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LA PRUEBA
ELECTRÓNICA
Teoría y práctica
Gastón Enrique Bielli
Carlos Jonathan Ordoñez

LA PRUEBA
ELECTRÓNICA
Teoría y práctica
Bielli, Gastón Enrique
La prueba electrónica: teoría y práctica / Gastón Enrique
Bielli; Carlos Ordoñez.- 1a ed.- Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos
Aires: La Ley, 2019.
848 p. ; 24 x 17 cm.
ISBN 978-987-03-3822-2
1. Derecho Informático. I. Ordoñez, Carlos. II. Título.
CDD 347.05

© Gastón Enrique Bielli, 2019


© Carlos Jonathan Ordoñez, 2019
© de esta edición, La Ley S.A.E. e I., 2017
Tucumán 1471 (C1050AAC) Buenos Aires
Queda hecho el depósito que previene la ley 11.723

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CURRÍCULOS DE LOS AUTORES

Gastón Enrique Bielli

Abogado (UNLZ). Doctorando en derecho (UCES). Maestrando


en Derecho Procesal (UNR). Presidente del Instituto Argentino de
Derecho Procesal Informático (IADPI). Miembro del Foro de Dere-
cho Procesal Electrónico (FDPE). Secretario de la Comisión de In-
formática del Colegio de Abogados de la Provincia de Buenos Aires
(ColProBA). Presidente de la Comisión de Derecho Informático del
Colegio de Abogados de Lomas de Zamora. Autor del libro Derecho
Procesal Informático, Thomson Reuters - La Ley, 2017. Autor de más
de cincuenta publicaciones sobre la temática del Derecho Procesal
Informático, Derecho Informático, y prueba electrónica. Docente
universitario (UNLZ).

Carlos Jonathan Ordoñez

Abogado (UNMDP). Doctorando en derecho (UNMDP). Vice-


presidente del Instituto Argentino de Derecho Procesal Informá-
tico (IADPI). Miembro Académico del Foro de Derecho Procesal
Electrónico (FDPE). Secretario del Tribunal del Trabajo nro. 4 de
Mar del Plata. Autor de numerosas publicaciones sobre Derecho
Procesal Informático y Prueba Electrónica, y coautor de diversas
obras colectivas sobre la temática.

1
2
Índice general

Currículos de los autores .................................................................................


Prólogo ..............................................................................................................

Capítulo I
Introducción

1.1. El objeto de la presente obra ................................................................


1.2. El derecho procesal informático ..........................................................
1.3. Prueba y prueba electrónica .................................................................
1.4. Desafíos probatorios actuales...............................................................
1.4.1. No todo es 0 y 1, siempre hay un soporte físico ....................
1.4.2. Preconstitución de prueba .....................................................
1.4.3. Estrategia procesal ..................................................................

Capítulo II
Nociones técnicas preliminares

2.1. Sistemas. Hardware y software. Redes informáticas ...........................


2.1.1. Redes informáticas. Internet ..................................................
2.1.2. El localizador uniforme de recursos (URL) ...........................
2.1.3. Protocolo de transferencia de hipertextos (HTTP)...............
2.1.4. El lenguaje de marcación de hipertexto (HTML) .................
2.2. Comunicaciones a través de Internet ..................................................
2.2.1. Protocolo TCP ..........................................................................
2.2.2. Protocolo IP .............................................................................
2.2.3. Direcciones IP públicas y privadas ........................................
2.2.4. IP estáticas y dinámicas ..........................................................
2.2.5. Sistema de nombres de dominio (DNS) ................................
2.2.6. Proveedores de servicios de Internet (ISP) ...........................
2.2.7. Proveedores de alojamiento (hosting) ...................................
2.2.8. Las IP y su debida apreciación probatoria ............................

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XII GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

2.3. Metadatos ...............................................................................................


2.4. Código hash y hasheo de documentos electrónicos ...........................
2.5. Los terceros de confianza......................................................................
2.5.1. Introducción ............................................................................
2.5.2. Marco regulatorio ....................................................................
2.5.2.1. Derecho comparado .............................................
2.5.2.2. Normativa local .....................................................
2.5.3. Naturaleza jurídica ..................................................................
2.5.4. El apartado técnico .................................................................
2.5.5. Validez probatoria de los documentos electrónicos certifi-
cados por terceros de confianza.............................................
2.5.6. Acompañamiento de la prueba. Casos ejemplo ...................
2.5.7. Conclusiones ...........................................................................

