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Report on Human Rights Violations in the occupied cities of Saharawi Republic for the

period 20 September to 10 December 2020


In line with the objectives set by the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation
(ISACOM) during its inception, and in order to ensure monitoring and documentation of
human rights violations in the occupied parts of Saharawi Republic, the present Report
highlights the most important developments in the occupied cities of Saharawi Republic
since 20 September 2020. The Report specifically stresses the most dangerous human right
violation, which took place on 13 November 2020 when the Moroccan military broke the
ceasefire by attacking Saharawis peacefully protesting in front of the illegal breach of El

This violation led to the collapse of a nearly three-decade ceasefire agreement between the
Saharawi National Army and the Moroccan occupying military; therefore leading to
resumption of war in the region. The end of the ceasefire will result in worsening of the
situation in the occupied parts of Saharawi Republic due to fears of retaliation by the
Moroccan occupying regime against innocent Saharawi civilians. This in addition to
Morocco’s campaign of repression and abuse against Saharawi activists, as well as its
tightening of siege in Saharawi neighbourhoods and cities.

As the occupied parts of Saharawi Republic become warzone, the human right situation is of
deep concern to the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation. This calls for an
immediate intervention by the concerned international human rights bodies to protect
Saharawi civilians during this war.

The Report has been divided into two sections and recommendations as follows:
1. Human rights violations in the occupied cities of Saharawi Republic for the period
20 September to 13 November 2020
2. Human rights violations in the occupied cities of Saharawi Republic for the period
13 November to 10 December 2020
3. Recommendations

Before presenting the detailed report, it is worth noting that the violations documented in
this Report are limited to violations of civil and political rights. However, this does not
imply that the Moroccan occupying regime is not violating cultural, social and economical
rights of Saharawi citizens. To the contrary, violations of these rights, which have been on-
going, have only escalated during the reporting period. A clear example of this is denying
access to good healthcare services in the occupied cities, which has been exposed during the
Covid-19 pandemic. It also uncovered the Moroccan regime’s false propaganda of
development in the occupied territories. For this, the issue of access to healthcare and other
rights will be covered by the Organ in its by upcoming reports.

1. The situation for the period 20 September to 13 November

 The establishment of the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation

After numerous discussions and preparatory meetings over a period of one year, a collective
of Saharawi human rights defenders and activists met on 20 September 2020 in the occupied

Contact: Page 1

city of El Aaiún to establish a Saharawi national body called “the Saharawi Organ Against
Moroccan Occupation.” Convinced by the importance of the peaceful and civic means to
defend the Saharawi cause and their struggle against the oppressive Moroccan occupation of
their Saharawi territories for over four decades. Reliant on international conventions and
accords on the right for expression, civil assembly and establishing organisations, which
also call for the protection of all human rights, including for people living in territories
under foreign occupation, as is the case of the occupied parts of Saharawi Republic, which is
under Morocco’s occupation since 1975.

However, the practice of these internationally recognised rights by Saharawi human rights
defenders has not been met by tolerance on the part of the Moroccan occupying state.
Instead, it unleashed its media arsenal to attack, defame and incite violence against members
of the Organ, especially its President Mrs. Aminatou Haidar.

This indiscriminate campaign did not satisfy the Moroccan occupying regime and so it
instructed its judicial authority to issue a notice on 29 September 2020 signed by the
General Prosecutor of the occupying state in the occupied city of El Aaiún. The Prosecutor
promised to open a legal investigation against all the participants of the founding meeting of
the Organ, claiming that they have committed crimes against what he called “harming the
territorial integrity.”

The issuance of this judicial notice is a green light for the Moroccan occupying police and
intelligence services to intimidate the founding members of the Organ and place them under
house arrest. Their homes are also constantly besieged and monitored by both official and
plain-clothed police. The following members have been and continue to be effected by these
- Mrs. Aminatou Haidar and Mrs. Bachir Lekhfauni
- Mrs. Ghalia Djimi and Mr. Dafa Ahmed Babou
- Mrs. Mina Baali and Mr. Hasanna Douihi
- Mrs. Lehcen Dalil
- Mrs. Fatma Ayach
- Mrs. Maaluma Abdallahi

The vengeance of the Moroccan occupying regime is not limited to arbitrary security
measures but has also deployed equally severe policy of cutting the livelihoods, in attempt
to put pressure on Saharawi human rights defenders. It is within this context that, since the
end of September, the Moroccan occupying authorities have frozen monthly salaries of
Saharawi human rights defenders Soukaina Yaya and Maaluma Abdallahi, who are both
members of the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation.

