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Curriculum Specifications

MATHEMATICS

Form 1

Ministry of Education Malaysia

2002

x CONTENTS

Page

WHOLE NUMBERS 1

NUMBER PATTERNS AND SEQUENCES 4

FRACTIONS 10

DECIMALS 15

PERCENTAGES 18

INTEGERS 19

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS 21

BASIC MEASUREMENTS 23

LINES AND ANGLES 26

POLYGONS 28

PERIMETER AND AREA 30

SOLID GEOMETRY 32

1. Learning Area: Whole Numbers

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

Emphasise the Whole

1. Understand the x Count; read and write whole i. Count, read and write whole numbers. number

relationship

concept of whole numbers in words or numerals. ii. Identify place value and value of each between Place value

numbers.

x Students read and write whole digit in whole numbers. rounding and

Digit

numbers while counting from a estimation.

iii. Round whole numbers. Interval

given initial value to a final value in

a certain specified interval. Round

e.g. i. Count on in tens from 20 to Estimate

100. Nearest

ii. Count back in hundreds Larger

from 1200 to 200. Largest

x Estimate values, including that of Smaller

real-life situations by rounding. Smallest

Nearest ten,

hundred,

thousand…

hundred

thousand.

1

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

2. Perform computations x Explore addition and subtraction i. Add whole numbers. Addition and Add

involving addition using standard algorithm (rules of subtraction Addition

ii. Solve problems involving addition of

and subtraction of calculations), estimation, mental should begin with

whole numbers. Subtract

whole numbers to and speed computation or pencil- two numbers.

solve problems. and-paper. iii. Subtract whole numbers. Subtraction

x Use calculators to compare and iv. Solve problems involving subtraction Multiply

Emphasise that

verify answers. of whole numbers. Multiplication

subtraction is the

x Students pose and solve problems inverse of Divide

related to addition and subtraction addition. Division

of whole numbers. Regroup

Emphasise that: Algorithm

x The quotient Estimate

3. Perform computations x Explore multiplication and division of a number Estimation

involving using standard algorithm (rules of i. Multiply two or more whole numbers. divided by Mental and

multiplication and calculations), estimation, mental ii. Solve problems involving zero is speed

division of whole and speed computation or pencil- multiplication of whole numbers. undefined. computation

numbers to solve and-paper.

problems. iii. Divide a whole number by a smaller x The quotient Compute

x Use calculators to compare and whole number. of zero

Quotient

verify answers. divided by

iv. Solve problems involving division of any number Undefined

x Students explore the relationship whole numbers. (except zero) Inverse

between multiplication and division. is zero. Sum

x Students pose and solve problems

Difference

related to multiplication and

division of whole numbers.

2

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

4. Perform computations x Students explore combined i. Perform computations involving any Emphasise on Multiply

involving combined operations of whole numbers by combination of addition, subtraction, the order of Multiplication

operations of using standard algorithm (rules of multiplication and division of whole operations and

addition, calculations), estimation, pencil- numbers, including the use of the use of Divide

subtraction, and-paper or calculator. brackets. brackets. Division

multiplication and Estimate

x Solve problems related to real-life ii. Solve problems involving combined

division of whole

situations. operations of addition, subtraction, Compute

numbers to solve

multiplication and division of whole Solve

problems x Students use calculators to numbers, including the use of

compare and verify answers. brackets. Bracket

Order of

operations

Combined

operation

Combination

3

2. Learning Area: Number Patterns and Sequences

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

1. Recognise and extend x Relate number sequence to i. Describe the pattern of a given Do not include Number

number patterns and patterns in real-life situations. number sequence. negative sequence

sequences formed by e.g. Odd numbers are used as numbers. Pattern

ii. Extend number sequences.

counting on and addresses of houses on one side of

counting back in the road and even numbers on the iii. Complete missing terms in given Term

intervals of any size. other. number sequences. Sum

x Use calculators to skip count iv. Construct number sequences based Product

(generate number sequences), on given patterns. Difference

explore number patterns, and solve Count on

problems.

