Está en la página 1de 14

Journal of Petroleum Geology, Vol.

30(2), April 2007, pp 175-188 175

THE USE OF WELL LOGS TO DETERMINE THE


RESERVOIR CHARACTERISTICS OF MIOCENE ROCKS
AT THE BAHAR NORTHEAST FIELD,
GULF OF SUEZ, EGYPT

E. A. Abd El-Gawad*

This paper is concerned with the petrophysical evaluation by means of electric logs of
Miocene reservoir rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. The reservoir rocks
are assigned to the Hammam Faraun and Sidri Members of the Middle Miocene Belayim
Formation and the Lower Miocene Kareem Carbonate.
Computer-assisted log analyses were used to evaluate petrophysical parameters such as the
shale proportion (Vsh), effective porosity (φE), water saturation (SW), hydrocarbon saturation (Sh),
flushed zone saturation (Sxo) and true resistivity (Rt).
Lithological compositions, effective porosity, and water and hydrocarbon saturations are
illustrated on cross-plots of depth versus lithology and saturation. Isoparametric maps are used
to illustrate the spatial variation of petrophysical parameters and to show their relationships
with the geologic setting of the study area.
Based on the results obtained, the Hammam Faraun and Sidri Members of the Belayin
Formation and the Kareem Carbonate appear to possess promising reservoir characteristics
which should be taken into consideration during future development of the field area.

INTRODUCTION The Bahar Northeast field lies on a SW-tilted fault


block which is aligned with the regional N35° E trend
The Gulf of Suez is the most important oil-producing (Meshref, 1990). Major reservoir units include
region in Egypt and accounts for more than 75% of Mesozoic sandstones (so-called “Nubian facies”) and
Egyptian oil production and more than 90% of Miocene carbonates. The latter include the Middle
cumulative production (EGPC, 1996). The Bahar Miocene Hammam Faraun (72– 90m thick) and Sidri
Northeast field is located onshore on the SW margin (40–105m thick) Members of the Belayin Formation
of the Gulf, about 65 km north of Hurghada (Fig.1), and the Lower Miocene Kareem Carbonate (29–125m
and occupies an area of about 2 km2. The field was thick) (Figs 2 and 3).
discovered by General Petroleum Company (GPC) in Many stratigraphic complexities have been
1983 following the drilling of well BNE-1, and twelve observed in the study area (e.g.pinch-outs, truncations
wells have subsequently been drilled here. Bahar and onlap), and it was believed that these uncertainties
Northeast may be considered as an onshore extension could be clarified with the aid of detailed well log and
of the Zeit Bay field.Total oil reserves are estimated facies analyses of the reservoir units. The present
to be about 30 MM brl, and cumulative production study attempts to integrate subsurface geological
had reached 21.7 MM brl by mid-1995 with an annual studies and well-log characteristics in order to improve
production rate of 136,000 brl. The oil’s gravity is understanding of the hydrocarbon potential of
31o API (EGPC, 1996). Miocene reservoir rocks at Bahar Northeast and
nearby parts of the SW Gulf of Suez.
*Geology Department, Faculty of Science, United Arab
Emirates University, PO Box 17551, Al-Ain, United Arab Key words: Gulf of Suez, Bahar NE field, Miocene, Belayin
Emirates. email: esam.abdelgawad @ uaeu.ac.ae Formation, Kareem Formation, petrophysics.
176 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

33o 00` 33o 30` 34o 00`

Age Group Formation Member Lithology


N

PLIOCENE-RECENT

S I N A I
28o
30`

E
M I O C E N
ZEIT

M A L A A B
28o
00`

M I D D L E SOUTH
GHARIB

R A S
EASTERN
27o
DESERT
30`

H. FARAUN
FEIRAN

BELAYIM SIDRI
BABA
20 km
SHAGAR
GHARANDAL

KAREEM
MIOCENE
LOWER

RAHMI
Fig. 1. Location map of Bahar Northeast field,
SW Gulf of Suez. Bahar Northeast is an onshore
extension of Zeit Bay field.
RUDEIS
CAMBRIAN
MIOCENE-