Below is a summary of documented human rights violations:

 16 October 2020
Mr. Hasana Douihi, a member of the Organ, was prevented from leaving occupied city of
Bojdor to visit his family in occupied El Aaiún. His wife Mrs. Mina Baali, a member of
the Organ’s Executive Bureau, was severely beaten at the entrance of her house. This is
in addition to intimidation, besiegement of their home and preventing relatives from
visiting them.

 21 October 2020
Contact: Page 2
The Moroccan occupying court of appeal in El Aaiún issued a two-year sentence to
Bozaid Musaui and Sidati Salec Mamuni, after already serving nearly one-year
preventative detention.

 10 November 2020
Moroccan security forces dressed in plain clothes while using an official police vehicle
kidnapped Aali Asadouni and Nourdeen Alarkobi, members of the organization
“Removing Moroccan Citizenship.” Both were physically and psychologically tortured
and then discarded in miserable state just outside the occupied city of El Aaiún.

 12 November 2020
The Moroccan occupying forces attacked, beaten, insulted and verbally abused a group of
Saharawi women after they participated in a peaceful sit-in calling for the self-
determination of the Saharawi people. The group included:
Najat Ejnaila
Fatimatu Elhairich
Hadhum Ezraikinat
Mahfuda Lefkir
Salha Butenkiza

2. Violations committed after the Moroccan army broke the ceasefire for the period 13
November to 10 December 2020

As the Moroccan army prepared to attack Saharawi civilians peacefully protesting at the
illegal breach of El Guerguerat, the occupying regime began intimidation campaign against
Saharawis in general and human rights defenders in particular, with the aim of deterring
them from organizing any militant activities to reject Morocco’s dangerous steps.

However, a group of Saharawi civilians spontaneously went out in the streets of occupied
Saharawi cities to condemn the new Moroccan aggression. Moroccan security forces
intervened in their usual ways by intimidating protestors, raiding homes and carrying out
more arbitrary arrests. The following are documented incidents by date and city:

 Occupied El Aaiún from 13 November 2020

Occupying forces, both in civilian and military clothes, attacked a number of homes by
throwing stones and threating the residents with revenge, which included the following:
The home of Mrs. Galli Barka Ajna, member of the Organ
The home of the family of Fatimatu Dahuar, a human right defender and former victim of

14 November 2020
The family home of Elkarkar was raided and their son Ahmed Habadi Mohamed Fadel was

15 November 2020
Raiding of a number of homes and intimidation of its residents, including the elderly,
women and children as follows:
The home of Mr. Mohamed Ould Ahmaiha
Contact: Page 3
The home of Mr. Jatri Ould Belamch
The home of Mr. Mulay Ould Mohamed Asmaili, attack and beating of their son Ayub
The home of Cheghali family and the imprisonment of their son Ali who awaits trail
The home of Dahi family
The home of Mr. Mohamed Ajnafr
The home of Mr. Mojahid Ali Buya Mayara
The home of Ali Ould Zainedin

16 November 2020
Mr. Ahmed Habadi Mohamed Fadel Elkarkar was sent to prison in occupied El Aaiún.

Hayat Ahmed Sidina Daih, a 12 years old minor student, was arrested during class in Nahda
Secondary School for wearing a uniform that had a flag of Saharawi Republic. She was
tortured physically and psychologically, and threatened with rape. She was then interrogated
on 19 November 2020.

The homes of the two journalists, Mohamed Haddi and Cherif Ibrahm Bajil, who are also
human rights defenders and members of media collective Nouchatta, were raided.

The occupying police forces also attacked activist Said Hadad who has disabilities, beaten
him and degraded his dignity.

18 November 2020
The president of the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation, Mrs. Aminatou Haidar,
was prevented from traveling to Spain after the Moroccan authorities forced her, and no
other passenger, to have a negative COVID-19 test, which was not a requirement for
traveling at the time.

20 November 2020
Human rights defender Zakaria Mohamed Sidi Lerossi Bojari was arrest, interrogated for
many hours and then release.

