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SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR.

NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 1

Tarea 4: Barra de sección variable con peso propio


Isaı́as Chamorro Cruz

E resuelve una barra axial de sección variable empotrada en la parte superior, sujeta a su peso propio, mediante el método
S de elementos finitos, obteniendo el esfuerzo al centro de la barra. Para este modelo, la barra de sección variable se
discretizará en 4 elementos con 5 nodos y dos puntos de integración en cada elemento, utilizando el área promedio entre el
área de los nodos 1 y 2 de cada elemento.

(a) Modelo real. (b) Modelo mecánico. (c) Discretización.


Fig. 1: Proceso de modelado

Para resolver el problema se propone el siguiente código programado en MatLab


%---------------------------------
% Datos iniciales
%---------------------------------
E_1 = 1*10e9; % [Kg/mˆ2]
E_2 = 1*10e9; % [Kg/mˆ2]
E_3 = 1*10e9; % [Kg/mˆ2]
E_4 = 1*10e9; % [Kg/mˆ2]

A_1 = 3.625*10e-4; % [mˆ2]


A_2 = 2.875*10e-4; % [mˆ2]
A_3 = 2.125*10e-4; % [mˆ2]
A_4 = 1.375*10e-4; % [mˆ2]

Gamma_1 = 14709; % peso especı́fico [N/mˆ3]


Gamma_2 = 14709; % peso especı́fico [N/mˆ3]
Gamma_3 = 14709; % peso especı́fico [N/mˆ3]
Gamma_4 = 14709; % peso especı́fico [N/mˆ3]
Gamma_5 = 14709; % peso especı́fico [N/mˆ3]

A_nodo1 = 4*10e-4; % [mˆ2]


A_nodo2 = 3.25*10e-4; % [mˆ2]
A_nodo3 = 2.5*10e-4; % [mˆ2]
A_nodo4 = 1.75*10e-4; % [mˆ2]
A_nodo5 = 1*10e-4; % [mˆ2]

DeltaG_1 = A_nodo1 * Gamma_1; % esfuerzo unitario [N/m]


DeltaG_2 = A_nodo2 * Gamma_2; % esfuerzo unitario [N/m]
DeltaG_3 = A_nodo3 * Gamma_3; % esfuerzo unitario [N/m]
SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 2

DeltaG_4 = A_nodo4 * Gamma_4; % esfuerzo unitario [N/m]


DeltaG_5 = A_nodo5 * Gamma_5; % esfuerzo unitario [N/m]

f_nodo1 = DeltaG_1;
f_nodo2 = DeltaG_2;
f_nodo3 = DeltaG_3;
f_nodo4 = DeltaG_4;
f_nodo5 = DeltaG_5;

%---------------------------------
% Vector de coordenadas
%---------------------------------
x1 = [0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4];

%---------------------------------
% Declaración de PSI
%---------------------------------
PSI_1 = -1/sqrt(3);
PSI_2 = 1/sqrt(3);

w1 = 1;
w2 = 1;

%---------------------------------
% Matrices de conectividad
%---------------------------------
L1 = [1, 0, 0, 0, 0;
0, 1, 0, 0, 0];

L2 = [0, 1, 0, 0, 0;
0, 0, 1, 0, 0];

L3 = [0, 0, 1, 0, 0;
0, 0, 0, 1, 0];

L4 = [0, 0, 0, 1, 0;
0, 0, 0, 0, 1];

%---------------------------------
% Funciones de forma
%---------------------------------
N11 = (1/2)*(1-PSI_1);
N21 = (1/2)*(1+PSI_1);

N12 = (1/2)*(1-PSI_2);
N22 = (1/2)*(1+PSI_2);

%---------------------------------
% Derivadas de las funciones de forma
%---------------------------------
B11 = -1/2;
B21 = 1/2;

