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Coordinates November 2009 | 3


In this issue
Coordinates Volume 5, Issue 11, November 2009


Sea link - a Sea change SHUBRA KINGDANG, S DIWANJI, RAKESH KAUL, LEN GOWER 7 Towards hazards prediction

your calendar NOVEMBER 2009 TO OCTOBER 2010 42

This issue has been made possible by the support and good wishes of the following individuals and companies Hilmar Ingensand,
P Debnath, Len Gower, LP Sharma, Nilanchal Patel, Nilanchal Patel, Rainer Mautz, Rakesh Kaul, S Diwanji, Stig Enemark, Washington
Yotto Ochieng and Datem, Geneq, Hemisphere GPS, High Target, Javad, IP Solutions, Kolida, Magellan, Navcom, NovAtel, NRSC,
Pacific Crest, Positionale, Leica, South; and many others

Mailing Address Coordinates is an initiative of cGIT that aims to broaden the Editor Bal Krishna
11C Pocket A scope of positioning, navigation and related technologies.
SFS Mayur Vihar Phase III cGIT does not neccesarily subscribe to the views expressed Owner Centre for Geoinformation Technologies
Delhi 110 096, India. by the authors and advertisers in this magazine and may not
Phones +91 11 22632607, 98102 33422, 98107 24567 be held liable for any losses caused directly or indirectly due Designed at Thomson Press India Ltd.
Fax +91 11 22632607 to the information provided herein. © cGIT, 2009. Reprinting
with permission is encouraged; contact the editor for details. Printer Thomson Press India Ltd., B 315, Okhla Phase I,
Email New Delhi-110020, India
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[editorial] [Overseas] US$80 This issue of Coordinates is of 44 pages, including
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[subscriptions] Printed and published by Sanjay Malaviya on behalf of Centre
for Geoinformation Technologies at A221 Mangal
4 | Coordinates November 2009
Web Apartments, Vasundhara Enclave, Delhi 110096, India.
Coordinates November 2009 | 5

New bench mark

Delays, litigations, cost overruns.

Technical and engineering challenges.

Social and environmental concerns.

And more importantly, non-willingness at many levels.

All the ingredients of a mega infrastructure project in India.

Yet, the Bandra-Worli Sea Link has happened (page 7).

The first sea link in India.

Mumbai has a new landmark.

India has a new benchmark.

Bal Krishna, Editor

CHIEF ADVISOR Muneendra Kumar PhD, Chief Geodesist (Retired), US National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, USA ADVISORS Naser El-
Sheimy PEng, CRC Professor, Department of Geomatics Engineering, The University of Calgary Canada, George Cho Professor in GIS and the
Law, University of Canberra, Australia, Associate Professor Abbas Rajabifard Director, Centre for SDI and Land Administration, University of
Melbourne, Australia, Luiz Paulo Souto Fortes PhD Associate Director of Geosciences, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics -IBGE,
Brazil, John Hannah Professor, School of Surveying, University of Otago, New Zealand

6 | Coordinates November 2009


Sea link- a Sea change

The marvel that has brought this sea change to the life and landscape of Mumbai
is the Bandra-Worli Sea Link – the first ever sea link to be built in India

“Package IV”
M umbai: the financial capital of India.
A tiny island bursting at the seams
with its teeming millions. With real estate The largest and main phase of Bandra-
message signs, remote weather information
system and emergency telephones.

prices among the highest anywhere in Worli Sea Link Project was Package IV
the world, land is an extremely precious which included the construction of Cable- The marvel in the making
commodity in the city. Expanding the Stayed Bridges together with viaduct
existing infrastructure especially transport approaches extending from Worli up to the When one sets out to achieve a first,
has been a nightmare for the city planners. Toll Plaza at Bandra end and an Intelligent the challenges are bound to be many.
Bridge System (IBS). The work under Some problems on the project were
But, one thing that Mumbai does have this package was awarded to HCC. unique and needed special solutions,
plenty of is the sea – surrounding the while other problems were those faced
island on three sides. Finally when push The Bridge on any other such project around the
came to shove, with the only connection world. The project team of over 3000
between the western suburbs and ‘town’ The bridge consists of twin continuous workers, HCC engineers, foreign
- the Mahim causeway choked to its concrete box girder bridge sections for engineers and technicians met the
limit, the planners looked out to the sea. traffic in each direction. Each bridge challenges head on and overcame them
section, except at the cable-stayed to give Mumbai its latest landmark.
The idea about a bridge in the sea seemed portion, is supported on piers typically
far fetched at first, but where there is a will spaced at 50 meters. The bridge layout Foundation and Substructure
there is a way. Many years in the planning is categorized into three different parts:
and more years in the making, but finally The project’s site geology consists of
Mumbaikers can now speed across the • Part 1 - The north-end approach basalts, volcanic tuffs and breccias with
Mahim bay on a swanky new 8 lane 4.7 structure with Pre-Cast (PC) some intertrappean deposits. This highly
km bridge, cutting the earlier travel time segmental construction. variable geotechnical condition of the
of up to 60 minutes to just 15 minutes. foundation bed in the intertidal zone
• Part 2 - The Cable-Stayed Bridge at needed suitable solutions solutions to lay
The marvel that has brought this sea Bandra channel is with 50m -250m- the foundation and the substructure.
change to the life and landscape of 250m-50m span arrangement and
Mumbai is the Bandra-Worli Sea Link – the Cable-Stayed Bridge at Worli The foundations for the BWSL project
the first ever sea link to be built in India. channel is with 50m-50m-150m- consist of 2000-mm diameter piles
50m-50m span arrangement. numbering 120 for the cable-stayed bridges
The Bandra-Worli Sea Link (BWSL) is a and 1500-mm diameter piles numbering
part of the Western Freeway Sea Project, • Part 3 - The south end approach 484 for the approach bridges. The key
which, in turn, is a part of a larger proposal structure with Pre-Cast to success was a program of pier by pier
to upgrade the road transportation network segmental construction. in-situ testing. An extensive subsurface
of greater Mumbai. The project has exploration and drilling program (total 191
been commissioned by the Maharashtra Toll Plaza bores inside sea) was undertaken to define
State Road Development Corporation the subsurface stratigraphy, determine the
Ltd (MSRDC) and the Maharashtra A modern toll plaza with 16 lanes rock types and obtain material properties
Government and has been built by is provided at the Bandra end. The for optimizing the foundation design.
Hindustan Construction Company (HCC). toll plaza is equipped with a state- The working load on the approach
of-the-art toll collection system. piles ranges from 700 tons to 1500 tons
The entire project was originally conceived whereas for the piles below the cable-
as one large project comprising, different Intelligent Bridge System stayed bridge working load is 2500 tons.
components, but in order to accelerate
the overall construction schedule, the The intelligent bridge system provides For conducting the load test on the
project was divided into five construction additional traffic information, surveillance, piles, the load to be applied varied
packages. Four of these packages involved monitoring and control systems. It from 4500tons to 9600tons. This was
work on the island, while one – Package comprises CCTVs, traffic counting and accomplished by a careful planning of load
IV involved construction in the sea. vehicle classification system, variable test using the Osterberg load cell method.

Coordinates November 2009 | 7

The award winning Osterberg Cell, or was solved using circular steel caissons. Facts not fiction
“O-Cell”, gets its name from the inventor, These caissons were fabricated outside
• India’s first bridge to be constructed in
Dr. Jorj O. Osterberg. The O-cell is a and towed to location using A-frame open-sea conditions.
hydraulically driven, high capacity, barge. The caissons were sunk at the • 2342 pre-cast segments for total bridge
sacrificial loading device installed within location using counterweights. The with varied width.
the foundation unit. Working in two unevenness at the bottom was sealed • 40,000 MT of reinforcement, 23,0000
directions, upward against side-shear using the gabion method. The benefit cum of concrete, 5,400 MT of Post
and downward against end-bearing, of this method was that it completely tensioning
the O-cell automatically separates the eliminated deployment of resources like strands and bars used.
resistance parameters. By virtue of its Jack up Platform, Crane, Vibrohammer, • Osterberg cell technology used for the
first time in India to check pile strength.
installation within the foundation member, Compressor, etc for liner pitching. It also
the Osterberg Cell load test derives all eliminated substantial amount of field • Engagement of Asian Hercules for
shifting 1,260 MT launching truss from
reaction from the soil and/or rock system. works and is pre-fabricated in principle. Bandra end to Worli end of the main
Load testing with the O-Cell continues cable stay bridge.
until one of three things occurs: ultimate Superstructure • Largest span for cable-stayed bridge in
skin friction capacity is reached, ultimate India.
end bearing capacity is reached, or the The BWSL Project has (9+2) approach • Up to 25-m high pier in open sea, giving
maximum O-cell capacity is reached. bridge modules. These modules range from ample headroom to marine traffic.
3 continuous span units to 8 continuous • Use of Polytron Disc in bearings on piers
At BWSL, four test locations were span units. The deck of the carriageways for the first time in India.
selected. Reverse Circulation Drilling consists of triple cell precast box girders
method was adopted for foundation supported on piers founded on independent itself. The truss also had the capacity to
construction. The highly uneven foundation substructure. The Concrete Grade for align the total span in hanging condition
beds and the presence of intertidal zone the superstructure is M60. The average after the gluing was completed. The truss
brought in lots of difficulty in terms of weight of the span is 1800 tons, whereas was fully mechanized for self launching
Liner pitching. This problem was solved the heaviest span in the bridge weighed and aligning. An individual segment
by constructing a gabion boundary at 2000 tons. In addition, the trusses were could be aligned on the truss using a set
the bed level around the casing, pouring designed to receive the segment from of four hydraulic jacks mounted on each
concrete between the casings to make an the already erected deck as well as from suspension frame. In order to eliminate the
artificial penetration of the casing. After barges parked directly under the truss. casting or erection errors within a span,
setting of the concrete under the water, two wet joints were provided on either
drilling was commenced using RCD. The erection gantry was a 1260MT end of the span. The wet joints were cast
truss designed to erect spans for the after finalization of the span alignment.
For several locations, cofferdam superstructure configuration. The unique
construction using steel liner and sheet feature of the truss was the maximum A Typical 50m span of the approach
piles was not possible due to very hard span weight it could handle and that it bridges comprises 15 field segments, a
and uneven strata. Here the problem could launch the pier and EJ segment Pier segment and 200mm (nominal) in-situ
wet joints. During the span construction,
all field segments were suspended from
the Gantry, glued and temporarily stressed
together. Once the gluing operation was

The pylon challenge

• The section decreases gradually with
• There are horizontal grooves at every 3m
Bandra Cable Stay Bridge height and vertical grooves for circular
portion that required special form liners
as well as required attention for de-
• The tower legs are inclined in two
directions, which created complexities in
alignment and climbing of soldiers.
• Construction joints were permitted only
at 3m level. Inserts were permitted only
in horizontal grooves provided at 3m
Worli Cable Stay Bridge