MATERIALS AND METHODS


NUBIA
The subsea depths of the top crystalline Basement,
top Pre-Miocene Nubia sandstone, and top Rudeis,
Kareem, Belayim, South Gharib and Zeit Formations CRYSTALLINE BASEMENT xxxxxxxxx

penetrated by 13 wells together with seismic data (fault


Fig. 2. Lithostratigraphic column for the Bahar
trend maps) were used to construct a series of isopach Northeast field. The synrift Belayim and Kareem
and facies maps, structure contour maps and structural Formations, the subject of this paper, rest
cross sections.Complete sets of logs (Micro unconformably on rocks of the pre-rift sequence.
Spherically Focused Log, Latero Log Deep, Latero
Log Shallow, Formation Density Compensated Log, which combines a broad range of log interpretation
Compensated Neutron Log, Bore Hole Compensated techniques such as Schlumberger Principles, 1990;
Sonic Log, Spontaneous Potential Log, Gamma Ray Essentials, 1972; Charts, 1972; Applications, 1974 and
Log and Caliper Log) for the reservoir units studied Helander, 1978. A number of water samples were
(Hammam Faraun and Sidri Members of the Belayim collected from the Hammam Faraun Member at well
Formation and Kareem Carbonate) were digitized. BNE-9 and from the Kareem Formation at well BNE-
Environmental corrections and depth matching were 1, and were analyzed for salinity. Pickett plots
applied using particular subroutines for the logs prior (Schlumberger, 1990) were constructed to confirm
to evaluation to compensate for poor borehole the results of water analysis. Neutron/density and
conditions and for depth discrepancies for the various apparent matrix / apparent grain density cross-plots
types of logs. Formation evaluation was carried out were constructed to show the lithology, density and
for the studied reservoirs by means of QLA2 software, porosity of the studied reservoir units.
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 177

33o 33` 33o 33`

R. EL BAHAR R. EL BAHAR
N N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 50 m 500 m 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33` C.I.: 25 m

Fig. 3. Isopach and facies maps of the Belayim Formation (above, left) and Kareem Formation (above, right)
at the Bahar Northeast field,Gulf of Suez.

The shale content (Vsh) was determined from the 1988; Meshref, 1990; Lelek et al., 1992; Abdine et
gamma ray, SP, neutron, neutron-density and neutron- al., 1990; Schutz, 1994; Bosworth, 1995; EGPC,
resistivity logs. The minimum shale content given by 1996; Salah and Alsharhan, 1997; McClay et al. 1998;
these shale indicators is likely to be close to the actual and El-Ghamri et al., 2002. The Gulf is generally
value of Vsh. divided into three structural provinces (northern,
The corrected effective porosity was estimated central and southern) according to structural setting
using a combination of the density and neutron logs and regional dip direction. Bahar NE field is located
after applying various corrections. The water in the southern province which is bounded to the north
saturation (Sw) was calculated using the so-called by the Morgan hinge zone. This extends from the
Indonesia equation (Schlumberger, 1990) northern end of Esh El Mellaha to Ras Shukheir, to
1 Vcl (1− Vcl / 2 ) ∅ m / 2 n / 2 the north of well LL 87-1, then offshore north of
=[ + ]Sw Gebel Araba on the eastern bank. It is characterized
Rt 1 1
by the occurrence of surface outcrops of Miocene
Rcl aRw and Pre-Miocene sedimentary rocks and basement
whose terms are defined on page 186. rocks in the Gebel El Zeit and Esh El Mellaha ranges.
Determination of the fluid contents as water, The regional dip of strata is towards the SW and the
movable and residual saturation was also carried out. main (“clysmic”) and cross-faults throw towards the
Litho-saturation plots and isoparametric maps for the NE and SE, respectively. The Galala and Morgan hinge
studied Miocene reservoirs (Hammam Faraun zones are shifted southwards on the eastern bank of
Member, Sidri Member and Kareem Carbonate) were the Gulf of Suez by some 45 km at Zeneima and 30
constructed to illustrate the vertical and lateral changes km at Gebel Nakus, respectively.
in the petrophysical characteristics of these reservoirs. According to EGPC and Beicip (1988), principal
sedimentary and tectonic events in the Gulf of Suez
GEOLOGICAL SETTING can be divided into pre-rift (pre-Miocene), syn-rift
(Miocene) and post-rift (post-Miocene) phases. At
The regional geology of the Gulf of Suez has been the Bahar NE / Zeit Bay structure, peneplained
described by many authors including Steckler et al., Precambrian Basement is overlain by a Pre-Miocene
178 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

