrcelebulia 1700-1800 m-is simaRleze (Долуханов, 1989;
Нахуцришвили, 1999). javaxeTSi tyis arseboba atlantikur periodSi
dasturdeba agreTve uaxlesi palinologiuri monacemebis
mixedviT, romelic miRebulia faravnis tbis fskeris burRilis
masalis da faravnis korRanis Seswavlisas (Kvavadze, Kakhiani 2010;
Messager et al. 2011).
atlantikuri drois ganmavlobaSi daTbobis periodi
orjer iyo Sewyvetili xanmokle acivebiT. am movlenas kargad
asaxavs rogorc tyis zeda sazRvris, ise zRvis donis meryeobis
mrudi (Квавадзе и др. 1992; Tvalchrelidze et al., 2004).

145
meoTxe etapze, romelic emTxveva subborealur periods,
SeomCneva klimaturi pirobebis gauareseba. klimati sagrZnoblad
acivda, rac Savi zRvis fanagoriuli regresiis mizezi gaxda. tyis
zeda zolma daiwia TiTqmis 600-500 m-iT. am dros Semcirda wablis
da sxva Termofiluri mcenareebis areali, rac kargad Cans
palinologiur diagramebze. temperaturis dawevasTan erTad
Semcirda tenianobac.
subborealur periodSi gaZlierda eroziuli procesebi,
razedac miuTiTebs zRviur naleqebSi gadaleqili mtvris
marcvlebis raodenobis zrda. eroziis gaZliereba aixsneba
kolxeTis mdinareebis donis daweviT.
subborealuri periodis meore naxevarSi, 3800-2500 wlebis
Soris klimati isev Seicvala. Savi zRvis donem miaRwia
Tanamedroves. subborealurma daTbobam moicva ara mxolod
dablobebi, aramed samxreT saqarTvelos mTiani platoebic
(Kvavadze, Connor, 2005; Connor et al., 2007, 2007a; Arabuli et al., 2007;
Kvavadze et al. 2010b; Massager et al.2011). arqeologiuri Zeglebis
masalis (safar-xaraba da imeras samarxi) palinologiuri
Seswavlis Sedegad dadginda, rom Zv.w. 15-14 saukuneebSi (gviani
brinjao) walkis platoze, 1700-1800 m-is simaRleze ganviTarebuli
iyo mexorbleoba, mebaReoba da mevenaxeoba. am dros tyis
SemadgenlobaSi dafiqsirda qarTuli muxa, cacxvi, Zelqva da sxva
jiSebi (Kvavadze, Connor 2005; Квавадзе и др., 2007). Ggviani brinjaos
samarxebis masalaSi pirvelad iyo aRmoCenili bambis qsovili da
boWkoebi, rac miuTiTebs kargad ganviTarebul vaWrobaze
indoeTsa da kavkasias Soris (Kvavadze, Narimanashvili, 2006, 2006a).
am periodSi kolxeTSi da zRvidan moSorebul regionebSi
SemCneulia tyis intensiuri gaCexvis faqtebi (Connor et al., 2007;
Kvavadze, Bilashvili 2010).
mexuTe etapi Seesabameba subatlantikur periods. 2500 wlis
winaT adgili hqonda mokle, magram mkveTrad gamoxatul acivebas,
rasac moyva Savi zRvis regresia. subborealuris bolo
monakveTTan SedarebiT zRvis donem daiwia 2 m-iT (Tvalchrelidze et
al., 2004). maRalmTian regionebSi mZlavr miwaTmoqmedebas
Seenacvla mecxoveleoba. mTian regionebSi mevenaxeoba Sewyda
(Bieniek, Licheli, 2007; yvavaZe, liCeli 2009). tyis zeda sazRvari
Camovida 350-400 m-iT dabla TanamedrovesTan SedarebiT. Semdeg,
xuTi saukuniT gvian (2000 wlis winaT) adgili hqonda daTbobas,

146
rasac moyva Savi zRvis nimfuri transgresia. zRvis donem isev
aiwia ramodenime metriT maRla (Tvalchrelidze et al., 2004). daTbobas
moyva tenianobis gazrda. eSeris, vanis da noqalaqevis
namosaxlarebis kulturuli Sreebis palinologiuri da
paleoeTnobotanikuri kvlevis safuZvelze dadginda, rom antikur
xanaSi intensiurad ganviTrda selis kultura (Рухадзе и др., 1988;
Bokeria et al., 2009; KKvavadze et al. 2010c). amis garda kolxeTis
mosaxleoba dakavebuli iyo marcvleulis moyvaniT, mebaReobiT,
mevenaxeobiT. saberZneTidan Semovida zeTis xilis kultura.

nax. 29. Selfis naleqebis palinologiuri diagrama qobuleTis


midamoebSi (WaburRili 39).

miwaTmoqmedebis da mecxoveleobis ganviTarebas moyva


kolxeTis dablobze da mTis wina zonaSi tyis intensiuri gakafva,
romelic jer kidev subborealur periodSi daiwyo.
palinologiur speqtrebSi es procesi gamoixata meoradi
mcenareulobis mtvris marcvlebis rolis zrdaSi.
Cveni Ddrois 3-4 saukuneebSi adgili hqonda acivebas. me-7-e
saukuneSi mas moyva daTboba, romelic gagrZelda me-11-e

147
saukunamde. am dros mTian regionebSi sagrZnoblad gaizarda
mosaxleobis simWidrove, romelic ZiriTadaT miwaTmoqmedebas
misdevda. maRalmTaSi ganviTarda mevenaxeoba. mtvris marcvlebis
mixedviT gaizarda zeTis xilis plantaciebis farTobi (Connor,
Kvavadze, 2005).

nax. 30. mtvris marcvlebis procentuli raodenobis meryeoba, rogorc


maCvenebeli tyis mTavari formaciebis arealis cvalebisa dasavleT
saqarTvelos holocenurSi.