8 | Coordinates November 2009

Coordinates November 2009 | 9
Stayed Bridge it was 73m. The segments
“This project gave us an opportunity to were lifted by a Derrick which was fixed

showcase our equipment” on both ends of the pier table segment and
then forwarded. Lifting operation was done
simultaneously on both ends. At a time,
says Rakesh Kaul, What kind of support did you Derrick could lift one segment. Deck is
General Manager, Elcome provide HCC vis-à-vis the equipment constructed of alternate stay and non stay
Technologies Pvt. Ltd., that you supplied to them? segments joined to pier table segments.
with reference to the
survey equipment that We gave comprehensive application Dry Matching, Epoxy and
they supplied for the trainings at their site towards effective Temporary Stressing for Gluing
Bandra-Worli Sea Link. and optimal usage of the equipment.
Moreover, these equipments in keeping When the segment was positioned, it was
When did Elcome Technologies first the desired accuracies that are required to be joined with the existing segment.
get associated with HCC on the for such a project, needed timely Therefore, the segment was first dry-
Bandra- Worli Sea Link Project? calibration checks and corrections – for matched with the already erected segment.
this, besides providing them complete On completion of dry-matching, the
Leica equipment has been used service support during the warranty, segment was moved back by sliding the
on most of the Sea Link projects we also got into annual maintenance lifting beam for a distance of 400mm of
around the world and based on this contracts for these equipment post their the derrick and epoxy was applied on the
experience we approached Hindustan warranty period. We were thus able to face of both segments. After application
Construction Company (HCC) provide timely service and calibration of the glue, the segments were joined
sometime at the end of 2000 with our of the equipment at our service centre. together and were stressed by Temporary
range of specialised equipments for PT bars. Post this step, the segment lifting
the Bandra-Worli Sea Link (BWSL). Do you think being associated with the beam on derrick was moved forward to
The first Leica Total Station was project gives Elcome Technologies any lift the next segment i.e. stay segment.
supplied by us to HCC in early 2001. leverage for other similar projects?
Erection of Stay Segment
What were the equipment It has been a privilege to be associated
supplied for this project? with BWSL and the HCC team we These segments were also erected similarly
worked with. Moreover the challenges as the non-stay segment and were also
To meet the demand for high accuracy in geometric control on the project were joined in the similar way. After this,
coordinate measurements on the BWSL highly demanding and exacting. This guide pipes were installed over the ducts
project we supplied high performance gave us an opportunity to showcase left behind during segment casting.
Leica Total Stations including the TCA our equipment and our expertise.
2003, the TCA 1800, the TCA 1201, the Our experience with BWSL project Stay Cable
TCRM 1201 R 300 and the TC 1800. We will be a basis for us to promote our
also supplied the SR 510 GPS equipment. technology on other such projects too. Stay Cables used are ‘Parallel Wire Stay
Cables’. Each cable consists of a group
completed, span alignment to the Piers The complex pylon geometry was of different number of steel wires. Each
was followed. After alignment, the wet another challenge for surveyors. HCC’s wire is made up of high tensile steel.
joints were cast including grouting of Principal Surveyor devised a sophisticated Diameter of single wire was 7mm with a
bearings top plinth. Once the wet joints technology to measure coordinates breaking limit of 6.28 Tones. Six different
achieved the required strength, stressing through a combination of total station sizes of cables were used in the cable-
of longitudinal PT was commenced and prisms mounted on pylon legs. stayed portion. The difference between
followed by load transfer of Span to Piers. The pylon legs were constructed within them was only on the basis of number of
an accuracy of ±5mm, which speaks steel wires in each cable. Six different
The Cable Stay Bridges volumes about the technique employed. types used were of 61, 73, 85, 91, 109
and 121 steel wires. Group of these
It is for the first time that a cable stay Erection of Segments of Cable wires was packed in two layers of HDPE
bridge has been attempted on open seas Stay Bridge by Derrick (High Density Poly Ethylene) material to
in India. The aesthetically designed protect them from atmospheric effects.
pylons have an extremely complex The balance cantilever method was used
geometry and one of the longest for erection of segments at Cable-Stayed Closure Pour
spans for concrete deck – presenting a Bridge. During construction, the length of
formidable engineering challenge. free cantilever for Bandra Cable-Stayed In Bandra Cable-Stayed Bridge,
Bridge was 215m and for Worli Cable- closure pour is provided between main

10 | Coordinates November 2009

Engineering challenges
• The foundations of the bridge included
Meeting challenges with innovation!
604 large diameter shafts drilled to
lengths of 6m to 34m in geotechnical
conditions that varied from highly
weathered volcanic material to
Col S Diwanji
massive high strength rocks. Project Manager,
• The superstructure of the approach Bandra-Worli Sea Link Project,
bridges were the heaviest spans in Hindustan Construction Company
the country to be built with span-
by-span method using overhead
gantry through a series of vertical and
When did the work on the Bandra- Why was the cable stayed bridge design
horizontal curves.
Worli Sea Link project start? chosen for the Bandra-Worli Sea Link?
• 128m high concrete tower with flaring
lower legs, converging upper legs,
unified tower head housing the stays Hindustan Construction Company A cable stayed design has some inherent
and a throughout varying cross section (HCC) was awarded Package IV advantages compared to other conventional
along the height of tower. of the Project and work started in designs, the main being that it allows
• Erection of 20000 MT Bandra cable- September 2000, but was held up for larger spans. There were three main
stayed deck supported on stay cables due to several reasons including reasons why a large span was needed in
within a very close tolerance of
environmental issues and protests case of the Bandra-Worli Sea Link:
deviations in plan and elevation.
by fishermen. In right earnest the
work started in December 2004. • A navigational channel for the
cable-stayed cantilevers and back fishermen and other sea faring
span. In Worli Cable-Stayed bridge, On what basis was the distance vessels had to be maintained.
closure pour is provided between between the piers and the height
two cable-stayed cantilever decks. of the bridge decided? • There are plans to expand
the present jetty.
Longitudinal stressing and grouting The span between the piers is 50m. This
distance was arrived at after considering • There are overseas communication
When all the segments and cables were various factors, which included cables on the seafloor which
erected, the segments were post tensioned optimization between the foundation keep shifting and this had to
longitudinally. This post tensioning was cost vs. the superstructure cost. If the be taken into consideration.
done by stressing the steel tendons placed piers are wide apart then the foundation
in the ducts provided inside the body cost comes down, but the superstructure At what stage of the bridge
of segments. This helps the members to becomes heavier and its cost goes up. construction was the need for
stay together and to increase their load precision survey instruments felt ?
carrying capacity as a large number Also the navigational requirements
of segments were joined together to as in an emergency the smaller We knew from the start of the project that
make single unit. Once the stressing trawlers and boats should be able to high precision equipment would be needed
was done as per requirement, these pass between the piers. Moreover, and one of the first things we did was
holes or ducts were filled with cement more number of piers provide better to mobilise the Total Stations – the first
grout and were plugged at both ends. wind resistance to the bridge. of which were procured in early 2001.

Fine Tuning
A triumph of precision link offered complex engineering and
After completion of closure pour and post- engineering environmental challenges that motivated
tensioning of the deck, fine tuning of stay us to be innovative and do our best.”
cables was done. Fine tuning involved The Indian Institution of Bridge
fine force adjustments of the stay cables Engineers (IIBE) awarded HCC the ‘Most With India looking to improve and enhance
to achieve the required stresses in the deck outstanding bridge-National award’ earlier its infrastructure, many projects are
and profile of the deck. During fine tuning, this year. Acknowledging the distinction, being implemented or are in the pipeline
forces in the stay cables were adjusted Mr Vinayak Deshpande, President & around the country. The Bandra-Worli Sea
to suit further addition of super-imposed COO - HCC (EPC & Construction) Link will definitely be a benchmark for
dead loads such as wearing coat, crash said, “We are privileged to receive this infrastructure projects in India for many
barriers, handrails and also vehicle loads. honour for the very first cable-stayed sea years to come. - Shubhra Kingdang
During fine tuning operation, longitudinal bridge built in open sea in India. HCC Based on material provided by HCC
and transverse deck profiles were also has a long experience in infrastructure and press releases. The detailed story is
monitored to provide smooth curve. development, yet building this sea available at

Coordinates November 2009 | 11

"Survey related challenges for the Bandra-Worli
were similar to most cable stayed bridges"
Len Gower, Principal Surveyor on the Bandra-Worli Sea link Project
Hindustan Construction Company shares his experiences on the project
in an exclusive interview with Coordinates.

jigs, as well as special dual turnbuckle pipe sleeve The pylons of a cable stayed bridge are used
support yokes and customized targeting and tooling primarily to anchor the upper cable stay sockets.
for surveying the anchor assemblies in the deck Many times the deck is firmly attached to the pylons
sections. (as in the case of the Bandra and Worli spans)
but other bridges only have sliding pot bearings
The fabrication of the pylon head anchor boxes was at the pylons (Ting Kau Bridge, in Hong Kong), or
even more complex, as weld shrinkage had to be elastomeric bearings between the tower’s cross
anticipated, and unforeseen results dealt with during beam and the underside of the deck (Alex Fraser
Len Gower
erection. The size of the base plate that the bearing Bridge, Cooper River Bridge).
plate rests on is only 700x400 mm in dimension, so
that means the fit-up survey measurements had to The survey method utilized to construct the Bandra-
be accurate to sub-millimetre, to ensure the 0.125 Worli pylons was based on the fact that the pylon
Could you please tell us briefly how a cable stayed degree angular misalignment specification was legs were inclined. Inclined pylon legs pose a
bridge is different from other bridges? met. significant challenge to the contractor, as the rebar
cage will have a natural tendency to sag down hill
Cable stay supported bridges are a type of The pylon legs (below the tower head) were very during construction. If a rebar cage sags, it will be
suspension bridge. Cable stayed bridges have many slender, so were susceptible to thermal gradient out of tolerance when completed and clash with
smaller diameter cables, connecting the pylon legs deflections. Care had to be taken to ensure that all the formwork adjustment procedure during the
to the deck at evenly spaced intervals. The most important surveys were performed in a thermally final as-set survey. Our solution was to implement
common style is to space the anchors from the neutral state. The legs also deflected towards the a sacrificial rebar template assembly, to guide the
pylon top downwards towards the deck called a pylon centre after concrete placement, so the ‘as- construction of the rebar cages and to ensure that
modified fan. set’ positions were always different from the ‘as- there would be no clashes of the steel embedments,
built’ positions. like crane tie-ins and DOKA climbing cones.
The longest spans still require a suspension bridge,
but for the medium spans (100 – 1000 metres), The reference geometry supplied by the designer is Our surveyors set the rebar templates in the early
cable stayed bridges may offer cost benefits and based on Time ∞, whereas we were constructing morning hours, after the self climbing formwork was
shorter construction schedules to the client. every element at Time 0, so allowances had to fixed for the next lift. These templates had 3 or 4
be made for future creep, shrinkage and elastic key points stamped onto them that the surveyors
Please tell us about some of the survey related shortening. These allowances are referred to could shoot, and once the support framework was
challenges you faced on the Bandra-Worli Sea as pre-cambers and over heights/lengths. For completely welded, formed a local survey network
Link Bridge?a example, the over height for the P19 pylon’s tower that moved with the pylon’s thermal deflections,
head was +35 mm. As we completed the south yet was still based on a thermally neutral pylon.
The survey related challenges for the Bandra-Worli carriageway first, the deck load was transferred into At any time, and with any amount of pylon leg
were similar to most cable stayed bridges. The the pylon legs, causing the shared centre legs to deflections present, our surveyors could set up their
accuracy requirements are always demanding, shorten less than the single outer leg. This caused instrument on the special brackets attached to the
especially in the fabrication of the cable anchor the pylon to temporarily incline away from bridge DOKA framework, disable the internal compensators
assemblies. The angular misalignment permitted centreline by nearly 30 mm at the top of the tower and then perform a ‘resection’ or ‘free station’
is+- 0.5 degrees in the completed structure, so head. This meant that we had to construct the north operation to determine instrument co-ordinates and
the fabrication and assembly tolerances are much pylon’s tower head on a similar inclination, with orientation, for set-out work. Once the concrete was
tighter. We fabricated the bearing plate / guide pipe the expectation that the pylon would come back placed, the pylon would deflect downwards towards
assemblies to +- 0.06 degrees from perpendicular. to plumb when the load of the north deck was in the bridge centreline, so new co-ordinates of the
We placed them in the deck slab formwork (prior place, bringing the pylon sub structure and common rebar template were measured (again in the early
to concrete placement) within +- 0.125 degrees, foundation back into equilibrium. hours of the morning). The instrument was again
to ensure that they would still be within +- 0.25 transferred up to the top of the pylon, installed on
degrees after the concrete had been placed and Could you please elaborate on the role of the the same bracket, where the as-built survey could
the concrete curing shrinkage was complete. This pylons in a cable stayed bridge and the survey be completed quickly and accurately.
procedure required custom design / manufacture of methodology that was used to put them up in the
very accurate bearing plate/pipe sleeve assembly Bandra-Worli Sea Link Bridge? The main challenge to these surveys was in the