33o 33` 33o 33`

N R. EL BAHAR N R. EL BAHAR

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o
27o 27o 45` 45`
45` 45`

EASTERN
EASTERN DESERT
DESERT

500 m
C.I.: 100 m 33o 33`
500 m
C.I.: 50 m 33o 33`

Fig. 4. Structure contour maps, top-Belayim Formation (above, left) and top-Kareem Formation (above, right),
Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez. Wells indicated by open circles with well-number marked above.

sedimentary sequence typical of the southern Gulf of block of fault F4. During the Early-Middle Miocene,
Suez, with strata ranging in age from Palaeozoic to the siliciclastics of the Shagar Member of the Kareem
Early Tertiary (Eocene). In common with the rest of Formation were deposited on the NE flank of the
the southern Gulf of Suez, the Zeit Bay / Bahar NE Bahar NE / Zeit Bay structure. On the deeper western
structure was then uplifted and tilted about 20° towards flank, a more typical Kareem Formation sequence,
the SW and underwent intense erosion. The deepest including shales of the Shagar Member and anhydrites
erosion occurred along the up-dip edge of the fault of the Markha Member, were developed, as
block towards the eastern side. Well data shows that encountered in well BNE-1. In the centre and on
upthrown and downthrown blocks were levelled at the western flank, a build-up of carbonates took place
this time as a result of the erosion. (“Kareem Carbonate”).These carbonates were
Erosion products from uplifted and exposed karstified and fault F3 became active.
structural highs filled accommodation space in down- During deposition of the Baba evaporites at the
thrown blocks to the west of fault FA (Fig. 4). The base of the Belayim Formation, fault F1 was
sediments pinch out towards the west before reaching rejuvenated as shown by the different thicknesses
the location of well BNE-l. This is confirmed by the of the Belayim evaporites across the fault.
presence of thick Early Miocene sandstones of similar A thin layer of Sidri carbonates was then deposited
facies to the Nubia sandstone, with intercalations of throughout the area except for the central high
marine shales in well BNE-12 within the interval 1,750 corresponding to the Kareem Carbonate build-up.
to 1,885 m. After this thin “Basal Miocene” sandstone The absence of Sidri carbonates in the central high
was deposited, marine carbonates of the Rudeis is therefore due to non-deposition.
Formation were deposited along the downthrown block Following the deposition of the Sidri carbonates,
west of fault FA, thus again levelling the block with a thin anhydritic layer (Feiran Member) was
the eastern upthrown block of fault F2. deposited, covering the Sidri carbonates and the Baba
Well BNE-1 encountered Rudeis carbonates at 1,871 anhydrites where the Sidri was not deposited. This
– 1,995 m MD; they are thought to be of Eocene age has led to the term “Belayim evaporites”, which refers
(EGPC, 1996), although Suez Oil Company geologists to the undifferentiated Baba-Feiran evaporitic section.
consider this interval to be Miocene. Rudeis carbonates This is followed by the thin shales and carbonates of
were deposited to the east and on the downthrown the Hammam Faraun Member. The Zeit Bay / Bahar
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 179

Hamman Faraun Member

Kareem Carbonate

Fig. 6. Pickett plots (Schlumberger, 1990) for Rw


Fig. 5. SW-NE structural cross-section through wells determination, Hamman Faraun Member (above)
BNE 3, 2 and 7, Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez. and Kareem Carbonate (below) Bahar Norteast
field, Gulf of Suez.