me-12-e-me-14-e saukuneebSi klimati isev gauaresda, magram me-


15-e-me-16-e saukuneebSi, palinologiuri monacemebis mixedviT,
adrindeli pirobebi isev aRdga. samxreT saqarTveloSi
intensiurad ganviTarda mevenaxeoba da meRvineoba. 1200 m-is
somaRleze ganlagebuli awyuris (navenaxari) namosaxlaris
kulturuli fenebisa da WurWlis masalis palinologiurma
Seswavlam gviCvena, rom aq meRvineobis garda kultivirebuli iyo

148
zeTis xe (yvavaZe, liCeli 2009). istoriuli dokumentebis mixedviT
zeTis xis plantaciebi ganviTarebuli iyo agreTve mdinare xramis
saTaveebSi da kolxeTis dablobis bevr sxva adgilze (Кецховели,
1959).
es mniSvnelovani da xangrZlivi daTboba grZeldeboda 200
weliwadi. me-17-e saukunis meore naxevarSi adgili hqonda
xanmokle, magram Zlier acivebas, e.w. mcire gamyimvarebas,
romelic gagrZelda daaxlovebiT 40 weli (1675-1715) da didi
gavlena moaxdina landSaftze (Grove, 1997). amis Semdeg awyurSi da
sxva mTian dasaxlebebSi mevenaxeoba did xans veRar aRdga
(Kvavadze, Licheli, 2009). yinvam mTlianad gaanadgura zeTis xis
plantaciebi (Кецховели, 1959).
saqarTvelos holocenuris klimaturi cvlilebebis sqemis
samxreT evropisa da axloaRmosavleTis analogiur sqemebTan
Sedarebam gamoamJRavna maT Soris didi msgavseba, gansakuTrebiT,
holocenuris meore naxevarSi (Ле Руа Ладури, 1971; Grove, 1997;
Ramezani et al., 2008), rac imis maCvenebelia, rom klimatur
fluqtuaciebs hqondaT globaluri xasiaTi da Sebrunebuli efeqti
samxreT evropis zRvebis (Savi zRvis CaTvliT) wylis donis
cvalebadobaze.
saqarTvelos teritoriaze hifsometriulad sxvadasxva
doneebze ganlagebul mravalricxovani holocenuri profilebis
da arqeologiuri Zeglebis kulturuli fenebis palinologiuri
Seswavlis safuZvelze dadgenili iyo 6 klimaturi optimumi
(nax.30). maTgan yvelaze Zlieri iyo sami. esenia atlantikuris,
subborealuris meore naxevari da Suasaukuneebis daTboba.
atlantikuri optimumis maqsimalur fazas adgili qonda 6000-5500
wlis winaT. am dros dasavleT saqarTveloSi tyis zeda sazRvari
iyo Tanamedroveze 300-m-iT maRla, samxreT saqarTvelos
maRalmTianeTSi ki 500-600 m-iT. am regionis topografiulma
nairferovnebam, dawyebuli vulkanuri platoebiT da
damTvrebuli cicabo kraterebiTa da kldeebis mwvervalebiT,
mogvca saSualeba aRgvedgina klimatis da adamianis gavlena
bunebaze im periodSi, roca dablobi iyo adamianis moqmedebis
mTavari teritoria da maRalmTianeTi rCeboda xeluxlebeli.
palinologiur diagramebze adamianis gavlena ar Slis klimatis
moqmedebas, piriqiT aZlierebs mas. atlantikuri optimumis dros
maRalmTian platoebze iyo ganviTarebuli marcvleulis moyvana,

149
mebaReoba da mevenaxeoba. aq miwaTmoqmedebis intensiuri
ganviTareba dakavSirebuli iyo ara mxolod daTbobasTan, aramed
niadagis nayofierebasTan, romelic warmoiSva vulkanuri mTebis
tute zedapirze. am periodis palinologiur speqtrebSi izrdeba
adamianis moqmedebis maCvenebeli _ matulobs im mcenareebis
mtvris marcvlebis raodenoba, rogorcaa: Cerealia, Juglans regia,
Corylus, Vitis vinifera. es gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans adreuli
brinjaos arqeologiuri Zeglebis masalaze (mtkvari-araqsis
kultura), romlebic ganlagebuli arian 1450 – 1800 m simaRleze.
maqsimaluri raodenobis Juglans-Corylus-Vitis mtvris marcvlebis
kombinacia Quercus iberica-sTan erTad am regionSi Tbili havis
arsebobis maCvenebelia.
meore mniSvnelovani optimumi daTariRebulia
radiokarbonuli meTodiT da mas adgili qonda 3800-2500 wlis
winaT (subborealuris meore naxevari). dasavleT saqaeTveloSi am
dros gaizarda wablis, aRmosavleTiT ki Zelqvis da muxis tyeebis
arealebi. mTian zonaSi, 1600-1700 m-is simaRleze adamiani isev
misdevda miwaTmoqmedebas: mexorbleobas, mevenaxeobas,
mebaReobas. maRalmTaSi ganviTarda mefutkreobac. Kkulturul
landSaftebis irgvliv arsebobda bunebrivi tye, romelsac Zveli
drois adamini ufrTxildeboda da srulad ar anadgurebda.
bolo mniSvnelovani optimumi fiqsirdeba 1350-800 wlis
winaT. am dros adamianis gavlena bunebaze gaxda ufro sagrZnobi.
tyeebis gakafva mimdinareobda ara marto dablobebSi da mTis
qveda sartyelSi, aramed mTebis sxvadasxva doneebze. bevr
regionSi gaCnda naxevradtyiani cenozebi, ramodenime saukunis
Semdeg ki ganviTarda sruliad utyeo kulturuli landSaftiebi
(Connor, Kvavadze, 2008).

