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This project aims to identify alternate channels of distribution for the ‘Reliance mutual funds’, to increase the sale of the various funds being offered by it. A modest attempt has been made to study and understand the behavior and perception of the target audience, about mutual funds and distribution channels for the same.
Introduction of the Mutual Fund Industry:
The mutual fund industry is a lot like the film star of the finance business. Though it is perhaps the smallest segment of the industry, it is also the most glamorous – in that it is a young industry where there are changes in the rules of the game everyday, and there are constant shifts and upheavals. The mutual fund is structured around a fairly simple concept, the mitigation of risk through the spreading of investments across multiple entities, which is achieved by the pooling of a number of small investments into a large bucket. Yet it has been the subject of perhaps the most elaborate and prolonged regulatory effort in the history of the country. The Indian mutual fund industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in the Indian capital and financial markets. The mutual fund industry in India has seen dramatic improvements in quantity as well as quality of product and service offerings in recent years. Mutual funds assets under management grew by 96% between the end of 2001 and June 2007 and as a result it rose from 8% of GDP to 15%. The industry has grown in size and manages total assets of more than $30351 million. Of the various sectors, the private sector accounts for nearly 91% of the resources mobilised showing their overwhelming dominance in the market. Individuals constitute 98.04% of the total number of investors and contribute US $12062 million, which is 55.16% of the net assets under management.
Steady growth of mutual fund business in India in the four decades from 1964, when UTI was set up is given in the table below:
Period (Year) 1964-69 1969-74 1974-79 1979-84 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 Aggregate Investment In Crores of Rupees 65 172 402 1261 4563.68 6738.81 13455.65 19110.92 23060.45 37480.20 Period (Year) 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 Aggregate Investment In Crores of Rupees 46988.02 61301.21 75050.21 81026.52 80539.00 68984.00 63472.00 107966.10 90587.00 94571.00
Mutual Fund Industry in its true spirit rooted in a free market and oriented towards competitive functioning with the dedicated goal of service to the investors can be said to have settled in India only in 1993. However the industry took its roots much earlier with the setting up of the Unit Trust in India (UTI) in 1964 by the Government of India. During the last 36 years, UTI has grown to be a dominant player in the industry with assets of over Rs.72,333.43 Crores as on March 31, 2000. The UTI is governed by a special legislation, the Unit Trust of India Act, 1963. In 1987 public sector banks and insurance companies were permitted to set up mutual funds and accordingly since 1987, 6 public sector banks have set up mutual funds. Also the two Insurance companies LIC and GIC established mutual funds. Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) formulated the Mutual Fund (Regulation) 1993, which for the first time established a comprehensive regulatory framework for the mutual fund industry. Since then several mutual funds have been set up by the private and joint sectors.
WHAT ARE MUTUAL FUNDS?
A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal. The money thus collected is then invested in capital market instruments such as shares, debentures and other securities. The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciations realized are shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them. Thus, a Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified, professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost.
“Mutual funds are collective savings and investment vehicles where savings of small (or sometimes big) investors are pooled together to invest for their mutual benefit and returns distributed proportionately”. Pooling of money ensures that small investors get the benefit of advice and expertise that is normally available only to very large investors.
crores at the end of 1994 and the number of schemes were 167. and such ratings can be used to establish a match with investor goals and suitability”. "Mutual Funds schemes are managed by respective Asset Management Companies sponsored by financial institutions.crores at the end of 1988.700/. The total assets under management had grown to Rs. Aggressive growth funds are also called capital appreciation funds”. Funds are rated widely as to risk and return. The third phase began with the entry of private and foreign sectors in the Mutual fund industry in 1993. In return. Aggressive growth funds seek long-term capital growth by investing primarily in stocks of fast-growing smaller companies or market segments. -4- . The second phase is between 1987 and 1993 during which period 8 funds were established (6 by banks and one each by LIC and GIC). when the only player was the Unit Trust of India. banks. Growth of Mutual Fund Business in India The Indian Mutual fund business has passed through three phases. 61. The suitability of a particular mutual fund for an individual investor depends on the type and nature of the fund's investments and amount of diversification. private companies or international firms.“A mutual fund is an investment that pools your money with the money of an unlimited number of other investors. The fund's assets are invested according to an investment objective into the fund's portfolio of investments. Franklin Templeton etc are international AMC's. Kothari Pioneer Mutual fund was the first fund to be established by the private sector in association with a foreign fund. “Mutual Funds are investment companies that make investments on behalf of individuals and institutions that share common financial goals. which had a total asset of Rs. The share of the private players has risen rapidly since then. The biggest Indian AMC is UTI while Alliance. you and the other investors each own shares of the fund.028/. The first phase was between 1964 and 1987. 6.
68 23.00 Scope for Development of Mutual Fund Business in India A Mutual Fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in a diversified.444.167. At best a part can be saved in bank deposits.Within a short period of seven years after 1993 the growth statistics of the business of Mutual Funds in India is given in the table below: Amount (Rs Crores) UTI Public Sector Private Sector Total 72.946.333.78 25.10 Percentage (%) 67.89 1.2 to Rs.43 10. A typical Indian middle class family can have liquid savings ranging from Rs. it is no longer attractive.07.32 100.10 Lacs today. Investments in Banks are liquid and safe. professionally managed basket of securities at a relatively low cost. but what are the other sources of investment for the common man? Mutual Fund is the ready answer.00 9. -5- . India has a burgeoning population of middle class now estimated around 300 million. but with the falling rate of interest offered by Banks on Deposits.
Mutual funds. The sheer magnitude of the population of educated white collar employees provides unlimited scope for development of Mutual Fund Business in India. at the initiative of the Government of India and Reserve Bank the. so that it can create a significant base corpus. But to be fair.Viewed in this sense globally India is one of the best markets for Mutual Fund Business. became loss leaders for retail investors. From those days to today the retail investor. It was set up by the Reserve Bank of India and functioned under the Regulatory -6- . for whom the mutual fund is actually intended. public sector banks and financial institutions were allowed to float mutual funds and their success emboldened the government to allow the private sector to foray into this area.A little history: The mutual fund industry started in India in a small way with the UTI Act creating what was effectively a small savings division within the RBI. The history of mutual funds in India can be broadly divided into four distinct phases. This is the reason that foreign companies compete with one another in setting up insurance and mutual fund business units in India. when a number of mistakes were made and hence the mutual fund schemes. which invested in lesser-known stocks and at very high levels. so also for Insurance business. has not yet returned to the industry in a big way. which can make the retail investor feel more secure. Over a period of 25 years this grew fairly successfully and gave investors a good return. First Phase – 1964-87: Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament. the industry too has focused on brining in the large investor. and therefore in 1989. The initial years of the industry also saw the emerging years of the Indian equity market.The mutual fund industry in India started in 1963 with the formation of Unit Trust of India. as the next logical step.
1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being. Bank of India (Jun 90). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non.47. -7- . Also. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme 1964. Third Phase – 1993-2003 (Entry of Private Sector Funds) With the entry of private sector funds in 1993. under which all mutual funds. Bank of Baroda Mutual Fund (Oct 92). The industry now functions under the SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations 1996. 004 crores. Punjab National Bank Mutual Fund (Aug 89). At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs. public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). LIC established its mutual fund in June 1989 while GIC had set up its mutual fund in December 1990.6. except UTI were to be registered and governed. the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs. At the end of 1993. Indian Bank Mutual Fund (Nov 89). The 1993 SEBI (Mutual Fund) Regulations were substituted by a more comprehensive and revised Mutual Fund Regulations in 1996.UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987 followed by Canbank Mutual Fund (Dec 87). giving the Indian investors a wider choice of fund families. a new era started in the Indian mutual fund industry. Second Phase – 1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds): 1987 marked the entry of non.and administrative control of the Reserve Bank of India.700 crores of assets under management.UTI. In 1978 UTI was delinked from the RBI and the Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) took over the regulatory and administrative control in place of RBI.
The Specified Undertaking of Unit Trust of India. BOB and LIC. assured return and certain other schemes. The Unit Trust of India with Rs.44. with many foreign mutual funds setting up funds in India and also the industry has witnessed several mergers and acquisitions. -8- . there were 29 funds. 541 crores of assets under management was way ahead of other mutual funds. representing broadly. One is the Specified Undertaking of the Unit Trust of India with assets under management of Rs.835 crores as at the end of January 2003.29. which manage assets of Rs. The second is the UTI Mutual Fund Ltd. the assets of US 64 scheme. and with recent mergers taking place among different private sector funds. With the bifurcation of the erstwhile UTI which had in March 2000 more than Rs.153108 crores under 421 schemes. As at the end of January 2003. As at the end of September. 21. functioning under an administrator and under the rules framed by Government of India and does not come under the purview of the Mutual Fund Regulations.000 crores of assets under management and with the setting up of a UTI Mutual Fund. sponsored by SBI.76. Fourth Phase – since February 2003 In February 2003. following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963 UTI was bifurcated into two separate entities. the mutual fund industry has entered its current phase of consolidation and growth. 1. there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. conforming to the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations.805 crores. 2004. PNB. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the Mutual Fund Regulations.The number of mutual fund houses went on increasing.
The aggressive competition in the business took its toll and two more mutual funds bit the dust. But at the same time. barring a few.The graph indicates the growth of assets over the years. which is one of the problems plaguing the business. The other aspect of this issue is that institutional investors do not usually favor equity. particularly among the private sector players. It is -9- . the industry did see spectacular growth in assets. Alliance decided to remain in the ring after a highly public bidding war did not yield an acceptable price. on the back of the continuing debt bull run. were quite disappointing for investors. while Zurich has been sold to HDFC Mutual. Large money brought with it the problems of low retention and consequently low profitability. Equity did not find favor with investors since the market was lack-luster and performances of funds. The growth of the industry continued to be corporate focused barring a few initiatives by mutual funds to expand the retail base. 2003-2004: A retrospect: This year was extremely eventful for mutual funds.
10 - . The tables given below are a snapshot of the AUM story. most mutual funds have been unable to tap this market. ORGANISATION OF A MUTUAL FUND There are many entities involved and the diagram below illustrates the organi zational set up of a mutual fund: Organization of a Mutual Fund .largely a retail segment product and without retail depth. for the industry as a whole and for debt and equity separately.
it takes custody of securities and other assets of mutual funds.it could be registered company schedule banks or financial institution . its units and segregating assets and settlement . calculates the NAV and provides information on listed schemes. Whether the funds assets are protected and also ensure that unit holders get their due returns. They check if the AMC’s investments are within well-defined limits.a sponsor has to satisfy certain conditions such as capital record (at least five year operation in financial market) default free dealings and general reputation of fairness.Sponsors Sponsors initiates the idea to set up mutual fund . Custodian Often an independent organization. Fund Manager/Asset Management Company They are the ones who manages money of investors .an AMC takes decisions compensates investors through dividends maintains proper accounting and information for pricing of units. The sponsors appoint the trustee AMC and custodian. Trust Board of Trustee Trustees hold a fiduciary responsibility towards unit holders by protecting their interest Trustees float and market schemes and secure necessary approvals.11 - .
The funds net assets are therefore defined as the assets.between schemes. A Mutual Fund is a common investment vehicle to where the assets of the fund belong directly to the investors. This is generally called the Net Assets Value (NAV) of one unit or one share. Investor’s subscriptions are accounted for by the fund not as liabilities or deposits but as Unit Capital. it is necessary to establish the value of his part i. The value of investor’s part ownership is thus determined by the NAV of the numbers of units held. These units held by an investor evidence the ownership of the fund’s assets. Valuation of Mutual Funds Since owner is a part owner of a Mutual Fund. The investments made on behalf of the investors are refecleted on the assets side which are the main constituent of the balance sheet and the liabilities of strictly in short term nature may also be part of the balance sheet. Custodian can service more than one find.2 percent of the net value of holding.e. .15-1. Their charges range between . each share or unit that an investor holds need to be assigned a value.minus liabilities.12 - . the value of the total assets of the fund when divided by the total number of units issued by mutual funds gives us the value of one unit.
NAV of all the schemes must be calculated and published at least weekly for closed –end schemes and daily for open-ended schemes.13 - . dividend announced by the company yet to be received) . Of units outstanding as at the NAV date For the purpose of the NAV calculations. Valuation of all investments securities held 3.e. 2. NAV = Net Assets of the scheme /Number of units outstanding. Other assets and liabilities. it is common practice for mutual fund to complete the share of each investor on the basis of the value of Net Assets per Share/Unit. A fund’s NAV is a affected by four sets of factors: 1. Units sold or redeemed “Other Assets” include any income due to the fund but not received as on the valuation date (for example. NAV’ s for a day must also be posted on AMFT’s website by 8:00pm on that day.As there are many investors in a fund. i. Market Value of investment + receivables + other accrued income + other asset – accrued expenses – other payables – other liabilities/ No. and 4. commonly known as the Net Asset Value (NAV). Purchase and sale of investment securities. the day on which NAV is calculated by a fund is known as the Valuation Date.
14 - . for example Custodian fees or even the management fees payable to the AMC. “Other Liabilities” includes expenses payable by the fund. .
15 - . TYPES OF MUTUAL FUND SCHEMES Article II.Article I. BY STRUCTURE OPEN-ENDED SCHEME CLOSE-ENDED SCHEME INTERVAL SCHEME BY INVESTMENT OBJECTIVE GROWTH SCHEME INCOME SCHEME BALANCED SCHEME MONEY MARKET SCHEME OTHER SCHEMES TAX SAVING SCHEME SECTOR SPECIFIC SCHEME INDEX SCHEME Risk Vs Reward .
interest rate changes. It is this variability.Having understood the basics of mutual funds the next step is to build a successful investment portfolio. But it is this very volatility that is the exact reason that you can expect to earn a higher long-term return from these investments than from a savings account. uncertainty and potential for loss. Even so. The first thing that has to be kept in mind is that when you invest in mutual funds. that causes investors to worry. the greater the potential reward. one should understand some other elements of mutual fund investing and how they can affect the potential value of your investments over the years. inflation or general economic conditions. We all fear the possibility that a stock we invest in will fall substantially. This volatility can be caused by a number of factors -. the opportunity for investment growth that is possible through investments in mutual funds far exceeds that concern for most investors. Before you can begin to build a portfolio. refers to the volatility -. Or stated in another way. The loss of value in your investment is what is considered risk in investing. That is the potential of loss is always there.16 - . Different types of mutual funds have different levels of volatility or potential price change. At the cornerstone of investing is the basic principal that the greater the risk you take. you get what you pay for and you get paid a higher return only when you're willing to accept more volatility.the up and down activity in the markets and individual issues that occurs constantly over time. there is no guarantee that you will end up with more money when you withdraw your investment than what you started out with. Risk then. and those with the greater chance of losing value are also the . Here’s why.