Count back

Odd

Even

2. Recognise odd and x Explore general statements about i. Identify and describe odd and even

even numbers and odd and even numbers such as: numbers. Subtract

make general Multiply

a. The sum of odd and even ii. Make general statements about odd

statements about Construct

numbers. and even numbers.

them.

b. The product of odd and even

numbers.

c. The difference between odd

and even numbers.

4

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3. Understand the x Use calculators or computer i. Identify the characteristics of Emphasise that Prime number

characteristics of programmes to explore prime prime numbers. Number 1 is not a

prime numbers. numbers. prime number. Factor

ii. Determine whether a given

x Use sieve of Eratosthenes to number is a prime number. Prime Factor

generate prime numbers less than iii. Determine all the prime numbers

100. less than 100.

4. Understand the x Determine factors of whole i. List factors of whole numbers. Emphasise that 1

characteristics and numbers by exploring and and the number

ii. Determine whether a number is a

use the knowledge of investigating. itself are factors

factor of another whole number.

factors of whole of any number.

numbers.

5. Understand the x Students explore and investigate i. Identify prime factors from a list of

characteristics and to determine prime factors of factors.

use the knowledge of whole numbers. ii. Find prime factor(s) of whole

prime factors of

x State any given whole number as numbers.

whole numbers.

a product of its prime factors. iii. Determine whether a number is a

prime factor of another whole

number.

5

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

Multiple

6. Understand and use x Students use the divisibility test of i. List the multiples of whole Emphasise that

the knowledge of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and their numbers. the list of Divisible

multiples of whole combinations. multiples of a

ii. Determine whether a number is Divisibility test

numbers. number is also a

e.g. the multiple of another number.

number Common

30 can be divided by 6.Therefore it sequence. multiple

can be divided by 2 and 3 and

Use small Lowest

vice-versa.

numbers to Common

develop the Multiple (LCM)

concept.

Sequence

6

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

7. Understand the x Students find common multiples i. Find the common multiples of two Emphasise that a

characteristics and and LCM by listing down the or three whole numbers. list of common

use the knowledge of multiples of each given number. multiples is also a

ii. Determine whether a number is

common multiples number

e.g. the common multiple of two or

and Lowest sequence.

three given numbers.

Common Multiple Multiples of 4 : 4, 8, 12, ……

Use small

(LCM) of whole iii. Determine the LCM of two or three

Multiples of 6 : 6, 12, …… numbers to

numbers. given numbers.

develop the

Common Multiples of 4 and 6:

concept

12, 24, 36, 48, ……

which are the multiples of 12.

x Use the method of “prime

factorisation” to find common

multiples and LCM.

e.g.

4=2x2

6=2x3

Therefore the LCM of 4 and 6 is

2 x 2 x 3 = 12.

7

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

2 4, 6

LCM = 2 x 2 x 3 2 2, 3

3 1, 3

= 12

1, 1

8. Understand and use x Students list down all the factors of i. Find common factors of two or three Common

the knowledge of each given number and identify the whole numbers. Factor

common factors and same factors for each number. ii. Determine whether a number is a Highest

Highest Common

x Students explore, identify and common factor of two or three given Common

Factors (HCF) of

determine common factors of whole numbers. Factor (HCF)

whole numbers.

whole number. iii. Determine the HCF of two or three

given numbers.

8

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

down all the factors of each given

number.

x Explore, identify and determine the

HCF of whole numbers.

x Use the method of prime

factorisations to find the common

prime factors and hence HCF.

e.g.

12 = 2 x 2 x 3

18 = 2 x 3 x 3

Common Prime Factors: 2 and 3

The HCF: 2 x 3 = 6

x Use algorithm to find HCF.