150
cxr. XXI. saqarTvelos holocenuri naleqebis mcenareTa sia.
m – makronaSTebi, p – palinomorfebi
dasavleTi aRmosavleTi
klasi ojaxi saxeoba saqarTvelo saqarTvelo
1 2 3 4 5
Bryopsida Sphagnaceae
Sphagnum sp. p p
Lycopodium alpinum L. p p
Lycopodium annotinum L. p p
Lycopodium clavatum L. p p
Lycopodiopsida Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodium innundatum L. p p
Lycopodium selago L. p p
Lycopodium sp. p p
Selaginella helvetica (L.) Link. p p
Isoëtopsida Selaginellaceae Selaginella selaginoides (L.)
p p
Link.
Equisetopsida Equisetaceae Equisetum sp. p
Bothrychium lunaria (L.) Sw. p p
Ophioglos- Ophioglos- Bothrychium sp. p
sopsida saceae Ophioglossum vulgatum L. p p
Ophioglossum sp. p p
Osmundaceae Osmunda regalis L. p p
Cryptogramma crispa (L.) R.Br. p
Pteridaceae Cryptogramma sp. p
Pteris cretica L. p
Adianthum sp. p p
Adianthaceae
Anogramma sp. p
Blechnum sp. p
Polypodium serratum (Willd.)
p
Futo
Polypodiaceae Polypodium vulgare L. p p
Polypodiopsida

Polypodium sp. p p
Polypodiaceae gen.indet. p
Dennstaed- Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Ruhn. p p
tiaceae Pteridium sp. p p
Aspleniaceae Asplenium sp. p p
Athyrium filix femina (L.) Röth p p
Athyrium sp. p
Cystopteris sp. p
Dryopteris filix –mas (L.)
p
Aspidiaceae Schott.
Dryopteris thelypteris L. p
Dryopteris sp. p
Polystichum sp. p p
Woodsia sp. p
Taxus baccata L. mp p
Taxaceae
Taxus sp. p
Pinopsida
Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)
Pinaceae p p
Spach.

151
1 2 3 4 5
Abies sp. p
Cedrus libani Laws. p
Cedrus sp. p
Picea orientalis L. p
Pinopsida Pinaceae Picea sp. p
Pinus kochiana Klotzsch. p
Pinus pithyusa Strangw. p
Pinus sp. p
Juniperus communis L. p p
Cupressaceae Juniperus sp. p
Cupressaceae gen.indet. p
Ephedra distachia L. P
Gnetopsida Ephedraceae Ephedra procera Fisch. et Mey p
Ephedra sp. p p
Juglans regia L. mp p
Juglans sp. p
Juglandaceae Pterocarya pterocarpa (Michx.)
mp p
Kunth.
Pterocarya sp. p p
Populus sp. p
Salicaceae Salix sp. mp p
Salicaceae gen.indet. p
Alnus barbata C.A.M. mp p
Alnus incana (L.) Moench. p
Alnus sp. mp p
Betula sp. p p
Carpinus betulus L. p
Carpinus caucasica Grossh. mp p
Dycotyledoneae

Betulaceae Carpinus orientalis Mill. mp p


Corylus avellana L. mp
Corylus colurna L. p
Corylus iberica Wittm.et Ket.-
p
Nath.
Corylus sp. p p
Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. p p
Castanea sativa Mill. p p
Castanea sp. p p
Fagus orientalis Lipsky mp p
Fagaceae
Fagus sp. p
Quercus hartwissiana Stev. m
Quercus sp. p p
Celtis caucasica Willd. p
Celtis sp. p
Ulmaceae Ulmus sp. p p
Zelkova carpinifolia (Pall.) Dipp. p p
Zelkova sp. p

152
1 2 3 4 5
Ficus carica L. mp
Moraceae Morus alba L. m p
Morus sp. p p
Cannabis sp. p
Cannabaceae
Humulus sp. p
Parietaria sp. p
Urticaceae Urtica sp. p p
Urticaceae gen.indet. p
Viscum sp. p
Loranthaceae
Loranthaceae gen.indet. p
Fagopirum sp. p
Oxyria sp. p
Polygonum alpestre C.A.Mey p
Polygonum amphibium L. p p
Polygonum aviculare l. m
Polygonum bistorta L. p
Polygonum convolvulus L. p
Polygonum hydropiper L. m
Polygonum lapathifolium L. m
Polygonaceae Polygonum minus Huds. m
Dycotyledoneae

Polygonum persicaria L. m p
Polygonum viviparum L. p
Polygonum sp. p p
Rumex alpestris Jacq. m
Rumex crispus L. m
Rumex obtusifolium L. m
Rumex sp. p p
Polygonaceae gen.indet. p p
Portulacaceae Portulaca oleracea L. m
Agrostemma githago L. p
Agrostemma sp. p
Arenaria serpillifolia L. m
Cerastium sp. p
Dianthus sp. P
Caryophyllaceae

Gypsophila sp. P
Herniaria sp. p
Moehringia trinervia (L.) Clairv. m
Saponaria officinalis L. m
Silene italica (L.) Pers. m p
Silene sp. p
Spergularia campestris (L.)
m
Aschers
Stellaria nemorum L. m p
Caryophyllaceae gen.indet. mp p

153
1 2 3 4 5
Chenopodium album L. m
Chenopodium polyspermum L m
Chenopodium sp. p
Chenopodiaceae
Kochia sp. p
Salsola sp. p
Chenopodiaceae gen.indet. p p
Amaranthus retroflexus L. m m
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus sp. p
Laurus sp. p
Lauraceae
Lauraceae gen.indet. p
Adonis vernalis L. P
Adonis aestivalis L. P
Anemone sp. p
Aconitum sp. P
Caltha sp. p p
Ranunculus acer L. m
Ranunculus arvensis L. m p
Ranunculus bulbosus L. m m
Ranunculus chius DC m
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus lingua L. m
Dycotyledoneae

Ranunculus repens L. m
Ranunculus sceleratus L. m
Ranunculus subtilis Trautv. m
Ranunculus sp. p p
Thalictrum minus L. m
Thalictrum sp. p p
Trollius sp. p
Ranunculaceae gen.indet. p p
Chrysosplenium sp. p
Parnassia palustris L. p
Saxifragaceae Ribes sp. p
Saxifraga folia L. p
Saxifragaceae gen.indet. p
Sedum sp. p
Crassulaceae
Crassulaceae gen.indet. p
Berberis cf. vulgaris L. m
Berberidaceae
Berberis sp. mp p
Nuphar sp. p
Nymphaea alba L. p
Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea sp. p
Nymphaeaceae gen.indet. p
Aristolochi- Asarum caucasicum (Ducharte)
m
aceae Kolak.
Ceratophyl-
Ceratophyllum sp. m
laceae