NE structure was defined by the end of Belayim time. An isopach map of the Kareem Formation (Fig.
Following the deposition of the Hammam Faraun 3b) shows that its thickness increases towards the
clastics, marine regression occurred and thick west and SW of the field area. The Kareem Formation
evaporites (salt and anhydrite) of the Middle-Late consists of (i) relatively deep-water shales and
Miocene South Gharib and Zeit Formations were sandstones with some limestones, which occur in the
deposited. These evaporitic sequences represent the west and SW of the field area - these are divided into
cap rock overlying the structure. the Shagar Member above and the Markha Member
The Hammam Faraun and Sidri Members of the below; and (ii) thick carbonates which are mainly
Belayim Formation together with the Kareem represented by a dolomitic, highly pyritic limestones,
Carbonate represent the most important targets for which occur as a depositional wedge along the central
exploration in the Gulf of Suez. An isopach map of and western flank of the field. The Kareem Formation
the Belayim Formation (Fig. 3a) shows that its is absent on the crest of the structure (e.g.at well
thickness increases towards the central and south- BNE-7l) (Fig. 5).
central parts of the field area. The formation consists
mainly of limestones and anhydrites with minor shales Structural configuration
and sandstones. The Hammam Faraun Member In order to understand the structure in the study area,
consists of shales in the upper part and of limestones a series of structure contour maps were compiled
in the lower part with minor sandstones. The Sidri for most of the penetrated formation tops using the
Member is mainly composed of carbonates. The subsea depths of the drilled formations together with
lithofacies and faunal content of the Hammam Faraun seismic data. For example, the structure at top-
and Sidri Members reflect a littoral depositional Kareem Formation level (Fig. 4) is an elongated SW-
environment, while the Feiran and Baba Members were tilted fault block dissected by a number of normal
deposited under lagoonal conditions. faults (FA, FB, F2, F3 and F4). Faults F4 and FB
180 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

Fig. 7. Neutron/density and apparent matrix/apparent grain density cross-plots for the Hammam Faraun
Member, Bahar Northeast field, showing main and minor lithological constituents, bulk density and average
porosity.
trend NW-SE, and are down-thrown to the NE Member is principally composed of sandy dolomitic
forming a step structure. Faults FA, F2 and F3 trend limestones with bulk density RHOB ranging from 2.20
NNW-SSE and are downthrown to the SW. Faults F3 to 2.79 gm/cc, and an average porosity of about 20%
and F4 form a horst structure in the northern part of (Fig. 7). Calcite and dolomite are the main constituents
the field area. Top-Kareem Formation varies from – together with quartz and some heavy minerals (Fig.
1,334 m at well BNE-4 to –1,704 m at well BNE-1, 7).
with dips generally to the SW. The structure contour The Sidri Member is dominated by sandy dolomitic
map at top Belayim Formation level shows almost the limestone and minor anhydritic calcareous dolomite
same structural configuration as at top-Kareem with bulk density RHOB ranging from 2.30 to 2.90
Formation level, except that it is not affected by fault gm/cc and an average porosity of about 10% (Fig.
F3 (Fig. 4). 8). Dolomite and calcite are the major matrix
To study the structure further, a series of palaeo- constituents together with quartz and some K-
tectonic and structural cross-sections were feldspar (Fig. 8).
constructed. These show almost the same structural The Kareem Carbonate is almost entirely composed
configuration as the structure contour maps. In of dolomitic limestone and/or calcareous dolomite,
addition, they show that the faults bounding the study with RHOB ranging from 2.15 to 2.83 gm/cc and an
area are most likely of Pre-Miocene age, but most of average porosity of about 19.5% (Fig. 9). The matrix
them were rejuvenated on a number of occasions is composed of dolomite, calcite and quartz with
(Fig.5). minor heavy minerals, anhydrite and illite (Fig. 9).

RESULTS RESERVOIR ROCK EVALUATION


WELL LOG ANALYSIS
Litho-saturation logs and isoparametric maps for the
The NaCl content of water samples from the Hammam Hammam Faraun and Sidri Members and Kareem
Faraun Member and Kareem Formation varied from Carbonate were constructed in order to illustrate the
210,000 to 240,000 ppm, which was equivalent to a vertical and lateral changes in the petrophysical
water resistivity (Rw) ranging from 0.023 to 0.025 characteristics of these reservoir units.
ohm.m at 130° F. Pickett plots were constructed and
showed that Rw values range from 0.025 to 0.035 Litho-saturation logs
ohm.m (Fig. 6). The Hammam Faraun Member at Well BNE-1
Neutron/density and apparent matrix/apparent grain Fig. 10a shows a litho-saturation log for the Hammam
density cross-plots show that the Hammam Faraun Faraun Member at well BNE-1 (depths 1420 to
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 181

Fig. 8. Neutron/density and apparent matrix / apparent grain density cross-plots for the Sidri Member, Bahar
Northeast field, showing main and minor lithological constituents, bulk density and average porosity.

