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目录结构
盖蒂庭院与花园
盖蒂喷泉
文内图表
 1 南部仙人掌园岬角
 2 立面设计草图
 3 棕榈谷
 4 平面设计意向
 5 几株意大利石松为电车站入口广场遮蔽骄阳
 6 总平面
 7 喷泉设计草图
 7 喷泉设计草图
 8 剖面设计草图
 9 取材于附近内华达山脉的岩石和喷泉
 1 0 博物馆入口处被遮荫的石椅
 1 1 仙人掌园
 

洛杉矶盖蒂中心, 加利福尼亚州, 美国
彭琼莉
导出/参考文献 分享 创建引文跟踪 收藏 打印
J. PAUL GETTY CENTER, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA,
USA, 1998
盖 蒂 中 心 坐 落 在 占 地 44.5hm 2  (110 英 亩 ) 的 山 顶 上 , 被 圣 · 莫 尼 卡 (Santa

Monica) 山区丘陵地带的 242.8hm 2  (600 英亩) 保留地所包围。由理查德·迈耶设计

的这组可以看到洛杉矶市和大海的建筑容纳了世界上最著名的艺术团体之一。盖蒂

中心是由 6 个独立机构组成的盖蒂联合企业, 拥有 800 名雇员, 开展的活动从学术研

究到公共演出, 每年还接待几十万游客。中心是一个多层次的、综合性的机构 , 与山

地完美呼应, 而且充分满足了公共和私人活动的需要。

1991 年欧林事务所开始介入项目时, 建筑师小组已对建筑物和场地特征进行了

不少构思和设计。在欧林之前, 景观建筑师基利 (Daniel Urban Kiley) 就参与了迈

耶小组的早期设计。曾负责加利福尼亚州马利布 (Malibu) 市老博物馆景观设计的

当地景观建筑师文普勒 (Emmet Wemple) 也参加了盖蒂中心的设计工作 , 直至他

1996 年去世为止。美术家欧文 (Robert Irwin) 设计了项目的中央公园, 其他许多加

州的景观建筑师也以不同方式协助了这一项目的进行。

在盖蒂中心, 欧林事务所不仅因设计了许多令人难忘的景观环境得到了广泛的

认可, 如博物馆内院的喷泉和颇受欢迎的“仙人掌岬角”, 更在其他方面作出了重要贡

献。更重要的是, 欧林事务所在设计的其他方面发挥了十分重要的作用。欧林把人

们组织在一起, 针对某些曾经争论激烈的问题提出解决方法, 使整体环境变得更加丰


富又十分协调。欧林发展了已有的景观设计概念和植物配植方案 , 使之衬托和表现

出迈耶建筑空间的细微变化。欧林还解决了一系列现场施工的问题 , 从在被占用的

空间内种植植物和完成水景, 到为遭到建设活动严重破坏的土地重新配植植物。
1 南部仙人掌园岬角   下载原图
South Promontory Cactus Garden

自开放那天起, 盖蒂的庭院与花园就被许多当地居民当成公园和聚会的场所。

盖蒂中心为市民提供了一个全新、高质和美丽的社区空间。

盖蒂庭院与花园
身处洛杉矶地中海式气候之中的盖蒂中心是一个收藏欧洲当代艺术品的机构。

因此, 创造受西班牙、法国和意大利影响的地中海风格的景观空间成为最适合的设
计构思。无怪乎迈耶的灵感来源于意大利文艺复兴式的山地别墅 , 将建筑融于台地、

退台、花园和庭院之中。

在盖蒂中心, 建筑大量运用了框景手法, 把周围的环境——海洋、高速路、洛杉

矶城和山脉引入设计空间, 而花园利用植物的配植创造出独一无二的乡土特质。通

过植物构成色彩、光影、香味和形式的变化序列和韵律 , 与建筑浑然一体。随着建

筑蜿蜒而上, 植物的色温和色调也因更多地接受阳光照射而趋向温暖。冷蓝绿色, 蓝

色, 紫色和灰色系分布在海拔较低和北向的区域, 而暖绿和黄色则分布在较热的、南

向的和海拔较高的地方。

盖蒂花园延续了加利福尼亚景园设计的传统 , 即独特而又创新地混合使用多种

本地和外来的植物。其园艺手法包括把功能和情趣结合在一起;把人工和自然结合

在一起;把现代技术和传统的园艺技法结合在一起。前者例如在构筑物上栽培植物 ;