9

3. Learning Area: Fractions

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

1. Understand and use x Use concrete materials and i. Read fractions. 4 Fraction

the knowledge of read as:

drawings to demonstrate the ii. Describe fractions as parts of a 5

fractions as part of a concept of fractions such as: Denominator

whole. Four over five

whole.

a. Folding a ribbon to find one- iii. Represent fractions with Numerator

third of its length. 15

diagrams. read as: Fifteen Equivalent

22

b. The number of girls as iv. Write fractions for given fractions

over twenty two

compared to the whole class. diagrams.

Use the terms Lowest terms

c. Folding papers.

numerator and

Arrange

denominator.

2. Understand and use x Use concrete materials and i. Find equivalent fractions for a Order

Use number lines,

the knowledge of drawings to demonstrate the given fraction.

concrete materials or

equivalent fractions. concept of equivalent fractions. ii. Determine whether two given the concept of

x Use paper folding to explain and fractions are equivalent. equivalent fractions

explore: to compare fractions.

iii. Compare the values of two given

3 1 fractions.

Why is the same as .

6 2 iv. Arrange fractions in order.

x Compare the values of two v. Simplify fractions to the lowest

fractions by converting them to terms.

fractions with the same

denominator or the same

numerator.

10

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3. Understand the x Use concrete materials, drawings i. Recognise mixed numbers. Mixed number

concept of mixed and number lines to represent ii. Represent mixed numbers with Proper

numbers and their mixed numbers. diagrams. fraction

representations.

x Identify the use of mixed numbers iii. Write mixed numbers based on

in everyday situations. Improper

given diagrams.

fraction

iv. Compare and order mixed

numbers on number lines. Number line

Denominator

4. Understand the x Use concrete materials and i. Recognise proper and improper

concept of proper drawings to demonstrate the fractions from given fractions.

fractions and relationship between mixed ii. Change mixed numbers into

improper fractions. numbers and improper fractions. improper fractions.

x Use calculators to explore the iii. Change improper fractions into

relationship between mixed mixed numbers.

numbers and improper fractions.

11

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

5. Understand the x Use concrete materials, drawings i. Perform addition involving: Addition and Mixed

concept of addition and symbols to demonstrate the subtraction involving Number

a. Fractions with common

and subtraction of process of addition and subtraction not more than three

denominators. Add

fractions to solve of fractions. numbers.

problems. b. Fractions with different Subtract

x Add and subtract fractions by denominators.

writing the fractions in their Fraction

equivalent forms with common c. Whole numbers and

denominators including the use of fractions. Simple

LCM. fraction

d. Fractions and mixed

x Perform addition and subtraction of numbers. Lowest term

mixed numbers by: e. Mixed numbers. Equivalent

i) Adding and subtracting whole fractions

numbers and fractions ii. Perform subtraction involving:

separately. a. Fractions with common

ii) Writing mixed numbers in the denominators.

form of improper fractions. b. Fractions with different

x Pose and solve problems related to denominators.

everyday situations. c. Whole numbers and

fractions.

d. Fractions and mixed

numbers.

e. Mixed numbers.

combined operations of addition

and subtraction of fractions.

12

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

concept of and symbols to explore and multiplication of

a. A whole number by a Divide

multiplication and investigate the process of fractions as

fraction or mixed number.

division of fractions multiplication and division of repeated addition of Mixed

to solve problems. fractions. b. A fraction by a whole the fractions Number

number.

x Examples of multiplication: Repeated

c. A fraction by a fraction addition

a. A whole number times a (include mixed numbers).

fraction. Numerator

ii. Solve problems involving

3 multiplication of fractions.

3x

4

Division involving not

more than three

iii. Divide:

numbers including

a. A fraction by a whole whole numbers,

3 9 1 number. fractions and mixed

3x = =2

4 4 4 b. A fraction by a fraction. numbers.

b. A whole number times a mixed c. A whole number by a

number. fraction.