Fig. 9. Neutron/density and apparent matrix/apparent grain density cross-plots for the Kareem Carbonate,
Bahar Northeast field, showing main and minor lithological constituents, bulk density and average porosity.
a c
182

b
Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

Fig. 10. Lithosaturation logs for well BNE-1 (location in Fig. 4), depths (a) 1420-1435 m, (b)1610-1624 m, (c)1804-1838 m, illustrating vertical variations in the
petrophysical characteristics of the reservoir units studied.
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 183

33o 33` 33o 33`


a,b
VSh
R. EL BAHAR
N
φe R. EL BAHAR
N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

10

27o 27o 27o 27o


20

45` 45` 45` 45`


30

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 10% 500 m C.I.: 5% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

33o 33` 33o 33`


c, d
Sw R. EL BAHAR
N Sh R. EL BAHAR
N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 5% 500 m C.I.: 5% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

Fig. 11. Isoparametric maps for the Hammam Faraun Member, Bahar Northeast field (a) shaliness,
(b) effective porosity, (c) water saturation, (d) hydrocarbon saturation.

1438m).In this interval, the shale content in the is dominant and movable hydrocarbons occur in small
limestone is 50% - 60%, and the effective porosity quantities.
varies from 10% to 16%. Water is present throughout
the unit and oil is also present in significant volumes. The Kareem Formation at Well BNE-1
Fig. 10c illustrates a litho-saturation log for the interval
The Sidri Member at Well BNE-1 between 1804 and 1838 m. The Kareem Formation is
Fig. 10b shows a litho-saturation log for the interval represented by limestones intercalated with shales and
1,610 to 1,624m, which has a shale content ranging thin sandstones in the lower part. The shale content
from 29 to 53%. The effective porosity varies from varies from 22% to 60%, while the effective porosity
4 to 15% and generally increases downwards. Water ranges from 50% to 17%. Oil is present in significant
184 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

33o 33` 33o 33`


a, b
VSh R. EL BAHAR
N φe R. EL BAHAR
N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 10% 500 m C.I.: 10% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

c, d 33o 33` 33o 33`

R. EL BAHAR N
R. EL BAHAR N
Sw Sh

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 5% 500 m C.I.: 10% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

Fig. 12. Isoparametric maps for the Sidri Member, Bahar Northeast field (a) shaliness, (b) effective porosity,
(c) water saturation, (d) hydrocarbon saturation.

volumes in the lower part of the unit and water is present decreasing shaliness appears to correlate with
throughout except in the oil zone variations in effective porosity.
Fig. 11b shows that effective porosity in the
Isoparametric maps of the Hammam Faraun Member varies from 11% at well
Hammam Faraun Member (Fig. 11) BNE-1 to 28% at well BNE-10, generally increasing
An iso-shaliness map of the Hammam Faraun Member from SW to NE. This trend approximately matches
at Bahar NE (Fig. 11a) shows that the shale content the direction of decreasing shaliness within the
varies from 0% at wells BNE 5, 7, 8, 9, 11, to 12- member (Fig. 11a). Also, compared to the structure
27% at well BNE-10. This SW-NE trend of contour map on the top of the Belayim Formation
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 185

33o 33` 33o 33`


a, b
VSh R. EL BAHAR
N
φe R. EL BAHAR
N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 10% 500 m C.I.: 10% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

c, d o
33 33` o
33 33`

R. EL BAHAR R. EL BAHAR
Sw N
Sh N

GULF GULF
OF OF
SUEZ SUEZ

27o 27o 27o 27o


45` 45` 45` 45`

EASTERN EASTERN
DESERT DESERT

C.I.: 5% 500 m C.I.: 5% 500 m


33o 33` 33o 33`

Fig. 13. Isoparametric maps for the Kareem Formation, Bahar Northeast field (a) shaliness, (b) effective
porosity, (c) water saturation, (d) hydrocarbon saturation.