后者, 例如利用植物编织图案等等。

花园也有它们的隐喻意义。不同种类的植物也隐于喻着不同的涵义:橄榄树象征

了智慧女神雅典娜, 它们遮护着学者花园;意大利石松则以它们那独一无二的剪影,

把这个新的西方艺术中心和罗马——西方艺术的发源地隐隐联系在一起。有时候,

一个主题也可以反映在设计当中:譬如说, 农艺景园是整个西方造园思想的源泉。在

盖蒂中心的设计里, 这个主题被具体形式化, 通过正规排列的树木和线形种植的芬芳

可食的植物表现出地中海农艺景观的特征。
盖蒂中心南边的突出部分为来自世界各地的沙漠植物提供了一个研究场所。顺

着种有来自非洲和地中海地区的肉质多汁类植物、龙舌兰和多刺类植物的台地是一

个巨大的西南美土生仙人掌园。事实上 , 仙人掌岬角似乎已经成为代表新盖蒂中心

的标志性形象。在利用仙人掌造园时, 欧林事务所创造出大胆的、浓烈的、鲜艳的、

持久的具有鲜明美洲特色的视觉形象。

盖蒂喷泉
与花园的设计构思相似, 盖蒂的喷泉既表现了南加州的自然文脉, 又反映出根植

于旧大陆的新世界文化遗产。受到林荫散步道 (译者注:尤指美国西南部多植杨树的

步行道) 和南加州的灌溉沟渠的启发, 修长的水池都带有喷水口, 它同时也是意大利、

西班牙和法国那无数的水渠和水池的派生物。嵌刻在高于中心公园的石灰石墙上的
安弗拉 (Amphora) 喷泉, 借用远古的造型形成一个现代的壁龛。尽管远古的洞室总

是阴暗潮湿, 这个新版本的洞室却如同花瓶, 捕捉和折射南加州灿烂的阳光。

在博物馆中央庭院的中心有一个华丽的喷泉。相邻院落内的另一个则相对带有

冥想的意味。来自内华达山脉的花岗块石赋予它们加利福尼亚的历史内涵 (译者

注:Sierra Nevada 是美国加州东部的花岗岩块状山脉) 。这些独特的石头见证了加

州的淘金热。与金矿一样, 它们都是地质变化的产物。

值得强调的是, 在这样一个干燥的环境里, 盖蒂中心的喷泉给游人和使用者带来

了水的永恒和快乐。

委托方:盖蒂联合公司

建筑设计:理查德·迈耶事务所

设计时间:1993

竣工时间:1998

Client:J.Paul Getty Trust

Architect:Richard Meier and Partners

Design Date:1993

Project Completion Date:1998


2 立面设计草图   下载原图
Sketch of elevation concept
3 棕榈谷   下载原图
Palm Canyon
4 平面设计意向   下载原图
Concept of plan
5 几株意大利石松为电车站入口广场遮蔽骄阳   下载原图
Entry Plaza tram stopshaded by Italian Stone Pines
6 总平面   下载原图
Site plan
7 喷泉设计草图   下载原图
Concept sketch for Fountains
7 喷泉设计草图   下载原图
Concept sketch for Fountains
8 剖面设计草图   下载原图
Concept sketch of section
9 取材于附近内华达山脉的岩石和喷泉   下载原图
Fountain with marble bouldersselected from the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains
1 0 博物馆入口处被遮荫的石椅   下载原图
Shaded stone bench at museum entrance
1 1 仙人掌园   下载原图
Cactus Garden

The J.Paul Getty Center occupies a 110-acre hilltop site surrounded by

600 acres of conservation land in the foothills of the Santa Monica

Mountains.With views to Los Angeles and the ocean, a gleaming ensemble of

buildings designed by Richard Meier houses one of the world's foremost Arts

organizations.The Getty Center includes six separate Institutions that make up

the Getty Trust.With 800 staff members engaged in a program of activities that

spans scholarly research to public performance, and accommodates hundreds

of thousands of yearly visitors, the Getty Center has a layered and complex

organization that responds beautifully to its hilltop site and the need to serve

both public and private realms.