12 | Coordinates November 2009

formwork construction. On most bridge pylons, The exception to this high tech equipment is utilizing deck or pylon are minor, as there is usually a
there are 2 fixed panels and two adjustable panels, a pair of old fashioned tilting levels to perform fairly generous range of cable length adjustment
so fine adjustment at each corner is possible. For accurate deck profiles. The vibrations present at the live end socket – either by split shims or by
the Bandra-Worli pylons, the formwork had no in cable stay supported decks makes internally threaded sockets and lock nuts. A shift of 1 or 2
adjustability. Each panel butted up to the adjacent compensated survey equipment susceptible to centimetres in longitudinal or transverse directions is
panels, so the entire shutter assembly acted as ‘compensator excitation’, producing a blurred insignificant, so normal survey procedures are quite
a solid body. To move the top into position, the image of the crosshairs in an auto level or randomly capable of controlling installation and identifying
entire shutter had to be tipped, similar to the survey inaccurate vertical differences in total stations. A absolute errors. The exception to this is angular
alignment procedure of an elevator core shutter. split bubble tilting level exhibits the deck vibrations misalignments.
in the movement of the tilting bubble – and the cross
If an error in a panel length cutting operation hair image is completely stable. By adjusting the The principal of multi-strand stays, or parallel wire
occurred, there was no way to eliminate this. level so as to balance the bubble movement evenly, pre-formed stays is that each wire or strand carries
Small errors could be mitigated by setting the a level observation is possible. The purpose of an equal proportion of the cable force. If the bearing
shutters so that half the error was on one corner having two instruments observing a single staff is plate isn’t perpendicular to the cable force vector,
and the other have was on the opposite corner. Our that long circuits can be run ‘one way’. Each set- then some wires will carry much more of their
survey alignment criteria was therefore based on up produces two back sights and two foresights, respective share of the force, and other wires will
the centroid of the entire shutter (6 point average so constitutes a closed level loop. The next set-up carry much less of the force. The over-stressed
in the pylon leg sections & 12 point average in the produces 2 back sights and two foresights, again a wires are therefore susceptible to premature
tower head sections), and not on individual corner closed loop. It is like building a chain, link by link. fatigue failures. Most manufactures will provide a
positions. It was quite common to be able to level from P17 to warranty period for their stays, providing the final
P21, a distance of 600 Metres, with a misclosure of angular alignments are within +-0.01 Radians (+-
In the Bandra-Worli Sea Link project what were only 1-2 mm. 0.57 degrees). Even with this ‘less than generous’
the phases in the construction where survey installation tolerance, longer guide pipes with a
played a critical role. Could you tell us about the kind of accuracies that misalignment close to the limit will pose problems
are needed for various aspects of a cable stayed during damper installation. This is the one phase
The phases of construction most dependent on bridge? of works that requires the best survey equipment
survey were the following: and methodology available, to produce repeatable
• Offshore pile driving, cofferdam placement There are many different accuracy requirements, measurements at sub millimetre accuracy.
and marine foundation construction in the steel fabrication/concrete casting and their
• Deck segment match casting related survey control measurements, as some Pile driving and coffer dam positioning can be
• Deck segment installation types of errors can propagate or systematically performed to +- 5mm without any detrimental
• Pylon leg casting multiply and others are essentially ‘one off’ – with effects, so is a perfect application for DGPS.
• Pylon leg junction below the tower head no knock-on effects.
• Cable anchorage fabrication How important is the use of GPS for survey
• Tower head anchor box fabrication Deck segment lengths are a typical dimensional purposes in a cable stayed bridge project? How
• Tower head installation component that has potential for systematic error was it used in the Bandra-Worli Sea Link Bridge
• Deck profile surveys propagation. A +1mm error on every 3M long deck project.
• Wet joint alignment between 16 deck segment segment of a 600 metre span will produce +100
‘blocks’ mm errors at each expansion joint at the end spans, The application of GPS in cable stayed bridge
• Deck closure surveys, pre cable length fine or roughly 10% of the thermal gradient expansion construction is quickly gaining acceptance, for
tuning range. This is still an acceptable range of error, specific tasks. While it can’t replace all traditional
• Post fine tuning deck profile surveys but 200 or 300 mm wouldn’t be, so deck lengths survey equipment – it does have cost benefits in
• Kerb and asphalt grades have to be measured accurate to the millimetre, certain applications. Bridges far from shore, very tall
and significant errors must be tracked during deck pylons, marine plant positioning, bathymetric vessel
What kinds of survey instruments are best suited segment installation, and compensated for in the positioning, and construction site control networks
for the different survey works in a typical cable last in situ stitch joints cast. are all perfect applications for DGPS. You can even
stayed bridge construction. use static GPS receivers for as-builts, provided the Z
Installation of the first deck segment of a 16 segment co-ordinates are not critical.
The best instruments for cable stayed bridge block is another example of a potential systematic
surveying are state of the art, high accuracy, error situation. For every 1mm rotational error (in In dynamic structures that require periodic
vibration tolerant electronic total stations, with ATR either the horizontal or vertical directions) there will monitoring, a DGPS system that logs reading once
(automatic target recognition) and on-board software be a 16mm error at the next wet joint. When setting per second, over 24 hours is a much more cost
for Free Station and Resection. GPS receivers can these segments during wet joint construction, we effective solution than a two man crew with a total
also play a role, when the pylons are extremely tall measure the horizontal positions to the millimetre station and prism pole. As the Bandra-Worli Bridge
(as in the Millau Bridge in France) or far out to sea. and the vertical differences to better than 0.5 mm. is fairly close to shore, GPS played a limited role
Their lack of accuracy in Z measurements is their in construction control. The complete interview can be
only weakness, in my opinion. Cable anchorage placement errors in either the read at

Coordinates November 2009 | 13


Towards hazards prediction

This article investigates the capability of GNSS aided smart sensor network
positioning and Radio Frequency technology to monitor 3D deformation associated
with volcanic activity and other comparable hazardous events

Rainer Mautz
Researcher and Lecturer
in Engineering Geodesy at
M any of the world’s volcanoes that
erupt, experience significant pre-
eruption surface deformation. Internal
each other to perform distributed sensing
for event confirmation and significance.

the Swiss Federal Institute

magma pressure makes the surface bulge Janssen (2002) has shown that geodynamic
of Technology Zurich
upwards and outwards. Thus, precise applications such as volcano deformation
monitoring of surface deformation has the monitoring, require a dense spatial
potential to contribute significantly to the coverage of sensor stations. Although the
realisation of a predictive capability of requirement for centimetre level accuracy
Washington Yotto Ochieng volcanic eruption. In particular, eruption points to the need for GNSS carrier
Professor of Positioning source depth and evolution time can be phase measurements, the need to keep
and Navigation Systems, estimated from surface deformation. The costs down (both in terms of technical
Imperial College London scale of this deformation is typically complexity and power consumption),
centimetric to decimetric over tens of precludes the exclusive need to build
square kilometres and over periods of expensive carrier phase GNSS chips into
weeks. Horizontal displacements show all nodes (Drescher et al. 2008). Hence,
Hilmar Ingensand
typically a radial pattern of movement a compromise scenario is to have both
Professor in Engineering
of up to 10 cm with the displacement of types of nodes, some equipped with RF
Geodesy at
the vertical components in the range of (Radio Frequency) as well as carrier
the Swiss Federal Institute
4 to 6 cm per year (Wadge et al., 2005). phase GNSS chips that are used for
of Technology Zurich
Furthermore, Wadge demonstrated absolute coordinate and time referencing
that SAR interferometry images could but the majority of nodes equipped only
be used to detect displacements of with RF technology for communication
70 to 90 mm uplift. However, data and inter-nodal range measurements.
rates of typically 35 days are too
slow for an early warning system. The limited GNSS aiding proposed here
should enable RF positioning to deliver
In addition to the use of precise positioning centimetre level positioning (and high
and timing information to facilitate direct accuracy timing) both in terms of error
monitoring of deformation, the positioning calibration and temporal synchronisation.
function is vital for spatio-temporal In this case the sensors equipped with
referencing of the relevant multiple and GNSS chips calculate their positions
complementary data types for volcano in a higher reference frame with high
monitoring (e.g., seismicity, ground surface accuracy, and serve as anchor (= control
deformation, geothermal, gravity, and or reference) points for the monitoring
geomagnetic). This approach is particularly network. The communication function of
useful for enhanced risk assessment and the network should enable the exchange
early warning of volcanic eruptions. In of the data required for positioning within
architectural terms the monitoring network the monitoring network. This includes
is an array of distributed intelligent nodes communication between the sensors, and
(sensor motes), consisting of low-cost, between the RF nodes and GNSS reference
commercially available, and off-the-shelf stations. This should enable GNSS
components (as far as possible) with aiding to take place but accommodate
built-in local memory and intelligence, the flexibility of allowing the RF nodes
with self-configuration, communication, to position themselves exploiting inter-
interaction and cooperative networking node distance measurements. With a
capabilities. The nodes should be able to high density of RF nodes, the inter-node
identify the type, intensity, and location distances between volcanic activity
of the parameters being measured, and sensors are expected to be short thereby
Fig. 1 Positioning algorithm, which does not collaborate in an inter-nodal manner with enhancing positioning accuracy.
require any initial approximate coordinates.