Capítulo III
El documento electrónico

3.1. Entramado normativo argentino. Ley de Firma Digital 25.506 ..........


3.2. La infraestructura PKI ...........................................................................
3.3. Documento electrónico ........................................................................
3.3.1. Documento digital y su recepción práctica...........................
3.3.2. Clases de documentos electrónicos ......................................
3.3.3. Características salientes .........................................................
3.4. Metodologías de suscripción ................................................................
3.4.1. Firma digital.............................................................................
3.4.2. Valor probatorio de la firma digital ........................................
3.4.3. Presunciones de la ley 25.506 .................................................
3.4.3.1. Presunción de autoría ...........................................
3.4.3.2. Presunción de integridad .....................................
3.4.4. Firma electrónica ....................................................................
3.4.4.1. Valor probatorio de la firma electrónica .............
3.4.5. Diferencias conceptuales entre ambos institutos.................
3.5. Certificados digitales .............................................................................
3.5.1. Vinculación con el titular .......................................................
3.5.2. Certificación de datos .............................................................
3.5.3. Vigencia de los certificados digitales .....................................
3.6. Autoridad certificante ...........................................................................
3.6.1. Autoridad certificante raíz ......................................................
3.6.2. Certificador licenciado ...........................................................
3.7. Criptografía ............................................................................................
3.7.1. Aplicaciones ............................................................................

4
ÍNDICE GENERAL XIII

3.7.2. Diferentes sistemas .................................................................


3.7.3. Sistema adoptado por la ley 25.506........................................
3.8. La confianza digital ...............................................................................
3.9. Documentos electrónicos y firma en el Código Civil y Comercial de
la Nación.................................................................................................
3.9.1. El debate doctrinario sobre la vigencia de la firma electró-
nica. Breve reseña ...................................................................
3.9.1.1. Tesis restrictiva ......................................................
3.9.1.2. Tesis amplia ...........................................................
3.9.1.3. Nuestra postura .....................................................

Capítulo IV
La investigación forense

4.1. La evidencia digital ................................................................................


4.2. La investigación forense del perito informático..................................
4.3. Fases de la cadena de custodia aplicables en el caso de peritos........
4.3.1. Fase de identificación .............................................................
4.3.2. Fase de recolección .................................................................
4.3.3. Fase de preservación ...............................................................
4.3.4. Fase de análisis ........................................................................
4.3.5. Fase de presentación...............................................................
4.4. La investigación forense del abogado ..................................................
4.5. Fases de la cadena de custodia en el caso de abogados litigantes .....
4.5.1. Fase de identificación .............................................................
4.5.2. Fase de recolección .................................................................
4.5.2.1. Primera etapa: captura audiovisual del procedi-
miento de cadena de custodia .............................
4.5.2.2. Segunda etapa: recolección de la evidencia di-
gital .........................................................................
4.5.3. Fase de preservación ...............................................................
4.5.4. Fase de presentación...............................................................

Capítulo V
Cadena de custodia

5.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


5.2. Definición de cadena de custodia ........................................................
5.3. Objeto de la cadena de custodia en materia de prueba electrónica .
5.4. Buenas prácticas y principios básicos de actuación ...........................

5
XIV GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

5.5. Diversos protocolos de cadena de custodia existentes en la órbita


nacional ..................................................................................................
5.5.1. Protocolo general de actuación para las fuerzas policiales
y de seguridad en la investigación y proceso de recolección
de pruebas en ciberdelitos del Ministerio de Seguridad de
la Nación ..................................................................................
5.5.2. Guía de obtención, preservación y tratamiento de eviden-
cia digital del Ministerio Público Fiscal de la Nación ...........
5.5.2.1. El principio de relevancia .....................................
5.5.2.2. El principio de confiabilidad ................................
5.5.2.3. El principio de suficiencia ....................................
5.5.3. Manual de procedimientos del sistema de cadena de cus-
todia del Ministerio Público de la Provincia de Salta ...........
5.5.4. Protocolo de Actuación para Pericias Informáticas de
Neuquén ..................................................................................
5.5.5. Acordada 0034/07 de la Provincia del Chubut......................
5.5.6. Guía integral de empleo de la informática forense en el
proceso penal de InFo-Lab .....................................................
5.6. Órbita internacional ..............................................................................
5.7. Ruptura de la cadena de custodia. Consecuencias procesales ..........

Capítulo VI
La identidad digital

6.1. Concepto de identidad ..........................................................................


6.2. Concepto de identidad digital ..............................................................
6.3. Caracteres de la identidad digital .........................................................
6.4. La reputación digital..............................................................................
6.5. La importancia de identidad digital en materia de probática elec-
trónica.....................................................................................................
6.6. La problemática. Identidades digitales falsas .....................................

Capítulo VII
Derechos constitucionales y prueba
electrónica

7.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


7.2. Derecho a la prueba ..............................................................................
7.3. Derecho a la privacidad y a la intimidad .............................................
7.3.1. El reconocimiento de la Constitución Nacional ...................