(Fig. 4), it may be noted that the highest-porosity well BNE-9, generally increasing to the SW. This
areas occur on relative structural highs in horsts and distribution can roughly be correlated with the
step blocks. This suggests that the effective porosity structural setting of the field area. Thus, in general
of the Hammam Faraun Member was affected by both areas with low water saturation occur in horst blocks
sedimentological factors (e.g. shaliness) and the (e.g. the areas around wells BNE 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and
structural setting. 13), reflecting the migration of oil up and into these
The map of water saturation (Fig. 11c) shows blocks; while more highly water-saturated areas occur
that water occurrence within the Hammam Faraun within step blocks. Moreover, the less water-saturated
Member varies from 15% at well BNE-3 to 50% at horst blocks coincide with sectors in the field area
186 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez

with elevated porosities, while the other step blocks on horst blocks (e.g. around wells BNE 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
represent lower porosity areas. This suggests that the 7 and 13), reflecting the migration of oil into these
distribution of water saturation in the Hammam Faraun blocks; while areas of low porosity and high water
Member was controlled both by the structural setting saturation occur within step blocks.
and the effective porosity of the member.Finally, Fig. The Sidri Member is dominated by sandy dolomitic
11d shows that hydrocarbon (oil) saturation varies limestones and minor anhydritic calcareous dolomites
from 51% at well BNE-1 to 85% at well BNE-3. This with an average porosity of about 10%. Minor shales
map resembles the map of water saturation, although also occur. The Member’s water saturation is about
the trend of overall increase is to the NE. 37%. It cannot be differentiated in the eastern margin
of Bahar NE field where it may be represented by
Isoparametric maps of the anhydrite intercalated with thin beds of limestone.
Sidri Member (Fig. 12) The Kareem Carbonate is dominated by dolomitic
The shale content of the Sidri Member varies from limestones and/or calcareous dolomites with an
8% at well BNE-6 to 31% at well BNE-11, with average porosity of about 19.5%. The shale content
general trend of increase towards the NW (Fig. 12a). is minor and correlates closely with porosity values.
Porosity in the Sidri Member (Fig. 12b) ranges The water saturation is about 45%, and decreases
from 10% at well BNE-6 to 25% at well BNE-3, and towards structurally high areas.
in general increases eastward.In wells BNE-2, 4, 5
and 7, the Sidri Member cannot be differentiated, and CONCLUSIONS
may be represented by anhydrite intercalated with thin
beds of limestone. The best reservoir characteristics of the Miocene
Water saturation in the Sidri Member varies from reservoir units studied (the Hammam Faraun and Sidri
10% at wells BNE 3 and 10 to 81% at well BNE-1 Members of the Belayim Formation and the Kareem
(Fig. 12c). It generally increases towards the SW. Formation) occur in the NE of the study area, in
Hydrocarbon saturation within the Sidri Member structurally high areas, where the units have low shale
ranges from 19% at well BNE-1 to 90% at wells BNE- contents, high effective porosity and low water
3 and 12 (Fig. 12d). The hydrocarbon saturation saturations.
generally increases towards the NE. The effective porosity of these reservoir units is
affected by both sedimentological factors (e.g.
Isoparametric maps of the shaliness) and the structural setting, i.e. whether
Kareem Formation (Fig. 13) located on a high or a low structural block.
The shale content in the Kareem Formation varies The distribution of water and hydrocarbon
from 0% at wells BNE- 2, 9 and 11 to 23% at well saturation in the reservoirs was strongly affected by
BNE-1 with a general trend of increase towards the the structural setting and elevation and by the effective
SW and the central parts of the study area (Fig. 13a). porosity; areas of high porosity and low water
Porosity varies from 11% at well BNE-10 to 30% saturation occur on horst blocks.
at well BNE-6, and increases towards the northern The shale content in the reservoir units is minor
and eastern parts of the field area (Fig. 13b). and shows a good correlation with the porosity values.
Water saturation in the Kareem Formation increases
from 20% at well BNE-2 to 90% at well BNE-12 abbreviations:
towards the SW of the study area (Fig. 13c).
The hydrocarbon saturation of the Kareem
Rt: true resistivity;
Formation (Fig. 13d) increases from 10% at well
Rw: formation water resistivity;
BNE-12 to 85% at well BNE-3 towards the NE (i.e
Rcl: clay resistivity;
towards the structurally higher parts of the field area).
Vcl: clay volume;
Sw: water saturation;
DISCUSSION φ: corrected effective porosity;
a: coefficient in the Archie Equation;
The results show that the Hammam Faraun Member m: cementation (porosity) exponent;
is mainly composed of sandy dolomitic limestones n: saturation exponent.
with an average porosity of about 20%. The shale
content is low and the average water saturation is
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
about 30%. An inverse relationship between porosity
and shaliness is indicated by the iso-parametric maps.
The author acknowledges with thanks the Exploration
Areas of high porosity and low water saturation occur
Department of the General Petroleum Company
E. A. Abd El-Gawad 187