1 d. A mixed number by a mixed

4x1

2 number.

division of fractions.

1 3 12

4x1 = 4 x = =6

2 2 2

13

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

c. A fraction times a fraction.

5

6

3

4

5 3 15 5

x = =

6 4 24 8

7. Perform computations x Pose problems related to real-life i. Perform computations involving Limit the operations Multiplication

involving combined situations. combined operations of to three numbers Addition

operations of addition, subtraction, including whole

addition, subtraction, x Use concrete materials and multiplication and division of numbers and mixed Subtraction

multiplication and diagrams to demonstrate fractions, including the use of numbers. Division

division of fractions computations. brackets.

Emphasise the order Combined

to solve problems. operation

ii. Solve problems involving of operations,

combined operations of including the use of Mixed number

addition, subtraction, brackets. Whole

multiplication and division of number

fractions, including the use of

brackets. Bracket

14

4. Learning Area: Decimals

Activities

1. Understand the x Use concrete materials, drawings, 1 Fraction

1 0.3 read as: zero

relationship between calculators and symbols to explain i. Represent fractions and as Decimal

point three

decimals and the relationship between decimals 10 100

fractions. and fractions. Denominator

decimals and vice-versa. 0.05 read as:

Tenths

ii. Represent fractions with zero point zero

denominators 10,100 and 1000 as five Hundredths

decimals. Thousandths

3.29 read as:

iii. Read and write decimals to Number line

three point two

thousandths. nine. Place value

iv. Change fractions to decimals and Value of a

vice-versa. digit

Rounding

Decimal point

2. Understand the concept x Use number lines to compare and i. State the place value and value of Emphasise the

of place value and order decimals. each digit in decimals. relationship

value of each digit in between

ii. Compare the values of two given

decimals. rounding and

decimals.

estimation.

iii. Arrange decimals in order.

iv. Round decimals to the nearest whole

number or up to three decimal places.

15

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3. Understand the concept x Use concrete materials, drawings i. Add decimals. Include whole Add

of addition and and symbols. numbers. Subtract

ii. Solve problems involving addition of

subtraction of

x Solve problems related to everyday decimals. Addition and Decimal

decimals to solve

situations. subtraction Multiply

problems. iii. Subtract decimals.

should begin with

x Use calculators or computers to Divide

iv. Solve problems involving subtraction two decimals.

verify answers. of decimals. Mentally

Limit to three divide

x Use estimation strategies to decimal places.

determine whether the solution is Mentally

reasonable. multiply

Reasonable

Estimation

4. Understand the concept x Relate to everyday situations. i. Multiply two or more decimals. For multiplication

of multiplication and and division,

x Use appropriate calculation ii. Solve problems involving

division of decimals to include whole

methods such as pencil-and - multiplications of decimals

solve problems. numbers.

paper, calculators and computers. iii. Divide:

Begin with one

x Mentally multiply decimals by 10, a. A decimal by a whole number. digit whole

100 and 1000. number

b. A decimal by a decimal.

x Mentally multiply decimals by 0.1,

0.01 and 0.001. c. A decimal by a fraction.

100 and 1000. iv. Solve problems involving division of

x Mentally divide decimals by 0.1, decimals.

0.01 and 0.001.

16

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

5. Perform computations x Pose problems related to everyday i. Perform computations involving Emphasise the Addition

involving combined situations. combined operations of addition, order of

Subtraction

operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations

subtraction, of decimals, including the use of including the use Multiplication

multiplication and brackets. of brackets. Division

division of decimals to

ii. Solve problems involving combined Decimal

solve problems.

operations of addition, subtraction,

Include whole Bracket

multiplication and division of decimals,

numbers and

including the use of brackets. Combined

fractions

operation

17

5. Learning area: Percentages

Activities

Percent

1. Understand the x Use concrete materials and i. Express percentages as the number

concept of drawings to demonstrate of parts in every 100. Use the symbol Fraction

percentages and the percentages. % to represent Decimal

ii. Change fractions and decimals to

relationship between percent. Increase

e.g. Use ten by ten grids to discuss the percentages and vice-versa.