6
ÍNDICE GENERAL XV

7.3.2. Delimitación de conceptos.....................................................


7.3.3. La privacidad e intimidad en el entorno digital....................
7.3.4. La intimidad y la violación de correspondencia electrónica ...
7.3.5. Supuestos prácticos ................................................................
7.3.5.1. Mensajes (SMS) .....................................................
7.3.5.2. Mensajes (WhatsApp) ...........................................
7.3.5.3. Correos electrónicos .............................................
7.3.5.4. Páginas web ...........................................................
7.3.5.5. Celulares ................................................................
7.3.5.6. Filmaciones............................................................
7.3.5.7. Drones ....................................................................
7.3.5.8. Publicaciones en redes sociales ...........................
7.3.5.9. Geolocalización .....................................................
7.4. Principio de igualdad ............................................................................
7.4.1. La fórmula constitucional.......................................................
7.4.2. La igualdad en el plano procesal............................................
7.4.3. Igualdad y prueba electrónica................................................
7.4.4. Supuestos prácticos ................................................................
7.4.4.1. Medidas para mejor proveer ................................
7.4.4.2. Carga probatoria dinámica...................................
7.4.4.3. Prueba anticipada .................................................
7.5. Derecho a la propiedad .........................................................................
7.5.1. La garantía constitucional ......................................................
7.5.2. La propiedad en la red ............................................................
7.5.3. La propiedad y la prueba electrónica ....................................
7.5.4. Supuestos prácticos ................................................................
7.5.4.1. Secuestro ................................................................
7.5.4.2. Apropiaciones indebidas ......................................

Capítulo VIII

Los medios de prueba en general

8.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


8.2. Fuentes y medios de prueba. Distingo .................................................
8.3. Los medios de prueba en el régimen adjetivo.....................................
8.4. Prueba documental ...............................................................................
8.4.1. Noción preliminar ...................................................................
8.4.2. Agregación y ofrecimiento......................................................
8.4.2.1. Generalidades .......................................................
8.4.2.2. Supuestos especiales.............................................

7
XVI GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

8.4.2.2.1.
Impresiones simples .........................
8.4.2.2.2.
Fotografías ..........................................
8.4.2.2.3.
Capturas de pantalla (screenshots) ...
8.4.2.2.4.
Actas notariales de constatación ......
8.4.2.2.5.
Certificaciones efectuadas por ter-
ceros de confianza .............................
8.4.3. El deber de exhibición ............................................................
8.4.3.1. Generalidades .......................................................
8.4.3.2. Originalidad de archivos digitales exhibidos ......
8.4.4. El deber de preservación ........................................................
8.4.5. Documentación en poder de la parte ....................................
8.4.6. Documentación en poder de terceros ...................................
8.5. Prueba informativa ................................................................................
8.6. Prueba testimonial ................................................................................
8.6.1. Testigos y testigos virtuales.....................................................
8.6.2. Impugnaciones por amistad en redes sociales .....................
8.7. Prueba pericial informática ..................................................................
8.7.1. Generalidades .........................................................................
8.7.1.1. La prueba pericial .................................................
8.7.1.2. La informática forense ..........................................
8.7.2. La prueba pericial informática en sí ......................................
8.7.3. Preservación de la evidencia informática .............................
8.7.4. Recaudos de la pericia ............................................................
8.7.5. Eficacia probatoria ..................................................................
8.8. Reconocimiento judicial .......................................................................
8.9. Prueba en el exterior .............................................................................

Capítulo IX
Carga probatoria

9.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


9.2. Carga procesal........................................................................................
9.3. La carga de la prueba.............................................................................
9.3.1. Generalidades .........................................................................
9.3.2. Régimen legal ..........................................................................
9.3.3. Complejidades en materia de prueba electrónica. Hitos
claves ........................................................................................
9.3.4. Explorando metadatos............................................................
9.3.5. La tarea de complementación................................................
9.3.6. Los hechos notorios ................................................................
9.3.6.1. Generalidades .......................................................
9.3.6.2. Situaciones especiales en la red ...........................

8
ÍNDICE GENERAL XVII

9.3.6.3. Estrategia procesal ................................................


9.3.7. Las medidas de mejor proveer ...............................................
9.3.7.1. Generalidades .......................................................
9.3.7.2. Particularidades en la prueba electrónica ..........
9.3.8. Simplificación de prueba........................................................
9.3.8.1. Generalidades .......................................................
9.3.8.2. Particularidades en la prueba electrónica ..........
9.4. Carga probatoria dinámica ...................................................................
9.4.1. Generalidades .........................................................................
9.4.2. Fundamentos...........................................................................
9.4.2.1. El principio de igualdad........................................
9.4.2.2. La tutela judicial efectiva ......................................
9.4.2.3. El deber de colaboración ......................................
9.4.2.4. La valoración de los indicios ................................
9.4.3. La falta de recepción adjetiva .................................................
9.4.4. La contribución del Código Civil y Comercial ......................
9.5. Los desequilibrios digitales tutelables por la carga dinámica de la
prueba.....................................................................................................
9.5.1. Desigualdades y prueba electrónica ......................................
9.5.2. Aplicación de la carga dinámica a la prueba electrónica.....