21 November 2020
The home of Saharawi artist Malainin Haddi was sieged and threatened with arrest unless he
stops his artistic activities and signing revolutionary songs.

22 November 2020
The homes of journalists Nazha El Khalidi and Ahmed Ettanji were besieged and visitors
were prevented from celebrating their wedding. The groom was also threatened with arrest.

28 November 2020
Human rights defender Jamila Haissen Mojahid’s hand was injured after Moroccan security
forces throw stones at the home of human rights defender Ali Salem Tamek.

9 December 2020
The First Instance Court sentenced three Saharawi political prisoners, Ahmed Elkarkar,
Nasr Allah Alkarhi and Ali Chagli Wadan, to 10 months imprisonment after being accused
of throwing stones at members of police.

Contact: Page 4

 Occupied city of Bojdor

16 November 2020
The following three minors were imprisoned and spent two days in preventative detention:
Yahia Mohamdu Taleb, born 2003
Bojari Mohamdu Lahmaidi, born 2006
Nasr Allah Yaya, born 2006
Brahim Abdelwadud Baibat, a young Saharawi, was also arrested and is under conditional
release after being accused of throwing stones at members of police.

19 November 2020
Sultana Khaya, member of the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation, was detained
in northern section of occupied Bojdor, after returning from Spain. She was beaten, abused,
striped of her clothes and belongings. Members of her family were also attacked and
intimidated by the occupying police forces, including her mother Matu Embairik who was
hospitalized after a head injury. Sultana’s sister Mrs. Elwaara Khaya was also hit in the head
and the back. Subsequently, occupying authorities besieged the family home and prevented
visitors from checking on the family’s welfare. At the time of writing this report, siege on
the home continues.

 Occupied city of Dajla

15 November 2020
Moroccan occupying forces violently dispersed a peaceful demonstration by unemployed
Saharawis who has academic qualifications and call for their right to empowerment.

17 November 2020
Elyas Haisani, a young Saharawi, was arrested and tortured.

 Occupied Smara

17 November 2020
The following Saharawis were arrested by the Moroccan military in Hauza, which is 100 km
from occupied Smara: Hamza Elmami Elmarzogi, Ayub Salah Ahmed Elaial and Elmami
Ahjaiba. They were interrogated by the Moroccan Gendarmerie. Hamza Elmami Elmarzogi
continues to be detained awaiting trail.

28 November 2020
Eragib Elbalk, a young Saharawi, was arrested and sent to prison in occupied El Aaiún.


When the establishment of the Saharawi Organ Against Moroccan Occupation was initiated,
we were aware of the grave danger facing our people’s destiny. This sentiment did not stem
from underestimating the importance of human rights as battleground, but rather it stemmed
from the awareness of continued ill intention of the occupying state in dealing with the
decolonization of Western Sahara. Such is the case with Morocco’s refusal of the
referendum, the persistence in denying the legal status of the occupied territory and even
attempting to negate its status as an occupying state.
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The main objective of the Organ was to send a message to the United Nations and the
International Committee of Red Cross to remind them of the legal status of Western Sahara,
and calling upon to assume legal and political responsibility in speeding up the
decolonization process in Africa’s last colony. It is certain that this message is more
important now than ever before after Morocco occupied a new portion of Sahrawi territory.
It also violated the ceasefire agreement by attacking Saharawi civilians, and therefore
causing resumption of war.

The Moroccan occupying state has not held back in its retaliation against Saharawi activists
and human rights defenders in the occupied territories of Saharawi Republic. The legitimate
resistance movement in the occupied cities continues to face more provocation, repression
and abuse. The recent violations against Saharawi activists in the past days are clear
indication of Morocco’s intentions. Saharawis were punished and denied the necessary
healthcare services during the Covid-19 pandemic. The Moroccan Court of Cassation
upheld the unjust judgements against the heroes of Gdeim Izik battle.

On the eve of the 72nd anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, we recall

the importance of activating the role of International Committee of the Red Cross to ensure
the protection of civilians in times of war. We also demand the release of Saharawi civilian
prisoners and call on the United Nations to decolonize Western Sahara and end the illegal
occupation of Morocco and its plunder of the natural resources.

The Executive Bureau of the Saharawi Organ against Moroccan Occupation

Occupied El Aaiún/Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic

10 December 2020

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