percentages and

equivalent percentages of Include Decrease

fractions or decimals.

fractions and decimals. For percentages

Discount

1 larger than 100.

example the fraction has a Profit

2

Loss

decimal equivalent of 0.5, and 0.5 30% of 240 = 72

has a percentage equivalent of Simple

1 3 of 12 = 25% interest

50%. ( = 0.5 or 50%)

2 Dividend

8 is 20% of what

2. Perform number? (40) Commission

computations and x Pose and solve problems involving i. Find the percentage of a quantity.

solve problems Original amount: 15

profit and loss, simple interest, ii. Find the percentage one number is of Increased to: 18

involving percentages. dividend, commission and another. Find percentage of

discount. increase.

iii. Find a number given the percentage.

Original amount: 40

iv. Find the percentage of increase or Decreased to: 10

decrease. Find percentage of

decrease.

v. Solve problems involving

percentages.

18

6. Learning Area: Integers

Activities

Integer

1. Understand and use x Introduce integers in context (e.g. i. Read and write integers. Negative

– 32 read as:

the knowledge of temperatures, sea levels and floors negative thirty-two. number

ii. Represent integers on number lines.

integers. of building).

iii. Compare the values of two integers. – 5 is less than – 2 Positive

x Students complete sequences of number

iv. Arrange integers in order. –15 is greater than

integers, find the missing terms, Number line

–25

and identify the largest and the v. Write positive or negative numbers to

smallest value of integers from Temperature

represent word descriptions. Words description:

given sets of integers. e.g. Sea level

x Given sets of integers, students i. 30 metres Floors of a

order them on number lines. below sea building

level: – 30 Less than

ii. Weight gain of Greater than

2 kg: 2

Words

description

The number 0 is Missing

neither positive terms

nor negative. Largest

Smallest

19

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

involving addition subtract integers. Begin addition and Add

ii. Solve problems involving addition of subtraction using

and subtraction of Addition

x Use concrete materials, drawings, integers. two integers.

integers to solve

and symbols (e.g. coloured chips) Subtract

problems. iii. Subtract integers. – 8 – (– 7) read as

to demonstrate addition and negative eight Subtraction

subtraction of integers. iv. Solve problems involving subtraction minus negative

of integers. Minus

x Use brackets to differentiate seven.

Plus

between operations and the signs – 4 – 2 read as

of numbers. negative four minus Integer

two. Negative

x Solve problems related to real-life

situations. Addition should Positive

include like and

Like signs

unlike signs.

Unlike signs

e.g

Like signs:

9+5, – 7+ (– 8)

Unlike signs:

3 + (– 4),

(– 9) + 5

Differentiate

between

operations and

signs.

Relate

subtraction of

integers to

addition.

20

7. Learning Area: Algebraic Expressions

Activities

x Use examples of everyday An algebraic term

1. Understand the i. Use letters to represent unknown

situations to explain unknowns. is written as 3x Unknown

concept of numbers.

not x3

unknowns. e.g: Glass X contains y numbers of Term

ii. Identify unknowns in given

marbles. A number, e.g 8 is Alphabet

situations.

also a term.

Algebraic

X x term

is a term.

2 Multiplication

Coefficient

Which letter represents the

unknown number? Like terms

Unlike terms

7p :

The coefficient of

2. Understand the x Give a list of terms and students p is 7.

concept of algebraic select algebraic terms with one i. Identify algebraic terms with one

terms. unknown. unknown.

ii. Identify coefficients in given algebraic

terms with one unknown.

iii. Identify like and unlike algebraic

terms with one unknown.

iv. State like terms for a given term.