Capítulo X
Prueba anticipada

10.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


10.2. Naturaleza ..............................................................................................
10.3. Procedencia ...........................................................................................
10.4. Oportunidad ..........................................................................................
10.5. Medios probatorios tutelados...............................................................
10.5.1. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
10.5.2. Reconocimiento judicial virtual .............................................
10.5.3. Pericial informática .................................................................
10.5.4. Informativa ..............................................................................
10.6. Modalidades ..........................................................................................
10.7. Secuestro ................................................................................................

Capítulo XI
Ilicitud de la prueba electrónica

11.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


11.2. Fronteras probatorias actuales .............................................................

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XVIII GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

11.3. Ilicitud de la prueba ..............................................................................


11.3.1. Concepto ..................................................................................
11.3.2. Generalidades .........................................................................
11.4. La regla del orden adjetivo ....................................................................
11.5. Particularidades sobre la ilicitud de la prueba electrónica ................
11.6. Recepción jurisprudencial ....................................................................
11.6.1. Correo electrónico ..................................................................
11.6.2. Mensajes de texto ....................................................................
11.6.3. Mensajes de WhatsApp...........................................................
11.6.4. Filmaciones..............................................................................
11.6.5. Comunicaciones telefónicas ..................................................
11.6.6. Grabaciones sonoras...............................................................

Capítulo XII
Adulteraciones y manipulaciones de prueba
electrónica

12.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


12.2. La autenticidad del documento electrónico .......................................
12.3. Las adulteraciones o manipulaciones más frecuentes .......................
12.3.1. De modificación o adulteración documental .......................
12.3.2. De sustitución de identidad digital ........................................
12.4. Herramientas vitales para la prevención o detección de adultera-
ciones documentales.............................................................................
12.5. Consecuencias procesales en el ámbito civil ......................................
12.5.1. Medidas de prueba anticipada ..............................................
12.5.2. Temeridad o malicia ...............................................................
12.5.3. Indicios graves .........................................................................

Capítulo XIII
Reconocimiento, desconocimiento e
impugnación de prueba electrónica

13.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


13.2. Reconocimiento y desconocimiento ...................................................
13.3. Impugnación ..........................................................................................
13.3.1. Impugnación de falsedades ...................................................
13.3.2. Impugnación de firma digital.................................................
13.3.3. Impugnación de ilicitudes ......................................................

10
ÍNDICE GENERAL XIX

13.3.4. Otras impugnaciones especiales............................................


13.3.4.1. Actas de constatación ...........................................
13.3.4.2. Hackeo de cuenta ..................................................
13.3.4.3. Certificaciones de terceros de confianza.............

Capítulo XIV
Valoración de la prueba electrónica

14.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


14.2. Valoración de la prueba. Concepto ......................................................
14.3. Sistemas de valoración ..........................................................................
14.3.1. Legal o tasada ..........................................................................
14.3.2. Libres convicciones .................................................................
14.4. El sistema de valoración vigente (la sana crítica) ...............................
14.5. Las máximas de la experiencia y la prueba electrónica .....................
14.6. La influencia del Código Civil y Comercial de la Nación ...................
14.7. El soporte de la valoración ....................................................................
14.7.1. El documento electrónico ......................................................
14.7.2. El hardware ..............................................................................
14.8. La tarea de encuadre técnico (previa a la valoración) ........................
14.9. La directriz del art. 319, Cód. Civ. y Com. ............................................
14.10. La importancia de los indicios..............................................................
14.10.1. Indicios y prueba electrónica .................................................
14.10.2. Los indicios endoprocesales (la conducta de las partes) .....
14.10.3. ¿La prueba electrónica es una prueba indiciaria? ................
14.11. El rol de las presunciones .....................................................................
14.12. Los tests ineludibles de la tarea valorativa ...........................................
14.12.1. Planteo de la cuestión .............................................................
14.12.2. El test de autoría ......................................................................
14.12.3. El test de integridad .................................................................
14.12.4. El test de licitud........................................................................
14.12.5. El uso de los tests (variables) ..................................................
14.13. Particularidades en el fuero laboral .....................................................
14.13.1. La impronta del proceso laboral ............................................
14.13.2. El principio protectorio y la prueba electrónica ...................
14.13.3. El rol de las presunciones .......................................................
14.13.4. Los tests de autoría, integridad y licitud ................................
14.13.4.1. Test de autoría ........................................................
14.13.4.2. Test de integridad ..................................................
14.13.4.3. Test de licitud .........................................................

