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Earthquakes
• Earthquake is the shaking of the earth’s crust
as a result of the energy released by volcanic
activity or shifting of rock layers from the
earth’s interior.
Kinds of Earthquake
• Tectonic Earthquake
– It occurs when rocks in the earth’s crust break due
to the movement of plate.
• Volcanic Earthquake
– It is caused by volcanic activity.
• The point
within Earth
where
faulting
begins is the
focus, or
hypocenter.

• The point
directly above
the focus on
the surface is
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the epicenter.
An earthquake is caused by a sudden release of energy
in the crust. This energy travels in seismic waves. There
are two main types:
•body waves: they can travel through the earth's inner
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layers.
•surface waves: they can only move along the surface
of the planet.
Intensity
• The measure of the damage it does on the
surface and its effect to human.
• It helps determine the size of the are affected
by the earthquake.
• It is usually measured in the Rosi-Forel Scale
Rossi-Forel Scale of Earthquake Intensities
Intensity Scale Description
Hardly perceptible shock - felt only by an experienced observer under favorable
I
conditions.
II Extremely feeble shock - felt by a small number of persons at rest.
Very feeble shock - felt by several persons at rest. Duration and direction may be
III
perceptible. Sometimes dizziness or nausea experienced.
Feeble shock - felt generally indoors, outdoors by a few. Hanging objects swing
IV
slightly. Creaking of frames of houses.
Shock of moderate intensity - felt generally by everyone. Hanging objects swing
V
freely. Overturning of tall vases and unstable objects.
Fairly strong shock - general awakening of those asleep. Some frightened persons
VI leave their houses. Stopping of pendulum clocks. Oscillation of hanging lamps.
Slight damage to very old or poorly built structures.

Strong shock - overturning of movable objects. General alarm, all run outdoors.
VII Damage slight in well-built houses, considerable in old or poorly built structures,
old walls, etc. Some landslides from hills and steep banks. Cracks in road surfaces.
Very strong shock - people panicky. Trees shaken strongly. Changes in the flow of
VIII springs and wells. Sand and mud ejected from fissures in soft ground. Small
landslides.
Extremely strong shock - panic general. Partial or total destruction of some
IX
buildings. Fissures in ground. Landslides and rockfalls.
Magnitude
• The amount of energy released by an
earthquake.
• It uses the Richter Magnitude Scale that
measures the number 1-10.
Rossi-Forel Scale of Earthquake Intensities
Magnitude Scale Description
Earthquake with M below 1 are only detectable when an ultra sensitive seismometer
1
is operated under favorable conditions.
Most earthquakes with M below 3 are the "hardly perceptible shocks" and are not
2
felt. They are only recorded by seismographs of nearby stations.
Earthquake with M 3 to 4 are the "very feeble shocks" and only felt near the
3
epicenter.
Earthquakes with M 4 to 5 are the "feeble shocks" where damages are not usually
4
reported.
Earthquakes with M 5 to 6 are the "earthquakes with moderate strength" and are
5
felt over the wide areas; some of them cause small local damages near the epicenter.
Earthquake with M 6 to 7 are the "strong earthquakes" and are accompanied by
6 local damages near the epicenters. First class seismological stations can observe
them wherever they occur within the earth.
Earthquake with M 7 to 8 are the "major earthquakes" and can cause considerable
damages near the epicenters. Shallow-seated or near-surface major earthquakes
7
when they occur under the sea, may generate tsunamis. First class seismological
stations can observe them wherever they occur within the earth.
Earthquake with M 8 to 9 are the "great earthquakes" occurring once or twice a
year. When they occur in land areas, damages affect wide areas. When they occur
8
under the sea, considerable tsunamis are produced. Many aftershocks occur in areas
approximately 100 to 1,000 kilometers in diameter.
Earthquakes with M over 9 have never occurred since the data based on the
9
seismographic observations became available.
Magnitude 4.5 quake hits Bohol
By Louis Bacani (philstar.com)

MANILA, Philippines - A magnitude 4.5 earthquake hit Bohol on Thursday


more than a month after a powerful, deadly tremor jolted the province.

The Philippine Institute for Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) said the
quake, which was tectonic in origin, occurred at 5:37 a.m. 52 kilometers northeast
of Tagbilaran City, the provincial capital.

Phivolcs said Intensity IV was felt in Mandaue City while Intensity II was
experienced in Cebu City.

The agency said no damage and aftershocks are expected following the
quake.

It also did not indicate if the tremor was an aftershock of the magnitude 7.2
earthquake that rattled Central Visayas on October 15.

The epicenter of the powerful earthquake last month was traced at


Sagbayan town, Bohol. It killed over 200 people and destroyed structures and even
centuries-old churches.
Instruments Used to Detect
Earthquake
• Seismograph
• Laser Rangefinder
• Geiger Counter
• Extensometer
Directions: Describe how an earthquake occurs by writing T if the
situation is true and if F it is not true.

1. Pressure from above and beneath the crust causes the plates to
move.
2. When energy is released from the moving crustal plates, the
surrounding rocks layer trembles and shifts.
3. Records reveal that earthquakes have destroyed valuable properties.
4. The shifting or moving of crustal plates have given rise to tectonic
Earthquakes.
5. When magma moves along a fissure, they cause the Earth’s crust to
tremble or shake, too.
6. It occurs when there is a sudden displacement of rocks or rock
materials below the crust.
7. The earthquake death toll was about one million in the Syria
earthquake in 1201.
8. Volcanic earthquakes are induced by rising lava or magma beneath
active volcanoes.
9. Intense heat from the earth’s interior affects the crustal plates.
10. Felt by small number of persons at rest.
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. Why do great earthquakes occur?
a. because of shifting of crustal plates
b. because of the waves coming from the ocean
c. because of the flowing stream
d. because of weak typhoons that hit certain areas.
2. What is the intensity of an earthquake when people become panicky as small
landslides occur?
a.intensity I c. intensity III
b.intensity II d. intensity IV
3. What is the intensity of an earthquake when hanging objects swing freely?
a.intensity I c. intensity III
b.intensity II d. intensity IV
4. Which of the following factors best refer to the magnitude of an earthquake?
a. the amount of an energy released by an earthquake
b. the extent of damage of an earthquake
c. the vibrations on the earth’s surface
d. the falling of loose rocks
5. What is the magnitude of an earthquake that causes much damage on the land?
a. magnitude 6 c. magnitude 8
b. magnitude 7 d. magnitude 9 and over