21

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3. Understand the

concept of algebraic x Use concrete materials to i. Recognise algebraic expressions. Algebraic

expressions. demonstrate the concept of 4p = p + p + p + p expression

combining like and unlike terms. ii. Determine the number of terms in

given algebraic expressions. Number of

e.g. terms

iii. Simplify algebraic expressions by

Like terms

i. 4s + 8s = 12s combining the like terms.

Unlike terms

ii. 5r – 2r = 3r

Simplify

iii. 7g + 6h cannot be simplified

because they are not like terms.

iv. 3k + 4 + 6k – 3

= 3k + 6k + 4 – 3

= 9k + 1

22

8. Learning Area: Basic Measurements

Activities

1. Understand the x Measure the length of objects i. Measure the length of objects. Emphasise the Length

concept of length to around the school compound. importance of Millimetre

ii. Convert one metric unit to another.

solve problems. using standard

x Students draw a line given its (mm, cm, m and km) Centimetre

length. measurement.

iii. Estimate lengths of objects in Metre

x Measure given lines using different appropriate units. Introduce

Kilometre

standard units. inches, feet,

iv. Use the four operations to solve yards, miles Estimate

problems involving length. and nautical Measure

miles.

Convert

Metric units

2. Understand the x Relate to everyday situations. i. Measure the mass of objects.

concept of mass to Mass

ii. Convert one metric unit to another.

solve problems. Milligrams

(mg, g, kg, tonne).

iii. Estimate masses of objects in Grams

appropriate units. Kilograms

iv. Use the four operations to solve Nautical mile

problems involving mass.

Inch

Feet

Yard

23

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

concept of time in watches to discuss the measurement of time for certain events. 1 millennium Time

seconds, minutes, measurement of time for events. = 1000 years Second

ii. Convert measurement of time in

hours, days, weeks,

x Suggest a unit to estimate or different units (seconds, minutes, hours, 1 century Minute

months and years.

measure: days, weeks, months and years). = 100 years Hour

i. The time it will take to eat lunch. iii. Estimate the time intervals of events. Day

1 year

ii. Your age. iv. Use the four operations to solve = 12 months Week

problems involving time. = 52 weeks Month

iii. How long it takes for water to

= 365 days

boil? Year

1 week Century

iv. How long it takes to run 100 = 7 days

Millennium

metres? 1 day

Measurement

= 24 hours

x Involve great events in history. Leap year

1 hour

= 60 minutes

1 minute

= 60 seconds

24

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

4. Understand and use x Use digital and analogue clocks. i. Read and write times in twelve-hour 7.30 read as Twelve hour

times in the twelve- system. seven thirty; system

hour and twenty-four x Read times from train or bus half past seven;

schedules. ii. Read and write times in twenty-four- Twenty-four

hour system to solve thirty minutes hour system

hour system.

problems. x Relate events to everyday past seven and

iii. Convert time in twelve-hour system to thirty minutes to Time Interval

situations.

twenty-four hour system and vice-versa. eight. Time

iv. Determine the interval between two Introduce a.m. Digital clock

given times. and p.m. Analogue

v. Solve problems involving time. 0350 read as clock

three fifty hour

3.50 a.m. read

as three fifty

a.m. or three

fifty in the

morning.

1900 read as

nineteen

hundred hours.

25

9. Learning Area: Lines and Angles

Activities

1. Understand the x Students identify angles in the i. Recognise angles. An angle is formed Angle

concept of angles. classroom. (e.g. corners of tables, by two straight Line

ii. Denote and label angles.

blackboards, windows, clock lines that meet at

Protractor

hands, and opened doors). iii. Measure angles using protractors. a point called the

vertex. Label

x Students demonstrate the different iv. Draw angles using protractors.