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XX GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

14.14. Particularidades en el fuero de familia (por Gabriel Hernán


Quadri) ...................................................................................................
14.14.1. La impronta del proceso de familia .......................................
14.14.2. Los principios del proceso de familia y la prueba electró-
nica ...........................................................................................
14.14.3. Tests de autoría, integridad y licitud ......................................
14.14.3.1. Test de autoría ........................................................
14.14.3.2. Test de integridad ..................................................
14.14.3.3. Test de licitud .........................................................
14.14.4. La carga de la prueba ..............................................................
14.14.5. Valoración ................................................................................

Capítulo XV
Páginas web

15.1. Introducción. Los sitios web y las páginas web ...................................


15.2. El apartado técnico de las páginas web ...............................................
15.3. Páginas web y código HTML.................................................................
15.4. Hechos notorios. Viralización de la información................................
15.5. Registros de dominio en Argentina ......................................................
15.6. Sobre la estructura de archivos de sitios web. El caso de HTTrack ...
15.7. IP y páginas web. Presunciones acerca de su uso ...............................
15.8. Librerías y bases de datos digitales. El caso de archive.org (Wayback
Machine).................................................................................................
15.9. Páginas web y los medios de prueba. Parte especial ..........................
15.9.1. Respecto a nuestro cliente (solo en el caso que la página
tenga una sección de registro que se haya utilizado) ...........
15.9.2. Respecto a la página web ........................................................
15.9.3. Prueba documental.................................................................
15.9.3.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................
15.9.3.2. Acta notarial...........................................................
15.9.3.3. El documento electrónico ....................................
15.9.3.3.1. El código fuente de la página web ....
15.9.3.3.2. HTTrack ..............................................
15.9.3.3.3. Terceros de confianza........................
15.9.3.4. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
15.9.4. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
15.9.5. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
15.9.6. Prueba de informes .................................................................
15.9.6.1. Oficio al administrador del sitio web ...................
15.9.6.2. Oficio al servicio de hosting ..................................

12
ÍNDICE GENERAL XXI

15.9.6.3. Oficio a NIC Argentina ..........................................


15.9.6.4. Oficio a proveedores de correo electrónico ........
15.9.6.5. Oficio de informes a las compañías de telefonía
15.9.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
15.10. Estrategia procesal .................................................................................
15.10.1. Prueba anticipada ...................................................................
15.11. El contenido inserto en sitios web y su efectiva valoración judicial ..

Capítulo XVI
Correos electrónicos

16.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


16.2. Generación y denominación de casillas de correo electrónico .........
16.3. Funcionamiento del correo electrónico ..............................................
16.3.1. Protocolos y agentes de correo electrónico...........................
16.3.1.1. SMTP - Protocolo simple de transferencia de
correo .....................................................................
16.3.1.2. MUA o Mail User Agent .........................................
16.3.1.3. MTA o Mail Transfer Agent ...................................
16.3.1.4. MDA o Mail Delivery Agent ..................................
16.3.1.5. El protocolo POP3 (Post Office Protocol - Proto-
colo de Oficina de Correo)....................................
16.3.1.6. El protocolo IMAP (Internet Message Access Pro-
tocol o Protocolo de Acceso a Mensajes de In-
ternet) .....................................................................
16.3.2. Servidores y acceso a plataformas de correo ........................
16.3.2.1. Proveedores de correos electrónicos ...................
16.3.2.1.1. Servidores generales..........................
16.3.2.1.2. Servidores corporativos ....................
16.3.2.1.3. Servidores web ...................................
16.3.2.2. Tipos de acceso a cuentas de correo electrónico
16.3.2.2.1. Clientes de correo electrónico (o
Mail User Agent - MUA).....................
16.3.2.2.2. Webmail..............................................
16.3.2.3. Conclusiones sobre este acápite ..........................
16.4. Contenido y composición de un correo electrónico ..........................
16.4.1. El encabezado (o header) de los correos electrónicos .........
16.4.2. El cuerpo del mensaje (o body) ..............................................
16.4.3. Las extensiones multipropósito de correo electrónico -
MIME........................................................................................
16.4.4. El método de validación DKIM ..............................................
16.4.5. Correos electrónicos e IP ........................................................

