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Name: Joseph C Benard Jr

Date: 12-6-2010
Final Exam – Networking Essentials II

1. Provide a brief description for each layer of the OSI model

• Layer 7 –Application This is where the end user views and sees the data.
Interacts with the hardware and software

• Layer 6 –Presentation This is where the information is translated into a

format that applications can read. It also formats and encrypts data so it can be
sent across a network.

• Layer 5 –Session It basically controls the dialogues connections between

PC’s It can Establish and even Terminate a connection locally and remotely.

• Layer 4 –Transport In this layer data is broken down to smaller pieces for
sending and put back together for receiving. It’s like the mail it is given a
sequence of numbers so that it may be put back together properly.

• Layer 3 –Network It is part of the break and reassembly of packets that are
sent and also reports errors. It is mainly the control of information sent on one or
more networks

• Layer 2 –Data or Data Link Would be the NIC which controls the address
of your computer, also is the MAC address also the LLC communicates with the

• Layer 1 –Physical It is basically the hardware in your computer such as

the cables and hubs that can transport data from one computer to another.

2. What are some differences between UTP and STP cables?

STP cables are shielded twisted pair, they help to eliminate interference aka Noise.
UTP cables are unshielded twisted pair, they are less resistant to noise, cheaper also.

3. What are some practical uses for a cross-over cable?

LAN gamming between two consoles such as the Xbox or PC's or just for transferring

4. Provide a brief description of 3 network topologies.

• BUS - All computer are connected via a straight line
• RING - All computers are ring going from pc to pc
•STAR - All computer connect to a central location
5. What is the most common network topology and why is it so common?
STAR- Because most networks such as the school all the computers connect to a server
room or telecommunications room aka Star topology.

6. Provide a brief description of a LAN.

LAN or Local Area Network. It would be the class room at the school but the school is a
larger LAN.

7. Provide a brief description of a WAN.

WAN or Wide Area Network- it covers a larger area such as Jackson and even extending
out beyond that like the ATT network.

8. Describe what a MAC address is and how it is useful in networking.

The MAC address is the physical address that the NIC gives the Computer. It is useful
because you can use security policies that will deny access to certain MAC addressees on
your network.

9. What is the “backbone” of a network?

The backbone of the network is the OC lines that run all over this country. ATT uses
fiber lines for most of their network. It typically ends at the box at the end of the road and
CAT5 cables are run from there to your house. The example that I had used before is it is
like a large tunnel where information pass and then pushed through a smaller tunnel that
leads to your house. aka the band with shrinks

10. Describe some intangible “soft skills” needed to be a successful network professional.
They are personal skills that allow you to work well with others and communication.

11. Describe “simplex”, “half-duplex” and “duplex” transmission capabilities.

Simplex is a one way transmission.
Half duplex, two computers can communicate like a crossover cable but only one
computer can transmit at a time.
duplex I think you meant Full Duplex, simultaneous transmission kinda like a phone call.

12. What is the difference between “throughput” and “bandwidth”?

Throughput is the measure of the amount of data transmitted during a give time period
Bandwidth is the size of the transmission conduit.

13. What are some advantages to using fiber optic cables?

Fiber optic cables are extremely faster than copper wires by any means. it travels at the
speed of light. Data transfer is faster and the data transmission

14. What function does a hub perform?

it is basically a repeater that has more than one output and can connect to other hubs and
15. What function does a bridge perform?
It connects to network segments and extends the network without collisions with the
other lines

16. What function does a switch perform?

it acts like a bridge and can divide the network into smaller segments. and each connected
device has a dedicated channel.

17. What function does a router perform?

it reads all packets on the network and sends them where they need to go. it uses logical
addressing and interprets all the nodes on the network. it is the heart of a network.

18. What is the purpose of a “NIC”?

Really, A NIC or Network Interface Card is what allows you to connect to the
internet via a LAN connection using an Ethernet Connection or by means of a
wireless connection.

19. What are “TDR’s” and “OTDR’s” used for?

TDR -It is a type of tester that tells the user the total length of the cable and will tell you
where the break is in the cable.
OTDR- It is an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer that looks for continuity and if there
is a break and also tells the user how far down the cable is the break.

20. What is the purpose of using a “tone locator” or “tone generator”?

Toners are basically two devices the tone generator and a tone probe these two
devices work together to create an electrical signal that is sent down a line and the
probe emits a sound when placed near the generator. It traces LAN cable Signals.

21. Convert the following IP address from numeric to binary –

11000000. 10101000. 1100100.00001010

22. Convert the following IP address from binary to numeric:

23. What Class IP address is the following:

24. What would the subnet mask for a Class C address be if it were a Classfull address?

25. What is the difference between a connection-oriented protocol and a connectionless

TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, it makes a connection and checks whether the data
is received, and resends if it is not. UDP is a connectionless protocol, it does not
guarantee delivery by first connecting and checking whether data is received.
26. Which of these subnet masks represent Class A, B and C addresses? – Class C - Class A - Class B

27. Describe what DHCP does for a network administrator

It saves the network administrator a lot of time trying to configure the network.
DCHP when enabled it will automatically communicate with the network and
determine the subnet and the IP addressing. allowing for internet connectivity and
possibly communication with other PC's on the network.
28. What is “ARP” and what function does it perform?
It is what TCP/IP networks use to figure out which computer the information is being
sent to based on IP addressing.

29. What is “SONET” and what is it primarily used for?

SONET or Synchronous Optical NETworks, It is primarily used on single point to point
circuits, also has the ability for high speed configurations it is part of the digital
transmission standards.

30. Describe a “VPN” and how it is a useful function in networking.

VPN are basically creating secure tunnels from your location to a home pc or office
pc allowing a secure connection over the internet to access your resources. Basically
the data is encrypted over the network and decrypted at its destination.

31. Describe 3 basic steps to beginning the troubleshooting process.

Identify symptoms and potential causes, Identify the affected area, select the most
probable cause.

32. List and describe 2 routing protocols commonly used today.

RIP or Routing Information Protocol, it will automatically compute primary and
secondary routes if one were to fail.
OSPF or Open Shortest Path First,

33. What are some common security risks for networks?

Human error, Passwords on routers not assigned. basically ignorance.

34. Describe some methods for minimizing the risks identified in question 31.
Human Error can't always be helped but with proper policies and passwords that do
change but are made easy for them to remember will help alleviate those errors and as far
as the router well if the network admin didn't set up a password for the routers on the
network well he is plainly a dumbass and needs to find a new line of work.

35. Describe 2 primary improvements made from IPv4 to IPv6.

I would have to say one is the Large address size 128 bit. this allows for a lot more
addresses, and better Security. The second maybe it is the elimination of NAT. which
already has a issues.

36. Describe the difference between a broadcast (IPv4) and a multicast (IPv6).
IPv4-Broadcast send data to all nodes and all nodes can read, IPv6 Sends to all nodes
but only specified nodes can read. Thus better security

37. How many more IP addresses does IPv6 provide than IPv4 (estimate)
340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 unique IP addresses