(GPC), who provided the raw data upon which the in Egypt’s Gulf of Suez. In: Halbouty, M.T. (Ed.), Giant oil
present work was based. Review comments on a fields of the decade 1978-1988. AAPG Mem. 54, 231-249.
McCLAY, K.R., NICHOLS, G., KHALIL, S.M., DARWISH, M.,
previous draft by Martin Keeley and David A. Pivnik and BOSWORTH, W., 1998. Extensional tectonics and
are acknowledged with thanks. sedimentation, eastern Gulf of Suez. In: Purser, B.H. and
Bosence, DW.J. (Eds), Sedimentation and tectonics of rift
basins: Red Sea-Gulf of Aden. Chapman and Hall, London,
REFERENCES 223-238.
MESHREF, W.M., 1990. Tectonic framework. In: Said, R. (Ed.),
ABDINE, A.S., MESHREF, W., SHAHIN, A.N., GAROSSINS, P., The geology of Egypt. Balkema, Rotterdam, 113-155.
and SHAZLY, S., 1992. Ramadan field-Egypt, Gulf of Suez SALAH, M.G., and ALSHARHAN, A.S., 1997. The Miocene
basin. AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Structural Traps VI, Kareem Formation in the Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt: a
113-139. review of stratigraphy and petroleum geology. Journal of
BOSWORTH, W., 1995. A high strain rate rift model for the Petroleum Geology, 20 (3), 327-346.
Southern Gulf of South, Egypt. In: Lambiase, J.J. (Ed.), SCHLUMBERGER, 1972. Log interpretation charts.
Hydrocarbon habit in rift basins. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. Schlumberger Limited, New York, USA, 92 pp.
80, 75-102. SCHLUMBERGER, 1972. The essential of log interpretation,
EGPC (EGYPTIAN GENERAL PETROLEUM CORP- practice. Service Techniques Schlumberger, France, 58pp.
ORATION), 1996. Gulf of Suez oil fields (A comprehensive SCHLUMBERGER, 1974. Log interpretation, volume II
overview). EGPC, Cairo, 736 p. applications. Schlumberger Limited, New York, USA, 116
EGPC and BEICIP, 1988. Structural evolution and tectonic pp.
modeling of the Gulf of Suez. EGPC, Cairo. SCHLUMBERGER, 1990. Log interpretation, volume I
EL-GHAMRI, M.A.,WARBURTON, I.C., and BURLEY, S.D., 2002. principles. Schlumberger Limited, New York, USA, 220
Hydrocarbon generation and charging in the October field, pp.
Gulf of Sues, Egypt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 25 (4), SCHUTZ, K.I., 1994. Structure and stratigraphy of the Gulf
465-484. of Suez. In: Landon, S.A. (Ed.), Interior rift basins. AAPG
HELANDER, D.P., 1978. Formation evaluation manual. Oil and Mem., 59, 57-99.
Gas Consultants International Inc., Boston, Tulsa, STECKLER, M.S., RETHLOT, F., LYBERIS, N., and LE PICHON,
Oklahoma, USA., 530 p. X. 1988. Subsidence in the Gulf of Suez: implications for
LELEK, J.J., SHEPERD, D.B, STONE, D.M. and ABDINE, A.S., rifting and plate kinematics. Tectonophysics, 153, 249-270.
1992. October field, the latest giant under development
188 Reservoir characteristics of Miocene rocks at the Bahar Northeast field, Gulf of Suez