14 | Coordinates November 2009

Such a monitoring system requires multiple shown that there is not much likelihood the technology has the potential to deliver
key features including construction of the that this will be the case in the near future. sub-decimetre level positioning by time-
hardware that fulfil the requirements in of-flight measurements. Due to these
terms of size, battery life and robustness, For an unmodified WLAN (Wireless Local advantages, the UWB signal technique can
the extraction of ranges (distances) Area Network, IEEE 802.11) the ranging also be considered for network positioning.
between sensor nodes, appropriate techniques TOA or TDOA can hardly be
supporting network communications, used due to the lag of time synchronisation Brodin et al. (2005), use the time of flight
protocol development, optimal routing (Müller 2004). Currently, only a metre- between two Bluetooth transceivers to
and positioning. Currently various accuracy can be achieved by using time derive inter-node ranges. A two-way
research activities are underway globally delay measurements (Uthansakul and ranging technique is used to cancel the
to study the feasibility of smart sensing Uthansakul 2008). Therefore, alternative clock bias and obtain accurate range
for environmental applications. This signals for the extraction of ranges between between two devices. Certain short
study addresses specifically the position two devices should be considered. range ultrasound based positioning
function and characterises the performance systems can reach cm-level accuracy
of a novel high positioning algorithm Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology uses (Priyantha, 2005). However, in hazardous
using simulated range measurements a pulsed, very low transmit power radio outdoor environments with relatively
at the Sakurajima volcano in Japan. signal that provides very wide bandwidth. large areas and temperature ranges to
UWB is defined as signal with a fractional cover, such methods are not practical.
bandwidth greater than 25% or, above
Positioning strategy 2 GHz, any signal with a bandwidth > 500 A significant part of a high accuracy
MHz. One of the key advantages of UWB, positioning system to support deformation
RF positioning which makes it interesting for positioning monitoring is the determination of 3D
applications, is the fine time resolution that coordinate positions from the estimated
Radio Frequency (RF) includes rates of can be achieved, due to its wide bandwidth. ranges. This paper is based on a novel
oscillation within the range of about 3 Hz This enables very accurate measurements positioning algorithm (explained
to 300 GHz. Recent advances in low- of time of flight, leading to highly accurate briefly in this section) for use with
power computing platforms and wireless positioning (Gezici et al, 2005). It also high quality range measurements. The
technologies, such as personal area enables resolution and elimination of the algorithm allows for the determination
networks (IEEE 802.15.4) have enabled closely spaced multipath propagation. An of network sensor node coordinates
the creation of sensor platforms that are assessment of UWB has been made by based on a set of range measurements
capable of operating for extended periods Meier and Mühlebach (2005). Ubisense under certain circumstances and is
while using wireless communications to offers currently a 3D positioning system independent of the type of signal used.
relay sensor data. The radio technology stating an accuracy of 15 cm. However,
used in a wireless sensor is usually
short range (< 50 m) and low bandwidth
to maximise the operating lifetime of
the wireless node once deployed. A
fundamental issue in positioning using
RF signals is the determination of the
distance between the wireless nodes.

Those methods that estimate the distances

by exploiting the RSSI (Received Signal
Strength Indicator) or cell-ID are not used
for deformation monitoring due to their Fig. 2 Lateral View of Sakurajima Mountain based on Fig. 4 Optimised positions of the 400 nodes. All
a 10 m grid 5024 lines of sight with less than 500 m are shown.
unreliability and inaccuracy. Here, the
Time of Arrival (TOA) or Time Difference
of Arrival (TDOA) methods are preferred,
where the time delay is used to derive
the distances between nodes if there is
a direct line of sight. To date there has
not been a practical demonstration of the
capability of any of the current approaches
to deliver centimetre level positioning in a
continuous and reliable manner as required
for monitoring of deformation associated
Fig. 3 Original positions of 400 nodes on a 100 m Fig. 5 Maximum radio range between nodes versus
with volcanoes. However, research has by 125 m grid. All 1838 lines of sight with less than the number of 3D positions that can be determined
500 m are shown. precisely.

Coordinates November 2009 | 15

Positioning algorithm Prefecture in Kyūshū, Japan. It is a made that the radio links are restricted
composite volcano with the summit to a maximum of 500 m assuming the
The local 3D positioning algorithm split into three peaks; its highest peak usage of omnidirectional antennas and
presented in this paper takes into rises to 1’117 metres above sea level. direct line of sight for RF signals in
account the weaknesses of current the chosen frequency band. Since the
wireless ad-hoc positioning methods The volcano is extremely active erupting precise TOA ranging method requires
and algorithms, including the absence almost constantly. Thousands of small direct line of sight, all observations with
of quality and integrity indicators for explosions occur each year, throwing obstructed views were not considered.
the positioning results and performs ash to heights of up to a few kilometres As a result, the network according to
well even in the presence of high above the mountain. Monitoring of the Figure 3 did not have the required density
variances in range measurements. volcano for predictions of large eruptions for positioning. In a second attempt the
is particularly important due to its location locations of the nodes were optimised
The positioning strategy can be in a densely populated area, with the city for a maximum of line-of-sights using a
broken down into two phases: of Kagoshima’s 600,000 residents just a heuristic global optimisation scheme, see
few kilometres from the volcano. Several Figure 4. The inter-nodal connectivity
1. Creation of a rigid structure: The key institutions are involved in monitoring (i.e. the density of the network) is 3
issue for anchor free positioning is Sakurajima, including the Sakurajima times higher with 5024 ranges. In this
to find a globally rigid graph, or in Volcano Observatory (where data are case it was possible to compute the
other words, a structure of nodes and captured by levelling, EDM and GPS) coordinates of all nodes in the network.
ranges which has only one unique and Kagoshima University (which uses
embedding, but still can be rotated, EDM and GPS). Additionally Landsat In another experiment the radio range,
translated and reflected. In 3D, the 7 images are analysed. However, a i.e. the maximal range observation
smallest graph consists of five fully dense network of location aware nodes
connected nodes in general position. is still to be deployed. This section
If such an initial cluster passes uses a Digital Surface Model (DSM) to
statistical tests, additional vertices are simulate such a network and assesses the
added consecutively using a verified performance that could be achieved.
multilateration technique. These tests
include a “folding-ambiguity test” that The Digital surface model
prevents the algorithm to create false
rigid structures. If, for example four The network positioning analysis is based
nodes are in one plane, the height of that on a 10 m by 10 m reference DSM of
tetrahedron can not be determined well. the central parts of volcano Sakurajima
Fig. 6 Maximum radio range versus the average
A “volume test” eliminates those cases. comprising an area of 2 km by 2.5 km. A number of successful range measurements for
3D view of the data is shown in Figure 2. each node.
2. Transformation of the cluster(s) into In order to establish a useful network of
a reference coordinate system: If the sensors with positional awareness for
local cluster contains at least four Mount Sakurajima, several scenarios
vertices that are also anchor nodes in were simulated and assessed. The main
a reference system, then the cluster driver for successful positioning in a
is eligible for a transformation into sensor network is the geometry of the
that particular coordinate system. The network, i.e. the locations of the nodes.
process flow of the overall positioning Other key factors are the total number of
strategy is illustrated in Figure 1. nodes, number of anchors (i.e. reference)
nodes, maximum range length and the
A more elaborate discussion of the mean error of the range measurements. Fig. 7 Mean errors in the range measurements
positioning algorithm and details of Based on the positioning algorithm versus the mean position errors (•) and the
deviations from “truth” (+).
the mathematical background are described in section 2, the performance
presented in Mautz et al. (2007). of such a network can be quantified.
Such a study supports a future real
network implementation in general – not
Optimised network set up in particular for Mount Sakurajima.
for volcano Sakurajima
Various simulation scenarios
Sakurajima is an active volcano and a
former island (now connected to the In a first scenario 400 nodes were deployed
mainland) of the same name in Kagoshima on a 100 m grid. The assumption was

Fig. 8 Mean errors of the X- Y- and

16 | Coordinates November 2009 Z-components sorted by the mean position
errors (P) of the wireless nodes.
Number of Anchor Number of Number of
anchors fraction located nodes ranges
3 0.8 % 3 3
5 1.2 % 191 3556
10 2.5 % 354 4553
15 3.8 % 371 4874
20 5.0 % 400 5024
Table 1 Success in precise positioning of network nodes in dependency
of the number anchor nodes. The network size is 400 nodes.

between nodes was varied in a series between 200 m

and 500 m. Figure 5 shows that the critical bound is at
350 m. The number of ranges to neighbours that the
average node is able to observe is directly proportional
to the maximal ranging distance, see Figure 6.

Another important parameter for a network configuration is

the fraction of anchor nodes, i.e. the number of GPS reference
stations. Results show that the minimum number for a 3D
Helmert transformation of 3 reference points is not sufficient.
Even the minimum number for our positioning algorithm of 5
reference stations does not mean that all nodes participate in
the cluster with the anchor nodes. Deploying 5 anchors, not all PP
nodes become part of the main cluster, see Table 1. In order to
solve that problem, the number of anchors must be increased.
Alternatively, the inter node connectivity can be enlarged.

The most problematic parameter in wireless positioning

is the ranging accuracy, since the technology of precise
ranging has not yet reached the level that most applications
would need. According to Figure 7, the mean error (white
noise) of the range observations was varied between 0 m and
1 m. Typically, the positional errors can be expected in the
size of the range errors. Other factors, such as the network
density, geometry, etc. also have an influence on the position
errors. Since this is a simulation, we have the opportunity
to compare the results with the true positions for a network
with perfect ranges. At high noise levels, the estimated
errors tend to be smaller than the true deviations – this effect
is caused by undetected cases of folding errors, because a
wrong embedding is not sensitive to error propagation.

One last observation – but nevertheless important – is that

the errors of the height component are 2-3 times higher
than the horizontal components, see Figure 8. This is a
result of all nodes being deployed on the surface causing
an unfavourable geometry for height determination.


This paper has shown that the implementation of a wireless

deformation monitoring system is feasible if the current
problem of extracting precise ranging is solved. The
requirement to have direct line of sights between stations can
be solved by locating the nodes for optimal directs sights.
The number of required nodes depends on the transmission
range. The required fraction of GNSS enabled reference nodes
will be around 10%, depending on the network density.