There are very few perfectly safe havens and those simply don't pay enough to beat inflation over the long run. You might find it helpful to remember that all financial investments will fluctuate. Types of risks . but it is precisely the reason you can expect to earn higher returns.funds that can produce the greater returns for you over time. So risk has two sides: it causes the value of your investments to fluctuate.17 - .
This change in price is due to "market risk". Exchange risk A number of companies generate revenues in foreign currencies and may have investments or expenses also denominated in . Market Risk At times the prices or yields of all the securities in a particular market rise or fall due to broad outside influences. highly profitable company and a fledgling corporation may be affected. not more. the stock prices of both an outstanding. Also known as systematic risk. Consider these common types of risk and evaluate them against potential rewards when you select an investment. how stable is the company or entity to which you lend your money when you invest? How certain are you that it will be able to pay the interest you are promised." Whenever inflation rises forward faster than the earnings on your investment.All investments involve some form of risk. Inflation risk also occurs when prices rise faster than your returns. Investors are reminded that "predicting" which way rates will go is rarely successful.18 - . Credit Risk In short. you run the risk that you'll actually be able to buy less. or repay your principal when the investment matures? Interest Rate Risk Changing interest rates affect both equities and bonds in many ways. Inflation Risk Sometimes referred to as "loss of purchasing power. When this happens. A diversified portfolio can help in offseting these changes.
It is. therefore.foreign currencies. An industries' key asset is often the personnel who run the business i. Changes in the Government Policy Changes in Government policy especially in regard to the tax benefits may impact the business prospects of the companies leading to an impact on the investments made by the fund Effect of loss of key professionals and inability to adapt business to the rapid technological change. PROS & CONS OF INVESTING IN MUTUAL FUNDS: .19 - . Failure or inability to attract/retain such qualified key personnel may impact the prospects of the companies in the particular sector in which the fund invests.e. have a positive or negative impact on companies which in turn would have an effect on the investment of the fund. Investment Risks The sectoral fund schemes. intellectual properties of the key employees of the respective companies. therefore. Accordingly. necessary to attract key personnel and also to retain them to meet the changing environment and challenges the sector offers. investments will be predominantly in equities of select companies in the particular sectors. Given the ever-changing complexion of few industries and the high obsolescence levels. the NAV of the schemes are linked to the equity performance of such companies and may be more volatile than a more diversified portfolio of equities. Changes in exchange rates may. availability of qualified. trained and motivated personnel is very critical for the success of industries in few sectors.
Return Potential: Over a medium to long-term. Diversification: Mutual Funds invest in a number of companies across a broad cross-section of industries and sectors. Convenient Administration: Investing in a Mutual Fund reduces paperwork and helps you avoid many problems such as bad deliveries.20 - .The Advantages of Investing in a Mutual Fund: Professional Management: The investor avails of the services of experienced and skilled professionals who are backed by a dedicated investment research team which analyses the performance and prospects of companies and selects suitable investments to achieve the objectives of the scheme. Low Costs: . Mutual Funds have the potential to provide a higher return as they invest in a diversified basket of selected securities. delayed payments and unnecessary follow up with brokers and companies. Mutual Funds save your time and make investing easy and convenient. You achieve this diversification through a Mutual Fund with far less money than you can do on your own. This diversification reduces the risk because seldom do all stocks decline at the same time and in the same proportion.
regular withdrawal plans and dividend reinvestment plans. Drawbacks of mutual funds . custodial and other fees translate into lower costs for investors. The operations of Mutual Funds are regularly monitored by SEBI. Flexibility: Through features such as regular investment plans.21 - .Mutual Funds are a relatively less expensive way to invest compared to directly investing in the capital markets because the benefits of scale in brokerage. Liquidity: In open-ended schemes. you can sell your units on a stock exchange at the prevailing market price or avail of the facility of direct repurchase at NAV related prices which some close-ended and interval schemes offer you periodically. Transparency: You get regular information on the value of your investment in addition to disclosure on the specific investments made by your scheme. the proportion invested in each class of assets and the fund manager's investment strategy and outlook. With close-ended schemes. Well Regulated: All Mutual Funds are registered with SEBI and they function within the provisions of strict regulations designed to protect the interests of investors. you can get your money back promptly at net asset value related prices from the Mutual Fund itself. you can systematically invest or withdraw funds according to your needs and convenience.
Mutual funds are like many other investments without a guaranteed return: there is always the possibility that the value of your mutual fund will depreciate. Unlike fixed-income products, such as bonds and Treasury bills, mutual funds experience price fluctuations along with the stocks that make up the fund. When deciding on a particular fund to buy, you need to research the risks involved just because a professional manager is looking after the fund, that doesn't mean the performance will be stellar. Another important thing to know is that mutual funds are not guaranteed by the U.S. government, so in the case of dissolution, you won't get anything back. This is especially important for investors in money market funds. Unlike a bank deposit, a mutual fund will be insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).
Although diversification is one of the keys to successful investing, many mutual fund investors tend to overdiversify. The idea of diversification is to reduce the risks associated with holding a single security; overdiversification (also known as diworsification) occurs when investors acquire many funds that are highly related and, as a result, don't get the risk reducing benefits of diversification. At the other extreme, just because you own mutual funds doesn't mean you are automatically diversified. For example, a fund that invests only in a particular industry or region is still relatively risky.
Cash, Cash and More Cash:
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As you know already, mutual funds pool money from thousands of investors, so everyday investors are putting money into the fund as well as withdrawing investments. To maintain liquidity and the capacity to accommodate withdrawals, funds typically have to keep a large portion of their portfolios as cash. Having ample cash is great for liquidity, but money sitting around as cash is not working for you and thus is not very advantageous.
Mutual funds provide investors with professional management, but it comes at a cost. Funds will typically have a range of different fees that reduce the overall payout. In mutual funds, the fees are classified into two categories: shareholder fees and annual operating fees. The shareholder fees, in the forms of loads and redemption fees are paid directly by shareholders purchasing or selling the funds. The annual fund operating fees are charged as an annual percentage usually ranging from 1-3%. These fees are assessed to mutual fund investors regardless of the performance of the fund. As you can imagine, in years when the fund doesn't make money, these fees only magnify losses.
The misleading advertisements of different funds can guide investors down the wrong path. Some funds may be incorrectly labeled as growth funds, while others are classified as small cap or income funds. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires that funds have at least 80% of assets in the particular type of investment implied in their names. How the remaining assets are invested is up to the fund manager.
However, the different categories that qualify for the required 80% of the assets may be vague and wide-ranging. A fund can therefore manipulate
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prospective investors by using names that are attractive and misleading. Instead of labeling itself a small cap, a fund may be sold as a "growth fund". Or, the "Congo High-Tech Fund" could be sold with the title "International High-Tech Fund".
Another disadvantage of mutual funds is the difficulty they pose for investors interested in researching and evaluating the different funds. Unlike stocks, mutual funds do not offer investors the opportunity to compare the P/E ratio, sales growth, earnings per share, etc. A mutual fund's net asset value gives investors the total value of the fund's portfolio less liabilities, but how do you know if one fund is better than another? Furthermore, advertisements, rankings and ratings issued by fund companies only describe past performance. Always note that mutual fund descriptions/advertisements always include the tagline "past results are not indicative of future returns". Be sure not to pick funds only because they have performed well in the past - yesterday's big winners may be today's big losers.
When making decisions about your money, fund managers don't consider your personal tax situation. For example, when a fund manager sells a security, a capital-gains tax is triggered, which affects how profitable the individual is from the sale. It might have been more advantageous for the individual to defer the capital gains liability.
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Structure of Investment Companies (Mutual Funds) A Typical MF in India has the following constituents: .25 - .
Fund Sponsor: .26 - .
The sponsor must contribute at least 40% of the net worth of the AMC and possess a sound financial track record over five years prior to registration. Asset Management Company: . Mutual Fund: A MF in India is constituted in the form of a trust under the Indian Trusts Act. The fund invites investors to contribute their money in the common pool. by subscribing to 'units' issued by various schemes established by the trust. Trustees: The MF or trust can either be managed by the Board of Trustees. The assets of the trust are held by the trustee for the benefit of unit holders.27 - . In addition. the sponsor also appoints a custodian to hold the fund assets. it is the trustee(s) who have the legal capacity. who are the. The trustees. Under the Indian Trusts Act. the sponsor forms a trust and appoints a Board of Trustees. The trustees being the primary. beneficiaries of the trust. accordance with Trust Deed and SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. which is a body of individuals. a trustee has to be a person of high repute and integrity. which is a corporate body. however. and 'also generally appoints an AMC as fund manager. or by a Trust Company. 1882. guardians of the unit holders’ funds and assets. the trust or the fund has no independent legal capacity. establishes a MF. The sponsor of a fund is similar to the promoter of a company. acting alone or in combination with another body corporate. The portfolio is managed by the AMC as per the defined objectives. In accordance with SEBI Regulations. Most of the funds in India are managed by Board of Trustees.A 'sponsor' is any person who. do not directly manage the portfolio securities.
Apart from these. acts like the investment manager of the trust. Besides brokers. independent individuals are also appointed as 'agents' for the purpose of selling fund schemes to investors. trustees. The AMC functions under the supervision of its own Board of Directors. The regulations require arm's length relationship between the fund sponsors. AMC in the name of the trust. and also serve as investment advisers. custodians and AMC.The AMC. which is appointed by the sponsor or the trustees and approved by SEBI. The custodian is appointed for safe keeping of securities and participating in the clearing system through approved depository.28 - . and also under the direction of the trustees and SEBI. banks. transfer agents and distributors. the MF has some other fund constituents. such as custodians and depositories. The bankers handle the financial dealings of the fund. AMCs appoint distributors of brokers who sell units on behalf of the Fund. floats and manages the different investment 'schemes' as per the SEBI Regulations and as per the Investment Management Agreement signed with the Trustees. Types of Investment Companies . Transfer agents a responsible for issue and redemption of units of MF.
transactions. any increase in assets goes to equity shareholders. . there is greater proportional increase in the value of the equity shares of the investment company and being fixed claims. Asset leverage is said to occur when the price of equity owned by the company (company's assets) increase or decreases. but handled by specified dealer in over-the-counter. Closed-end Investment Companies These companies operate in much the same fashion as any industrial company.29 - . If the management desires. unless the company can borrow money to invest. which are not traded on stock exchanges. 1963. The money obtained from the sale of share is invested directly in the shares of other companies. Usually.Investment companies fall into two general categories: Open-end.income securities. Such a company will have both asset leverage as well as earnings leverage. It came into existence on 1 February 1964 under the Unit Trust of India Act. It issues a fixed number of shares. investing in both equity and fixed.end Investment Companies: These companies raise capital through issue of shares. which may be listed on a stock exchange and bought and sold like any company's shares. If the value of the total assets increases. bonds or preferred stock issues. The sale is conducted through branches of banks and through members of recognized stock exchanges. Open . it might revise additional equity issues. The actual sales of units were commenced by the UTI from 1 July 1964. as some companies do. Majority of such companies have bonds and preferred stocks outstanding as apart of their capital structure. against assets. and Closed-end companies. The use of fixed income securities results in financial leverage for equity shareholders. no level age occurs in the openend fund. The UTI is declared to be a balanced fund. An example of open-end investment company in India is the Unit Trust of India.
as the value of investment of an investment company increases the value of its equity shares increases faster. A closed-end company that raises a substantial portion of its capital by way of debt will be susceptible to wider fluctuations in value. . the leverage effect is diminished. These leverage effects to also tend to accentuate the cyclical movement of stock prices. they provide an opportunity for greater diversification of investment than open-end companies. Any increase in earnings over the interest payments and dividends goes to the equity shareholders. Due to greater diversification and a higher scope for gearing of capital. as the asset value increases without a corresponding increase in debt capital. it may have adverse effects when earnings fall and assets decline in value. hence increasing returns to their members. The interest of debt and the dividends on preference shares represent a fixed charge on the company's earnings . the rate of increase of the return to the equity shareholder increases faster than the rate of increase of the return on the total assets. Risk of loss is minimized due to above reasons. Some of these may be listed as follows: Their investment policies are highly flexible and hence. than a company with a relatively small amount of debt. shareholders face no problems in disposing of their holdings. These mutual funds are: Equity funds: Those funds which invest only in equity shares and undertake the associated risk. they offer better returns to investors. However. the owner will benefit owing to the earning leverage.Thus. As long as company earns more than is needed to pay the interest and dividends. but. As earnings increase. They have an additional advantage of ploughing back of profit and. there are many other types of mutual funds which may be classified on the basis of their objectives and portfolios. Closed-end investment companies offer various Advantages to an investor. Given that most such companies are listed on the stock exchange. In addition to the above.30 - .
). Special funds: Those funds which invest only in specialized channels like (a) gold and silver. etc. and finally Offshore funds: These specialize in investing in foreign companies. Growth funds: Those funds which invest in growth oriented securities so as to assure appreciation in their value in the long run. Liquid funds: Those funds which specialize in investing in shortreturn.31 - . growth. Hedge funds: Funds that buy shares whose prices are likely to go up and sell short. Income funds: Those funds which invest in securities which will earn high income. Index-Linked funds: Those funds which invest only in those shares which are included in the market indices and in the same proportion. They move with the market index. 1996 outlined the broad framework of authorization process and . India Fund. shares whose prices are expected to go down. and regularity of income. Leveraged funds: Leveraged funds are those which increase the size of the value of the portfolio and benefit the shareholders by gains exceeding the cost of the borrowed funds. Real Estate fund: Such funds are meant for the real estate ventures. SEBI requires all Mutual Funds to be registered with it. term money market instruments with emphasis on liquidity with a low rate of REGULATION OF MUTUAL FUNDS The primary authority for regulating Mutual Funds in India is SEBI. (b) a specific country (Japan Fund. (c) a specific category of companies (Technology Fund). The SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. Balanced funds: Those which divide their investments between equity shares and bonds in order to meet the objectives of safety.