Denote

types of angles with their arms. v. Recognise, compare and classify line

Right angle

x Guide students on how to use angles as acute, right, obtuse and Vertex ) Angle

protractors to measure angles. reflex. Acute angle

line

vi. Draw acute, right, obtuse and Reflex angle

reflex angles using protractors. Obtuse Angle

Angles can be One whole turn

vii. Determine angles on straight lines

equal 180°. named as BAC Vertex

viii. Determine one whole turn is 360°. or A or B A C. Classify

Use degree ( ° ) Compare

as the unit of Degree

measurement of

angles.

One whole turn is

360°.

26

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

2. Understand the x Students identify perpendicular and i. Determine parallel lines. Two lines are Parallel lines

concept of parallel and parallel lines in the classroom (e.g parallel if they

ii. Determine perpendicular lines. Perpendicular

perpendicular lines. edges of books, windows and never intersect.

doors). iii. State that the angles formed by lines

perpendicular lines is 90°. A perpendicular

line is a line that Intersecting

makes a 90° with lines

another line. Complementary

Denote a 90° angle

angle as:

Supplementary

90° angle

Adjacent angle

Vertically

b opposite angle

3. Understand and use x Students investigate the properties i. Identify intersecting lines.

properties of angles of angles formed by intersecting a d

associated with ii. Determine the properties of

lines. vertical, complementary and c

intersecting lines to

solve problems. supplementary angles.

Vertical-angle

iii. Determine the value of an angle pairs:

on a line, given the adjacent a = d

angle. b = c

iv. Solve problems involving angles Sum of adjacent

formed by intersecting lines. angles on a

straight line is

180°

(a + b =180°)

27

10. Learning Area: Polygons

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

Polygon

Students will be taught to: Students will be able to:

Triangle

1. Understand the x Use concrete materials such as i. Recognise polygons.

Use capital letters Quadrilateral

concept of polygons. protractors, rulers, grid papers, ii. Name polygons (triangle, to name vertices.

geo-boards and computer software Pentagon

quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon,

to explore the concept of polygons. heptagon and octagon). Hexagon

x Students explore the relationship iii. Determine the number of sides, Heptagon

between the sides, diagonals and vertices and diagonals of given Octagon

vertices of polygons. polygons. Vertices

iv. Sketch polygons. Sides

Diagonal

Shape

Symmetry

Line of

2. Understand the x Students explore symmetry by i. Determine and draw the line(s) of symmetry

concept of symmetry. using mirrors, pattern blocks, symmetry of shapes. Shapes include Sketch

folding papers or making inkblot polygons

ii. Complete shapes given part of the

designs. shapes and the line of symmetry.

x Students explore the importance of iii. Draw designs using the concept of

symmetry in everyday situations symmetry.

(e.g. pattern on buildings and tiles).

28

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

Isosceles

3. Identify and use the i. Determine and draw symmetry line(s) Types of

geometric properties of given triangles. triangles: Equilateral

of triangles to solve Scalene

ii. Draw triangles using protractors and x Isosceles

problems. Acute

rulers. triangle

triangle

x Investigate the relationship between iii. State the geometric properties of the x Equilateral

angles and sides of all types of different types of triangles and name Obtuse

triangle

triangles. the triangles. triangle

x Scalene Right-angled

x Use a variety of methods to find the iv. Determine that the sum of the angles triangle

sum of angles of triangles: e.g triangle

of a triangle is 180°.

aligning corners on a straight line, x Acute triangle Quadrilateral

v. Solve problems involving triangles.

using protractors and geometry x Right-angled Square

computer software. triangle Rectangle

4. Identify and use the x Investigate the relationship between i. Determine and draw symmetry line(s) x Obtuse Parallelogram

geometric properties of angles, sides and diagonals of all of given quadrilaterals. triangle Trapezium

quadrilaterals to solve types of quadrilateral. ii. Draw a quadrilateral using protractor Rhombus

problems.

x Use a variety of methods to find the and ruler.