154
1 2 3 4 5
Chelidonium sp. P
Corydalis sp. P
Fumaria officinalis L. m
Papaveraceae Glaucium sp. p
Papaver dubium L. m
Papaver sp. p
Papaveraceae gen.indet. p
Alyssum parvifolium M.B. m
Camelina sp. p
Brassicaceae Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. m
Sinapis sp. p p
Brassicaceae gen.indet. p p
Hypericum caucasicum (Woron.)
m
Goraschk.
Hypericaceae Hypericum perforatum L. p
Hypericum sp. P
Platanaceae Platanus sp. p
Agrimonia eupatoria l. m p
Alchemilla caucasica Bus. m
Alchemilla sericea Willd. m
Dycotyledoneae

Alchemilla sp. p
Cerasus avium (L.) Moench. m
Cerasus vulgaris Mill. m
Crataegus microphylla C.Koch. m
Crataegus pentagyna Wald. et
m m
Kit.
Crataegus sp. p p
Filipendula sp. p p
Fragaria sp. p
Geum sp. p
Rosaceae

Malus orientalis Uglitzk. m


Malus silvestris Mill. p
Potentilla anserina L. m
Potentilla brachypetala Fisch. m
Potentilla crantzii (Crantz) Beck. m
Potentilla elatior Willd.ex
m
Schlecht.
Potentilla erecta (L.) Hampe m m
Potentilla micrantha Ramond. m
Potentilla ruprechtii Boiss. m
Potentilla sp. p p
Prunus divaricata Lebed. m
Prunus spinosa L. m
Prunus sp. p
Pyrus caucasica Fed. m

155
1 2 3 4 5
Pyrus sp. p
Rosa canina L. m
Rosa sp. p
Rubus anatolicus Focke m
Rubus arcticus L. P
Rubus caesius L. m

Rosaceae
Rubus candicans Weiche m
Rubus caucasica Focke m
Rubus saxatilis L. m
Rubus sp. p p
Sanguisorba officinalis L. p
Spiraea sp. P
Sorbus sp. m p
Rosaceae gen.indet. p p
Astragalus stevenianum DC p
Lathyrus hirsutus L. m
Lathyrus pratensis L. m
Lathyrus sativus L. m
Lens culinaris Medik m
Lotus sp. m p
Dycotyledoneae

Medicago arabica (L.) Hudson m


Medicago minima Grufberg m
Medicago sativa l. m
Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. m
Fabaceae

Onobrychis sp. p p
Pisum sativum L. m
Serratula sp, P
Trifolium campestre Schreb. m
Trifolium pratense L. p p
Trifolium repens L. p p
Trifolium sp. p
Vicia ervilia (L.) Willd. m
Vicia faba L. m
Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F.Gray m
Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench. m
Vicia sp. p p
Fabaceae gen.indet. mp p
Geranium sp. p
Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae gen.indet. p
Linum bienne Mill. m
Linum catharticum L. m
Linaceae
Linum sp. p
Radiola sp. p
Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris L. mp m

156
1 2 3 4 5
Euphorbia helioscopia L. m
Euphorbia nutans Lag. m
Euphorbia oblongifolia C.Koch. m m
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia platyphyllos L. m m
Mercurialis sp. p p
Euphorbiaceae gen.indet. p
Cothinus sp. p
Anacardiaceae Pistacia sp. p
Rhus sp. p p
Acer campestre L. m
Aceraceae
Acer sp. p p
Ilex colchica Pojark, m
Aquifoliaceae
Ilex sp. p p
Celastraceae Euonymus sp. p p
Staphyleaceae Staphylea colchica Stev. m
Buxus colchica A.Pojark. mp p
Buxaceae
Buxus sp. p p
Frangula alnus Mill. mp p
Frangula sp. p
Rhamnaceae Paliurus spina-Christi Mill. p
Rhamnus imeretina Booth. m
Dycotyledoneae

Rhamnus sp. p p
Vitis sylvestris Gmel. m
Vitaceae Vitis vinifera L. mp p
Vitis sp. p p
Tilia caucasica Rupr. mp
Tiliaceae
Tilia sp. p p
Daphne sp. p
Thymelaea passerina (L.)
Thymelaeaceae p
Coss.et Germ.
Thymelaea sp. p
Viola alba L. m
Viola arvensis Murr. p
Viola biflora L. m
Viola canina L. m
Violaceae
Viola palustris L. p
Viola reichenbachiana Jord. m
Viola sp. p
Violaceae gen.indet.. p p
Trichosantes sp. m
Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae gen.indet. m p
Abutilon theophrasti Medic. m
Althea officinalis L. m
Malvaceae
Lavatera sp. p
Malva sp. p

157
1 2 3 4 5
Elaeagnus sp. p p
Elaeagnaceae Hippophaë rhamnoides L. p
Hippophaë sp. p p
Cistaceae Helianthemum sp. p
Resedaceae Reseda sp. p
Myricaria sp. p
Tamaricaceae
Tamarix sp. p
Lythraceae Lythrum sp. m p
Chamaenerium sp. p
Epilobium algidum M.B. m
Onagraceae Epilobium sp. p
Ludwigia sp. p
Onagraceae gen.indet. p
Trapa colchica Albov p
Trapaceae
Trapa natans L. p
Haloragaceae Myriophyllum sp. p p
Cornus mas L. m p
Cornaceae Cornus sp. p
Swida australis (C.A.M.) Pojark. m
Hedera colchica C.Koch. p
Dycotyledoneae

Araliaceae Hedera helix L. m


Hedera sp. p p
Aegopodium podagraria L. m
Aethusa cynapium l. m
Ammi sp. p
Anethum graveolens L. m
Antriscum sp. P
Astrantia maxima Pall. P
Astrantia sp. p p
Bupleurum sp. p p
Chaerophyllum sp. p
Daucus sp. p
Apiaceae Eryngium campestre L. m
Eryngium sp. p p
Falcaria sp. p P
Heracleum apiifolium Boiss. m
Heracleum sp. p P
Peucedanum palustre (L.)Moench. p
Peucedanum sp. p p
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.)
m
Nym.
Pimpinella sp. p P
Smirnium sp. p
Apiaceae gen.indet. p P