The authorisation shall be granted subject to conditions as may be considered necessary by SEBI and payment of auth9risation fee as may be specified.selection criteria. each of the sponsoring entities. trustees. asset management company (AMC) and custodian. Joint sponsorship with any of the entities in (a) above will also be eligible. must have a sound track record as evidenced by . The eligibility of the sponsor will be examined with respect to the following: Sponsor could be a registered company. Accordingly. For this purpose the sponsor or the AMC would be required to apply to SEBI in an application form for authorization along with an application fee to be specified later. More than one registered company can also act as sponsor for a mutual fund. The second stage will involve formal authorization of the mutual funds for business. The first step will involve approval and eligibility of each of the constituents of the mutual fund viz. It shall be SEBI's endeavor to advise an applicant within 10 to 15 working days of receipt of his letter / application form regarding status of his application. For this purpose the interested parties would be required to submit necessary information only in on prescribed formats). Sponsor and where there is more than one sponsor. sponsors.32 - . the authorization for the mutual fund will be granted in two steps. scheduled bank or all India or State level financial institution. and Sponsoring registered companies could be private or public limited companies either listed or unlisted.
General reputation in the market. SEBI has recently taken following steps for the regulation of mutual funds: Formation: Certain structural changes have also been made in the mutual fund industry. fund managers and custodians. the process of forming and floating mutual funds has been made a tripartite exercise by authorities. Organization and management. and Fairness in business transactions. A positive net worth and consistent record of profitability and a good financial standing during the last five years. and is in contrast with the situation prevailing earlier in which all three functions were often performed by one body which was usually the sponsor of the fund or a subsidiary of the sponsor . . Audited balance sheet and profit and loss . The trustees.33 - . Sponsor or more than one sponsor put together should have at least a 40 per cent stake in the paid-up equity of the AMC. the asset management companies (AMCs) and the mutual fund shareholders form the three legs. Thus. SEBI regulations clearly state that all funds and schemes operational under them would be bound by their regulations. Guidelines for mutual funds as per SEBI The AMC will be authorized by SEBI on the basis of the criteria indicated in the guidelines. This is to ensure an arm's length relationship between trustees. as part of which.account for last five years. . mutual funds are required to set up asset management companies with fifty percent independent directors. consisting of a minimum fifty percent of independent trustees and to appoint independent custodians. Good credit record with banks and financial institutions. separate board of trustee companies.
SEBI cleared six private sect9r mutual funds viz. 20th Century Finance Corporation. .SEBI guidelines provide for the trustees to maintain an arm's length relationship with the AMCs and do all those things that would secure the right of investors. an element of counter-balancing of risks exists as both can keep tabs on each other. Industrial Credit& Investment Corporation of India. This will curb excessive growth of the mutual funds and protect investor's interest by registering only the sound promoters with a proven track record and financial strength. Ceat Financial Services and Apple Industries. SEBI prescribed registration of mutual funds taking into account track record of a sponsor. Credit Capital Finance Corporation.34 - . A standard format for mutual fund prospectuses is being formulated. Registration: In January 1993. With funds being managed by AMCs and custody of assets remaining with trustees. In February 1993. Documents: The offer documents of schemes launched by mutual funds and the scheme particulars are required to be vetted by SEBI. Tata Sons. Code of advertisement: Mutual funds have been required to adhere to a code of advertisement. integrity in business transactions and financial soundness while granting permission.
or otherwise. Hence. should also be prepared to bear the risks of loss. under pressure from the mutual funds. thus. and Rs. As per basic tenets of investment. SEBI revised the guidelines allowing assurances on return subject to certain conditions. However. With this. only those mutual funds which have been in the market for at least live years are allowed to assure a maximum return of 12 per cent only.20 crore corpus :or closed-ended scheme. for one year. In fact. it can be justifiably argued that investments in the capital market carried a certain amount of risk. been to institutionalise the market by introducing proportionate allotment and increasing the minimum . Institutionalization: The efforts of SEBI have. in the last few years. and any investor investing in the markets with an aim of making profit from capital appreciation. Now the mutual funds were prevented from giving any assurance on the land of returns they would be providing. reducing mutual funds into quasi-portfolio management outfits. the Association' of Mutual Funds in India (AMFI) has repeatedly appealed to the regulatory authorities for scrapping the minimum corpus requirements. Minimum corpus: The current SEBI guidelines on mutual funds prescribe a minimum s art-up corpus of Rs. allowed public sector mutual funds an advantage against the newly set up private mutual funds.35 - . The idea behind forwarding such a proposal to SEBI is that in the past. by default.50 crore for a open-ended scheme. failing which application money has to be refunded. SEBI. Assurance on returns: SEBI has introduced a change in the Securities Control and Regulations Act governing the mutual funds. the minimum corpus requirements have forced AMCs to solicit funds from corporate bodies.
deposit amount to Rs.5000 etc. These efforts are to channel the investment of individual investors into the mutual funds.
Investment of funds mobilized: In November 1992, SEBI increased the time limit from six months to nine months within which the mutual funds have to invest resources raised from the latest tax saving schemes. The guideline was issued to protect the mutual funds from the disadvantage of investing funds in the bullish market at very high prices and suffering from poor NA V thereafter.
Investment in money market: SEBI guidelines say that mutual funds can invest a maximum of 25 per cent of resources mobilised into money-market instruments in the first six months after closing the funds and a maximum of 15 per cent of the corpus after six months to meet short term liquidity requirements. Private sector mutual funds, for the first time, were allowed to invest in the call money market after this year's budget. As SEBI regulations limit their exposure to money markets, mutual funds are not major players in the call money market. Thus, mutual funds do not have a significant impact on the call money market. SEBI also conclude that mutual funds were not responsible for the unprecedented shooting up of call money rates. Some funds exceeded their limits in an effort to improve their sagging net asset values (NAVs), Usually, funds can early only about 9-12 per cent. Thus, the prospect of earning more than 40 per cent may have been tempting.
Valuation of investment:
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SEBI should work in tandem with the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) to take up a fresh look at mutual fund regulations enacted in 1993. The valuation of investments, a key aspect of fund accounting, as on balance sheet date, needs review, SEBI regulations 1993, give discretionary powers to the fund managers as far as the valuation of the investment portfolio on the balance sheet date is concerned. There are no accounting standards or guidelines prescribed by the ICAI for the valuation of a mutual fund's investment portfolio. The mutual funds are clearly taking advantage of this situation and valuing the portfolio at cost of acquisition. The subsequent depreciation or appreciation in the investment portfolio are not accounted for. Thus, the mutual funds may be able to show profits in the balance sheet even if there is a severe erosion in the value of the investment portfolio. This erosion in the values of the investment portfolios is clearly seen in the net asset values (NA V) as on the balance sheet date. But the accounts of the mutual funds do not reveal the same. The objective of the accounting in case of a mutual fund should be besides showing details of income, expenses, assets and liabilities, has to reveal the true value of the fund. The value of the fund is already reflected in, its NAV and the balance sheet is expected to be in consonance with this value. This requires that the investment portfolio be calculated at market values, providing for any depreciation or appreciation. . The transparent and well understood declaration or Net Asset Values (NAVs) of mutual fund schemes is an important issue in providing investors with information as to the performance of the fund.
SEBI had warned some mutual funds earlier of unhealthy market practices, and is currently working on a common format for calculating the net asset
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values (NAVs) of mutual funds, which are done in various ways by them at present.
Inspection: SEBI inspect mutual funds every year. A full SEBI inspection of all f the 27 mutual funds was proposed to be done by the March 1996 to streamline their operations and protect the investor's interests. Mutual funds are monitored and inspected by SEBI to ensure compliance with the regulations.
Underwriting: In July 1994, SEBI permitted mutual funds to take up underwriting of primary issues as apart of their investment activity. This step may assist the mutual funds in diversifying the business.
Conduct: In September 1994, it was clarified by SEBI that mutual funds shall not offer buy back schemes or assured returns to corporate investors. The Regulations governing Mutual Funds and Portfolio Managers ensure transparency in their functioning.
Voting rights: In September 1993, mutual funds were allowed to exercise their voting rights. Department of Company Affairs has reportedly granted mutual funds the right to vote as full-fledged shareholders in companies where they have equity investments.
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SEBI amended regulations to: Permit investments by Mutual funds in the mortgage-backed securities. which are rated not below investment grade by a credit rating agency registered with SEBI. These securities. facts and opinion leading to that decision. Specific attention may be given to investments in unlisted' and privately placed securities. Mutual Funds could also invest in mortgage-backed securitised debt. non-performing assets (NP As). .e. Allow Mutual Funds to invest in unlisted companies. This was expected to augment the availability of funds for housing sector and provide greater investment flexibility to the MFS. must have a credit rating of not below investment grade and would represent investments in real estate mortgages (i. loans secured by real estate collateral) and not directly in real estate.39 - . For effective implementation and bringing about transparency in the investment decisions. A MF scheme could invest upto 5% of its net asset value (NAV) in the unlisted equity shares or equity related instruments in case of open-ended scheme and up to 10% of its NAV in case of closed-ended scheme. Within the investment limit of 15% of NAV in debt instruments issued by a single issuer. however. SEBI Regulations also stipulate that the asset management company (AMC) shall exercise due diligence and care in all its investment decisions. AMC boards may develop a mechanism to verify that due diligence is being exercised while making investment decisions. all the AMCs were advised to maintain records in support of each investment decisions which would indicate data.RECENT POLICY AND REGULATORY INITIATIVES The policy and regulatory initiatives since April 2000 include: Investment by Mutual funds. transactions where associates are involved and the instances where there is poor performance of the schemes. unrated debt securities..
The respective MF would be the counter-party for each trade.line order collection system of NSE.40 - .MF Distribution by NSCCL: In a move to encourage the MF industry. NSE and NSCCL have launched the Mutual' Fund Service System (MFSS) to effectively cater to buying/redemption of units of Mutual Funds by individual investors. the facilities for transacting in open-ended schemes of the Mutual Funds are very limited. which presently takes place manually. which are finally settled using the clearing and settlement system of NSCCL. The salient features of the system are as follows: Orders for purchase and sale of units from investors are collected using the on. : While a good number of closed-ended schemes are traded on the exchanges. The orders collected on 'T' day would be received by NSCCL by the end of the day or latest on T +1 morning and conveyed to the MFS to facilitate computation of the NA V and the corresponding sale/repurchase prices of the units. The orders would be cleared and settled on an order to order basis. The main objective of MFSS is to provide a one-stop shop to investors for transacting in financial products. Today the entire process of buying and redeeming open-ended MF scheme units takes place directly between the individual investor and the AMC. NSE with its trading terminals across the country offers a mechanism for collection of orders from the market and NSCCL undertakes the clearing and settlement of the same. . Settlement would be on rolling basis with the orders received on T day being settled on T+5 day. The MF would send the issue/repurchase prices computed by them to the NSCCL on T+l day.
Patna and Kolkatta. The MF supplies application forms for their schemes to the post office for sale over the counter and any customer who wishes to invest in MF can take a form from the counter. which is found by subtracting from the market value of the portfolio the mutual fun liabilities and the dividing by the number of mutual fund shares issued. MF Distribution through Post Offices: Post offices started distributing MF products. NET ASSET VALUE (NAV) The share ice of the mutual fund is based on its net asset value (NAV) per share. No transaction charges will be levied on members. The members are required to deliver the securities/ funds due to the investors within two working days of receiving the pay-out from NSCCL.Zurich Mutual Fund is the first MF to go live using this system. fill it in and hand it back to the officials in the post office which in turn are handed over to the MF office.41 - . UTI and Zurich Mutual Fund are also tying up with Department of Posts to distribute their products. This system of distribution is presently operational only in selected post offices in the 4 cities of Delhi. IDBI Principal Mutual Fund has started distributing its index. Other Mutual Funds like. Mumbai. That is: Market value of portfolio -Liabilities Net asset value per share = Number of mutual fund shares issued . SBI Mutual. This will not only boost the Mutual Fund industry but would also enable easy access for the investors to the industry . ICICI Prudential. balanced and income funds through select post offices branches.
scheme comparison some extent. mutual funds are permitted to deduct up to 6% from the net asset value to account for issue expenses. It has been recommended that the NAVs of both open-end and close-end scheme be calculated on a weekly basis. calculation of the NAV was done by valuing the securities at cost. Further marking of all investments at market prices also permits inter. The fees paid by the mutual fund to the asset management company should linked to the performance of the mutual fund schemes as against a flat rate charge earlier which did not take into account the mutual fund scheme's performance.42 - . at least. The committee finalised its report on 12 December 1995 and the same was released on 1 January 1996.In August 1994. Presently. . The investments which are shown in balance sheet should also be shown at market value so that this comparable with the net asset value. It. Earlier. The AMC will have the discretion of floating no load or load schemes or a mixture of the two. This has now been changed to marking securities at market value. The major guidelines are discussed below: There has been a major shift in the valuation of securities used for the calculation the net asset value (NAV) of the mutual fund scheme. now suggested that mutual funds would be paying a basic annual fee to the AMC computed as a percentage of the average weekly net asset value of the scheme and an additional fee calculated as a percentage of the net growth of the scheme. SEBI had formed a six-member committee to suggest disclosure practices and standardised procedures for computation of net asset values for mutual fund schemes.