Coordinates November 2009 | 17


Brodin, G., Cooper, J., Kemp, A., Le, T.S., Walsh, D., Ochieng, W.Y.,
Mautz, R. (2005): A High Accuracy Bluetooth Ranging and Positioning
System, Proceedings of National Navigation Conference NAV05, The
Royal Institute of Navigation, 1–3 November 2005, London.

Drescher, R., Leinen, S., Becker, M. (2008): Volcano monitoring

by a GPS based hybrid sensor system, Schriftenreihe der
Fachrichtung Geodäsie, TU Darmstadt, No. 28, p. 23 – 36.

Gezici, S., Sahinoglu, Z., Molisch, A.F., Kobayashi, H., Poor, H.V. (2005):
A Two-Step Time of Arrival Estmation Algorithm for Impulse Radio Ultra

The industry is positioning itself Wideband Systems. European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO).

With the help of modern satellite navigation Janssen, V., Roberts, C., Rizos, C., Abidin, H.Z. (2002): Low-Cost GPS-Based
systems, transport companies are able to manage Volcano Deformation Monitoring at Mt. Papandayan, Indonesia. Journal
their vehicle fleets and farmers are sowing their of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 115(1-2), pp. 139–151. URL:
seeds. Other industries are only now discovering
the various application benefits of this new tech-
nology which already has an influence on practi- Mautz, R., Ochieng, W.Y., Brodin, G., Kemp, A. (2007): 3D Wireless
cally all branches of the economy and areas of life.
Network Localization from Inconsistent Distance Observations, Ad
With POSITIONALE, Messe Stuttgart is creating the
Hoc & Sensor Wireless Networks, Vol. 3, No. 2–3, pp. 141–170.
first European industry platform, which will bring
technology suppliers, service providers and users
together. Meier, C., Mühlebach, M. (2005): Indoor / Outdoor Positioning with
UWB, Diploma Thesis, Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz FHA, 53 p.
Find your ’position’! Secure your trade fair parti-
cipation at POSITIONALE 2010. Moore, D., Leonard, J., Rus, D., Teller, S. (2004): Robust distributed
network localization with noisy range measurements, Proceedings
of the ACM Symposium on Networked Embedded Systems.

Müller, S. (2004): Positionierung im WLAN, in: Project Work Location-

based Services for Wireless Devices, University Paderborn.

Priyantha N. B. (2005): The Cricket Indoor Location System,

PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 199 p.

Savvides, A., Han, C., Strivastava, M. (2001): Dynamic Fine-

Grained Localization in Ad-hoc Networks of Sensors,
Proceedings of ACM SIGMOBILE 2001, Italy, July 2001.

Uthansakul, P., Uthansakul, M. (2008): A Novel WLAN Positioning

Technique Employing Time Delay of Successful Transmission. In:
Proceedings of the 2008 the Second international Conference on
Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies,
NGMAST. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, pp. 105–110.

Wadge, G., Achache, J., Ferretti, A., Francis, P.W., Morley, J., Muller, J-P.,
Murray, J.B., Prati, C., Rocca, F., Stevens, N.F., Upton, M. Williams, C.A. (1997):
Volcano monitoring using interferometric SAR, Earthnet Online, ESA, URL:

New Stuttgart Trade Fair Centre (accessed 3 Aug. 2009).

18 to 20 May 2010
The authors would like to thank Kokusai Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan
Key exhibition areas: Transport and logistics for providing the reference DSM of the volcano Sakurajima.
Traffic and automotive I Machine control
18 | Coordinatessurveying
NovemberI 2009
Terrestrial SatNav technology
and services I Satellite-based technology
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26 | Coordinates November 2009

Sustainable Land Governance

This paper provides an overall understanding of the concept of land administration systems for
dealing with rights, restrictions and responsibilities in future spatially enabled government. We
present here the first part of the paper. The remaining part will be published in December issue

Prof Stig Enemark an overall understanding of the concept activities in relation to land tenure and land
FIG President of land administration systems for dealing information management, modern LAS
Aalborg University, Denmark with rights, restrictions and responsibilities designed as described in Figure 1 delivers
Email in future spatially enabled government. an essential infrastructure and encourages
integration of the four functions:

A ll countries have to deal with the

management of land. They have
to deal with the four functions of land
Land administration systems Land tenure: the processes and
institutions related to securing access
tenure, land value, land use, and land Land Administration Systems (LAS) to land and inventing commodities in
development in some way or another. are an important infrastructure, which land, and their allocation, recording and
National capacity may be advanced and facilitate the implementation of land security; cadastral mapping and legal
combine the activities in one conceptual policies in both developed and developing surveys to determine parcel boundaries;
framework supported by sophisticated ICT countries. LAS are concerned with the creating new properties or altering
models. More likely, capacity will involve social, legal, economic and technical existing properties; the transfer of
very fragmented and basically analogue framework within which land managers property or use from one party to another
approaches. Different countries will also and administrators must operate. These through sale, lease or credit security;
put varying emphasis on each of the four systems support efficient land markets and and the management and adjudication
functions, depending on their cultural are, at the same time, concerned with the of doubts and disputes regarding
basis and level of economic development. administration of land as a natural resource land rights and parcel boundaries.
to ensure its sustainable development.
Today the accepted theoretical framework This global approach to modern land Land value: the processes and institutions
for all land administration systems is administration systems is shown in related to assessment of the value of
delivery of sustainable development – the Figure 1. The four land administration land and properties; the calculation and
triple bottom line of economic, social, and functions (land tenure, land value, land gathering of revenues through taxation;
environmental development, together with use, land development) are different in and the management and adjudication of
the fourth requirement of good governance. their professional focus, and are normally land valuation and taxation disputes.
Land Administration Systems are the basis undertaken by a mix of professions,
for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and including surveyors, engineers, lawyers, Land use: the processes and institutions
responsibilities related to people, policies valuers, land economists, planners, and related to control of land use through
and places. Property rights are normally developers. Furthermore, the actual adoption of planning policies and land
concerned with ownership and tenure processes of land valuation and taxation, use regulations at national, regional and
whereas restrictions usually control use as well as the actual land use planning local levels; the enforcement of land
and activities on land. Responsibilities processes, are often not considered to be use regulations; and the management
relate more to a social, ethical commitment part of the land administration activities. and adjudication of land use conflicts.
or attitude to environmental sustainability However, even if land administration
and good husbandry. This paper provides is traditionally centred on the cadastral Land development: the processes and
institutions related to building of new
physical infrastructure and utilities;
the implementation of construction
planning; public acquisition of land;
expropriation; change of land use through
granting of planning permissions, and
building and land use permits; and the
distribution of development costs.

Inevitably, all the functions are interrelated.

The interrelations appear through the
fact that the actual conceptual, economic
and physical uses of land and properties

Figure 1. A global land administration perspective (after Enemark 2004)

Coordinates November 2009 | 27
influence land values. Land values are also use control and land development should designed in this way forms a backbone
influenced by the possible future use of lead to effective land use management. for society and is essential for good
land determined through zoning, land use The combination of efficient land markets governance because it delivers detailed
planning regulations, and permit granting and effective land use management information and reliable administration
processes. And the land use planning should support economic, social and of land from the basic foundational
and policies will, of course, determine environmental sustainable development. level of individual land parcels to the
and regulate future land development. national level of policy implementation.
From this global perspective, LAS act
Land information should be organised within adopted land policies that define
to combine cadastral and topographic the legal regulatory pattern for dealing Property rights
data, and to link the built environment with land issues. They also act within
(including legal and social land rights) an institutional framework that imposes In the Western cultures it would be hard to
with the natural environment (including mandates and responsibilities on the imagine a society without having property
topographical, environmental and natural various agencies and organisations. They rights as a basic driver for development
resource issues). Land information should, should service the needs of individuals, and economic growth. Property is not
this way, be organised through an SDI businesses, and the community at only economic asset. Secure property
at national, regional, federal, and local large. Benefits arise through LAS rights provide a sense of identity and
levels, based on relevant policies for data guarantee of ownership, security of belonging that goes far beyond and
sharing, cost recovery, access to data, data tenure and credit; facilitating efficient underpins the values of democracy and
models, and standards. Ultimately, the land transfers and land markets; human freedom. Historically, however,
design of adequate systems of land tenure supporting management of assets; and land rights evolved to give incentives
and land value should support efficient providing basic information and efficient for maintaining soil fertility, making
land markets capable of supporting trading administrative processes in valuation, land-related investments, and managing
in simple and complex commodities. The land use planning, land development natural resources sustainably.
design of adequate systems to deliver land and environmental protection. LAS
Therefore, property rights are normally
Perceived tenure Adverse managed well in modern economies.
approaches Occupancy possession Leases The main rights are ownership and
long term leasehold. These rights are
Informal Formal typically managed through the cadastral/
land rights land rights land registration systems developed
over centuries. Other rights such as
Customany Anti evictions Group tenure Registered easements and mortgage are often
included in the registration systems.
Figure 3. Continuum of land rights (UN-Habitat, 2008)

However, these legal or formal systems

do not serve the millions of people whose
tenures are predominantly social rather
than legal. “Rights such as freehold and
registered leasehold, and the conventional
cadastral and land registration systems, and
the way they are presently structured, can
not supply security of tenure to the vast
majority of the low income groups and/
or deal quickly enough with the scale of
urban problems. Innovative approaches
need to be developed” (UN- HABITAT
2003). This should include a “scaling
up approach” that include a range of
steps from informal to more formalised
land rights. This process does not mean
that the all societies will develop into
freehold tenure systems. Figure 3 shows
a continuum of land rights where each
step in the process can be formalised, with
registered freeholds offering a stronger
protection, than at earlier stages.
Figure 4. The concept of multipurpose cadastral systems (Enemark 2005)

28 | Coordinates November 2009

Coordinates November 2009 | 29
Cadastral Systems served administration functions in land their national cadastral system. The aims
tenure, value, use and development, and are to understand the role that a cadastre
Modern land administration theory focused on delivering sustainable land plays in a state or a National Spatial Data
relied on the history of cadastres to management. A mature multipurpose Infrastructure (NSDI), and to compare
demonstrate their vitality as a central cadastral system could even be considered best practice as a basis for improving
tool of government infrastructure, and as LAS in itself. This multipurpose design cadastres as a key component of NSDIs.
then constructed their central role in was the touchstone of best practice, sought The Cadastral template project is carried
implementing the land management by many LAS designers and managers. out in collaboration with Commission
paradigm. However, given the difficulty Achieving this however is another story 7 “Cadastre and Land Management” of
of finding a definition that suits every because each unique existing system needs the International Federation of Surveyors
version, it makes sense to talk about a different group of strategies to implement (FIG), which has extensive experience in
cadastral systems rather than just cadastres the proposed multipurpose design. comparative cadastral studies. (Steudler,
(Figure 4). These systems include the 2004). It is generally accepted that
interaction between the identification of Comparing Cadastral Systems a good property system is a system where
land parcels and the registration of land people in general can participate in the land
rights, and they support the valuation and A website has been established http://www. market having a widespread ownership
taxation of land and property, and the to compare cadastral where everybody can make transactions
administration of present and possible systems on a worldwide basis. About 40 and have access to registration.
future use of land. The concept of these countries are currently included (August
multipurpose cadastral systems is shown as 2007) and the number is still increasing. The infrastructure supporting transactions
engaging the systems (the central triangle The web site is established as a result of must be simple, fast, cheap, reliable, and
in Figure 4) to deliver the four functions of one of the objectives of Working Group free of corruption. And the system must
land tenure, value, use and development, 3 “Cadastre” of the PCGIAP (Permanent provide safety for housing and business,
and to deliver sustainable development Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and for capital formation. It is estimated
outcomes. By 2000, cadastral systems and the Pacific). The cadastral template that only 25-30 countries in the world
were seen as a multipurpose engine of is basically a standard form to be filled apply to these criteria.
government operating best when they out by cadastral organizations presenting To be concluded in December issue.