13
XXII GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

16.5. Encuadre normativo ..............................................................................


16.5.1. Correspondencia y correos electrónicos ...............................
16.5.2. Contratación electrónica ........................................................
16.5.3. Privacidad y confidencialidad de estos intercambios ..........
16.5.4. Sobre la firma digital y firma electrónica ..............................
16.5.5. Naturaleza jurídica de los mails. Valor probatorio ...............
16.5.5.1. Jurisprudencia relacionada ..................................
16.5.6. Correos electrónicos como fuente probatoria ......................
16.6. Correos electrónicos y los medios de prueba. Parte especial ............
16.6.1. Prueba documental.................................................................
16.6.1.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................
16.6.1.2. Acta notarial...........................................................
16.6.1.3. El documento electrónico ....................................
16.6.1.3.1. El código fuente del correo electró-
nico .....................................................
16.6.1.3.2. Terceros de confianza........................
16.6.1.4. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
16.6.2. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
16.6.3. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
16.6.4. Prueba de informes .................................................................
16.6.4.1. Terceros proveedores de correo electrónico ma-
sivos y gratuitos .....................................................
16.6.4.2. Terceros proveedores de correos electrónicos
empresariales o personales ..................................
16.6.4.3. Oficio al servicio de hosting de la página web
desde la que emerge el dominio del mail............
16.6.5. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
16.6.5.1. La práctica pericial ................................................
16.6.5.2. Integridad de los correos electrónicos ................
16.6.5.3. Puntos de pericia ...................................................
16.6.5.4. Puntos respecto a nuestro cliente ........................
16.6.5.5. Puntos respecto a la contraria ..............................
16.6.5.6. Si se hubiera acompañado la certificación del
tercero de confianza ..............................................
16.6.5.7. Si hubiéramos empleado el sitio IPINFO, o IP-
CHECKER, o https://whois.icann.org/es o cual-
quiera relacionado ................................................
16.6.5.8. Si hubiéramos empleado el sitio oficial NIC.AR/
WHOIS ...................................................................
16.6.5.9. Jurisprudencia .......................................................
16.7. Estrategia procesal .................................................................................
16.7.1. Prueba anticipada ...................................................................
16.7.2. Peligro en la demora ...............................................................
16.8. Valoración de la prueba electrónica sobre mails ................................

14
ÍNDICE GENERAL XXIII

Capítulo XVII
WhatsApp

17.1. Introito. La prueba electrónica en el caso de WhatsApp ....................


17.2. La aplicación WhatsApp y sus características .....................................
17.3. El cifrado de extremo a extremo de mensajes vía WhatsApp.............
17.4. Documentos electrónicos y WhatsApp ................................................
17.5. Firma electrónica y mensajes de WhatsApp........................................
17.6. Las comunicaciones por WhatsApp y su vinculación con la corres-
pondencia a la luz del art. 318 del Código Civil y Comercial de la
Nación ....................................................................................................
17.7. Comunicaciones vía WhatsApp como fuente de prueba ...................
17.8. Triple test de admisibilidad: el caso de WhatsApp..............................
17.8.1. Autenticidad ............................................................................
17.8.2. Integridad ................................................................................
17.8.3. Licitud ......................................................................................
17.9. Las comunicaciones por WhatsApp y los medios de prueba. Parte
general ....................................................................................................
17.10. Las comunicaciones por WhatsApp y los medios de prueba. Parte
especial ...................................................................................................
17.10.1. Respecto a nuestro cliente ......................................................
17.10.2. Respecto a la contraria............................................................
17.10.3. Prueba documental.................................................................
17.10.3.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................
17.10.3.2. El documento electrónico ....................................
17.10.3.3. Acta notarial...........................................................
17.10.3.4. Aportar el dispositivo donde se encuentra el in-
tercambio comunicacional. Estrategia procesal ...
17.10.3.5. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
17.10.4. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
17.10.5. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
17.10.6. Prueba de informes .................................................................
17.10.6.1. Carta rogatoria internacional a WhatsApp Inc. ....
17.10.6.2. Oficio de informes a las compañías de telefonía
móvil local ..............................................................
17.10.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
17.11. Los mensajes de WhatsApp como prueba indiciaria. El principio de
libertad probatoria ................................................................................
17.12. Carga probatoria e impugnación .........................................................
17.13. Falsedad y manipulaciones de los mensajes vía WhatsApp ..............
17.14. Valoración de la prueba informática en el caso de mensajes por
WhatsApp ...............................................................................................
17.15. Jurisprudencia aplicada. El fallo “Llopart” ..........................................