07 times the net asset value. the spread between the repurchase and re-sale price should not exceed seven percentage points. Investors in India look at mutual funds as a substitute of fixed deposits in banks rather than as a substitute for investment in securities. mutual funds operation has become integral part of the Indian financial system.43 - . Accordingly. It is equal to the NAV per share plus any sales commission that the mutual fund may charge. the repurchase price of an open-end scheme should not be lower than 93 per cent of the net asset value and the resale price should not be more than 1. Also. The offer price is the price at which the mutual fund will sell the shares. The sales commission is referred to as a load. Within a short span of four to five years.offer basis. The report has suggested that the AMC should disclose custodian and registration fees and has done away with the distinction of short term and long term capital gains. It has been suggested that the failure of a mutual fund scheme to give the minimum assured returns should be met out of the funds of the asset management company and not the corpus of the mutual fund scheme.The report has suggested that repurchase and resale price of open-end schemes should be linked to the NAV of the scheme. These guidelines would apply to all the mutual fund schemes launched in the future but it is not yet decided if these guidelines should be made applicable to existing schemes. Mutual fund shares are quoted on a bid. . Some members of the committee feel that existing schemes should adhere to these guidelines with effect from 1 April 1997. The committee has suggested the disclosure of ratio of expenses to net assets and gross income to net assets.
many of which can be avoided or minimised with mutual funds. . With so many choices. investors make the wrong decisions. safety from loss due to unethical practices etc. However. There is no shortage of mediocre performers.). That then is also a danger of getting carried away and ending up with a big stake in a promising company that is suddenly runs into deep trouble. Too many investors do not understand what they are buying. mutual funds are not for everyone.Mutual funds provide an opportunity for the risk-averse investors to share their risk and yet go in for high return equities in the capital market. shareholder services. and takes the life savings down with it. The chances of that happening with the mutual funds are much lower since they are diversified and professionally managed.g. plunges in value.44 - . investors do not need to be familiar with the characteristics of the different types of mutual funds. The reason most investors do not excel in stock picking is that they succumb to certain common errors. Critics argue that funds are boring. liquidity. Besides investing in inappropriate and high-cost mutual funds. or even what they are paying.out plan. diversification. low operating costs. Despite the many advantages (e. continuous professional management. successful investing being a serious business requiring a well thought. since shareholders do not have any say as to which stocks are selected. Some people have been able to strike it rich with the right stock. The popularity of mutual funds has soared so have their diversity and complexity. investors also buy laggards.
since then they showed some variations. During the period from 1995-97. Total resources mobilised as proportion of GDP declined to 1. The mutual fund industry registered significant growth in the last few years. In the case of public sector mutual funds.0 per cent in the corresponding previous period.45 - .04 per cent of GDP (at current market prices) during the period of 1970-71 to 1974-85 increased to 1. especially UTI. The investible resources of mutual funds rose form Rs. as a result of which the ratio turned negative. This was on account of the steep increase in redemption/repurchase during this period.114 crore in 1999-2000. 2000 compared with 66. 6. 68. The outflow of funds via repurchase/redemption constituted 88. 1.12 per cent by 1994-95 but nevertheless remained positive. Resources mobilised by mutual fund (UTI was the only mutual fund until 1987-88) grew at a steady rate until 1992-93. Net resource mobilisation by mutual funds declined to Rs. Resources mobilised by mutual funds which was just 0. .846 crore in April-December. 2000 from Rs.59 per cent during 1990-91 to 1992-93. thereby making their net resource mobilisation negative.193 crore in the corresponding previous period. there was a net outflow of funds form mutual funds. From 1997-98 onwards. the ratio again turned positive and stood at 1.13 per cent during 1999-2000.200 crore in 199899 to Rs.09. redemption/repurchase exceeded gross resource mobilisation.7 per cent of gross resource mobilisation during April-December. 12.Mutual Funds Operations In India Mutual funds le households an option for portfolio diversification and relative risk-aversion through collection of funds from the households and make investments in the stock and debt markets.
46 - .5 percent of the country's gross domestic product was split into two. 2005.Introduction of the organisation: The Reliance ADA Group The Reliance group .87 Lakhs. refining and marketing of oil and natural gas. is one of the fastest growing mutual funds in the country RMF offers investors a well-rounded portfolio of products to meet varying investor requirements and has presence in 115 cities across the country. which holds 93.was divided between Mukesh Ambani and his younger brother Anil on June 18.one of India's largest business houses with revenues of Rs. The family also has interests in advertising agency and life sciences. a part of the Reliance . Reliance Mutual Fund. and ranks among the top 3 private sector financial services and banking companies. 90.37% of the paid-up capital of RCAM. a subsidiary of Reliance Capital Limited. power and telecom. textiles.. insurance. 990 billion ($22.Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Reliance Mutual Fund constantly endeavors to launch innovative products and customer service initiatives to increase value to investors. production.938 Crores (AAUM for Mar 08 ) and an investor base of over 66. the balance paid up capital being held by minority shareholders. Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) is one of India’s leading Mutual Funds.which claims to contribute nearly 10 per cent of the country's indirect tax revenues and over six percent of India's exports . petrochemicals.6 billion) that is equal to 3. with Average Assets Under Management (AAUM) of Rs. . The group ." Reliance Capital Ltd. financial services. "Reliance Mutual Fund schemes are managed by Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited. The group's activities span exploration. is one of India’s leading and fastest growing private sector financial services companies. in terms of net worth.
Reliance Mutual fund has largest AUM in India. has interests in asset management.Reliance Capital Ltd. Management of Reliance mutual fund wants to expand its feet in Rajasthan.47 - . 1 AMC in India but the picture is not the same in Rajasthan. life and general insurance. This behavioral study consists of how any investor invests in CG. so they may plan accordingly to capture Rajasthan Market. size of investment. private equity and proprietary investments. In this report I have endeavored to understand the factors affecting Investment behavior of an investor in Rajasthan. when & how much an investor invest & according to it. Reliance capital asset Management is no. 2 AMC. how do they invest. timing of investment & duration of investment. purpose behind investment. What factor they consider. In Rajasthan they are no. we have to make profile of investors. where do they invest. Reliance Mutual Fund : Asset under management: AUM Month Mar 2008 Average AUM Excluding Fund of Funds 9093794. stock broking and other financial services. how. where. before taking any step they want to understand market & investor and distributor behavior of SMEs.02 Average AUM Fund of Funds 0 . why these factors they consider. This study gave us basis to profile investors. In this research we have to analyze why.
48 - .Reliance Corporate PROFILE: .
.37% of the paid-up capital of RCAM.Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. "Reliance Mutual Fund schemes are managed by Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited. the balance paid up capital being held by minority shareholders". The net worth of the Asset Management Company including preference shares as on March 31. . 2005 is Rs. The Mutual Fund has entered into an Investment Management Agreement (IMA) with RCAM dated May 12. 1997 in line with SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. a company registered under the Companies Act.113. 1997 in line with SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations. Pursuant to this IMA.02 crores. RCAM is authorized to act as Investment Manager of Reliance Mutual Fund. Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited (RCAM) was approved as the Asset Management Company for the Mutual Fund by SEBI vide their letter no IIMARP/1264/95 dated June 30. 1995. a subsidiary of Reliance Capital Limited. 1995 and was amended on August 12. Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited (RCAM) was approved as the Asset Management Company for the Mutual Fund by SEBI by their letter no. 2007 is Rs.152. Pursuant to this IMA. The Mutual Fund has entered into an Investment Management Agreement (IMA) with RCAM dated May 12. RCAM is authorized to act as Investment Manager of Reliance Mutual Fund.: Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited (RCAM). 1956 was appointed to act as the Investment Manager of Reliance Mutual Fund. 1995 and was amended on August 12.59 crores.49 - . IIMARP/1264/95 dated June 30. 1996. which holds 93. 1996. 1995. The net worth of the Asset Management Company including preference shares as on September 30.
At Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. an imperative part of growth and visibility is adherence to Good Conduct in the marketplace. Management: The management at Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. Mission Statement: “To create and nurture a world-class. which includes transparency and timely dissemination of information to its investors and unit holders.50 - . . has a vision of being a leading player in the Mutual Fund business and has achieved significant success and visibility in the market. Corporate Governance of reliance: Corporate Governance Policy: Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd.. The Board of Directors of RCAM is a professional body. Regular Audit Committee meetings are conducted to review the operations and performance of the company. high performance environment aimed at delighting their customers”. is committed to good Corporate Governance. the implementation and observance of ethical processes and policies has helped us in standing up to the scrutiny of our domestic and international investors. However. with an emphasis on customer care and a culture of good corporate governance”.Vision Statement: “To be a globally respected wealth creator. including well-experienced and knowledgeable Independent Members.
Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) has been sponsored by Reliance Capital Ltd (RCL). It has a clearly defined prohibition on insider trading policy and regulations.23 crores as on March 31. obligations and duties as part of the Dealing Policy laid down in terms of SEBI guidelines. a code of conduct for all its officers. life and non-life insurance. Reliance Capital Limited is a Non Banking Finance Company. . All personnel at Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd are made aware of their rights. the Code of Conduct. is to identify issues considered sensitive by global corporate standards. The net worth of RCL is Rs. information security. fully understanding its fiduciary responsibilities. Reliance Capital Limited is one of the India’s leading and fastest growing financial services companies. and implement policies/guidelines in conformity with the best practices as an ongoing process. 2007. Sponsors: ‘‘Reliance Mutual Fund’’ schemes are managed by Reliance Capital Asset Management Limited. which holds 93. private equity and proprietary investments.51 - .Employees: Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. the balance paid up capital being held by minority shareholders. The promoter of RCL is AAA Enterprises Private Limited. Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. has at present. 5.161. in terms of net worth. Internet and e-mail usage and a host of other issues.37% of the paid-up capital of RCAM. The management believes in the principles of propriety and utmost care is taken while handling public money. gives top priority to compliance in true letter and spirit. and ranks among the top three private sector financial services and banking companies. They are taken through a well-designed HR program. making proper and adequate disclosures. One of the core objectives of Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd.". the sponsor. a subsidiary of Reliance Capital Limited. Reliance Capital has interests in asset management and mutual funds. conducted to impart work ethics. stock broking and other activities in the financial services sector..
) 28.12 35% 246.18 4915.31 2003-04 356.74 2004-05 295.39 (Basic + Diluted) (Basic + Diluted) (Basic + Diluted) (Basic + Diluted) Book Value per Share (Rs.86 733.46 29.) Dividend (%) Paid up Equity Capital 210.21 105.84 1399.92 8.81 1310.08 1437. is responsible for discharging its functions and responsibilities towards the Fund in accordance with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Regulations. The Sponsor is not responsible or liable for any loss resulting from the operation of the Scheme beyond the contribution of an amount of Rupees one Lac made by them towards the initial corpus for setting up the Fund and such other accretions and additions to the corpus. in crores) Total Income Profit Before Tax Profit After Tax Reserves & Surplus Net Worth 2006-07 883.16 112.31 Earnings per Share (Rs.96 29% 127.23 2005-06 652.95 30% 127.52 - . Reliance Capital Ltd.02 550.61 3849.79 105.58 4122.69 111.81 8.84 Reliance Capital Ltd.Given below is a summary of RCL’s financials: Particulars (Rs.79 105. has contributed Rupees One Lac as the initial contribution to the corpus for the setting up of the Mutual Fund.84 109.95 30% 223.18 646.79 1271.40 112.61 537.07 5161. The Reliance capital Management Team: .
Shailesh Raj Bhan Mr. Amitabh Mohanty Equity Fund Managers Mr. Sundeep Sikka Head Equity Investments Mr. Shiv Chanani Commodities Head of Commodities Head Of Departments Marketing Communication Finance and Accounts Human Resource Development Information Technology Mr Rajat Johri Mr. Sushil Tripathi Management Team CEO Mr.53 Mr Vikram Dhawan . Rajesh Derhgawen Mr. Arpit Malaviya Ms. Amitabh Chaturvedi Mr. Ashwani Kumar Mr. Omprakash S. Madhusudan Kela Head Fixed Income Mr.Board of Directors Mr. Singhania Mr. Anju Chhajer Mr. Vikrant Gugnani Deputy CEO Mr. Manu Chadha Mr. Sunil B. Kuckian Debt Fund Managers Mr. Amit Tripathi Mr. Sanjay Wadhwa Mr. Kanu Doshi Mr. Vinay Nigudkar .
956 -8.322 -4.519 -3.36 UTI Mutual Fund 52.773 -1. Lav Chaturvedi Mr Himanshu Vyapak Mr.54 - . Balkrishna Kini Ms. Gurbir Chopra Mr.) February. Aashwin Dugal Mr. Milind Nesarikar Mr.983 -3.77 ICICI Prudential Mutual Fund 59.594 -2.28 .532 08 90.292 44.64 HDFC Mutual Fund 46.465 48.Legal & Compliance Operations & Settlement R&T Operations & Investor Relations Risk Management Sales & Distribution Zonal Heads Northern Zone Head Western Zone Head Southern Zone Head Eastern Zone Head Mr.March08 Reliance Mutual Fund 93. Sanjiv Gudal Mr.938 Change %Change -2.482 -6. Geeta Chandran Mr. cr. Gopal Khaitan MUTUAL FUNDS ASSET UNDER MANAGEMENT: Top 10 companies list: Mutual Fund Assets Under Management (Rs.278 54.
059 -10.205 19.704 35.463 -12.179 -314 -1.675 -2.897 -13.55 - .493 29.Birla Sun Life Mutual Fund 34.968 18.23 Tata Mutual Fund 20.679 -526 -2.06 Franklin Templeton Mutual Fund 29.906 1.071 -2.902 26.87 Reliance Mutual Fund: .46 SBI Mutual Fund 29.60 Kotak Mahindra Mutual Fund 20.842 -3.139 16.202 3.82 DSP Merrill Lynch Mutual Fund 19.
as the Settler /Sponsor and Reliance Capital Trustee Co. IMD / PSP / 4958 / 2004 date 11th. March 2004. RMF has been registered with the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) vide registration number MF/022/95/1 dated June 30. as the Trustee. March 2004 vide SEBI's letter no. To deploy Funds thus raised so as to help the Unit holders earn reasonable returns on their savings and to take such steps as may be necessary from time to time to realize the effects without any limitation Social Responsibilities: . 1882 with Reliance Capital Limited (RCL).56 - . Limited (RCTCL). 1995. The main objectives of the Trust are: To carry on the activity of a Mutual Fund as may be permitted at law and formulate and devise various collective Schemes of savings and investments for people in India and abroad and also ensure liquidity of investments for the Unit holders.About Reliance Mutual Fund: Reliance Mutual Fund (RMF) has been established as a trust under the Indian Trusts Act. The name of Reliance Capital Mutual Fund has been changed to Reliance Mutual Fund effective 11th. Reliance Mutual Fund was formed to launch various schemes under which units are issued to the Public with a view to contribute to the capital market and to provide investors the opportunities to make investments in diversified securities.