30 | Coordinates November 2009


Landslide vulnerability
The paper studies the various soil characteristics that may increase the landslide in east district of Sikkim

L P Sharma
National Informatics
Centre, Sikkim, India
L andslide is a common hazard in the
hilly regions which causes heavy losses
to life and properties every year. Since
Pachauri and Pant 1992,) .This study
makes a detail study of the importance
of various soil parameters with respect to 1980 various researches and analyses have their influence on slope instability and
been carried out in the GIS environment landslide vulnerability. The study area
to identify factors responsible for causing for this investigation is Sang Revenue
landslides. The important conditioning Circle in east district of Sikkim, India and
P Debnath factors identified by the researchers includes 15 (Fifteen) revenue villages.
College of Agriculture are slope, geological, geomorphologic The area extends from east longitude 88o
Engineering and Post structures and land use coupled with 26’ 40.17” to 88o 33’ 42.35” and North
Harvest Technology, triggering factors like rainfall and a few Latitude of 27o 13’48.85” to 27o17’22.24”
Ranipool, Sikkim, India of the anthropogenic activities. Soil forms covering an area of around 40 square
the upper most part of he earth crust kilometers. Since 1968 there is a prominent
and it is expected that the various soil landslide at Sirwani Revenue Village that
Nilanchal Patel characteristics like depth, surface texture, blocks the road between Singtam and
Department of Remote depth texture, soil erosion, hydraulic Sirwani every year during the monsoon
Sensing, Birla Institute conductivity, stoniness etc. play significant season. The data used for the study has
of Technology, Mesra, role in causing landslide in an area. This been sourced from various agencies
Ranchi, India technical paper is an attempt to study including, NIC-GIS/NBSS&LUP, NRSA,
in depth the various soil characteristics Rural Management Dev. Department,
that may increase the landslide. Govt. of Sikkim, and Wikipamia.
M K Ghose
Department of Computer Landslide has been a perennial problem
Science, Sikkim Manipal of the hills and various models have been Methodology
Institute of Technology, designed for landslide vulnerabilities
Mazitar, Sikkim, India (Jibson et al, 2000; Luzi et al,2000; Zhou The spatial data required for this study was
et al 2002; Carro et al 2003, Lee 2007, acquired from the National Informatics
Burrough and McDonnel, 1998, Miles Centre, Sikkim State unit’s Spatial Data
et al. 1999, Siddle et al 1991, Lee et al Bank. Soil maps were in shape file format
1991, Hutchinson and Chandler 1991, with related attributes. Soil has eight
Hutchinson et al 1991, Morgan et al 1992, different characteristics namely depth,
Carrara et al 1991and 1992, Moon et al inner texture, surface texture, erosion,
1992,Wadge 1988, Gupta and Joshi 1990, slope, stoniness, drainage and hydraulic
Wang Shu-Quiang and Unwin 1992, conductivity. Each of these parameters
have been categorized into 3 to 5 types by
assigning different weights with respect
to stability and landslide susceptibility
based on experts opinion and the common
logic. Each of such parameter categories
are assessed with respect to common logic
and experts’ opinion on one side and on
the basis of evidence of their behavior with
respect to landslide events on the other.

Important Soil Characteristics



Depth of the soil forms one of the

Coordinates November 2009 | 31

No of Average Density Diff Parameter Ranking With Respect to Landslide
Soil Parameters Parameter Types Area(km2) LD*
LS* Density (High-Low) DD* AD* HD* AR*
Moderate Deep 1.83 1 0.5464481
Soil Depth Deep 35.5 30 0.8462623 1.038949 1.17768984 8 8 8 8
Moderate Shallow 1.16 2 1.7241379
Well Drained 19.1 11 0.5756149
Drainage Behavior Some What Excessively 0.856871 0.5625124 5 5 5 5
19.3 22 1.1381273
Coarse Loamy 3.85 3 0.7792208
Inner Texture Fine Loamy 25.7 24 0.9345794 0.795734 0.26117877 2 3 2 2.3
Loamy 8.91 6 0.6734007
Mod-Steep (15-30%) 17.9 10 0.5580357
Slope Steep (30-50%) 16.7 20 1.2004802 0.845912 0.64244448 7 4 6 5.6
Very Steep(>50%) 3.85 3 0.7792208
High 3.85 3 0.7792208
Moderate 8.91 6 0.6734007 0.795734 0.26117877 2 3 2 2.3
Low 25.7 24 0.9345794
Moderate 11.6 7 0.6039689
Stoniness 0.786156 0.36437371 3 2 3 2.6
Low 26.9 26 0.9683426
Erosion Moderate 20.6 13 0.6313745
0.875911 0.48907373 4 6 4 4.6
Severe 17.9 20 1.1204482
Coarse Loamy 14.8 18 1.220339
Surface Texture 0.927026 0.58662542 6 7 7 6.6
Loamy 23.7 15 0.6337136

LS*=Landslides, LD*=Landslide Density, DD*=Density Difference, AD*=Average Density, HD*=Highest Density, AR*=Average Ranking
Table 1. Computation of Parameter Ranks

important factors for assessing the stability to erosion. Soil erosion is the detachment of an area to landslide also increases.
of the soil and landslide susceptibility and transportation of soil material from Soil is characterized by either severe
of the land. With the increase of soil one place to another through the action of erosion, moderate erosion or low erosion.
depth, the tendency of soil to absorb wind, water in motion or by the beating
moisture is increased, resulting in action of the rain drops. It is the outcome Stoniness
reduced runoff rate. Hence shallow soil of many factors in combination that
is considered to be more unstable and include the intensity of rains, porosity Soil stoniness is also an important
prone to landslide than the deep soil. of soil, physical as well as chemical characteristic of soil which influences
properties of rock. The slope of the land the intensity of landslide. It refers to the
Soil Texture has direct relation to the soil erosion proportion of stones (or rocks) within a
because soil erosion due to run-off is more unit volume of soil or on its surface. Stones
The texture of soil represents the relative on sloping and denuded lands (Samra and left in place may provide for soil and water
proportion of sand, silt and clay content. Sharma, 2002). As a result, the rate of soil conservation by protecting the surface against
Soils with high percentage of clay erosion is very high in such areas where raindrop impact or retarding water flow along
form very stable aggregate resistant to the soil is mostly sandy in nature, slope is the surface. Therefore, soils with more stones
detachment. On the other hand, light soils high and rainfall is frequent. Thus, with the (or rocks) are less prone to the landslide as
like sandy or coarse loams are easy to increase of soil erosion, the susceptibility compared to that of soil with less stones.
detach as they have low organic matter
content (Das and Agarwal, 2002). Hence,
soil with more sand, high slope and
intensive rainfall which constitute most
dominant factors of landslide cause severe
damage to land (Patanakanog, 2001) .

Surface Texture

The texture on the surface of the

soil may be different from the
texture found below the surface.


One of the principal reasons for landslide

is the progressive deterioration of soil due

32 | Coordinates November 2009

TEL 0091-44-28601987
FAX 0091-44-28607611 Coordinates November 2009 | 33
Mobile: +91 9940015176
Slope Parameter Ranking Nature and Properties of soils. Pearson
Education, Inc. New Delhi, pp.756-761.
The degree and length of slope determine Parameter ranking is done to understand
the amount of runoff and extent of soil which of the soil parameters considered Das, D.K. (2007) Introductory Soil Science.
erosion. As water flows down the slope, it are most influencing and which are the Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp. 475-483.
accelerates under the force of gravity. If the ones that are least influencing. This was
percent of slope is increased four times, the done on the basis of landslide density Sivakumar, G. L. and Mukesh, M. D. (2002)
velocity of water flowing down is doubled. in the area falling under each of the Landslide analysis in Geographic Information
Doubling the velocity quadruples the erosive variable parameter as shown in table 1. Systems. Department of Civil Engineering,
power. Sediment transport capacity of runoff Indian Institute of science, Bangalore. India.
increases by 10 to 100 times at one percent
slope compared to 0.2 percent slope (Reddy Conclusion
and Reddi, 1999). More so, during monsoon Saro, L. (2007). Application and
season or heavy downpour, the hills get We identified eight important soil Verification of Fuzzy Algebraic Operators
saturated with water, resulting in instability characteristics to deduce eight soil parameters to landslide susceptibility mapping.
of land mass. The complete surface portion and listed their types from past references Environmental Geology, 52, 615-623.
of soil may slip down from its actual and assigned weight to each parameter types
position causing landslides (Wischmeier based on common logic and the experts’ Wischmeier, W.H. and Smith, D.D. (1978)
and Smith, 1978). Since the study area is opinion. Then based on the landslide Predicting rainfall-erosion losses-A guide to
characterized by steep to very steep slope density in the study area under each of the conservation planning, Agricultural Handbook
along with mostly sandy soil textures, it parameter types, three different parameters No-537, US Department of Agriculture, USA.
indicates a high degree of landslide. ranks based on density difference, average
density and highest density were computed. Das, D.K. and Agarwal, R.P. (2002) Physical
Drainage Though all three type of ranks weighted Properties of Soil. Fundamental of Soil
almost equally, an average of them known Science, Indian Society of Soil Science,
Drainage of an area is one of the most as average rank was computed. Ranking was IARI, New Delhi, India, pp. 75-77.
important aspects in determining the land use done in such a way that higher the rank more
pattern and landslide probability. Drainage influencing is the parameter with respect Samra, J.S. and Sharma, U.C.(2002) Soil
refers to the relative rate of outflow of to landslide. We deduced that soil depth is Erosion and Conservation. Fundamental
water to which the excess amount of water the most influencing soil parameter and the of Soil Science, Indian Society of Soil
can be absorbed by the soil. Slides often inner texture and the hydraulic conductivity Science, IARI, New Delhi, India, pp.162.
occur following intense rainfall, when to be the least influential parameters. The
storm water runoff saturates soils on steep parameter type weights and the parameter Patanakanog, B. (2001).Landslide Hazard
slopes or when infiltration causes a rapid ranks both can be used in conjunction for the Potential Area in 3 Dimension by Remote
rise in groundwater levels. Human action study of landslide vulnerability. A landslide Sensing and GIS Technique. Land Development
can exacerbate sliding when drainage vulnerability map of the study area prepared Department, Thailand. (
systems fail or when development increases on the basis of the deduced parameter is programs/sea/landslides/help/drainage.html)
runoff near steep slopes ( shown in figure 1 (a) where figure 1 ( b)
programs/sea/landslides/help/drainage.html). shows the landslide events of the study area. Reddy, T.Y. and Reddi, H.S. (1999).
Principles of Agronomy. Kalyani
Hydraulic Conductivity Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp.338.
Hydraulic conductivity denotes the Carro, M., Amicis, M. D., Luzi, L. and Marzorati,
proportionality constant in Darcy’s Michael, A.M. and Ojha, T.P. (1999) Principles S. (2003) The application of predictive
law, which represents the amount of of Agricultural Engineering. Ms Jain Brothers, modeling techniques to landslides induced by
water that flows through a unit cross- New Delhi, India, 2, pp.586-590. earthquakes: the case study of the 26 September
sectional area of an aquifer under a 1997 Umbria–Marche earthquake (Italy).
unit gradient of hydraulic head. Thus, a Dhakal, A.S. and Sidle, R.C. (2002) Physically Engineering Geology, 69(1-2), 139-159.
change in hydraulic conductivity greatly Based Landslide Hazard Model ‘U’ Method and
influences ground water table and slope Issues. EGS XXVII General Assembly, Nice, 21-26. George, Y. L., Long, S. C. and David, W. W.
stability. With the increase of hydraulic (2007) Vulnerability assessment of rainfall-
conductivity, the movement of water in Bianca, C.V. and Nelson, F.F. (2004) induced debris flows in. Department of Earth
the soil is increased. Therefore, higher Landslide in Rio de Ianeiro: The role played Systems and GeoInformation Sciences,
the level of hydraulic conductivity of soil, by variations in soil Hydraulic Conductivity. College of Science, George Mason University,
higher is the probability of the landslide. Hydrological process. 18(4), 791-805. Fairfax, VA 22030, ETATS-UNIS. http://www.
The study area is classified into high,
moderate and low hydraulic conductivity. Brady, N.C. and Weil, R.R. (2007) The