158
1 2 3 4 5
Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hill. p
Erica sp. p
Rhododendron caucasicum Pall. p p
Rhododendron luteum Sweet. p
Ericaceae
Rhododendron ponticum L. p
Rhododendron sp. p p
Vaccinium sp. p p
Ericaceae gen.indet. p
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca americana L. m
Androsace septentrionalis L. m
Cortusa sp. P
Glaux maritima L. P
Lysimachia vulgaris L. p
Primula farinosa L. p p
Primulaceae
Primula veris L. p
Primula sp. p p
Samolus sp. p
Soldanella sp. P
Primulaceae gen.indet. p
Armeria sp. p
Dycotyledoneae

Limonium vulgare L. P
Plumbaginaceae
Plumbago sp. p
Plumbaginaceae gen.indet. p p
Verbena officinalis L. m
Verbenaceae
Verbena sp. p
Apocinaceae Apocinum sp. p
Gentiana campestris L. p
Gentianaceae Gentiana detonsa Rottb. p
Centaurium sp. p
Fraxinus sp. p p
Jasminum sp. p
Oleaceae Ligustrum vulgaris L. p
Ligustrum sp. p p
Olea cf.europaea L. p p
Galium aparine L. m
Galium palustre L. m
Rubiaceae
Galium sp. p mp
Rubiaceae gen.indet. p
Echium vulgare L. m
Echium sp. p
Heliotropium suaveolens M.B. m
Boraginaceae
Lappula echinata Gilib. m
Nonea versicolor (Stev.) Sweet. p
Pulmonaria sp. p p

159
1 2 3 4 5
Symphytum sp. p p
Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae gen.indet. p p
Datura stramonium L. m
Hiosciamus niger L. p

Solanaceae
Physalis alkekengi L. m
Solanum nigrum L. m p
Solanum persicum Willd. m
Solanaceae gen.indet. p
Digitalis purpurea L. p p
Digitalis sp. p
Scrophulariaceae

Melampirum pratense L. p
Melampirum sp. P
Pedicularis sp. p p
Scrophularia sp. p
Veronica sp. m p
Scrophulariaceae gen.indet. p p
Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br. m
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L. m p
Convolvulus sp. p
Cuscutaceae Cuscuta sp. p
Dycotyledoneae

Polemoniaceae Polemonium sp. p


Plantago lanceolata L. p p
Plantaginaceae

Plantago major L. m p
Plantago maritima L. p p
Plantago media L. p
Plantago sp. p
Plantaginaceae gen.indet. p
Pinguicula sp. p
Lentibulariaceae
Urticularia sp. p p
Lonicera sp. p p
Caprifoliaceae

Viburnum lantana L. m p
Viburnum sp. p p
Sambucus ebulus L. mp
Sambucus nigra L. mp p
Caprifoliaceae gen.indet. p
Adoxaceae Adoxa sp. p
Ajuga chia Schreb. m m
Ajuga reptans L. m m
Galeopsis bifida Boenn. m
Lamiaceae

Lycopus europaeus L. m m
Marrubium sp. p P
Mentha sp. p p
Prunella vulgaris L. m
Prunella sp. p

160
1 2 3 4 5
Salvia aethiopis L. m
Salvia nutans L. m
Salvia verticillata L. m
Scutellaria sp. p

Lamiaceae
Sideritis sp. p
Stachys annua L. m m
Stachys silvatica L. m p
Stachys sp. p
Theucrium sp. p p
Thymus caucasicus Willd. m
Lamiaceae gen. indet. p p
Valeriana sp. p p
Valerianaceae
Valerianaceae gen.indet. p
Cephalaria sp. p
Dipsacus sp. p
Dipsacaceae Knautia sp. p p
Scabiosa sp. p p
Dipsacaceae gen.indet. p p
Callitrichaceae Callitriche polymorpha Lönr. p
Campanula sp. mp p
Dycotyledoneae

Campanulaceae
Phyteuma sp. p
Achillea sp. p p
Ambrosia sp. P p
Anthemis sp. P p
Arctium sp. p
Artemisia sp. P
Aster sp. P
Carduus sp. p mp
Centaurea cyanus L. p
Centaurea phrigia L. p
Centaurea scabiosa L. P
Asteraceae

Centaurea solstitialis L. p p
Centaurea sp. p
Cichorium sp. p p
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. p
Cirsium sp. p p
Echinops sp. p
Grossheimia sp. p
Jurinea sp. p
Lapsana communis L. m
Rhinanthus sp. p
Serratula sp. p
Siegesbeckia orientalis L. m p

161
1 2 3 4 5
Taraxacum sp. p
Xanthium strumarium L. m
Dycotyledoneae Asteraceae Xanthium cf.spinosum L. m
Xanthium sp. p p
Asteraceae gen.indet. p p
Alisma plantago-aquatica L. p
Alismataceae Alisma sp. p p
Alismataceae gen.indet. p
Butomus sp. p
Butomaceae
Butomaceae gen.indet. p
Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitaceae gen.indet. p
Juncus filiformis L. m
Juncaceae Juncus effusus L. m
Juncus sp. mp
Potamogeton natans L. m
Potamogeto-
Potamogeton sp. p p
naceae
Ruppia sp. p
Allium sp. p
Colchicum speciosum Stew. p
Lilium sp. p
Liliaceae

Gagea sp. p
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum L. m
Tulipa silvestris L. p
Monocotyledoneae

Smilax excelsa L. m
Smilax sp. p
Liliaceae gen.indet. p p
Amaryllidaceae Amaryllidaceae gen.indet. p
Iris pseudacorus L. mp
Iridaceae
Iridaceae gen.indet. p p
Avena fatua L. m
Avena sp. p
Deschampsia caespinosa m
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. m
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) R.et
m
Sch.
Echinochloa frumentacea
m
(Roxb.) Link.
Poaceae

Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. m


Hordeum distichum L. m
Hordeum sp. p
Lolium remosum Schrenk. m
Panicum cappilare L. m
Panicum miliaceum L. m
Panicum sp. p p
Paspalum paspaloides (Michx.)
m
Scribn.