“Organizations. sustenance and growth on the support and goodwill of the communities of which they are an integral part. For them. customers and vendors to business partners. hospital or environmental NGO.57 - . Indeed. being socially responsible is not an occasional act of charity or that one-time token financial contribution to the local school. While they strongly believe that their primary obligation or duty as corporate entities is to their shareholders – they are just as mindful of the fact that this imperative does not exist in isolation. and must pay back this generosity in every way they can. Because they believe that there is no contradiction between doing well and doing right. They evaluate and assess each critical business decision or choice from the point of view of diverse stakeholder interest. The Schemes: Equity/Growth Schemes: . it is part of a much larger compact which they have with their entire body of stakeholders: From employees. like individuals.” This ethical standpoint. “doing right is a necessary condition for doing well”. local communities. driven by the need to minimize risk and to pro-actively address long-term social. economic and environmental costs and concerns. It is an ongoing year-round commitment. derived from the vision of the founder. which is integrated into the very core of their business objectives and strategy. and society at large. depend for their survival. eco-system. lies at the heart of the CSR philosophy of the Reliance Group.
Such schemes normally invest a major part of their corpus in equities. Petroleum stocks.term.58 - . The NAVs of such funds are affected because of change in interest rates in the country.The aim of growth funds is to provide capital appreciation over the medium to long. These funds are not affected because of fluctuations in equity markets. Such funds are less risky compared to equity schemes. NAVs of such funds are likely to increase in the short run and vice versa. If the interest rates fall. capital appreciation. Sector Specific Schemes: These are the funds/schemes which invest in the securities of only those sectors or industries as specified in the offer documents. Software. corporate debentures. While these funds may give higher returns. and the investors may choose an option depending on their preferences. However. Pharmaceuticals. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). The returns in these funds are dependent on the performance of the respective sectors/industries. Various Schemes of Reliance Mutual Fund: . etc. Such schemes generally invest in fixed income securities such as bonds. The investors must indicate the option in the application form. Government securities and money market instruments. Investors need to keep a watch on the performance of those sectors/industries and must exit at an appropriate time. These schemes provide different options to the investors like dividend option. etc. Such funds have comparatively high risks. they are more risky compared to diversified funds. Debt/Income Schemes: The aim of income funds is to provide regular and steady income to investors. Eg. opportunities of capital appreciation are also limited in such funds. Growth schemes are good for investors having a long-term outlook seeking appreciation over a period of time. The mutual funds also allow the investors to change the options at a later date.
namely: Reliance Growth Fund (September 1995) Reliance Income Fund (December 1997) Reliance Medium Term Fund (August 2000) Reliance Gilt Securities Fund (July 2003) Reliance Vision Fund (September 1995) Reliance Liquid Fund (March 1998) Reliance Short Term Fund (December 2002) Reliance Banking Fund (May 2003) Reliance Monthly Income Plan (DecemberReliance Diversified Power Sector Fund 2003) Reliance Pharma Fund ( May 2004) Reliance Media & Entertainment (March 2004) Reliance Floating Rate Fund (August 2004) FundReliance NRI Equity Fund (October 2004) Reliance Index Fund (February 2005) (September 2004) Reliance NRI Income Fund (October 2004) Reliance Equity Opportunities Fund (FebruaryReliance Regular Savings Fund (May 2005) 2005) Reliance Liquidity Fund (June 2005) Reliance Tax Saver (ELSS) Fund (July 2005) Reliance Fixed Tenor Fund (November 2005) Reliance Equity Fund (February 2006) Reliance Fixed Horizon Fund I (August 2006) Reliance Fixed Horizon Fund (April 2006) Reliance Fixed Horizon Fund III (March 2007) Reliance Fixed Horizon Fund II (November Reliance Liquid Plus Fund (March 2007) 2006) Reliance Long Term Equity Fund (November 2006) Reliance Long Term Equity Fund (Nov 2006) Reliance Interval Fund (March 2007) Reliance Fixed Horizon Fund .59 - .IV (AugustReliance Fixed Horizon Fund .Reliance Mutual Fund has launched thirty-two Schemes till date.V (September 2007) 2007) Investment Objectives: .
60 - . Reliance Liquidity Fund aims to generate optimal returns consistent with moderate levels of risk and high liquidity. Reliance Liquid Fund aims to generate optimal returns consistent with moderate levels of risk and high liquidity. investments shall predominantly be made in Debt and Money Market Instruments Reliance Short Term Fund aims to generate stable returns for investors with a short term investment horizon by investing in fixed income securities of a short term maturity. Accordingly. Accordingly. Reliance Income Fund aims to generate optimal returns consistent with moderate levels of risk.Reliance Monthly Income Plan aims to generate regular income in order to make regular dividend payments to unit holders and the secondary objective is growth of capital. Reliance Medium Term Fund aims to generate regular income in order to make regular dividend payments to unit holders and the secondary objective is growth of capital. This income may be complemented by capital appreciation of the portfolio. Accordingly. Reliance Gilt Securities Fund aims to generate optimal credit risk free returns by investing in a portfolio of securities issued and guaranteed by the Central Government and State Governments Reliance Floating Rate Fund aims to generate regular income through investment in a portfolio comprising substantially of Floating Rate Debt Securities (including floating rate securitized debt and Money Market . investments shall predominantly be made in Debt and Money Market Instruments. investments shall predominantly be made in Debt and Money Market Instruments.
This income may be complemented by capital appreciation of the portfolio.Instruments and Fixed Rate Debt Instruments swapped for floating rate returns).61 - . Reliance Regular Savings Fund Hybrid Option: The primary investment objective is to generate consistent return by investing a major portion in debt & money market securities and a small portion in equity & equity related instruments. Reliance Regular Savings Fund Debt Option: The primary investment objective of this plan is to generate optimal returns consistent with moderate level of risk. Reliance Growth Fund aims to achieve long term growth of capital by investment in equity and equity related securities through a research based investment approach. Reliance Vision Fund aims to achieve long term growth of capital by investment in equity and equity related securities through a research based investment approach. Accordingly investments shall predominantly be made in Debt & Money Market Instruments. Reliance Diversified Power Sector Fund seek to generate consistent returns by investing in equity / equity related or fixed income securities of Power and other associated companies . Reliance Equity Opportunities Fund aims to generate capital appreciation & provide long term growth opportunities by investing in a portfolio constituted of equity securities & equity related securities Reliance Banking Fund aims to generate continuous returns by actively investing in equity / equity related or fixed income securities of banks. Reliance Regular Savings Fund Equity Option: The primary investment objective is to seek capital appreciation and or consistent returns by actively investing in equity / equity related securities.
Reliance Index Fund-Nifty Plan aims to replicate the composition of the Nifty. Reliance Index Fund-Sensex Plan aims to replicate the composition of the Sensex. Reliance Media & Entertainment Fund to generate consistent returns by investing in equity / equity related or fixed income securities of media & entertainment and other associated companies. . RESEARCH DESIGN and Methodology: A research design is the detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward its objectives. which could approximately be the same as that of Nifty. with a view to endeavor to generate returns. with a view to endeavor to generate returns.Reliance Pharma Fund aims generate consistent returns by investing in equity / equity related or fixed income securities of Pharma and other associated companies. which could approximately be the same as that of Sensex. Reliance NRI Equity Fund aims to generate optimal returns by investing in equity and equity related instruments primarily drawn from the Companies in the BSE 200 Index.62 - . Reliance Equity Fund: The primary investment objective of the scheme is to seek to generate capital appreciation & provide long-term growth opportunities by investing in a portfolio constituted of equity & equity related securities of top 100 companies by market capitalization & of companies which are available in the derivatives segment from time to time and the secondary objective is to generate consistent returns by investing in debt and money market securities.
Face to face interviews was taken were conducted to get the required information. and research tactics is inherently an iterative process in which earlier decisions are constantly reconsidered in light of subsequent decisions. To design something also means to ensure that the pieces fit together. Analysis of Data Drawing Conclusions Suggestions/ Recommendation Research Methodology: Title of the Project Study: . research approach.The process of designing a research study involves many interrelated decisions. The most significant decision is the choice of research approach.63 - . The achievement of this fit among objective. Research design Defining the purpose of research Determining the data required and their resources. A Questionnaire was designed to get detailed information. because it determines how the information will be obtained.
In this period I started preparing for the field work and started identifying my target audience. In the last week of my project I completed my project report with the help of my Project Guide. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: This project is an attempt to deep and thorough approach toward development of channel relationship for “Reliance Mutual Funds”. Project Duration: -. The project was a unique experience for me for tracking down information from various types of people and all through it is a vast learning process. This field work had taken around 4-5 weeks time as my Sample Size was 200. . There were several things that I had made out and learnt out of this project of mine. In the next five weeks time period I started my field work and I moved around the market and collected data from the targeted audience by making them. I thoroughly studied the published literature in different magazines & journals I had also referred many books and browsed the internet to collect secondary data.2 Months In the first two weeks of my project I had gone through the existing work which has been done in this field.A project study conducted for “Identifying alternate channels of distribution for the Reliance mutual funds”. fill-up the questionnaire made for them with the help of my Project Guide.64 - .
To learn the reasons your clients stay to continue and improve in these areas. deliberately hidden questions were asked to get the required information. So this project is tending to find out that what actually the mutual fund is. Approach to the problem: All the objectives were taken into account before preparing the questionnaire. Problem Analysis: This project aims to identify alternate channels of distribution for the ‘Reliance mutual funds’. To discover what is of most concern to your client.65 - . A modest attempt has been made to study and understand the behavior and perception of the target audience. The questionnaire was prepared on scientific basis. the companies need to develop a wide network of its distributors and need to have a smooth relationship with them. to increase the sale of the various funds being offered by it. Some points are listed below which can be considered as the objective of this project topic: To identify activities that has the greatest potential benefits in increasing the network. its types and other facts and figures related to it. . and therefore the greatest risk of loosing them. about mutual funds and distribution channels for the same. How to improve your organization with the specific feedback from the tool and become more attractive to current and potential clients. history regarding it.As in the present scenario of business world.
If only one action is available (or none . To analyze the strength and weakness. To know the history about the company. Problem Definition A problem exists when the decision-maker faces uncertainty regarding which action to adopt in the situation. Information was extracted from other sites of different companies and various other mutual fund associations. attempt was made to know the opportunities and threats related to other players in mutual funds. Strategic planning for the Research: To familiarize with a business organization. extensive research was done. To get clear cut idea about the various departments and functions. to broaden the horizon of research topic.66 - . To enable to understand how the key business process are carried out in organizations.Besides this. Though complete focus was kept. To relate theory with practice. To give findings and solutions. To get clear cut idea about the management and administration. To know about the industrial relation in the company. To familiarize with the different departments in the organization and their functioning. Understand how information is used in organization for decision making at various levels.
there really is no problem. competitor’s action.67 - . Type of Research: The different research designs can be categorized into research design in case of: Exploratory Research Studies.at all) or if there is certainty about the outcomes of the alternatives. poor salesmanship etc. since the objective flow from the disorder must precede the selection of the objectives. The research dealing solely with the price may be able to solve the problem correctly. the researcher may set the projects objectives. The existence of a disorder or a problem is the reason why the research is needed. For instance the marketing manager may state that sales of a product have fallen by 25% because its price is too high & hence may ask the researcher to throw more light on “what is a more effective price”? Actually the decline in sales may be due to any other factor or factor like poor product quality. The project’s objectives are the specific purpose or goal of the research. Once the problem is identified/disorder is located. . Defining a problem is a situation where: 1) The decision-maker has not yet determined how to exploit an opportunity or 2) There are difficulties that are currently faced or are anticipated.
Testing Research Studies (Experimental Studies) Exploratory Research Studies: Also termed as formulative research studies. Following are three methods in the context of research design for studies: The survey of concerning literature The experience survey The analysis of insight –stimulating examples. In this way researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others. but in cases where hypothesis has not been formulated hi task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Inbuilt flexibility is essential.68 - . Major emphasis is on the discovery of ideas and insights. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. Research design has to be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Purpose of such studies is formulating a problem for more precise investigation. Descriptive And Diagnostic Research Studies Hypothesis. The survey of concerning literature: This happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating the research problem. The object is to obtain insight into the relationship between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a survey people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully . Experience Survey: It is the survey of people who have had practical experience with the survey to be studied.
For this purpose the existing records may be examined the unstructured interviewing may take place or some other approach may be adopted. It consists of the intensive study of the selected instances of the phenomenon in which on is interested. studies concerning whether certain variables are associated. This survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. Descriptive And Diagnostic Research Studies Descriptive research studies are concerned with describing the characteristics of certain individuals or a group. E. Analysis of insight stimulating examples: This is a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. The respondents selected can be interviewed by the investigator. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide.selected as respondents to ensure representation of different of experience. .g. at the time of interview they may be able to contribute effectively. Attitude of the investigator. an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in formulation of research hypothesis. An interview schedule is prepared by the researcher for systematic questioning of informants.69 - . This gives an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over various issues involved so that. Hence. Thus. The interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. The interview may last for few hours. it its often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights.
E. Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and with what time period should the data be related). the researcher must be able to define clearly.Specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that ht data collected is relevant. Processing and analyzing the data. The descriptive as well as diagnostic research studies share common requirements. Following are the steps involved in both the studies: Step 1. Reporting the findings. In both the studies. with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual.70 - . .Diagnostic research studies determine the frequency of with which something occurs or its association with something else. hence. Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed). Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering data will be adopted). Following should be focused: Formulating the objective of the study (what is the study about and why is it being made).g. what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods of measuring it. group or situation. the procedure to be used must be carefully planned. The aim is to obtain complete and accurate information. The design must be rigid and not flexible. studies concerned with specific predictions. It should make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability.
and performing several statistical computations. observations. it is necessary to supervise closely the staff of field workers. Similarly. the research design in the case of descriptive/diagnostic studies is a comparative design and must be prepared keeping the objective(s) of the study and the resources available. The data collected must be processed and analysed. tabulating the data.g. i. they should be examined for completeness. To obtain data free from errors..e. To avoid error in coding. etc. techniques of collecting the data must be devised. The layout of the report needs to be well planned so that all things relating to the research study may be well presented in a simple and effective style. In most studies researcher takes down samples and then wishes to make statements about the population on the basis of the sample analyses. communicating the findings to others and the researcher must do it in an efficient manner. .71 - . the accuracy of tabulation may be checked by having a sample of tables re-done. Last of all comes the task of reporting the findings. Thus. the reliability of coders needs to be checked. The problem of designing samples should be tackled in such a form that the samples may yield accurate information with a minimum amount of research effort. as they collect and record information. As data are collected. This includes steps like coding the interview replies. E.Select the methods by which the data are to be obtained.Step 2. The processing and analyzing procedure should be planned in detail before actual work is started. consistency and reliability. comprehensibility.
Such studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability. Professor Fischer found that by dividing agricultural fields or plots into different blocks and then by conducting experiments in each of these blocks. reasons for opting those funds and what drives there inclination towards particular types of funds . office goers. Sampling Process And Design: . it must ensure the minimization of bias and maximisation of reliability of the evidence collected. Professor R. chartered accountants and tax consultants with reasonable amount of internet usage and awareness. It can be referred to as a survey design since it takes into account all the steps involved in a survey concerning a phenomenon to be studied. Discussion of the Information Needs: The sources of information are young students. The targeted audience was easily available and information asked for was easily available.A.72 - . the information collected and inferences drawn happen to be more reliable. but will permit drawing inferences about casuality. Hypothesis: Testing Research Studies (Experimental Studies): Hypothesis-tested research studies (experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables. The main information needed was which types of funds they preferred . However. Fisher begun such designs when he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station (Centre for Agricultural Research in England).
A questionnaire of 14 questions was used to gather their opinion. The survey was conducted in the city malls where people usually have free time. Advantages of observation method: . Hence. OBSERVATION: Definition: It is the process of recognizing people. objects and occurrences rather than asking for information.200 I had conducted In-depth interviews under which 210 CAs and Tax Consultants were interviewed to get insights about investment patterns. we have not taken them into account Data Collection Technique: Data is collected through primary research conducted in the city among CAs and tax consultants. E.Sampling Size: -. businessmen and office goers. As far as this research is concerned secondary data is not required & will be of no relevance because no such research is conducted in Jaipur and other State’s data will be of no use.g. a large food retailer tested a new slot-type shelf arrangement for canned foods by observing shoppers as they used the new shelves. Instead of asking consumers what brand they buy the researchers arrange to observe what products are brought.73 - . The majority of the respondents were young students. to interact.
The most limiting factor in the use of observation is the inability to observe things such as attitudes.74 - . Data collection by observation is more objective and hence more accurate. Events of more than short-term duration such as a family’s use of leisure time and personal activities such as brushing of teeth are better discussed with questionnaires. METHODS OF OBSERVATION: Observational studies can be classified on five bases: Whether the situation in which the observation is made is natural or contrived Whether the observation is obtrusive or unobtrusive. motivation. yet the vast majority of researchers continue to rely on the use of a questionnaire. Disadvantages of observation method: Researchers have recognized the merits of observations opposed to questioning. Direct observation: . etc. The biasing effects of interviewers or their phrasing of the questions is either eliminated or reduced. When the researcher observes and records events. it is not necessary to rely on the willingness and ability of respondents to report accurately. Whether the observation is structured or unstructured Whether the factor of interest is observed directly or indirectly Whether observers or mechanical means makes observations.
A form can easily be printed for simple recordings of such observations. there is unobtrusive. Structured direct observation: It is used when the problem at hand has been formulated precisely enough to enable researchers to define specifically the observations to be made E. the situation is unstructured. Observers in a supermarket might note the number of soup cans picked up by each customer. the observation is structured. In an effort to find ways of improving the service of a store. E. direct observation in a natural situation. hence the observer must select certain things which he can make a note of.g.75 - . If a camera is positioned to record shopping actions.g. No one can observe everything that is going on. If the observer has to go about observing how shoppers go about selecting a brand of soup. Customers standing at a counter with annoyed faces may be observed as irritated because of the service or lack of it. Not all observations are as simple as the above but experiments have shown that even observers with a different viewpoint on a given question tend to make similar observations under structured conditions. observers may mingle with customers in the store and look for activities that suggest service problems. Unstructured. direct observation: Observers are placed in situations and observe whatever they deem significant. When an observer is stationed in a grocery store to note how many different brands of canned soup each shopper picks up before selecting one. . observation is by mechanical means If the observer counts the specific cans picked up.
E.g. Observation of the results of past actions will not bias the data if done on a one-time basis. To reduce this. To study the bargaining between an automobile salesman and a customer. As long as the sales person believes the researcher to be a bonafide customer. there is no bias in the observation. Accretions involve studies such as the observation of liquor bottles in the Erosion.g. Accretions involve a trash to eliminate the liquor consumption in cities without liquor stores. Contrived observations often have a validity and economic advantage.76 - . . Pantry audits determine what purchases have been made in the past. the observer can pose as a customer and take various bargaining attitudes from the most-eager-to-buy to the toughest price seeking. An example would be the study of a relative readership of different sections of an encyclopedia by measuring the wear and tear on the pages. E. Erosion observations are less frequent. These traces are of two types: Accretions left. Indirect observation: One type of observation focuses on the physical traces left by the factors of interest.Contrived observation: When researchers rely on natural direct observation it results in a lot of wasted time while they wait for the desired events to take place. Erosion. it may be more desirable to contrive situations so that observations may be made more efficiently. In each case the observer notes the salesperson’s response.
77 - . . Types of surveys: Surveys can be divided into two broad categories: the questionnaire and the interview. they are employing the observation method in a manner similar in character to the observation of physical trace The records of previous activities such as population census are physical traces of previous periods. Survey method: Definition: Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. Questionnaires are usually paper-and-pencil instruments that the respondent completes. The interviewer based on what the respondent says completes interviews.Observation of records: Whenever researchers use data collected for another purpose. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents.
Questionnaires: Mail survey: when a respondent receives a questionnaire by mail it is known as mail survey. there were often organizational settings where it was relatively easy to assemble the group (in a company or business. The researcher could give the questionnaire to those who were present and be fairly sure that there would be a high response rate If the respondents were unclear about the meaning of a question they could ask for clarification. questionnaires were administered in-group settings for convenience. And. They allow the respondent to fill it out at their own convenience.78 - . Mail questionnaires are not the best vehicles for asking for detailed written responses. for instance). Disadvantages: Response rates from mail surveys are often very low. Advantages: They are relatively inexpensive to administer. You can send the exact same instrument to a wide number of people. . Group-administered questionnaire: A sample of respondents is brought together and asked to respond to a structured sequence of questions. Traditionally.
Telephone Interview: Telephone interviews enable a researcher to gather information rapidly. The interviewer is considered as a part of the measurement instrument and interviewers have to be well trained in how to respond to any contingency. Advantages They allow for personal contact between the interviewer and respondent. Interviews are generally easier for the respondent.Interviews: Interviews are a far more personal form of research than questionnaires Personal interview: The interviewer works directly with the respondent Advantages The interviewer has the opportunity to probe or ask follow-up questions. They allow the interviewer to ask follow-up questions Disadvantages .79 - . especially if what is sought is opinions or impressions Disadvantages: Interviews can be time consuming and they are resource intensive.
Many people don't have publicly-listed telephone numbers. Selecting the survey method: Selecting the type of survey you are going to use is one of the most critical decisions in many social research contexts.80 - . You have to use your judgment to balance the advantages and disadvantages of different survey types. Following are the issues that the researcher must look into before conducting a research. Some don't have telephones. Telephone interviews have to be relatively short or people will feel imposed upon. Sampling issues: What data is available? What information do you have about your sample? Do you know their current addresses? Their current phone numbers? Are your contact lists up to date? Can your respondents be located? Who is the respondent in your study? If the specific individual is unavailable is the researcher willing to interview another? Are response rates likely to be a problem? Questions: What types of questions can be asked? Are they personal or require a detailed answer? Can question sequence be controlled? . People often don't like the intrusion of a call to their homes.
Your survey is one where you can construct in advance a reasonable sequence of questions? Or. we consider it dichotomous. are you doing an initial exploratory study where you may need to ask lots of follow-up questions that you can't easily anticipate. Do you need responses immediately (as in an overnight public opinion poll)? Have you budgeted enough time for your study to send out mail surveys and follow-up reminders. Cost is often the major determining factor in selecting survey type. Do you have the facilities (or access to them) to process and manage your study? In phone interviews. and to get the responses back by mail? Have you allowed for enough time to get enough personal interviews to justify Types of questions: Survey questions can be divided into two broad types: structured and unstructured Dichotomous Questions: When a question has two possible responses. You may prefer to send out an extensive mailing but can't afford the postage to do so. do you have a comfortable and accessible room to host the group? Do you have the equipment needed to record and transcribe responses Some types of surveys take longer than others. E.81 - . but can't justify the high cost of training and paying for the interviewers. True/False or Agree/Disagree response. Surveys often use dichotomous questions that ask for a Yes/No. You might prefer to do personal interviews. do you have well-equipped phone surveying facilities? For focus groups. please enter your gender Male female .g.
A thorough search on secondary data will often provide sufficient information to resolve the problem. Secondary data can provide a complete or partial solution to many problems and help in structuring other problems. Problems Encountered with Secondary Data Before secondary data are applied to a particular marketing problem. Even when the data covers the same general topic as that . In some cases where the secondary data cannot solve the problem.82 - . their relevance and accuracy must be assessed. they can often help to structure the problem and eliminate some variables from consideration. the time involved is generally less than the time required to collect original data.SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data are data that were developed for some purpose other than helping to solve the problem at hand. Relevancy refers to the extent to which the data fits the information needs of research problem. They tend to cost substantially less than primary data and can be collected in less time also. Secondary data can be gathered quickly and is inexpensive as compared to primary data. it may be possible to utilize the secondary data in conjunction with primary data. Or. Even when reports or publications are ordered.
Generally. research problems require current. E. They are: There is often a difference in the units of measurement. complete census reports are not available for several years. many retail decisions require detailed information on the characteristics of the population within their trade area. if not future. it is the difficulty of determining how inaccurate the data is likely to be.g. data. E. The real problem is not inaccuracy. This is important because. have been in existence for some time. The second general problem that can reduce relevancy of secondary data is the definition of classes. The final major factor that is affecting relevancy is time.83 - . Accuracy is the second major concern of the user of secondary data.required by the research problem. However. Data are frequently collected one to three years prior to its publication. a manufacturer may have a product that appeals to children 8 to 12 years old. they may not fit the requirements of the problem.g. the firm will have a hard time utilizing it. If available secondary data are based on age categories 5 to 9 and 10 to 14. Secondly using original source . E. Three general problems reduce the relevance of data that would otherwise be useful. the available population statistics may focus on countries.g. on the other hand. Most secondary data. cities or census tracts that do not match the trade area of the retail outlet. While using secondary data. the original source should be used if possible. the original report is generally more complete than the second or third reports.
They are available and inexpensive. territories. Such records. Sources of Secondary Data: There are two general sources of secondary data – internal sources and external sources. Internal Sources: Internal sources include sales record. allows the researcher to isolate profitable and unprofitable customers. unfortunately many companies do not collect or maintain sales data in the manner that allows the researcher to tap their full potential. if properly utilized. External Sources Numerous sources external to the firm may produce data relevant to the firm’s requirements. they are: Trade associations Government Agencies Other published sources. previous research reports and the likes. There are four types of general external secondary information. Internal data must be collected in a usable format and must be analyzed to be of value. But. and Syndicated services.84 - . The most useful type of internal information is generally sales data. etc) other useful data can be often collected. budgets. sales force reports. to identify developing trends and perhaps to measure the effects of manipulations of marketing mix variables. operating statements. internal data are the best information buy.allows the data to be examined in context and may provide a better basis for assessing the competence and motivation of the collector. . By changing the format of collection forms (sales invoices. Internal data are available within the firm whereas external sources provide data that are developed outside the firm. and product lines. Many firms have useful but unutilized data. salesman call reports.
Since trade associations have good reputation for not revealing data on individual firms as well as good working relationships with the firms in the industry.Trade Associations: Trade associations frequently publish or maintain detailed information on industry sales. numerous administrative and regulatory agencies. they are: Bureau of Census Bureau of Labor Statistics National Center for Educational Statistics National Center for Health Statistics. These materials may be published in the form of annual reports or as special reports. labor and social conditions. The federal government maintains five major agencies whose primary function is the collection and dissemination of statistical data. They may also conduct special studies of factors relevant to their industry. state and local government agencies produce a massive amount of data that is of relevance to marketers. . vital and health statistics. they may be able to secure information that may be unavailable to other researchers. These include demographics. Government agencies: Federal. and Statistical Reporting Service. These sources produce two types of data: Statistics focused on people are produced.85 - . growth patterns and the like. operating characteristics. Department of Agriculture There are also a number of specialized analytic and research agencies.
it can only infer the output of other manufacturing firms. that contain information relevant to marketing decisions. finance. Census publications are one of the most widely used sources of secondary data. Omnibus surveys collect data that are useful to a number of subscribers from a series of independent samples. books. although a firm can monitor its own activities at this level. Other published Sources There is virtually endless array of periodicals. The second broad category focuses on economic activity: commerce. or it may be in the form of special reports. such as census data. Therefore. several syndicated firms provide information on the flow of products and brands to retail outlets. Channel information is available to the firm at four levels – manufacturers. Two types of syndicated services are widely used by marketing researchers – channel information and omnibus surveys. dissertations. agriculture and the like. Store audits provide data on the movement of brands through retail outlets. A manufacturers sales and shipment are generally available only through the firms own internal records. At the intermediary or wholesale level. Both types of data are widely used by business firms as an aid in decisionmaking. intermediaries. The data available may be standardized.86 - . retailers and consumers. . Syndicated Services A number of firms regularly collect data of relevance to marketers that they sell on a subscription basis. newspapers and the like.
which leads to increase the business.Prospects and scope of research: Area wise Identifying Potential Prospective distributors. Reliance Mutual fund is targeting the Charted accountants and Tax Advisors to increase its’ channel of distribution.87 - . Suspects Prospects First Time Customers Disqualified Prospects Repeat Customers Clients Inactive or ex customers Members Advocates Partners . Following figure shows the main steps of attracting and keeping customers. in this process of expansion new prospects are needed to be tapped. THE PROSPECTS: The Starting point is every one who might conceivably buy the product that is called suspects and from these the company determines the most likely prospects which it hopes to convert into first time customers then repeat customers and then clients.