34 | Coordinates November 2009


GPS IC shipments forecast for 2010 A new era for European Navigation Boeing advances security upgrade for
begins GPS Ground Control System
According to ABI research GPS IC
shipment growth should see a 30% Mr Antonio Tajani, VP, European Boeing has completed developmental
increase. The unabated interest in Commission, Transport Policy, has system testing on the U.S. Air Force’s GPS
GPS-enabled smartphones during the announced the official start of operations satellite ground control system, known as the
recession has been a life-saver for the for EGNOS, the European Geostationary Operational Control Segment (OCS), for the
GPS IC industry, and future growth Navigation Overlay Service. This addition of a critical new security capability.
will be fuelled by the integration of is a major milestone for the project: The test demonstrated that the Selective
GPS in feature phones across Europe its primary service is now available Availability Anti-Spoofing Module (SAASM)
and Asia. to all users equipped with EGNOS- software upgrade meets all contractual system
compatible receivers. requirements. SAASM is designed to protect
GPS receivers against fake satellite signals
Bahrain joins global tracking system sent by adversaries.
First U.S. Ground-Based Augmentation
Bahrain has become the first Arab state to System
tap into a global ship-tracking system using GPS handsets a threat to PND market
GPS and other navigation technologies. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration
It will be helpful to better track its own (FAA) has approved Honeywell’s The PND market is showing signs of
growing fleet of vessels round the globe, Smartpath Precision Landing System, maturity as price points decline sharply,
within an estimated 1,000 miles of its clearing the way for increased safety consolidation occurs, and shipment
coastal frontiers. Implementation of the and efficiency at airports by providing growth slows, reports In-Stat. In addition,
Long Range Identification and Tracking precise navigation service based on the increasing competition from GPS-
of ships system was deemed obligatory by GPS. It located in Memphis, Tennessee, enabled mobile phones represents
the International Maritime Organization, of and will become operational early the most significant threat the PND
which Bahrain is a member. next year. market will face.

Coordinates November 2009 | 35


Galileo update Digital village in China

A two-year project to bridge the urban-

rural digital divide in Yunnan Province in
southern China is gathering pace. US$18
First Galileo satellite scheduled to launch in 2010 have already million so far has been spent in the creation
repositioned missed their first pad date. The European of the ‘Yunnan Digital Village’, which will
version of Russia’s Soyuz rocket is now bring information technology to 16 cities,
Surrey Satellite Technology (SSTL), UK, scheduled to carry the four IOV satellites 129 counties and 130,000 villages in the
has completed the repositioning of the first into orbit in two launches in November province. The initiative was devised by
Galileo test satellite, GIOVE-A, to a higher 2010 and early 2011, as announced by Intel, which provided consulting services
orbit to make way for the operational satellites European Space Agency (ESA) Director- as well as technology and engineering
of Europe’s satellite navigation constellation. General Jean-Jacques Dordain in October. solutions.
From the GIOVE-A operational headquarters, The European Union and ESA plan to select
the operating team executed a series of precisely a builder for the remaining 28 satellites late
planned manoeuvres during July and August this year. Final bids from 11 companies Free access of OS mapping data
that have repositioned the satellite 113km bidding for on six Galileo work packages
above the orbit that the 27 operational Galileo are expected in November. A range of new licences from Ordnance
navigation satellites will occupy. Survey provide users with free access
to a wide range of mapping data for
European Commission reduces experimentation and development. It aims
Osmógrafo- The winner of Galileo Satellite order to further promote the innovative use of
the 2009 European Satellite geographic information. The three new
Navigation Competition The European Commission has reduced licences – ‘Discover’, ‘Evaluate’ and
the number of satellites it expects to order ‘Developer’ – make it easier for businesses,
The grand prize winner of the 2009 European this year for the Galileo program to 22. The government agencies, social groups and
Satellite Navigation Competition, Osmógrafo®, reduced order is being done to preserve the entrepreneurs to experiment with OS data
combines satellite positioning with wind ability to modify the spacecraft design early and realise the value of location-based
measurement and rescue dogs’ sense of smell in the system’s life, according to European information.
in order to better determine which areas have government and industry officials. The decision
already been covered by search teams. For this also allows the commission to save money
system - which was developed as part of the and stay within the project’s budget. The NZ major map upgrade unveiled
sixth framework programme of the European commission had asked the two final Galileo
Commission - the Spanish company GMV bidders — consortia led by Astrium Satellites A new topographical mapping series is
was chosen as the Madrid regional winner and and OHB System — to bid for 28 to 30 being launched by Land Information New
also received the special topic prize for the satellites, but the order is now for a maximum Zealand (LINZ). The new Topo50 map
best safety-of-life application from Imade, the of 22 spacecraft. The commission has asked series was developed to be compatible with
Madrid aerospace cluster and other sponsoring both bidders to quote prices for eight and 16 international mapping systems and GPS.
partners like Deimos and INDRA. The ESNC’s satellites as well, in case it decides to divide the The 1:50,000 scale maps use different
international jury concurred, naming the work between the two consortia. Best-and-final longitude and latitude coordinates of points
Osmógrafo® the competition’s overall winner. offers are due in mid-November, with a decision in New Zealand, to match the international
José Caro Ramon was in attendance at the scheduled for late December. The commission settings on GPS units, making navigation
Munich Residenz to accept all three awards had budgeted 840 million euros ($1.24 billion) easier for people.
on behalf of GMV. for the contract to build the Galileo satellites
when it wanted 28 to 30 satellites. Officials
said the bids they have received so far appear relaunched
Launch of Galileo IOV in line with that estimate.
Satellites delayed, the US government’s official
Web site for tracking federal stimulus
Four Galileo in-orbit validation (IOV) satellites spending, relaunched with a trove of new
data that lets visitors see where the money
is going by navigating through a series of
maps. The GIS-based system “Will open
people’s eyes to the power of mapping
as a way to communicate government
policy. The vision is that people will be
able to see their government’s decisions

36 | Coordinates November 2009

Coordinates November 2009 | 37

and the consequences of those decisions,” Integration of GPS Flight Tracking solution. The location-based features of
says Jack Dangermond, founder and into Aviation Management SaaS GeoManager will allow organizations
CEO at ESRI. to improve fleet performance and the
Trindigo has integrated Blue Sky management of mobile workers and
Network’s GPS tracking and automated distributed assets.
Map View is Mappetizer now flight following technology into Blue
Sky aviation management suite. It will
MapViewSVG has a new name: enable continuous monitoring location Alzheimer’s Association launches
Mappetizer. With Mappetizer 8, of flights within Trindigo’s web-based Comfort Zone(TM)
ArcGIS projects can be exported into solution using Blue Sky’s near real-time
the SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) or GPS data. The Alzheimer’s Association Comfort
into the Microsoft Silverlight format. Zone(TM) powered by Omnilink is a
It will be the solution for small and comprehensive location management
medium-sized project, and for projects SpatialKey On-Demand Software system designed specifically for
which do not have to be frequently Alzheimer’s. It is a web-based application
updated. SpatialKey have released SpatialKey On- that works with various location devices
Demand software that enables decision throughout the progression of the
makers to create and share map-based, disease to proactively communicate the
Maps for the colour-blind interactive analyses and reports. It is an location of the person with Alzheimer’s
easy-to-use, software as a service (SaaS) within two to 30 minutes, based on the
A new product from Ordnance Survey enterprise solution. family’s selected plan.
can be specifically styled to make
mapping easier on the colour-blind
eye. It allows creation of colour-blind- Fleet Management Telematics Device Now all Mobile Phones location aware
friendly styles, which to most people
will look very strange but could help Digi International introduced the GloPos software-only positioning
avoid future confusion for those with the ConnectPort X5 family of compact, technology shall make all mobile phones
condition. ruggedized telematics devices. It is the location aware - outdoors, indoors, and
industry’s first family of telematics even underground. It requires only a
devices to incorporate cellular, satellite, cellular network to do so. No additional
NSim Contour Beta GPS, Wi-Fi and vehicle area network hardware like GPS or W-LAN is required.
(VAN) wireless technology in one device. Its patent-pending, self-learning algorithms
NSim Technology released Beta version Ideal for fleet management and asset calculate an accurate position fix to
of NSim Contour™. This interactive map tracking applications, it provides remote within 1-40 meters.
application provides decision makers a connectivity to mobile assets via cellular
way to efficiently manage geographic or satellite networks.
information online. It simplifies the CSR unveils new built-in CPU GPS
management of a wide range of geographic
resources (GIS, events, GPS, real-time Spime launch CSR introduced the SiRFstarIV™
data, GeoRSS, etc.) and communicates GSD4e, a new location processor
with a unique spatio-temporal database Spime Inc. has launched MapMan with built-in CPU. New technologies
providing a full traceability of the actions Onboard–Hybrid Map and Navigation embedded into this GPS such as “adaptive
executed on the map. Engine. It is an LBS mapping and accuracy” and “SiRFGeoRecov” makes
navigation engine that powers customized possible to instantly geo-tag images or
map and LBS related applications to videos with a camera or camcorder and
US scientists to map Ganga stretch in run on mobile handsets, netbooks, improve the accuracy.
Bihar, India PNDs and MIDs. The MapMan SDK
includes APIs that make it easy for
Scientists from the USA would work developers to develop any map and LBS Latlong, launched in Bangalore
with the researchers of Tilka Manjhi related application.
Bhagalpur University (TNBU) to ONZE Technologies India introduced
analyse the quality of water of river Latlong, a location search and driving
Ganga and prepare a map of riverbed Oracle Trimble GeoManager Extension directions service in SMS platform, in
through GPS. The Inland Waterways Bangalore. An SMS is easier to use,
Authority of India will lend support to Oracle has developed an extension which less time consuming and way cheaper
the effort with a well equipped vessel to allows Oracle Field Service Applications than a GPS navigation service or
aid the research. users to add Trimble’s GeoManager(TM) other such services.

