Está en la página 1de 9

ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

INSTITUTO TECNOLOGICO DE MORELIA


Departamento de Ingeniería Bioquímica

OPERACIONES UNITARIAS V

RESOLUCION DE PROBLEMA DE DESTILACION


POR EL METODO DE PONCHON-SAVARIT

10 de diciembre de 2003
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

PROBLEMA 9.8 TREYBAL

MA = 32.04 Kg
MB = 18.02.0 Kg

F = 5000 Kg/h
XF = 0.5 fracción mol

1 Kg mol CH3 OH

2,500 kg CH3OH 1 Kg mol CH3 OH = 78.027 Kg mol CH3OH

32.04 kg CH3OH

2,500 kg H2O 1 Kg mol H2 O = 78.027 Kg mol H2O

18.02 kg H2O

216.762 Kg mol MEZCLA

XF = 0.360 fracción mol


XWF = 0.64 fracción mol

Balance de masa total


F=D+B
5000 = D + B

Balance del más volatil


FXF = DXD + BXB
2500 = 0.95D + 0.01B

B = 2,393.617 Kg
D = 84.512 Kg

En B :

2393.617Kg (0.01) = 23.936 Kg de CH3OH


2393.617Kg(0.99) = 2369.681 Kg H2O

23.936 Kg de CH3OH 1 Kg mol CH3OH = 0.747 Kg mol CH3OH

32.04 kg CH3OH

2369.383 kg H2O 1 Kg mol H2 O = 131.503 Kg mol H2O

18.02 kg H2O

132.25 Kg mol de B

XB = 0.00565 fración mol


XWB = 0.99435 fracción mol
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

2606.383 Kg (0.95) = 2476.064 Kg cH3OH


2606.383 Kg (0.05) = 130.319 Kg H2O

2476.064Kg de CH3OH 1 Kg mol CH3OH = 77.280 Kg mol CH3OH

32.04 kg CH3OH

130.319 kg H2O 1 Kg mol H2 O = 7.232 Kg mol H2O

18.02 kg H2O

84.612 Kg mol de D

XD = 0.914 fracción mol


XWD = 0.086 fracción mol

DISEÑO DE LA TORRE

L
D = 84.512 Kg mol
1 XD = 0.914

F =216.762 Kg mol
5
XF =0.360
6

B =132.25 Kg mol
XB = 0.00565

Kg Kg mol f. peso f.mol


F 5000 216.762 0.5 0.360
D 2606.383 84.512 .95 0.914
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

B 2393.617 132.25 0.01 0.00565

Para determinar HF

∆Hs = (-2.5164KJ / kg mol)(0.360)


∆Hs = -905.904 KJ / Kg mol

HF = 3.615 KJ /Kg mol °C (60.77-20)°C(23.1)Kg mol


HF = 2,498.656 KJ / Kg mol

L / D = RD

RD = 1.5RD min

RD min = H´D min - - Hy1 / HY1 - HD

Del gráfico

H´D min =64,000 LJ / kg mol


Hy1 =39,000 KJ / kg mol
HD = 3,600 KJ / kg mol

RD min = 0.706

RD = 1.059

RD = H´D - Hy1 / HY1 - HD

Despejando H´D

H´D = 76,488.6 KJ / kg mol

Se construye el gráfico de 9 etapas


Donde la alimentación se ubica en el 5° plato

Y1 = 0.914 X1 = 0.783
Y2 = 0.845 X2 = 0.656
Y3 = 0.783 X3 = 0.52
Y4 = 0.718 X4 = 0.383
Y5 = 0.651 X5 = 0.284
Y6 = 0.502 X6 = 0.124
Y7 = 0.235 X7 = 0.039
Y8 = 0.06 X8 = 0.0056
Y9 = 0.056

H´D = 76,488.6 KJ / kg mol

H´D = Qc /D
Qc = H´D D
Qc = 76,488.6 KJ / kg mol (84.512 Kg mol)

Qc = 6,464,204.563 KJ

H´B = HB – QB / B
QB = (45,000 + 5700) KJ / Kg mol (132.25) Kg mol
QB = 6,705,075 KJ

V 1 = L0 + D
V1 / D = L0/ D + D / D
V1 = (L0 / D +1 ) D
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

V1 = (1.059 +1) 84.512

V1 = 174.010 Kg mol

L0 = 89.498 Kg mol

Plato 1

V2 = L1l + D
V2y2 = L1x1 + DxD
L1y2 + Dy2 = L1x1 + DxD

L1 = D (x2 – y2) / (y2 – x1)

L1 = 84.512 (0.914 – 0.845) / (0.845 – 0.873)

L1 = 94.053
V2 = 94.053 + 84.512
V2 = 178.56

Plato 2

V3 = L2 + V2

V3y3 = L2x2 + V2y2


L2y3 + V2y3 = L2x2 + V2y2

L2y3 + V2y3 = L2x2 + V2y2

L2 = V2 (y2 – y3) / (y3 – x2)

L2 = 178.56 (0.845 – 0.783) / (0.783 – 0.656)

L2 = 87.71 kgmol

V3 = 265.73 kgmol

Plato 3

V4 = V3 + L3

V4y4 = V3y3 + L3x3

L3 = V3 (y3 – y4) / (y4 – y3)

L3 = 265.73 (0.783 – 0.718) / (0.718 – 0.52)

L3 = 87.23 kgmol

V4 = 87.23 + 265.73

V4 = 352.96 kgmol

Plato 4

L4 = V4 (y4 – y5) / (y5– x4)


ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

L4 = 352.96 (0.718 – 0.651) / (0.651 – 0.383)

L4 = 88.24 kgmol

V5 = v4 + L 4

V5 = 441.2 kgmol

Plato 5

F + V6 = V5 + L5

Fxf + V6y6 = V5y5 + L5x5

Ordenando y eliminando los términos correspondientes:

F (xf – y6 ) + V5 (y6 – y5) = L5 (x5 – y6)

L5 = F (xf – y6 ) + V5 (y6 – y5) / (x5 – y6)

L5 = 216.762 (0.36 – 0.502 ) + 441.2 (0.502 – 0.651) / (0.284 – 0.502)

L5 = 442.74 kgmol

V6 = 667.178 kgmol

DATOS OBTENIDOS DEL MANUAL DEL INGENIERO QUIMICO Y TABLAS CRITICAS INTERNACIONALES
Datos de equilibrio líquido-vapor, a presión constante, para sistemas binarios seleccionados.