Collect the data 5. Agree on Research Purpose Problems or opportunities Problems or opportunities Decision alternatives Decision alternatives Research users Research users RESEARCH PROCESS: STEPS: 2. Establish Research Objectives 2. Design the research Choose among alternative research approaches Choose among alternative research approaches Specify the sampling plan Specify the sampling plan Design the experiment Design the experiment Design the questionnaire Design the questionnaire 5. Collect the data 6. Agree on Research Purpose 1. Prepare and analyze the data 7. . Establish Research Objectives Research questions Research questions Hypotheses Hypotheses Boundaries of study Boundaries of study ESTIMATE THE VALUE OF INFORMATIO N Is benefit > cost? DO NOT DO NOT CONDUCT MR CONDUCT MR 4.Marketing planning and information system Marketing planning and information system Planning system Planning system Strategic plans Strategic plans Tactical plans Tactical plans Information system Information system Database Database DSS DSS 1.88 - . recommendations. Prepare and analyze the data 6. Report the research results and provide strategic 7. Report the research results and provide strategic recommendations. Design the research 4.
Time available with investor for interaction. detailed interaction with the chartered accountants and tax consultants was not possible. The area of sample was decided after taking into consideration the major factors like: Availability of investors Approachability. Due to work pressure. Some of them are: The most signified limitation has been the individuals involved in this study had a little experience. The biased ness was being taken care of. Our reliance was made on the primary data. The project was carried out only in the Jaipur city so findings on data gathered can be best true for Jaipur only and not applicable to other parts of state and country. The sample size selected for the survey was too small as compared to large population. Time and money are critical factors limiting this study. .89 - . Some people were not willing to disclose the investment profile.LIMITATION OF THE Project: Many constraints were involved in doing this study. Finding and suggestion have been given from personal point of view. etc. The data provided by the prospects may not be 100% correct as they too have their limitations.
47% Not interested. 59. 20% . of CAs Interested Not interested Already a distributor No. 99.Data analysis ana interpretation: Now after exploratory research we have given following weight to different variables: Variables Total no. 33% already distributors 42. of tax Consultants Interested Not interested Already a distributor Weights 104 45 38 21 96 54 21 21 Not interested already distributors intere sted RESPONSES interested.90 - .
Distributors Responses Not interested Interested 60 40 Interest ed Not interest ed Distribut ors 20 CA's TC's 21 21 54 0 Distributors Interested 21 45 Not interested 38 Results of The Questionnaire: Data Score Sheet Total This is the score sheet generated after collecting the required data by the way questionnaire. Ans\Qu es A B C D E F TOTAL 1 10 4 96 20 0 2 70 71 36 23 20 0 3 77 79 44 20 0 4 61 12 5 14 20 0 5 44 29 27 20 60 20 20 0 6 91 95 14 20 0 7 45 71 29 55 20 0 8 15 7 43 20 0 9 46 98 13 15 7 10 44 79 27 20 30 20 0 11 64 49 27 20 40 20 0 12 17 2 28 20 0 13 17 7 23 20 0 14 88 89 17 7 . There were 200 participants who have filled the questionnaire. No personal information was taken from the participants as to make this whole survey anonymous. In this questionnaire there were 14 multiple choice questions and there were no open ended questions because to make questionnaire a bit easy for the respondents.91 - .
92 - .A. Here 104 participants declared that they were a practicing Chartered Accountant and 96 declared that they were involved in tax consulting business. 2.Data Interpretation of Questionnaire: 1. 4. Fifth question was to determine the most important factor which they consider while advising there clients so the majority of respondents have mentioned the good service and risk factor which was mostly used by them while giving advice. . whether is he involved in tax consulting business. Second question was to determine which segment of people they deal with in their business out of which majority of the respondents declared they mainly deal with “Corporate Clients” and the “Individual Entrepreneurs”. Third question was to determine the profile of the clients whether they are risk taker or risk averse so in this questions the majority of the response was for the risk taker so we can say that the general number of corporate and business class people are risk takers. First question was to determine whether the participant is a practicing C. 3. Fourth questions was to determine the average age group of their clients so the majority of the response was for the 35-45 age group of people. 5. or.
7.93 - . This question was to determine which investment instruments was suggested to their clients for tax planning purposes so the majority of response was for the Mutual Fund ELSS. Sixth questions was to check whether Mutual Funds is a good option for investment or not so almost fifty percent of respondents have consider that mutual funds are better and safe for making investments. 8. 11. 10. This questions was to determine whether they advice their clients to invest in mutual funds so majority of respondents mentioned that they sometimes advice them about Mutual Funds.6. negative or neutral so majority of the respondents have shown their positive response to their clients about the mutual funds. This question was to determine whether they get queries from their customers about the tax saving mutual funds or not so the almost all of the respondents agreed to the fact that they receive various queries about mutual funds. . 9. This question was to determine the best investment instrument for financial planning on the basis of risk adjusted return so the majority of the response was for the tax saving mutual funds. This questions was to determine whether their response to there clients was positive.
Through factor analysis. 13.08 0. Factor Analysis: Now we have taken 7 attributes that were having significant impact on distributors’ behavior.25 0.77 0.91 0.24 -0.3 0.13 -0. 14.91 2 0.13 .04 0. This question was to check whether the respondents are aware of AMFI certification or not so majority was the participants were already aware of AMFI certification.94 - .91 0. This question was to determine in which way they would appreciate if the AMC approaches them so half of the participants liked if they are personally visited and the other like if they are approached by telephone.48 0.37 0.06 0.58 0. we have grouped these attributes.41 3 -0.85 0.08 0.48 0. Factor analysis has grouped attributes into three groups.12. This question was to determine whether they like if they are associated with mutual fund industry or not so some of them were already associated with mutual fund industry and majority of them were interested and wanted to be a part of Mutual Fund industry.8 0. 1 Profit Parking Risk Motive Tax Benefit Liquidity Flexibility Awareness 0.72 0. We tried to group these attributes into major groups.
Awareness Tax Saving. Flexibility Label Value For Money Economy Features From factor analysis we can say that there seven factors which have impact on distributors’ Behavior while deciding about any selling Option. Below diagram shows factors according to their importance.95 - . Motive. Liquidity.Compone nt 1 2 3 Attributes Profit Parking. . Risk.
of Respondents 69 42 99 . Impulsive.21 2. Vital. Conservative.8 2.75 2.There are some special characteristics shown by above categories of Prospective CAs and Tax consultants: Name Of The Profile Experiencers Characteristics Young. Approval seeking.94 2.21 1.21 2. Insecure. & Favor familiar options.93 2.55 2.36 No. Enthusiastic. Invest comparatively High Proportion of Income in new things. Cluster 1 Profit Parking Motive Tax Saving Risk Liquidity Flexibility Awareness 2. Traditional.59 2.33 Cluster 2 2. & Resource Constrained. Uncertain.78 2.03 2.84 1. Believers Strivers Cluster Analysis The following table shows the result of clustering.31 3.96 - .39 1.17 1.54 1.09 3. Conventional.87 2 Cluster 3 2. We stopped at three clusters as after that no major differences can be seen in the attribute-profile being generated for the distributors.
Large pool of installed capacities. HSBC).g. Various sources of income: Reliance has many sources of income throughout the group. STRENGTHS: Brand strategy: as opposed to some of its competitors (e. and this diversity within the group makes the company more flexible and resistant to economic and environmental changes. Experienced managers for large number of Generics. Large pool of skilled and knowledgeable manpower. . business opportunity (O). The company operates under numerous well-known brand names.SWOT Analysis A type of fundamental analysis of the health of a company by examining its strengths(S). weakness (W).97 - . and any threat (T) or dangers it might be exposed to. Distribution channel strategy: Reliance is continuously improving the distribution of its products. Its online and Internet-based access offers a combination of excellent growth prospects and its retail direct business also saw growth of 27% in 2002 and 15% in 2003. Increasing liberalization of government policies. Reliance ADAG operates a multi-brand strategy. which allows the company to appeal to many different segments of the market.
in the forms of loads and redemption fees are paid directly by shareholders purchasing or selling the funds. in years when the fund doesn't make money. Japan and the rest of Asia.WEAKNESS: Emerging markets: since there is more investment demand in the United States. When deciding on a particular fund to buy. especially in view of low global interest rates.just because a professional manager is looking after the fund. The annual fund operating fees are charged as an annual percentage . such as bonds and Treasury bills. The shareholder fees. the fees are classified into two categories: shareholder fees and annual operating fees. Mutual funds are like many other investments without a guaranteed return: there is always the possibility that the value of your mutual fund will depreciate. mutual funds experience price fluctuations along with the stocks that make up the fund. these fees only magnify losses. you need to research the risks involved .usually ranging from 1-3%. Unlike fixed-income products. As you can imagine. These fees are assessed to mutual fund investors regardless of the performance of the fund. that doesn't mean the performance will be stellar. Fees: In mutual funds. .98 - . Reliance should concentrate on these markets.
Be it a crash in the currency. Almost 60 to 70% of the revenue is spending on the management and services. All the major market leaders consider the segments and real markets for their products. A senior official in a one of the leading company says foray into rural India already started and there has been realization that the rural market is both price and quantity conscious. Also India Mutual Fund majors are tie up with other financial institutions. usually a hedge fund prominently figures somewhere in the picture.99 - . are also causing a threat for mutual funds have gained worldwide notoriety for bringing the markets down. Entry of MNCs: Due to multinationals are entering into market job opportunities are increasing day by day. stock or bond market.OPPORTUNITIES: Potential markets: The Indian rural market has great potential. In addition to this though multinational brands are not yet established but still they will soon hit the mark. . THREATS: Increased Competition: With intense competition by so many local players causing headache to the current marketers. Hedge funds: sometimes referred to as ‘hot money’.
People are not willing to take much risk and bear loss. Mutual Funds are more of an investment option than the speculative avenue.Conclusion: Jaipur has huge untapped market as far as MF is concerned. . Remove the differences in perception of audience about Private Company & PSU.100 - . Broker’s advice matters to as many of the people. Run some program to bring MF in final decision set while prospects decide about distributorship. People tend to gain through long investments rather than through short term. Create Awareness about Mutual Fund. Literate audience about MF as better investment option. Major part of people preferred self-evaluation as best. so go & hit the market. Income funds and ELSS are among the few top funds. Most of the people look at the returns that are given by funds some are Fund. Experience was the main factor that made a person invest in mutual funds in this favour and some people are those who consider Fund name and current NAV of the fund before investing into a Mutual Recommendations and Suggestions Brand Equity of Reliance is very high just.
Appendix: Glossary: Some terms related with Mutual Funds: ACCOUNT STATEMENT: A document issued by the mutual fund. anything that has value and can be traded. Examples include stocks. you are allocating your assets. APPRECIATION: When an investment increases in value. APPLICATION FORM: Form prescribed for investors to make applications for subscribing to the units of a fund ASSET: Property and resources. bank accounts. a equity share whose price goes from Rs. ANNUAL RETURN: The percentage of change in net asset value over a year's time.. such as cash and investments. such as stocks. bonds. The way in which your money is divided is called your asset allocation. i.101 - . and short-term investments (also known as "instruments"). comprise a person's assets. and jewellery.e. assuming reinvestment of distribution such as dividend payment and bonuses. real estate. 5/-.to Rs. . ADJUSTED NAV (TOTAL RETURN): The net asset value of a unit assuming reinvestment of distributions made to the investors in any form. it appreciates. For example. giving details of transactions and holdings of an investor. bonds. 25/. ASSET ALLOCATION: When you divide your money among various types of investments.has appreciated by Rs. ADVISOR: Your financial consultant who gives professional advice on the fund's investments and who supervise the management of its assets. 20/.
The difference is charged by the fund. . For example. BALANCE SHEET: A financial statement showing the nature and amount of a company's assets. AUTOMATIC INVESTMENT PLAN: Under these plans.the principal amount -. BOND FUNDS: Registered investment companies whose assets are invested in diversified portfolios of bonds primarily fixed income securities. additional units are allotted to the investor at the prevailing NAV. the balance period till the redemption of the scheme. generally 40% bonds and 60% equity. BALANCED FUND: A mutual fund that maintains a balanced portfolio.102 - .ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANY / AMC / INVESTMENT MANAGER / Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd. liabilities and shareholders' equity. the performance of a scheme can be benchmarked against an appropriate index. It is a company set up primarily for managing the investment of mutual funds and makes investment decisions in accordance with the scheme objectives. quarterly. BOND: An interest-bearing promise to pay a specified sum of money -. etc.: It is the investment manager for the mutual fund. deed of Trust and other provisions of the Investment Management Agreement. BACK END LOAD: The difference between the NAV of the units of a scheme and the price at which they are redeemed. BENCHMARK: A parameter with which a scheme can be compared. the cheques are realized by the mutual fund and on realization.due on a specific date. On the specified dates. the investor mandates the mutual fund to allot fresh units at specified intervals (monthly.) against which the investor provides post-dated cheques. BALANCE MATURITY TENURE OF A SCHEME: In the case of close-ended schemes.
meaning that the value of your investment rises. If you sell units at a higher price than you paid for them. you make a profit. or capital gain. A capital loss would be when the difference between an asset's purchase price and selling price is negative. .BROKER: One who guides the investors on one or more investments and facilitates the process of investment. CAPITAL GAINS: The difference between an asset's purchased price and selling price. This is a specific long-term objective of many mutual funds. CAPITAL GROWTH: A rise in market value of a mutual fund's securities. your priority is trying not to lose any money. when the difference is positive. reflected in its NAV per share. CAPITAL APPRECIATION: As the value of the securities in a portfolio increases. Capital Loss realized when an instrument or asset is sold at a price below its cost.103 - . When your investing objective is capital preservation. If you sell units at a lower price than you paid for them. When your investing objective is capital growth. brokerage is payable by a fund for getting fresh investments from investors. a fund's Net Asset Value (NAV) increases. you'll have a capital loss. A broker is a member of a recognized stock exchange who buys and sells or otherwise deals in securities. BULL MARKET: Period during which the prices of stocks in the stock market keep continuously rising for a significant period of time on the back of sustained demand for the stocks. For example. CAPITAL: This is the amount of money you have invested. BROKERAGE: The fee payable to a broker for acting as an intermediary in a transaction. your priority is trying to make your initial investment grow in value.