38 | Coordinates November 2009

AT A GLANCE From ISRO's desk
India to launch satellites to study climate change

Mergers, Acquisitions and India shall soon be launching two dedicated satellites in polar orbit to study climate
Partnerships change through atmospheric research and detection of greenhouse gases. It will make
►RAMTeCH Software Solutions acquires India one of the few countries in the world to have such advanced facility to study the
Tier 3 Inc. impact of climate change due to emission of greenhouse gases.

►Hexagon to acquire the Spatial Systems

division of Loyola Enterprises Inc. Oceansat-2 Progress

►Bentley has acquired 9SQ, South Oceansat-2, a new sea surface colour monitor launched by ISRO has begun beaming
Korea. To acquire KSJ Beijing images and relaying data on sea surface wind speed and direction, according to the
Software Technology Co. Ltd. Indian Space Research Organisation. Its Ku-band, pencil beam Scatterometer, an active
microwave sensor detects sea-surface wind speed and direction. The radio occultation
►China TransInfo acquires Beijing
sounder, developed by the Italian space agency, measures the lower atmosphere and
►POWER Engineers acquires
ISRO to map Himalayan region
►RapidEye appoints AAMHatch as
distributor. ISRO’s Space Application Centre in Ahmedabad will undertake mapping and tracing of
the Himalayan region to keep track of the movement of glaciers and their health. This is
►Lotus appointed distributor of RapidEye
to put in place governance and management of the Himalayan eco-system. The mission
data in Taiwan.
aims to scientifically study the impact of climate change on Indian Himalaya and put in
►NAVTEQ map data and content for the place adaptation measures to meet the growing challenge.
ALK Technologies CoPilot Live GPS
Dr K Radhakrishnan takes over as Secretary, Department of Space,
►ESRI Spain to be a distributor of 3-GIS. Chairman, Space Commission and Chairman, ISRO

►MAG Group to promote Spot Infoterra Dr K Radhakrishnan, Member, Space Commission and Director,
products and services in China. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, assumed the office of Chairman, Space
Commission, Secretary, Department of Space and Chairman, Indian
►IGES, Japan, and ICIMOD Kathmandu
Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
has signed MoU in research on climate
change, water, and forestry issues in the
Dr K Radhakrishnan is an accomplished technocrat with a distinguished career of
Hindu Kush-Himalayan region.
more than 38 years in the fields of space technology, applications and space programme
►Linfox has chosen Trimble in the US, management. Dr Radhakrishnan graduated in Electrical Engineering from Kerala
and Telstra in Australia, to provide University (1970) and obtained his MBA from the Indian Institute of Management,
mobile resource management solution Bangalore (1976). He was awarded PhD by the Indian Institute of Technology,
for its Asian operation. Kharagpur, in the year 2000.

►Rolta Asia Pacific has partnered with He was the key person in the Chandrayaan-1 mission, responsible for realisation of PSLV
AAMHatch to provide Oblique Imagery C-11 launch vehicle. Under his stewardship, five successful launches of Polar Satellite
throughout the Asia Pacific Region. Launch Vehicles (PSLV) were realised and 20 spacecraft including Chandrayaan-1 were
taken to the desired orbits precisely.
►AeroGRID has extended its European
footprint by welcoming MGGP Aero as
DigitalGlobe first WorldView-2 Images
a partner.
►CR Kennedy appointed exclusive sales Sydney Opera House
representative for IXSEA products in

►ERDAS and Observera to develop an

integrated solution based on ERDAS
APOLLO technology.

Coordinates November 2009 | 39


ikeGPS™ powered by u-blox high sensitivity (-159dBm), and low high quality images to be associated to
cost is a good combination for vehicle, mapping points collected in different
u-blox and Surveylab has unveiled object, and even personal positioning mapping applications.
the successful integration of u-blox’ products.
LEA GPS receiver module into
Surveylab’s ikeGPS remote data Magellan introduces ProFlex 500 and
capture products. It is a combination IntergraphR unveils Public Safety MobileMapper™ 6
of positioning technology from u-blox Interoperability Framework
with a 3D compass, laser rangefinder Magellan Professional ProFlex 500 base
and digital camera. IntergraphR unveiled its advanced station is a new GNSS solution with
multi-agency and multi-jurisdictional enhanced multi-data streaming that offers
data sharing with the introduction of easy access to RTK corrections for real-
NovAtel Precision Receiver Firmware its Interoperability Framework, an time centimetre-accurate land survey
interoperability platform which supports and high-accuracy GIS applications. It
NovAtel Inc. has launched version 3.700 industry standard information exchanges, provides survey and GIS professionals an
firmware for their OEMV family of GNSS such as the National Information Exchange efficient and cost-effective alternative to
precision receivers. It features L5 tracking Model (NIEM). The Framework enables public or private network corrections.
capabilities and includes enhancements public safety agencies to transfer CAD
to NovAtel’s single frequency RTK information using industry-standard New MobileMapper™ 6 improves the
positioning solution, RT-2 L1TE, and to formats, allowing for the easy multi-point “Go To” feature by allowing users to
the company’s ALIGN heading technology. exchange of information across software choose a new destination by entering
RT-2 L1TE was upgraded to receive applications. point coordinates in the selected
SBAS measurements as well as GPS and coordinate system. It also adds six
GLONASS signals. new languages, Polish, Russian,
Nexteq Navigation Czech, Hungarian, Romanian and
Bulgarian accessible through the user
DataGrid launches New GNSS receiver Nexteq PAD110 series is a dual-frequency interface.
precise autonomous receivers offers
DataGrid Inc. has released its sub 20 cm autonomous positioning
programmable DGRx-GNSS receiver with virtually no convergence and Autodesk pirated software seizures
for OEM integrators as well as a high- without using base stations or precise
sensitivity mode for DGRx-GNSS that corrections. Autodesk has seized pirated copies
allows the receiver to track the L1 and L2C of its ‘AutoCAD 2007’ software with
codes transmitted by GPS and GLONASS a total value of AED 1 million, from
satellites down to a signal level of only 15 New MapInfo® MapXtreme® an engineering consultancy firm in
dB-Hz. Abu Dhabi.
Pitney Bowes Business Insight announced
new MapInfo MapXtreme v7.0, SDK
L-3 Interstate new GPS Receivers for integrating location intelligence ESRI Business Analyst Server
with existing business systems. It is a
L-3 Interstate Electronics Corporation development solution for creating map- The new version of ESRI Business Analyst
(IEC) announced two additional centric and location-enabled applications. Server includes many new sharing and
configurations of its miniaturized The version features improved flexibility usability enhancements designed to speed
hardened GPS receiver and one new and data access, customization capabilities report delivery and help users conduct
configuration of its GPS-based guidance and interoperability with Bing and more precise business analysis. Custom
and navigation unit (GNU). It includes Google Maps. report templates can now be created and
a 1.75 x 2.45-inch, low-power, high- then uploaded to Business Analyst Server.
accuracy design and a 3.07 x 0.93-inch Developers can also consume the report
design for projectiles. Ricoh’s picture-based mapping for GIS output in XML format to supply data
handhelds for application features.

Navman Wireless debuts Jupiter3 Ricoh Americas introduced a new solution

that provides seamless integration Pictometry Patent infringement suit
Navman has released Jupiter3 GPS between any WiFi-enabled handheld
receiver module. It is based on SiRF GPS devices and its 500SE-W digital Pictometry International has filed a
Technologies’ GSC3f/LPx chipset. Its camera. The solution addresses the needs patent infringement suit against Geospan
low power consumption (11.5mA ATP), of mobile GIS professionals that require Corporation in the U.S. District Court

40 | Coordinates November 2009

for the Western District of New York in upgrade costs. and distribution of biodiversity to support
Rochester, New York. The suit alleges risk management and safeguard the Earth’s
that Geospan has infringed on its patent, biodiversity and ecosystems.
U.S. Patent No. 5,247,356 which relates OmniSTAR receiver by Geneq
to its digital aerial oblique imagery
and its photogrammetric method and Geneq introduced an OmniSTAR- HP expands Large-format portfolio
apparatus. compatible receiver for sub-metre
mapping wherever OmniSTAR VBS is HP has expanded its large-format portfolio.
broadcast. The SXBlue II-L is capable The range of new workgroup printers,
ERDAS releases of receiving OmniSTAR sub-metre software solutions and media choices
corrections in all regions of the world. It are designed to help technical firms that
ERDAS has released ERDAS IMAGINE also incorporates SBAS signal processing specialize in architecture, engineering and
2010, LPS 2010, ERDAS APOLLO for using WAAS, EGNOS and MSAS, construction (AEC), GIS applications,
2010 and other desktop and enterprise and future SBAS signals. The ability to and mechanical CAD to drive new
products. It has also introduced IMAGINE select from either OmniSTAR or SBAS business opportunities.
Feature Interoperability and IMAGINE provides GIS professionals a sub-metre
SAR Interferometry. mapping solution.
Blue Marble GeoTranslate beta

INSPIRE-ready technology Safe Software in UNEP’s WCMC Blue Marble Geographics has released
Beta Version of GeoTranslate 5.1 with
Snowflake has released GO Loader 1.6 The United Nations Environment Spatial Connect along with GeoTransform
and GO Publisher 1.4. It provide an out- Programme’s World Conservation 6.1. They are incorporated into the
of-the-box platform for organisations to Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) have Blue Marble’s GeoCore SDK an all-
realise INSPIRE compliance, as well as invited Safe Software into their Proteus in –one geospatial data translation
future proof their existing technology Partnership. The goal of Proteus is to developer toolkit that supports coordinate,
infrastructure and eliminate the threat of provide industry decision makers with geometry, vector, CAD, raster, and
unnecessary software development or access to the best possible data on location LiDAR data.

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