15
XXIV GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

Capítulo XVIII
Facebook

18.1. Introducción. Las redes sociales en general ........................................


18.2. Características propias de las redes sociales .......................................
18.3. La plataforma Facebook ........................................................................
18.4. Funcionamiento de la red social Facebook. Identidad y creación de
cuentas ...................................................................................................
18.5. Interacciones entre los usuarios. Listado enunciativo .......................
18.5.1. Actualización de estados de Facebook (publicaciones) ......
18.5.2. Comentarios ............................................................................
18.5.3. Menciones ...............................................................................
18.5.4. Reacciones ...............................................................................
18.5.5. Hashtags ...................................................................................
18.5.6. Grupos de Facebook ...............................................................
18.5.7. Fan pages .................................................................................
18.5.8. Messenger (intercambios comunicacionales vía mensaje-
ría instantánea) .......................................................................
18.5.9. Otras funcionalidades .............................................................
18.6. El contrato de adhesión celebrado con el usuario de la plataforma .
18.7. Breves nociones relativas a las calumnias e injurias vertidas a tra-
vés de redes sociales ..............................................................................
18.7.1. Anoticiamiento y/o denuncia extrajudicial a la plataforma
acerca del contenido controvertido .......................................
18.8. Hechos notorios. Viralización de la información................................
18.9. Privacidad y Facebook. Injerencia en la admisibilidad probatoria
de estas fuentes ......................................................................................
18.9.1. Perfiles de Facebook ...............................................................
18.9.2. Publicaciones de Facebook ....................................................
18.9.3. Información de acceso público contenida en el perfil y pu-
blicaciones públicas ................................................................
18.9.4. Información de acceso privado contenida en el perfil y pu-
blicaciones privadas................................................................
18.9.5. Grupos de Facebook ...............................................................
18.9.6. Conclusiones sobre este acápite ............................................
18.10. Firma electrónica y publicaciones de Facebook .................................
18.11. Publicaciones de Facebook como fuente o elementos de prueba.....
18.12. Las publicaciones de Facebook y los medios de prueba. Parte espe-
cial ...........................................................................................................
18.12.1. Respecto a nuestro cliente ......................................................
18.12.2. Respecto a la contraria............................................................
18.12.3. Prueba documental.................................................................
18.12.3.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................

16
ÍNDICE GENERAL XXV

18.12.3.2. El documento electrónico ....................................


18.12.3.2.1. Terceros de confianza........................
18.12.3.2.2. Acompañamiento del documento
electrónico..........................................
18.12.3.3. Acta notarial...........................................................
18.12.3.4. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
18.12.4. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
18.12.5. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
18.12.6. Prueba de informes .................................................................
18.12.6.1. Oficio a Facebook Argentina ................................
18.12.6.2. Oficio a proveedores de correo electrónico ........
18.12.6.3. Oficio de informes a las compañías de telefonía
móvil local ..............................................................
18.12.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
18.13. Estrategia procesal .................................................................................
18.13.1. Prueba anticipada ...................................................................
18.13.2. Medida autosatisfactiva ..........................................................
18.14. Carácter indiciario de las publicaciones de Facebook como fuente
probatoria ...............................................................................................
18.15. Valoración de la prueba informática en el caso de publicación de
Facebook. Falsedad y manipulaciones ................................................

Capítulo XIX
Twitter

19.1. Consideraciones previas .......................................................................


19.2. La plataforma Twitter ............................................................................
19.3. Interacciones entre los usuarios. Listado enunciativo .......................
19.3.1. Tweets .......................................................................................
19.3.2. Seguidores (followers) .............................................................
19.3.3. Página de inicio o feed .............................................................
19.3.4. Respuestas ...............................................................................
19.3.5. Menciones ...............................................................................
19.3.6. Reacciones ...............................................................................
19.3.7. Hashtags ...................................................................................
19.3.8. Retweets ....................................................................................
19.3.9. Intercambios comunicacionales vía mensajería instantá-
nea ............................................................................................
19.4. El contrato de adhesión celebrado con el usuario de la plataforma .
19.5. Anoticiamiento y/o denuncia extrajudicial a la plataforma acerca
del contenido controvertido .................................................................
19.6. Hechos notorios. Viralización de la información................................

17
XXVI GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

19.7. Privacidad y Twitter. Injerencia en la admisibilidad probatoria de


estas fuentes ...........................................................................................
19.8. Firma electrónica y tweets .....................................................................
19.9. Los tweets y los medios de prueba. Parte especial ..............................
19.9.1. Respecto a nuestro cliente ......................................................
19.9.2. Respecto a la contraria............................................................
19.9.3. Prueba documental.................................................................
19.9.3.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................
19.9.3.2. El documento electrónico ....................................
19.9.3.2.1. Terceros de confianza........................
19.9.3.2.2. Acompañamiento del documento
electrónico..........................................
19.9.3.3. Acta notarial...........................................................
19.9.3.4. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
19.9.4. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
19.9.5. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
19.9.6. Prueba de informes .................................................................
19.9.6.1. Oficio a Twitter Inc. ...............................................
19.9.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
19.10. Estrategia procesal .................................................................................
19.10.1. Prueba anticipada ...................................................................