One can invest directly in the scheme at the time for the initial issue and thereafter transact (buy or sell) the units of the scheme on the stock exchanges where they are listed. and any other securities (such as options) not included in other asset allocation categories.104 - . Some close-ended schemes provide an additional option of selling the units directly to the Mutual Fund through periodic repurchase at NAV related prices. usually a junior subordinated debenture. unitholders' expectations and other market factors. short-term securities. COMMISSION: The broker's or agent's fee for buying or selling securities for a client. CORPUS: The total amount of money invested by all the investors in a scheme. CONVERTIBLE BOND: A corporate bond. CLOSED-ENDED MUTUAL FUND: They are schemes that have a prespecified maturity period generally ranging from 2 to 15 years. The market price at the stock exchanges could vary from the scheme's net asset value (NAV) on account of demand and supply situation. . which can be exchanged for shares of the issuer's common stock. SEBI Regulations ensure that at least one of the two exit routes are provided to the investor.CAPITAL MARKET: The market where capital funds. The fee is usually based on a percentage of the transaction's market value. Examples include bond interest and stock dividends. CASH & OTHER CATEGORY: A mutual fund asset allocation theory that includes net cash. CURRENT INCOME: Monies paid during the period an investment is held. debt (bonds) and equity ( stocks) are traded.
ENTRY LOAD: It is the load charged by the fund when one invests into the fund. . DIVIDEND REINVESTMENT: In a dividend reinvestment plan. DIVIDEND: Income distributed by the Scheme on the Units DIVIDEND PLAN: In a dividend plan. CURRENT MARKET VALUE: The amount a willing buyer will pay for a bond today.105 - . These funds are the least risky and are generally preferred by risk-averse investors. EQUITY SCHEMES: Schemes where more than 50% of the investments are done in equity shares of various companies. which may be at a premium (above face value) or a discount (below face value). the fund pays dividend from time to time as and when the dividend is declared. Thus the number of units allotted under the dividend reinvestment plan would be the dividend declared divided by the ex-dividend NAV.CURRENT LOAD: Load structure applicable currently. the dividend is reinvested in the scheme itself. treasury bills. Funds keep revising the load structures from time to time. certificates of deposit and commercial papers. Hence instead of receiving dividend. the unit holders receive units. DEBT /INCOME FUNDS: Funds that invest in income bearing instruments such as corporate debentures. DIVERSIFICATION: Diversification is the concept of spreading your money across different types of investments and/or issuers to potentially moderate your investment risk. It increases the price of the units to more than the NAV and is expressed as a percentage of NAV. The objective is to provide capital appreciation over a period of time. gilts. PSU bonds.
FACE VALUE: The original issue price of one unit of a scheme FII: Foreign Institutional Investors.106 - . . INDEX FUND: A type of mutual fund in which the portfolios are constructed to mirror a specific market index. INCOME FUND: A mutual fund that primarily seeks current income rather than growth of capital. Growth stocks have relatively more risk than other conventional forms of investment. he is the person who makes all the final decisions regarding investments of a scheme GROWTH FUND: A mutual fund whose primary investment objective is longterm growth of capital. INITIAL OFFER/INITIAL ISSUE: Offer of Reliance Income Fund units during the initial offer period.EXPENSE RATIO: Annual percentage of fund's assets that is paid out in expenses. Index funds are expected to provide a rate of return over time that will approximate or match. It will tend to invest in stocks and bonds that normally pay high dividends and interest. FUND MANAGER: Appointed by the AMC. which they are mirroring. 1995. registered with SEBI under the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Foreign Institutional Investors) Regulations. Growth Stocks of companies that have shown or are expected to show rapid earnings and revenue growth. It invests principally in common stocks with significant growth potential. Expenses include management fees and all the fees associated with the fund's daily operations. but not exceed. that of the market. It reduces the price of the units to less than the NAV and is expressed as a percentage of NAV. EXIT LOAD: It is the load charged by the fund when one redeems the units from the fund.
MATURITY OR MATURITY DATE: The date upon which the principal of a security becomes due and payable to the security holder. On most securities the maturity value equals the par value. 10 million. . A company may have 10 million shares in issue. LOCK IN PERIOD: The period after investment in fresh units during which the investor cannot redeem the units. ISSUED SHARE CAPITAL: This is the total number of shares a company has made publicly available multiplied by the total nominal value of the shares. 1. The objective is to provide liquidity and preserve the capital LOAD: A charge that may be levied as a percentage of NAV at the time of entry into the Scheme/Plans or at the time of exiting from the Scheme/Plans. MATURITY VALUE: The amount (other than periodic interest payment) that will be received at the time a security is redeemed at its maturity. each with a nominal value of Re. LIQUIDITY: The ability to buy or sell an asset quickly or the ability to convert to cash quickly LIQUID FUNDS /MONEY MARKET FUNDS : Funds investing only in shortterm money market instruments including treasury bills.INITIAL OFFER PRICE: The price at which units of a scheme are offered in its Initial Public Offer (IPO). So the issued share capital is Rs.107 - . commercial paper and certificates of deposit. A management fee is usually between one-half and one percent of the fund's net asset value. MANAGEMENT FEE: Money paid by a mutual fund to its investment manager or advisor for overseeing the portfolio.
bonds. NAV: Net Asset Value of the Units in each plan of the Scheme is calculated in the manner provided in this Offer Document or as may be prescribed by Regulations from time to time. such as commissions or markups. NAV Change: The difference between today's closing net asset value (NAV) and the previous day's closing net asset value (NAV). bonds. and other securities.MUTUAL FUNDS: An investment company that pools money from its unitholders and invests that money into a variety of securities. to regulate the activities of the Mutual Fund. MUTUAL FUND REGULATIONS: Securities and Exchange Board of India (Mutual Funds) Regulations. 1996 as amended up to date and such other Regulations. minus all outstanding debts. and money-market instruments. NON PERFORMING INVESTMENTS: Part of the portfolio investment of a debt fund which is not making interest payment or principal amount repayments in time. This represents a way of investing money into a professionally managed and diversified pool of securities that hopefully will provide a good return on unitholders' money. such as a house.108 - . NAV Change %: The percentage change between today's closing net asset value (NAV) and the previous day's closing net asset value (NAV) NET WORTH: A person's net worth is equal to the total value of all possessions. stocks. as may be in force from time to time. such as mortgage and revolving credit lines. including stocks. . NET YIELD: Rate of return on a security net of out-of-pocket costs associated with its purchase.
REDEMPTION: The paying off or buying back of units of a mutual fund / bond by the issuer. RETURNS: The dividend and capital appreciation accruing to the investor on the investment held by him . It includes both buying and selling of holdings and is aimed at giving a better yield to the investor.109 - . The key feature is liquidity. It contains information required by the Securities and Exchange Board of India. REDEMPTION FEE: A fee charged by a limited number of funds for redeeming. The redemption price is usually equal to the current NAV per unit. REDEMPTION PRICE: The price at which a mutual fund's units are redeemed (bought back) by the fund. OPENING NAV: The NAV disclosed by the fund for the first time after the closure of an NFO. fund units. PORTFOLIO: It refers to the total investment holdings of the fund. services.OFFER DOCUMENT OR PROSPECTUS: The official document issued by mutual funds prior to the launch of a fund describing the characteristics of the proposed fund to all its prospective investors. Individual investors are encouraged to read and understand the fund's prospectus OPEN-ENDED SCHEMES/ FUNDS: Scheme of a mutual fund where purchase or sale of units is allowed on a continued basis. or buying back. such as investment objective and policies. and fees. PORTFOLIO CHURNING: It refers to the changes made to the portfolio keeping in view the market conditions. One can conveniently buy and sell the units held at the NAV related price. Funds that do not have any fixed maturity and are continuously open for subscription and redemption.
With different schemes. unit capital and all property belonging to and i or vested in the Trustee UNIT: A Unit represents one undivided share in the assets of the Schemes. the assets contributed by the unit holders of a particular scheme are maintained and managed separately from other schemes and any profit/loss from the assets accrue only to the unit holders of that scheme SYSTEMATIC INVESTMENT PLAN (SIP): A program that allows an investor to provide post-dated cheques to the mutual fund to allot fresh units at specified intervals (usually monthly or quarterly). in spite of there being a common trust. The withdrawals are as per the requirements of the investor specified by him/ her at the time of investment.SCHEME: A mutual fund can launch more than one scheme. TRUST FUND: The corpus of the Trust. bi-monthly or quarterly withdrawals. . the cheques are realized by the mutual fund and additional units at the prevailing NAV are allotted to the investor. This enables him to invest as little as Rs 1000 a month and take advantage of rupee cost averaging. SYSTEMATIC WITHDRAWAL PLANS (SWP): A plan offered with some schemes under which post-dated cheques for fixed amounts (as may be fixed by the fund) are issued to the investors for monthly. UNIT HOLDER: A person who holds Unit(s) under any plan of the Scheme. On the specified dates. TRANSACTION SLIP: A brief form to be filled at the time of additional purchases or redemption.110 - .
usually expressed as a percentage of net asset value or market price. . Unlike total return. volatility refers to the ups and downs of the price of an investment. ZERO-COUPON BOND: A bond where no periodic interest payments are made. YIELD: Distributions form investment income. the more volatile the investment 52 WEEK HIGH: The highest market value of a unit (in terms of NAV) during the immediately preceding 52 weeks.111 - .VALUATION: Calculation of the market value of the assets of a mutual fund scheme at any point of time VOLATILITY: In investing. the more volatile the investment. The greater the ups and downs. The maturity value an investor receives is equal to the principal invested plus interest earned compounded semi-annually at the original rate to maturity. yield has the single component of investment income and does not include capital gains distributions or capital appreciation of underlying shares. The investor purchases the bond at a discounted price and receives one payment at maturity. WEEK LOW: The lowest value of a unit (in terms of NAV) during the immediately preceding 52 weeks owns.
Which factor do you think is important while you advice your clients for financial plans? (A) Risk (B) Tax Benefit (C) Time Period (D) Good Returns. I would appreciate if you could spend some time in filling this questionnaire:” Q.Questionnaire for CA’s and Tax Consultants Name_________________ No.1. Do you think Mutual Fund is a good option for investment? (A) Yes.3.A.Which segment of people/ client you deal with? (A) HNI Trust (B) Corporate (C) Individuals (D) Society. Pursuing my academic project on mutual funds.. “I am a student of MBA 4 th semester. How Often you suggest your clients to invest in mutual funds? (A) Always (B) Sometimes (C) Rarely (D) Never Q. (E) Good Service (F) All of above Q. or are you a tax consultant? (A)Yes (B) No Age______ Contact Q. 8. HUF.7.5. Q._____________ Dear Sir/Madam.2. Are you practicing C.112 - .6. Q. What is the profile of your clients who come for investment? (A) Risk Averse (B) Risk Taker (C) Risk Neutral Q. Do you get queries from your clients regarding mutual funds/ Tax saving mutual funds? (A) Yes (B) No . What is the average age of your clients? (A) Less than 35 (B) 35-40 (C) 50 Above Q. (B) No (C) Can’t say.4.
(B). Thank you for your precious time. (C).113 - . 12. Yes No Q. What is your response to their queries? (A). Mutual funds Fixes deposits Post office deposits Life insurance policy Bank share trading.Q. If yes. (B). Are you aware of AMFI certification? (A). What are the investment instruments you suggest to your clients for tax planning purpose? (A). (B). then in what way you would appreciate the AMC to approach you? (A). 10. (E). Q. (D). 9. Yes No Q. NSC PPF. Life insurance. (B). (C). Mutual funds ELSS. (B). Q. (C). (B). (D).13. Telephone Personal visit. Post office schemes. (E). Would you like yourself to be associated with the mutual fund industry? (A). .11. Positive Neutral Negative Q. How will you rank the below investment instruments for your clients financial planning on the basis of risk adjusted return? (A).14.
India.in/ http://finance.com/getfundsmajor. Insurance Chronicle.php? key=Reliance http://www.wikipedia.114 - .co. Webliography: http://www. Kumar and Day.R. New Age Publication. Namakumari.investopedia.com/category/mutual-funds/fundhouses/reliance-mf/ http://www. “Research Methodology”. Kothari. ″ Marketing Management”. “Marketing Management”.indiamart.com/fund_portfolio. 2004.com/markets/mutual_funds/ http://www. C.amfiindia.com http://finance.Bibliography and Webliography: Bibliography: Annual report of the Company. ICFAI publications. “Marketing Management” . Business Management.indiamart.org/wiki/Mutual_fund http://reliancemutualfund. Saxena. Portfolio organizer.S.topnews. Marketing research. R.asp http://www. Sharma. Ramaswamy. 2006.getpaidindia. 2004. 9th Edition. Tata Mcgraw Hill. ICFAI Journal of Banking. 2003..mutualfundsnavtindia. Pearson Education.. Mar 2008 Edition. India. Kotlar Philip.. First India Print. Macmillan Business Book.in/reliance-mutual-fund-plans-nfos-2910 .com http://en. John Willy & sons. Rajan. ICFAI journal. 2007. 2004. India.com/markets/mutual_funds/ http://mutualfundsindia.
115 - .com/profile/Reliance_Mutual_Fund/393400 http://business.com/mutual-funds/firms/reliance.com/finance/mutual-funds/index.html .iloveindia. http://www.html http://connect.mapsofindia.in.