B12 = -1/2;
B22 = 1/2;
SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 3

%---------------------------------
% Jacobiano
%---------------------------------
J1 = ( (x1(2))-(x1(1)) ) / 2;
J2 = ( (x1(3))-(x1(2)) ) / 2;
J3 = ( (x1(4))-(x1(3)) ) / 2;
J4 = ( (x1(5))-(x1(4)) ) / 2;

%____________________________________
% Inicio del PAQUETE FEM
%____________________________________
%--------------------------------------------------------
%**** C . 1 ******** Matriz de rigidez
%--------------------------------------------------------
k_1_11_1 = B11 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B11 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w1;

k_1_12_1 = B11 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B21 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w1;


% LPI = 1
k_1_21_1 = B21 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B11 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w1;

k_1_22_1 = B21 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B21 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w1;

K_1_1 = [ k_1_11_1, k_1_12_1;


k_1_21_1, k_1_22_1];

k_1_11_2 = B12 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B12 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w2;

k_1_12_2 = B12 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B22 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w2;


% LPI = 2
k_1_21_2 = B22 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B12 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w2;

k_1_22_2 = B21 * J1ˆ-1 * E_1 * A_1 * B22 * J1ˆ-1 * J1 * w2;

K_1_2 = [k_1_11_2, k_1_12_2;


k_1_21_2, k_1_22_2];

K_1_T = K_1_1 + K_1_2; % Esto es solo para el elemento 1

%--------------------------------------------------------------
k_2_11_1 = B11 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B11 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w1;

k_2_12_1 = B11 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B21 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w1;


% LPI = 1
k_2_21_1 = B21 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B11 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w1;

k_2_22_1 = B21 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B21 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w1;

K_2_1 = [ k_2_11_1, k_2_12_1;


k_2_21_1, k_2_22_1];

k_2_11_2 = B12 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B12 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w2;

k_2_12_2 = B12 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B22 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w2;


% LPI = 2
k_2_21_2 = B22 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B12 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w2;

k_2_22_2 = B21 * J2ˆ-1 * E_2 * A_2 * B22 * J2ˆ-1 * J2 * w2;


SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 4

K_2_2 = [k_2_11_2, k_2_12_2;


k_2_21_2, k_2_22_2];

K_2_T = K_2_1 + K_2_2;

%--------------------------------------------------------------
k_3_11_1 = B11 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B11 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w1;

k_3_12_1 = B11 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B21 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w1;


% LPI = 1
k_3_21_1 = B21 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B11 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w1;

k_3_22_1 = B21 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B21 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w1;

K_3_1 = [ k_3_11_1, k_3_12_1;


k_3_21_1, k_3_22_1];

k_3_11_2 = B12 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B12 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w2;

k_3_12_2 = B12 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B22 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w2;


% LPI = 2
k_3_21_2 = B22 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B12 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w2;

k_3_22_2 = B21 * J3ˆ-1 * E_3 * A_3 * B22 * J3ˆ-1 * J3 * w2;

K_3_2 = [k_3_11_2, k_3_12_2;


k_3_21_2, k_3_22_2];

K_3_T = K_3_1 + K_3_2;

%--------------------------------------------------------------
k_4_11_1 = B11 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B11 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w1;

k_4_12_1 = B11 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B21 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w1;


% LPI = 1
k_4_21_1 = B21 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B11 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w1;

k_4_22_1 = B21 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B21 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w1;

K_4_1 = [ k_4_11_1, k_4_12_1;


k_4_21_1, k_4_22_1];

k_4_11_2 = B12 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B12 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w2;

k_4_12_2 = B12 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B22 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w2;


% LPI = 2
k_4_21_2 = B22 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B12 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w2;

k_4_22_2 = B21 * J4ˆ-1 * E_4 * A_4 * B22 * J4ˆ-1 * J4 * w2;

K_4_2 = [k_4_11_2, k_4_12_2;


k_4_21_2, k_4_22_2];

K_4_T = K_4_1 + K_4_2;


SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 5

%--------------------------------------------------------
%**** C . 2 ******** Vector de Rigideces Globales
%--------------------------------------------------------
Kg1 = transpose(L1) * K_1_T * L1;
Kg2 = transpose(L2) * K_2_T * L2;
Kg3 = transpose(L3) * K_3_T * L3;
Kg4 = transpose(L4) * K_4_T * L4;

Kg = Kg1 + Kg2 + Kg3 + Kg4;

% Acondicionamiento de la matriz
Kg_acondicionada = [ Kg(2,2), Kg(2,3), Kg(2,4), Kg(2,5) ;
Kg(3,2), Kg(3,3), Kg(3,4), Kg(3,5) ;
Kg(4,2), Kg(4,3), Kg(4,4), Kg(4,5) ;
Kg(5,2), Kg(5,3), Kg(5,4), Kg(5,5) ];

Los valores obtenidos para la matriz de rigidez acondicionada son:

 
12570043.5 −12570043.5 0 0
−12570043.5 31271337 −18701293.5 0 
Kgacondicionada =  (1)
 0 −18701293.5 44758125 −26056831.5
0 0 −26056831.5 60697413

%--------------------------------------------------------
%**** C . 2 ******** Vector de fuerzas Internas
%--------------------------------------------------------
fg1 = transpose(L1)*[f_nodo1;f_nodo2];

fg2 = transpose(L2)*[f_nodo2;f_nodo3];

fg3 = transpose(L3)*[f_nodo3;f_nodo4];

fg4 = transpose(L4)*[f_nodo4;f_nodo5];

Fg = fg1 + fg2 + fg3 + fg4;


% Fuerzas totatles = Sumatoria de las fuerzas internas
%Solo aplica cuando no hay fuerzas externas

Los valores de las fuerzas totales son:  


−0.0942
−0.2344
 
−0.3356
Fg =  (2)

−0.4552
−0.2598
SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 6

%________________________________________________________
%*********************************************************
% Obtención de U

det_Kg_acond = det(Kg_acondicionada);

u2_acond = [ Fg(2), Kg(2,3), Kg(2,4), Kg(2,5) ;


Fg(3), Kg(3,3), Kg(3,4), Kg(3,5) ;
Fg(4), Kg(4,3), Kg(4,4), Kg(4,5) ;
Fg(5), Kg(5,3), Kg(5,4), Kg(5,5) ];

u3_acond = [ Kg(2,2), Fg(2), Kg(2,4), Kg(2,5) ;


Kg(3,2), Fg(3), Kg(3,4), Kg(3,5) ;
Kg(4,2), Fg(4), Kg(4,4), Kg(4,5) ;
Kg(5,2), Fg(5), Kg(5,4), Kg(5,5) ];

u4_acond = [ Kg(2,2), Kg(2,3), Fg(2), Kg(2,5) ;


Kg(3,2), Kg(3,3), Fg(3), Kg(3,5) ;
Kg(4,2), Kg(4,3), Fg(4), Kg(4,5) ;
Kg(5,2), Kg(5,3), Fg(5), Kg(5,5) ];

u5_acond = [ Kg(2,2), Kg(2,3), Kg(2,4), Fg(2) ;


Kg(3,2), Kg(3,3), Kg(3,4), Fg(3) ;
Kg(4,2), Kg(4,3), Kg(4,4), Fg(4) ;
Kg(5,2), Kg(5,3), Kg(5,4), Fg(5) ];

u1_final = 0;

detu2 = det(u2_acond);

u2_final = detu2 / det_Kg_acond;

detu3 = det(u3_acond);

u3_final = detu3 / det_Kg_acond;

detu4 = det(u4_acond);

u4_final = detu4 / det_Kg_acond;

detu5 = det(u5_acond);

u5_final = detu5 / det_Kg_acond;

u = [u1_final, u2_final, u3_final, u4_final, u5_final ];

%________________________________________________________
%*********************************************************

Los valores de los desplazamientos son:


−8.2868x10−8
 
−7.5374x10−8 
−8 
 
−5.7804x10−8 
u= (3)
−3.2314x10 
0
SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 7