162
1 2 3 4 5
Phragmites sp. p
Poa nemoralis L. m
Secale cereale L. p
Secale sp. p
Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. m
Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. m
Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. m
Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. m
Poaceae

Setaria sp. p p
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. m
Tragus racemosa (L.) Desf. m
Triticum aestivum s.l. m
Triticum dicoccum Shubl. m
Triticum monococcum L. m
Triticum sp. mp p
Zea mays L. p
Poaceae gen. indet. p p
Sparganium neglectum Beeby. m
Sparganiaceae Sparganium sp. p
Monocotyledoneae

Sparganiaceae gen.indet. p
Typha angustifolia L. p
Typhaceae Typha latifolia L. mp p
Typha sp. m p
Carex acutiformis Ehrh. m
Carex canescens L. m
Carex capitellata Boiss.et Bal.ex
m
Boiss.
Carex dacica Heuff. m
Carex elongata L. m
Carex inflata Huds. m
Carex leporina L. m
Carex micropodioides V.Krecz. m
Cyperaceae

Carex oreophila C.A.M. m


Carex pallescens L. m
Carex panicea L. m
Carex remota L. m
Carex vesicaria L. m
Carex sp.1, sp.2 m
Dichostylis micheliana (L.)
m
Nees.
Scirpus lacustris L. m
Scirpus tabernaemontani
m
C.C.Gmel.
Cyperaceae gen.indet. p p

163
daskvnebi
saqarTvelos namarxi floris uZvelesi naSTebi
paleozouriT TariRdeba. xramis masivis qveda da Suakarbonuli
naleqebidan gansazRvrulia mcenareTa 13 taqsoni.
paleobotanikuri TvalsazrisiT, mezozouridan yvelaze
mdidari iuruli naleqebia. am naleqebidan, kvlevis sxvadasxva
meTodebis gamoyenebiT, aRwerilia mdidari flora, romlis
ganviTarebaSi sami mTavari etapia gamoyofili.
adreiurulSi saqarTvelos TiTqmis mTeli teritoria,
garda loqis, xramis da Zirulis masivebisa, iyo dafaruli zRviT.
reliefis amaRlebul ubnebze xarobda mravalferovani tyeebi,
romelTa komponentebs gvimrebi da wiwvovanebi Seadgendnen.
Sua iurulSi (baTuri) xmeleTis gafarToebam, agreTve
temperaturisa da tenianobis matebam, ganapiroba mdidari da
mravalferovani mcenareulobis farTo gavrceleba. floris
umTavresi komponentebi iyo gvimrebi, agreTve Caytoniales, Cycadales,
Bennettitales da wiwvovanebi.
kaloviurSi moxda mcenareuli safaris mkveTri cvlileba,
rac gamowveuli iyo evraziis teritoriaze ariduli havis zonis
warmoqmniT. baTuris mdidari mcenareuloba Seicvala
erTferovani TanasazogadoebiT, sadac dominirebda ojaxis
Cheirolepidiaceae-s warmomadgenlebi.
adrecarculSi (apturi, alburi) gvimrebis, Caytoniales,
Bennettitales da sxva taqsonebis udidesi nawili gadaSenda. am dros
araukariasebrTa da taqsodiumisebrTa roli gaizarda.
saqarTvelos gviancarculi mcenareulobis Sesaxeb monacemebi ar
mogvepoveba.
eocenuri naleqebi mesameuli asakis yvelaze Zveli Sreebia,
romlebic mcenareul naSTebs Seicaven. am dros floris
SemadgenlobaSi dominanturi mdgomareoba ukavia farulTeslovan
mcenareebs, gansakuTrebiT ojaxebis Myricaceae-s, Juglandaceae-s,
Fagaceae-s warmomadgenlebs.
oligocenurSi reliefis amaRlebam gamoiwvia
mcenareulobis Semadgenlobis cvlileba, kerZod, moimata
wiwvovanTa raodenobam da siTbozomier mcenareTa jgufi ki
ufro mravalferovani gaxda.

164
adremiocenuri floris umetesi nawili Seswavlilia
makronaSTebiT. floris ZiriTadi birTvi warmodgenilia
farulTeslovanebiT. Termofiluri jiSebi, romlebic
paleogenurSi notio subtropikul tyeebs qmnidnen, SedarebiT
dabali tenianobis pirobebSi adremiocenurSic ganagrZobdnen
arsebobas. isini Sediodnen xeSeSfoTlovani formaciebis
SemadgenlobaSi, romlebic gavrcelebuli iyo naleqdagrovebis
auzTan axlos.
karaganuli, konkuri da qarTveluri regiosarTulebi
paleobotanikuri TvalsazrisiT ufro detalurad aris
Seswavlili. am SreebSi uxvad moipoveba rogorc mcenareTa
msxvili naSTebi, aseve mtvris marcvlebi da sporebi. gvimrebi
ZiriTadad gadaSenebuli taqsonebiTaa warmodgenili. wiwvovanebs
Soris Warbobs fiWvi da taqsodiumisebrni. rac Seexeba naZvs, soWsa
da cugas, romlebic ufro axalgazrda florebisTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli, maTi roli kompleqsebSi umniSvneloa.
farTofoTlovanebi gamoirCevian sistematikuri da ekologiuri
mravalferovnebiT. zogadad, saqarTvelos teritoriaze
Suamiocenuri mcenareuloba met-naklebad erTferovani iyo da
subtropikuli da teniani havis elementebis siWarbiT
xasiaTdeboda.
sarmatuli naleqebi Seicavs mdidar paleobotanikur
masalas, romelic warmodgenilia, rogorc mcenareTa msxvili
naSTebiT, aseve palinomorfebiT. dasavleT saqarTvelos
makroflorebi asaxavs dablobisa da mTis qveda sartyelis
maradmwvane formaciebis arsebobas, dafnisebrTa dominirebiT;
hemiqserofiluri elementebis roli umniSvneloa. rogorc
mcenareTa msxvili naSTebi gviCvenebs, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
teritoriaze, farTod iyo gavrcelebuli orive formacia -
teniani subtropikuli da sklerofiluri.
samxreT saqarTveloSi mcenareTa makronaSTebs Seicavs
goderZis wyeba, romlis umetesi nawili sarmatulad TariRdeba.
goderZis flora gamoirCeva kargi daculobis namarxi masalis
siuxviTa da mravalferovnebiT. igi higrofiluri maradmwvane da
foTolmcvivani tyeebis arsebobas asaxavs. am formaciebs ekavaT
reliefis sxvadasxva doneebi, romlebic erTmaneTisagan
mikroklimaturi pirobebiT gansxvavdeboda.
goderZis wyebis qveda nawils Seesabameba vales flora,
romlis gabatonebuli elementebia subtropikuli da