Types of Diagonal

sum of angles of quadrilaterals: e.g iii. State the geometric properties of the quadrilaterals: Geometric

aligning corners on a point, using different types of quadrilaterals and

protractors and geometry computer x Square properties

name quadrilaterals.

software. Align

iv. Determine that the sum of the angles x Rectangle

of a quadrilateral is 360°. Corner

x Rhombus

v. Solve problems involving

x Parallelogram

quadrilaterals.

x Trapezium

29

11. Learning Area : Perimeter and Area

Activities

Perimeter

1. Understand the concept x Use square chips, tessellation i. Identify the perimeter of a region. Shapes enclosed

grids, geo-boards, grid-papers or by straight lines Formulae

of perimeter to solve ii. Find the perimeter of a region

problems. computer software to explore the and curves. Measure

enclosed by straight lines.

concept of perimeter. Limit to straight Figure

iii. Solve problems involving perimeters.

x Investigate and develop formula to lines. Area

find the perimeter of a rectangle. Square unit

i. Estimate the area of a shape. 2

2. Understand the concept x Use unit squares, tessellation grids, cm read as Region

of area of rectangles to geo-boards, grid-papers or ii. Find the area of a rectangle. square cm. Enclosed

solve problems. computer software to explore the The area of a unit

iii. Solve problems involving areas.

concept of area. square is 1

square unit

x Investigate and develop formula to

find the area of a rectangle.

x Use unit square chips or tiles to Area of a right

investigate, explore and make triangle

generalisations about the:

1

a. Perimeters of rectangles having = of the area

the same area. 2

of a rectangle.

b. Areas of rectangles having the

same perimeter.

30

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3. Understand the x Investigate and develop formulae i. Identify the heights and bases of

concept of area of to find the areas of triangles, triangles, parallelograms and Area

triangles, parallelograms and trapeziums trapeziums. Triangle

parallelograms and based on the area of rectangle. ii. Find the areas of triangles, Trapezium

trapezium to solve

parallelograms and trapeziums. Parallelogram

problems.

iii. Find the areas of figures made up of Height

triangles, rectangles, parallelograms Base

or trapeziums.

Rectangle

iv. Solve problems involving the areas of

Figure

triangles, rectangles, parallelograms

and trapeziums.

height or base of a parallelogram.

31

12. Learning Area: Solid Geometry

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

Students will be able to

Students will be taught to:

x Use concrete materials to i. Identify geometric solids. Geometric solids Face

1. Understand geometric demonstrate the concepts of include Edge

ii. State the geometric properties of

properties of cubes geometric solids. cubes and cuboids. x Cubes Vertex

and cuboids.

x Game: Searching out Solids. iii. Draw cubes and cuboids on: Vertices

x Cuboids

Make up sets of activity cards

a. Square grids. Cube

containing descriptions of solids x Cylinders

such as: Cuboid

b. Blank papers. x Pyramids

a. Exactly two faces that are the Cylinder

iv. Make models of cubes and cuboids x Cones

same shape and size. by: Pyramid

b. All edges have the same x Spheres Cone

a. Combining given faces.

length. Sphere

b. Folding given layouts of solids.

Students compete to search out Surface

solids in the classroom based on

the descriptions.

x Investigate and explore the

relationship between faces, edges

and vertices of cubes and cuboids.

x Compare and contrast between

cubes and cuboids.

Ask students how they are alike or

different.

x Use concrete materials (opened

boxes) to draw the layout of cubes

and cuboids.

32

Learning Objectives Suggested Teaching and Learning Learning Outcomes Points to Note Vocabulary

Activities

3 Volume

2. Understand the x Use unit cubes or other concrete i. Estimate the volume of cuboids. cm read as

concept of volume of materials to let students explore cubic cm. Cubic cm

ii. Find the volume of cuboids.

cuboids to solve the concept of volumes. The volume of a Unit cube

problems iii. Solve problems involving volume of unit cube is 1 Cuboid

x Investigate and develop formula to cuboids. cubic unit

find the volume of cuboids.

33

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