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%**** A . 1 ******** Geometrı́a ???
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

X11 = (N11*x1(1)) + (N21*x1(2));


X12 = (N12*x1(1)) + (N22*x1(2));

X1 = X11 + X12;

X21 = (N11*x1(1)) + (N21*x1(2));


X22 = (N12*x1(1)) + (N22*x1(2));

X2 = X21 + X22;

X31 = (N11*x1(1)) + (N21*x1(2));


X32 = (N12*x1(1)) + (N22*x1(2));

X3 = X31 + X32;

X41 = (N11*x1(1)) + (N21*x1(2));


X42 = (N12*x1(1)) + (N22*x1(2));

X4 = X41 + X42;

X = [X1, X2, X3, X4];

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%**** A . 2 ******** Desplazamiento
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

U11 = ( N11 * u(1) ) + ( N21 * u(2) );


U12 = ( N12 * u(1) ) + ( N22 * u(2) );

U1 = U11 + U12;

U21 = ( N11 * u(2) ) + ( N21 * u(3) );


U22 = ( N12 * u(2) ) + ( N22 * u(3) );

U2 = U21 + U22;

U31 = ( N11 * u(3) ) + ( N21 * u(4) );


U32 = ( N12 * u(3) ) + ( N22 * u(4) );

U3 = U31 + U32;

U41 = ( N11 * u(4) ) + ( N21 * u(5) );


U42 = ( N12 * u(4) ) + ( N22 * u(5) );

U4 = U41 + U42;

U = [U1, U2, U3, U4];


SEPI ESIA ZACATENCO - PROF: DR. NORBERTO DOMÍNGUEZ RAMÍREZ 8

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%**** B . 1 ******** Deformaciones
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Epsilon_11 = B11 * J1ˆ-1 * U11;


Epsilon_12 = B12 * J1ˆ-1 * U12;
Epsilon_1 = Epsilon_11 + Epsilon_12;

Epsilon_21 = B11 * J2ˆ-1 * U21;


Epsilon_22 = B12 * J2ˆ-1 * U22;
Epsilon_2 = Epsilon_11 + Epsilon_12;

Epsilon_31 = B11 * J3ˆ-1 * U31;


Epsilon_32 = B12 * J3ˆ-1 * U32;
Epsilon_3 = Epsilon_31 + Epsilon_32;

Epsilon_41 = B11 * J4ˆ-1 * U41;


Epsilon_42 = B12 * J4ˆ-1 * U42;
Epsilon_4 = Epsilon_41 + Epsilon_42;

Epsilon = [Epsilon_1, Epsilon_2, Epsilon_3, Epsilon_4];

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%**** B . 1 ******** Esfuerzos
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

Sigma_1 = E_1 * Epsilon_1;

Sigma_2 = E_2 * Epsilon_2;

Sigma_3 = E_3 * Epsilon_3;

Sigma_4 = E_4 * Epsilon_4;

Sigma = [Sigma_1, Sigma_2, Sigma_3, Sigma_4];

Los valores de los esfuerzos son:


735.1614x10−8
 
1723.617x10−7 
−7 
 
 2.549x10 −7 
σ= (4)
 3.2314x10 
0
Tomando en cuenta la consideración del área promedio, el esfuerzo al centro de la barra, este tendrı́a que ser el promedio
entre el esfuerzo de los elementos 2 y 3, es decir que:
σ2 + σ3
σcentro =
2
N N
1723.617 m2 + 2500.569 m2
= (5)
2
N
= 2112.093 2
m

R EFERENCIAS
[1] Ibrahimbegovic, Adnan Nonlinear solid mechanics: theoretical formulations and finite element solution methods, 2009.
[2] Solin, Pavel and Segeth, Karel and Dolezel, Ivo Higher-order finite element methods, 2003.
[3] Remacle, Jean-François and Chevaugeon, Nicolas and Marchandise, Emilie and Geuzaine, ChristopheEfficient visualization of high-order finite elements,
2007