T X Y M prom
100 0 0 18.02
96.4 0.02 0.134 18.3004
93.5 0.04 0.23 18.5808
91.2 0.06 0.304 18.8612
89.3 0.08 0.365 19.1416
87.7 0.1 0.418 19.422
84.4 0.15 0.517 20.123
81.7 0.2 0.579 20.824
78 0.3 0.665 22.226
75.3 0.4 0.729 23.628
73.1 0.5 0.779 25.03
71.2 0.6 0.825 26.432
69.3 0.7 0.87 27.834
67.5 0.8 0.915 29.236
66 0.9 0.958 30.638
65 0.95 0.979 31.339
64.5 1 1 32.04

TABLAS CRITICAS INTERNACIONALES

%mol de metanol Cp de tablas


(kJ)
0.0588 4.17
0.123 4.0494
0.273 3.82389
0.458 3.38187
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

0.696 2.95236
1 2.502

DATOS GRÁFICA INTERNET

CL
X Cp
0.06 4.16483252
0.11 4.08670515
0.16 4.00197645
0.21 3.91162062
0.26 3.81661183
0.31 3.71792424
0.36 3.61653204
0.41 3.5134094
0.46 3.40953049
0.51 3.30586949
0.56 3.20340058
0.61 3.10309793
0.66 3.00593571
0.71 2.91288811
0.76 2.82492929
0.81 2.74303342
0.86 2.6681747
0.91 2.60132728
0.96 2.54346535
1 2.5043

CALOR DE SOLUCIÓN

X Q
0.06 6.77990755
0.11 5.82355683
0.16 4.98055491
0.21 4.24255579
0.26 3.60121347
0.31 3.04818195
0.36 2.57511523
0.41 2.17366731
0.46 1.83549219
0.51 1.55224387
0.56 1.31557635
0.61 1.11714363
0.66 0.94859971
0.71 0.80159859
0.76 0.66779427
0.81 0.53884075
0.86 0.40639203
0.91 0.26210211
0.96 0.09762499

HL = CL (tL – T0) Mp + ∆Hs

MONOGRAMA DE CALOR LATENTE DE VAPORIZACION

X T Cpv (kJ) Y* λν Cpw (J) λω


0.06 91.2 3.03576 0.304 1000.8 2323 2164.23
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

0.08 89.3 3.02325 0.365 1017.4 2323 2165.4


0.1 87.7 3.01074 0.418 1034.16 2323 2230.97
0.15 84.4 2.99823 0.517 1038.3 2323 2239.29
0.2 81.7 2.97738 0.579 1038.3 2323 2253.46
0.3 78 2.9607 0.665 1042.5 2323 2301.84
0.4 75.3 2.95236 0.729 1042.5 2323 2306.01
0.5 73.1 2.93985 0.779 1042.5 2323 2335.2
0.6 71.2 2.92734 0.825 1050.84 2323 2376.9
0.7 69.3 2.919 0.87 1075.86 2323 2376.9
0.8 67.5 2.91966 0.915 1075.86 2323 2381.07
0.9 66 2.89815 0.958 1084.2 2323 2381.07
0.95 65 2.88564 0.979 1084.2 2323 2381.07
1 64.5 2.8773 1 1086 2323 2381.07

DATOS DE LA GRÁFICA PARA LA SOLUCIÓN PROBLEMA

X* HG Y* HL
0 47060 0 5576
0.05 46217.42 0.05 5242.767131
0.1 45489.04 0.1 4983.8061
0.15 44862.36 0.15 4783.766131
0.2 44324.86 0.2 4628.9736
0.25 43864.03 0.25 4507.432031
0.3 43467.37 0.3 4408.8221
0.35 43122.38 0.35 4324.501631
0.4 42816.57 0.4 4247.5056
0.45 42537.32 0.45 4172.546131
0.5 42272.25 0.5 4096.0125
0.55 42008.8 0.55 4015.971131
0.6 41734.47 0.6 3932.1656
0.65 41436.75 0.65 3846.016633
0.7 41103.13 0.7 3760.6221
0.75 40721.09 0.75 3680.757031
0.8 40278.14 0.8 3612.8736
0.85 39761.77 0.85 3565.101131
0.9 39159.46 0.9 3547.2461
0.95 38458.7 0.95 3570.792131
1 37647 1 3648.9

BIBLIOGRAFIA
ITM PONCHON & SAVARIT

 TREYBAL, ROBERT E. Mass Transfer Operations. Third Edition. McGraw Hill Book

Company. United States of America, 1987.

 GEANKOPLIS, CHRISTIE J. Procesos de transporte y operaciones unitarias.3ª

Edición. Ed.CECSA. México DF 1999.

 PERRY, JOHN H. Manual del Ingeniero Químico. Tomo I y II. Primera Edición.

Editorial UTEHA. México DF,1974.