165
siTbozomieri havis mcenareebi. subtropikuli mcenareebi
ZiriTadad buCqebiTaa warmodgenili, xolo dafnisebrni _
wvrilfoTlovani qserofiluri formebiT.

cxr. XXII. mcenareulobis da klimatis ganviTarebis etapebi


gviankainozouris ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze

ukanasknel wlebSi mdidari palinologiuri masala iqna


mopovebuli zedakainozouri naleqebidan. maTi interpretacia
landSaftur-fitocenologiuri meTodis gamoyenebiT axleburad

166
aSuqebs saqarTvelos mcenareulobisa da havis istorias da
saSualebas gvaZlevs gamovyoT ganviTarebis 13 etapi (cxr. XXII).
Cven am etapebs dawvrilebiT ar ganvixilavT, radgan isini
datanilia diagramebze, romlebic Tan axlavs calkeuli
stratigrafiuli erTeulebis mcenareulobis aRweras.
dasavleT saqarTvelos qveda da Suasarmatuli naleqebis
palinokompleqsebi asaxavs polidominanturi tyeebis batonobas.
wiwvovanebiT dakavebuli farTobi gacilebiT mcirea, rac
erTgvarovani klimaturi pirobebis arsebobaze miuTiTebs.
msgavsi Semadgenlobis tyeebi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic
xarobda, magram mcenareulobis dinamika iq sruliad
gansxvavebuli iyo. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos qveda -
Suasarmatuli naleqebis palinokompleqsebi arastabiluri
klimaturi pirobebis arsebobaze metyvelebs. am movlenam ufro
mkveTri xasiaTi miiRo Suasarmatulis Semdeg, rodesac
orogenetuli movlenebis Sedegad amierkavkasiis mTaTaSua
depresia xmeleTad gadaiqca. es xmeleTi Zirulis masiviT
dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis regionebad gaiyo.
dasavleTiT Savi zRvis mimdebare teritoria Camoyalibda
izolirebul regionad-e.w. kolxeTis refugiumad, sadac Tbili da
notio hava xels uwyobda tyis mdidari mcenareulobis
ganviTarebas.
sul sxvanairi pirobebi iyo aRmosavleT saqarTvelos
teritoriaze, sadac Sua sarmatulis Semdeg daiwyo mSrali havis
mcenareulobis gabatoneba. amgvarad, sarmatulis Semdeg dasavleT
da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mcenareuloba, sxvadasxva klimaturi
pirobebis zegavleniT, erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad
viTardeboda.
geologiuri drois Semdgomi periodis istoria
aRdgenelia dasavleT saqarTvelodan mopovebuli masalis
mixedviT. rogorc cnobilia, dRes es teritoria aRmosavleT
parateTisis stratotipul regionadaa miCneuli. aq neogenurisa da
pleistocenuris yvela stratigrafiuli erTeuli warmodgenilia
naleqebis sruli seriiT, romlebic faunis da floris mdidari
kompleqsebiT xasiaTdeba.
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos pliocenuri floris Sesaxeb
arsebuli monacemebi Semoifargleba mxolod aRCagiluri da
afSeronuli droiT, rodesac adgili hqonda zRvis transgresias
da mcenareTa naSTebis Semcveli Sreebis akumulacias.

167
dasavleT saqarTvelos mcenareulobis ganviTarebis
procesSi, sarmatulis Semdeg, gardatexis pirveli momenti
Seesabameba miocenuris da pliocenuris sazRvars (I da II etapebis
sazRvari), rodesac adgili hqonda Termofiluri mcenareebis
masobriv gadaSenebas. miuxedavad amisa ponturi da kimeriuli
floris udidesi nawili kvlav subtropikuli da siTbos-
moyvaruli formebisagan Sedgeba, rac drois am monakveTSi
regionSi Tbil da notio klimatur pirobebze miuTiTebs.
gardatexis meore momenti Seesabameba drois intervals
kimeriulis zeda nawilidan skurdumis (qveda kuialnikuri)
bolomde (IIIetapi). mcenareulobis ganviTarebis es etapi iwyeba da
mTavrdeba fiWvis gabatonebiT, romelic tenianobis da, SesaZloa,
temperaturis Semcirebis maCvenebeli iyo. mklevareTa varaudiT,
daaxloebiT am dros adgili hqonda didi da mcire kavkasionis
peneplenizacias, ris Sedegad dairRva kolxeTis izolacia,
Seicvala klimaturi pirobebi, ramac gamoiwvia subtropikuli
mcenareebis masiuri gadaSeneba. III etapis Semdeg dasavleT
saqarTvelos mcenareulobaSi subtropikuli cenozebi, rogorc
damoukidebuli erTeuli, aRar arsebobda. Semdegi IV etapis
(Suakuialnikuri) polidominanturi tyeebi ukve foTolmcvivani
jiSebisagan Camoyalibda, Tumca maT Soris jer kidev agrZelebda
arsebobas Zveli florebis reliqtebi.
gardatexis mesame momenti, savaraudod, Seesabameboda qveda
da Sua kuialnikuris sazRvars (III da IV etapebis sazRvari),
rodesac dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze Seicvala klimatis
ganviTarebis mimarTuleba, rac gamoixateboda tenianobis
gazrdaSi da temperaturis xSir fluqtuaciebSi.es movlenebi
dakavSirebuli iyo, rogorc orogenetul moZraobebTan, ris
Sedegad aRdga kolxeTis izolirebuli mdgomareoba, aseve
zedapliocenur periodSi klimatis saerTo acivebasTan.
gardatexis meoTxe momenti Seesabameba gvianguriuls da
adreCaudurs (VIIetapi), rodesac dasavleT saqarTvelos
teritoriaze kvlav hqonda adgili mesameuli reliqtebis
masobriv gadaSenebas. am dros radikaluri cvlilebi moxda
mcenareulobis struqturaSic. mcire da didi kavkasionis maRal
mTebad formirebis Sedegad Camoyalibda xelSemwyobi pirobebi
zomieri da siTbozomieri havis mcenareebisaTvis. isini
gavrceldnen vertikaluri zonebis mixedviT da warmoiqmna tyis
sami sartyeli: zeda-muqwiwvovani tyis sartyeli, Sua sartyeli,