Capítulo XX
Instagram

20.1. Consideraciones previas .......................................................................


20.2. La plataforma Instagram .......................................................................
20.3. Interacciones entre los usuarios. Listado enunciativo .......................
20.3.1. Publicaciones ..........................................................................
20.3.2. Seguidores (followers) .............................................................
20.3.3. Página de inicio o feed .............................................................
20.3.4. Comentarios ............................................................................
20.3.5. Menciones ...............................................................................
20.3.6. Reacciones ...............................................................................
20.3.7. Hashtags ...................................................................................
20.3.8. Intercambios comunicacionales vía mensajería instantánea...
20.4. El contrato de adhesión celebrado con el usuario de la plataforma .
20.5. Anoticiamiento y/o denuncia extrajudicial a la plataforma acerca
del contenido difamatorio ....................................................................
20.6. Privacidad e Instagram. Injerencia en la admisibilidad probatoria
de estas fuentes ......................................................................................

18
ÍNDICE GENERAL XXVII

20.7. Firma electrónica y publicaciones de Instagram ................................


20.8. Publicaciones de Instagram y los medios de prueba. Parte especial
20.8.1. Respecto a nuestro cliente ......................................................
20.8.2. Respecto a la contraria............................................................
20.8.3. Prueba documental.................................................................
20.8.3.1. Capturas de pantalla .............................................
20.8.3.2. El documento electrónico ....................................
20.8.3.2.1. Terceros de confianza........................
20.8.3.2.2. Acompañamiento del documento
electrónico..........................................
20.8.3.3. Acta notarial...........................................................
20.8.3.4. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
20.8.4. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
20.8.5. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
20.8.6. Prueba de informes .................................................................
20.8.6.1. Oficio a Facebook Inc. ...........................................
20.8.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
20.9. Estrategia procesal .................................................................................
20.9.1. Prueba anticipada ...................................................................

Capítulo XXI

YouTube, videograbaciones, audios, imágenes


digitales y otros archivos informáticos

21.1. Introducción ..........................................................................................


21.2. Almacenamiento de archivos ...............................................................
21.3. Estructuras de archivos .........................................................................
21.4. Tipos de operaciones ejecutables ........................................................
21.5. Extensiones de archivos ........................................................................
21.6. Grabaciones de audio............................................................................
21.6.1. Privacidad sobre estos elementos probatorios .....................
21.7. Fotografías o imágenes digitales ..........................................................
21.7.1. Valor probatorio ......................................................................
21.8. Videograbaciones ..................................................................................
21.8.1. Videovigilancia estatal ............................................................
21.8.2. Grabaciones entre particulares ..............................................
21.8.2.1. Requisitos de admisibilidad para aquellas gra-
baciones efectuadas entre particulares ...............
21.8.3. Cámaras ocultas ......................................................................
21.8.3.1. Requisitos de admisibilidad para cámaras ocultas ...

19
XXVIII GASTÓN ENRIQUE BIELLI - CARLOS JONATHAN ORDOÑEZ

21.8.4. Videoconferencias...................................................................
21.8.5. YouTube ...................................................................................
21.8.6. Valor probatorio ......................................................................
21.9. Hasheo de este tipo de archivos............................................................
21.10. Ficheros de pc y los medios de prueba. Parte especial .......................
21.10.1. A modo general sobre cualquier fichero electrónico ...........
21.10.2. Sobre grabaciones de audio ...................................................
21.10.3. Sobre videograbaciones..........................................................
21.10.4. Prueba documental.................................................................
21.10.4.1. El documento electrónico ....................................
21.10.4.1.1. Terceros de confianza........................
21.10.4.2. Acta notarial...........................................................
21.10.4.2.1. Actas sobre imágenes digitales .........
21.10.4.2.2. Videograbaciones y grabaciones de
audio ...................................................
21.10.4.2.3. YouTube..............................................
21.10.4.3. Documentación en poder de la demanda ..........
21.10.5. Reconocimiento judicial.........................................................
21.10.6. Prueba testimonial ..................................................................
21.10.7. Prueba pericial informática ....................................................
21.10.7.1. Imágenes ................................................................
21.10.7.2. Grabaciones de audio ...........................................
21.10.7.3. Videograbaciones ..................................................
21.10.7.4. YouTube .................................................................

Capítulo XXII
Palabras finales

.................................................................................................................

Capítulo XXIII
Anexo normativo

23.1. Ley 25.506 de Firma Digital...................................................................


23.2. Ley 27.446. Simplificación y Desburocratización de la Administra-
ción Pública Nacional ...........................................................................
23.3. Decreto 182/2019. Ley 25.506. Reglamentación .................................
23.4. Decreto 892/2017. Firma digital remota ..............................................

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