When Olin Partnership joined this project in1991, the architect's team had

conceived and designed many of the structures and site features.In addition,

Olin Partnership was preceded in its role by Landscape Architect Daniel Urban

Kiley, who consulted with the Meier team in early phases of the design, and

Emmet Wemple, a local landscape architect responsible for the landscape

design of the original museum in Malibu, California, and who worked on the

Getty Center until his death in 1996.The list of contributors also includes a

number of other California landscape architects who assisted in many ways

throughout the design and construction of the Getty Center, and the artist

Robert Irwin, who designed the Central Garden.

Although Olin Partnership is widely recognized for the design of

memorable site elements such as the fountain in the Museum Courtyard and

the popular Cactus Promontory, the firm contributed to this project in several

important ways.Olin Partnership helped bring people together to resolve

issues that were sometimes fiercely debated, in order to enhance an


environment that became richer and more felicitous as a result.And Olin

Partnership developed landscape concepts and planting strategies that not

only compliment and lend nuance to Meier's spaces, but solve a host of site

development issues that range from installing planting and water features over

occupied spaceto re-vegetating land highly disturbed by development

activities.

Since opening many residents of the region have come to use the Getty

landscape as a public park and meeting space.The Getty Center provides

handsome new community space of remarkable quality.

The Getty Landscape and Gardens

The Getty Center is a contemporary arts organization about European art,

located in the Mediterranean climate of Los Angeles.It seemed only

appropriate to create landscape spaces inspired by the larger Mediterranean

context of Spain, France and Italy.Not surprisingly, Italian Renaissance

hillside villas inspired Meier's concept for the composition, where architecture

meets terrain with stepped terraces, gardens and courtyards.

While the building ensemble frames views that capture the larger setting-

the ocean, the freeway, Los Angeles and the mountains-the gardens create

unique local identities with plantings that develop a sequence and rhythm of

color, texture, light and shade, fragrance and form that complement the

architecture.As one moves higher within the complex, the temperature and

color of plants increases in relationship to the degree of exposure to the

sun.Cooler blue-greens, blues, purples and greys prevail in lower areas and

northern exposures while warm greens and yellows characterize the hotter,

south-facing exposures at higher elevations.

The Getty gardens embrace the California garden tradition, characterized

by original and inventive use of a wide range of plants, native and

exotic.Horticultural techniques throughout combine function with pleasure,


artifice with nature, and modern technologies such as those required for

planting over structure, with ancient horticultural practices such as pleaching.

But the gardens also create a narrative.Sometimes single plants

condense a world of meaning:Olive trees-the symbol of Athena, goddess of

wisdom-shade the Scholars Garden;and Italian stone pines, with their

unmistakablesilhouette, link this new center of western art to Rome-its source

of inspiration.Sometimes a larger idea is invoked.The agricultural landscape,

for example, is the wellspring of much of the garden art of the western

world.This idea is embodied at the Getty in the formalized structures of

bosques of trees and linear plantings of aromatic and edible plants, patterns

that characterize the Mediterranean agricultural landscape.

The south promontory provides a study in desert plants from around the

world, with the succulents, agaves and thorny plants from Africa and the

Mediterranean on terraces leading to the large garden of cactuses native to

the American southwest.Indeed, the Cactus Promontory has possibly become

one of the iconic images for the new Getty.In making this composition in

cactuses, Olin Partnership has created a vision that is bold, strong, fresh,

enduring and quintessentially American.

The Getty Fountains

Like the gardens, the Getty fountains refer to both the natural context of

southern California and the cultural legacy of a new world institution with its

roots in the old world.Several long water basins with jets are descendents of

the alamedas, or irrigation ditches of southern California and their numerous

abstractions in the canals and reflecting pools of Italy, Spain and France.The

Amphora Fountain, carved into the travertine walls above the Central Garden,

uses an ancient form to create a modern grotto.Although historically shaded

and damp, this new version of the grotto serves as a vessel to capture and

transform the southern California light.


At the center of the Museum Courtyard, an exuberant fountain and its

more contemplative counterpart in an adjacent courtyard embody the history

of California with spectacular marble boulders from the Sierra Nevada.These

distinctive stones are as unique to California as the gold rush, each the result

of the same geologic process.

Most emphatically, however, the fountains of the Getty bring to visitors

and staff the timeless and sensual pleasures of water in an arid environment.
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