168
romelic wiflis tyeebs ekava, da qveda Sereuli tyis sartyeli,
romelSic SemorCenili iyo Termofiluri mcenareebi.
gardatexis meoTxe momentis Semdeg dasavleT saqarTvelos
florisa da mcenareulobis dinamika mimdinareobda ori
ZiriaTadi mimarTulebiT: pirveli - mesameuli reliqtebis
TandaTanobiTi gadaSeneba da meore-calkeuli formaciebis
sazRvrebis gadaadgileba. am movlenebis mTavari moqmedi faqtori
iyo klimati, romlis cvalebadoba dakavSirebuli iyo
gamyinvarebis da gamyinvarebaTaSorisi periodiebis
monacvleobasTan. eopleistocenuridan dawyebuli
pleistocenuris bolomde paleobotanikuri monacemebiT
gamoiyofa sami ZiriTadi gamyinvareba: guncuri, mindeluri da
vurmuli. saqarTvelos namarx florebSi risuli gamyinvarebis
aSkara kvali ar Cans.
holocenuri drois ganmavlobaSi (etapi XIII),
palinologiuri monacemebis Tanaxmad, Savi zRvis transgresiuli
fazebi Tanxvdeboda Selfur naleqebSi Termofiluri xe-
mcenareebis mtvris marcvlebis raodenobis matebas da gadaleqili
palinomorfebis mcire Semcvelobas. regresiuli fazebis dros ki,
piriqiT, Termofiluri elementebis roli mcirdeboda da
mkveTrad matulobda gadaleqili mtvris marcvlebis raodenoba.
yovelive es aCvenebs zRvis donis dawevasTan dakavSirebul
eroziul procesebs. transgresiuli fazebi Tbili klimaturi
periodebiT ufro xangrZlivi iyo, vidre regresiuli.
transgresiasTan dakavSirebuli yvelaze mniSvnelovani daTboba
moxda atlantikur periodSi da daaxlovebiT 3 aTas wels gastana
(8000-5000). klimaturi trendi mimarTuli iyo temperaturisa da
naleqebis matebisaken. am procesma maqsimums miaRwia 6000-5500
wlis win, rodesac gamyinvarebis Semdgom periodSi kolxeTSi
zRvis donem pirvelad ramdenime metriT gadaaWarba Tanamedroves.
atlantikuri periodis dasawyisSi notio da Tbili havis
CamoyalibebisTanave, samxreT qarTlis aluviuri dablobebze
pirveli neoliTuri sasoflo-sameurneo dasaxlebebi gaCnda. aq
memarcvleobis garda, ganviTarebuli iyo mebaReoba, mefutkreoba
da feiqroba. daTbobis procesi eneoliTis ganmavlobaSi
grZeldeboda. Tbili hava xels uwyobda axali kulturebis gaCenas
da mTian olqebSi soflis meurneobis ganviTarebas.
Savi zRvis meore mniSvnelovani ingresia moxda
subborealuri periodis bolos (3800 – 2400 wlis win), rac aseve

169
daTbobasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. zRvis done Tanamedroveze
maRali darCa. gaizarda foTlovani tyeebis areali, sadac wabli,
lafani da Zelqva xarobdnen. maRal mTebSi tradiciuli
mecxvareoba mevenaxeobiT da mebaReobiT Seicvala. am dros
ganviTarebuli unda yofiliyo xelosnobac, rasac Zv.w.me-15-14
saukuneebis arqeologiur masalaSi bambis boWkoebis aRmoCena
adasturebs.
bolo 2000 weli ufro xSiri transgresiebiT da klimaturi
fluqtuaciebiT xasiaTdeba, romelTa Soris yvelaze xangrZlivi
klimaturi optimumi Sua saukuneebze (me-7-11 ss.) modis. yvelaze
didi daTboba da Savi zRvis didi transgresia aRiniSneboda me-15-
16 saukuneebSi da 200 wels gagrZelda.
Cvens mier Sedgenili sqemebis Sedarebam dasavleT evropisa
da axlo aRmosavleTis mTiani regionebis sqemebTan aCvena
garkveuli msgvseba klimatur cvlilebebSi, rac aixsneba am
movlenebis globaluri xasiaTiT.
amrigad, saqarTvelos teritoriaze gviankainozouri
mcenareulobis ganviTarebis istoriaSi SeiZleba sami didi
intervali gamoiyos:
pirveli intervali xasiaTdeba subtropikuli
mcenareulobis dominirebiT. aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi es
formacia arsebobda zeda sarmatulamde. dasavleT saqarTveloSi
igi SenarCunebuli iyo sarmatul, meotur, pontur saukuneebsa da
kimeriulis umetes nawilSi (I-II etapebi).
meore intervali moicavs gardamaval periods (III-VI
etapebi), rodesac mcenareuloba jer kidev inarCunebda Zvel
Semadgenlobas, magram ukve etyoboda ganaxlebis tendencia. am
dros daiwyo polidominanturi tyis calkeul cenozebad dayofa
da maTi gadanawileba reliefis Sesabamisad.
mesame intervalSi (VII-XIII etapebi) Cndeba mcenareulobis
axali struqtura, romelic ukve Tanamedrove mcenareulobis
msgavsia. am periodSi ZiriTadad dasrulda mesameuli reliqtebis
gadaSenebis procesi, Tumca zogierTi saxeoba dasavleT
saqarTvelos Tanamedrove floraSi dRemde agrZelebs arsebobas.

170
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