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KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph. The Anti-K File The Anti-K File. 1 ** The Ayn Rand Special 4 ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Transition Fails 5 ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Capitalism is inevitable... 6 ‘The Ayn Rand Special — AT: Morality Claims (1/2)... 7 ‘The Ayn Rand Special — AT: Morality Claims (2/2) a 8 The Ayn Rand Special ~ AT-Revolutions 9) ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Impact ~ Environmental Protection (1/2).. several ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Environmental Protection (2/2)...u1une at ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Impact ~ Ext. - Environmental Protection... ei? ‘The Ayn Rand Special — Impact ~ Racism... 3 ‘The Ayn Rand Special ~ Impact ~ Democracy (1/2) . serene AG ‘The Ayn Rand Special ~ Impact ~ Democracy (2/2)... sniuinnnenengnnenenneedS ‘The Ayn Rand Special ~ Impact ~ Growth. sen 16 The Ayn Rand Special ~ Impact ~ Ext. - Growth... 7 ‘The Ayn Rand Special ~ Perm — Solvency — Do Both sns.snennnnisnnn nn son 8 The Ayn Rand Special ~ Perm — Net Benefit - Cooption. fone ‘The Ayn Rand Special - Perm — Net Benefit - Moderates... . 20 ** Tough Day for Teddy... 21 Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact ~ Growth Key to Space (1/2) 22 Tough Day for Teddy — Impact — Ext ~ Growth Key f0 Space sc. snsnnnennnnne 23 Tough Day for Teddy — Impact ~ Growth Solves Crunch... sn Dh ‘Tough Day for Teddy — Impact ~ Growth Solves Environmental Destruction..........-.25 Tough Day for Teddy — Impact ~ Growth Key to Nanoteeh..... Tough Day for Teddy — Impact — Growth Good Silk. ‘Tough Day for Teddy — Impact ~ Free Trade and Rights Malthus ‘Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact Turn ~ Free Trade ~ War... ‘Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact Turn — Free Trade — US/Sino Relations Tough Day for Teddy ~_Defense — De-dev maintains capitalism .. Tough Day for Teddy ~ Defense — Crunch Not coming (1/2), ‘Tough Day for Teddy — Defense ~ Crunch Not Coming (2/3) ‘Tough Day for Teddy — Defense ~ Crunch Not Coming (3/3). Tough Day for Teddy ~ Defense — Energy Crunch Not Coming........ Tough Day for Teddy — Defense — Natural Resource Crunch Not Coming. Tough Day for Teddy ~Defense ~ Starvation Not Coming... ** Captain Shapiro! : Captain Shapiro! ~ Impact Turn ~ Capitalism Bad (1/4). Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn ~ Capitalism Bad (2/4)... Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn ~ Capitalism Bad (3/4) Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn — Capitalism Bad (4/4)... * Biopower DA... Biopower DA — Impact Turn ~ Deterrence Good (1/2).. Biopower DA — Impact Turn ~ Deterrence Good (2/2) ** Don’t Fear the Reaper. . a Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me...but itll help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn ~ Space Weapons ony 48 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ Indo-Pak Wat... 9) Don’t Fear the Reaper~ Impact Turn - Omnicide —— sone 50 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ Futterman 51 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Tum — Lenz (1/2) 152 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Tum ~ Lenz (2/2) ...0-» oe 53 Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Tun — AIDs = 34 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ AIDs— Link Ext ee ees Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact ‘Turn ~ ATDs ~ Hegemony (1/2)... 56 ‘Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn — AlDs ~ Hegemony (2/2) 37 Don’t Fear the Reaper~ Impact Turn ~ Terrorism (1/2)... soon 58 Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Tun ~ Terrorism (2/2) : 39 Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Tum ~ AIDs ~ Self Determination (1/3)... Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ AIDs ~ Self Determination (2/3) Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn — AIDs ~ Self Determination (3/3). Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Perm Solves. ** Nuclear Nightmares ............0000008 ‘Nuclear Nightmares — Impact Tu Ignorance Nuclear Nightmares ~ Perm — Pragmatism Key ** Ontological Malarchy . Ontological Malarchy ~ Perm — Imagination Station... “* ChessMaster 2000..... ChessMaster 2000 - INC Shell (1/2).. ChessMaster 2000 ~ INC Shell (2/2) ChessMaster 2000 ~ 2NC ~ Link Rhetorical Interpretation... ChessMaster 2000 — 2NC — Link — Feminist movements. CChessMaster 2000 - 2NC — Link — Identity Polities CChessMaster 2000 ~ 2NC ~ Link — Multiculturalism. ChessMaster 2000 - 2NC ~ Link — Single Issue Movements ChessMaster 2000 — 2NC ~ Impact ~ Laundry List (1/2) ChessMaster 2000 — 2NC — Impact ~ Genocidal Mentality... ChessMaster 2000 — 2NC — Impact ~ Kashmiri Conflict (1/2) ChessMaster 2000 ~ 2NC ~ Impact ~ Kashmiri Conflict (2) ** Mad Mearshimet........ Leveesasnenene Mad Mearshimer ~ 2AC Cheese Sticks (1/4). Mad Mearshimer — 2AC Cheese Sticks (2/4) ‘Mad Mearshimer ~ 2AC Cheese Sticks (3/4)... ‘Mad Mearshimer ~ 2AC Cheese Sticks (4/4) ** Security Blanket Security Blanket ~ Impact Tum Nuclear Wat (1/2) Security Blanket ~ Impact Turn ~ Nuclear War (2/2) Security Blanket ~ Perm Solves ~Pragmatism Key. ** Osama Speak : ‘Osama Speak ~ Impact Turn — Must Categorize Osama Speak — Impact Calculus ~ Solving precedes morality. ‘Osama Speak ~ AT: Morality 60 Pudding can't fil the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Ralph Osama Speak — AT: Imperialism is Root Cause . 2% Captain Crunch cen Captain Crunch ~ 2AC (1/4) Captain Crunch ~ 2AC (2/4). Captain Crunch - 2AC (3/4)... Captain Crunch ~ 2AC (4/4) Captain Crunch ~ Uniqueness ~ Totalitarianism Inevitable (1/2) Captain Crunch ~ Uniqueness ~ Totalitarianism Inevitable (2/2)..... Captain Crunch — Link —Ethies (1/2). Captain Crunch ~ Link ~ Bthies (2/2)... Captain Crunch ~ Link ~ Public Participation... Captain Crunch ~ AT: Democracy Solves (1/2)... Captain Crunch — AT: Democracy Solves (2/2). Captain Crunch ~ AT: Democracy Good... . Captain Crunch ~ AT: We love rights! (1/2)..00000 Captain Crunch — AT: We love rights! (2/2).... PH GUNZ. onsnenne Genizzle ~ Perm ~ Kidner ~ 2AC Genizzle — Perm - Kidner - 1AR_ Genizzle— Alternative Fails ~ Non-violence. Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,.but itl help” Cheaters Lose 96 97 98 9D 100 101 102 103 soe 04 105 106 107 108 109 110 Mm. ww 12 oul 4 15, KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph ** The Ayn Rand Special Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Transition F: ‘Attempting to move away from capitalism will cause transitional conflicts that will end in increased domination and unsustainable exploitation. Mark Avrum Gubrud @ the Center for Superconductivity Research, 1997, “Nanotechnology and International Security”, a/online With molecular manufacturing, international trade in both raw materials and finished goods can be replaced by decentralized production for local consumption, using locally available materials. ‘The decline of international trade will undermine a powerful source of common interest, Further, artificial intelligence will displace skilled as well as unskilled labor. A world system based on wage labor, transnational capitalism and global markets will necessarily give way. We imagine that a golden age is possible, but we don’t know how to organize one. As global capitalism retreats, it will leave behind a world dominated by politics, and possibly feudal concentrations of wealth and power. Economic insecurity, and fears for the material and moral future of humankind may lead to the rise of demagogic and intemperate national leaders, With almost two hundred sovereign nations, each struggling to create a new economic and social ‘order, perhaps the most predictable outcome is chaos: shifting alignments, displaced vopulations, power struggles, ethnic conflicts inflamed by demagogues, class conflicts, land disputes, etc. Small and underdeveloped nations will be more than ever dependent on the major powers for access to technology, and more than ever vulnerable to sophisticated forms of control or subversion, or to outright domination. Competition among the leading technological powers for the political loyalty of clients might imply reversion to some form of nationalistic imperialism. Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me..but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Capitalism is inevitable Capitalism is inevitable. Gary Olson and Jean-Francois Lyotard, 1995 ,’Resisting a Discourse of Mastery: A Conversation with Jean-Franscois Lyotard”, JAC 15.3, a/online] (QUn Cultural Critique and elsewhere you propose that “the main problem in today’s society,” the “problem that overshadows all the others,” is not the contemporary state but capital. In light of the turn to market economies by China, Russia, Eastern Block nations, and, now, even Cuba to acertain extent, how do we resist capitalism and its corrosive effect on the social fabric? A Impossible, And we have no reason to resist because all these people are looking to ‘capitalism as a solution to their problems. I was in Petersburg last spring, and itwas horrible to see all these people—very nice people—without work, without money, and they are just waiting for capitalist investment in order to make things supportable. There is obviously no other solution, except the ridiculous and dangerous solution proposed by this crazy man, this neo-nazi, Zhirinovsky. Capitalism is the only solution. Obviously, the same is true in China with, a different way to manage the entrance into capitalism. No, no. This system has no competition, and to resist it is not to make impediments against if, as in the old tradition. ike the people able to eat, to work, to sleep, to have a home, and so on. And in these conditions, real resistance can appear. Pudding can’t fll the emptiness inside me..but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — AT: Morality Claims (1/2) Capitalism encourages liberty and altruism. Revolt against the market guarantees slavery and oppression. Martin Wolf, chief economic commentator for the Financial Times, 9-10, 2003, “Morality of the Market’, a/online The market economy rests on and encourages valuable moral qualities; provides unprecedented opportunities for people to engage in altruistic activities; underpins individual freedom and democracy; and has created societies that are, in all significant respects, less ‘unequal than the traditional hierarchies that preceded them. In short, capitalism is the most inherently just economic system that humankind has ever devised. Its true that market economies neither create, nor reward, saints. But consider the virtuous behavior that capitalism fosters: trustworthiness, reliability, individual initiative, civility, self-reliance, and self= restraint. These qualities are, critics correctly note, placed in the service of self-interest. Since people are, with few exceptions, self-interested, that should be neither surprising nor shocking. Yet people are also not completely self-interested. Prosperous market economies generate a vast number of attractive opportunities for those who are not motivated by wealth alone. People can seek employment with non-governmental organizations or charities. They can work in the public sector, as doctors, teachers, or police officers. They can teach the iniquities of capitalism and universities. Those who make a great deal of money can use it for any purpose they wish. They can give it away, for example. Quite a few have. In the advanced market ‘economies, people care deeply about eliminating pain and injustice and ensuring the welfare of fellow humans and, more recently, animals. This concern exists because a rich, liberal society places enormous emphasis on the health and well-being of the individual. Life is no longer nasty, brutish, and short rather, itis gentle, kind, and long, and more precious than before. The savage punishments and casual indignities of two centuries ago are no longer acceptable to civilized people. Nor are slavery and serfdom, both of which were rendered obsolete and immoral under the capitalist system. Militarists, extreme nationalists, communists, an liberals — brought these horrors back, if only temporarily. And it is no accident that th that brought them back were fiercely anti-individualistic and anti-market. Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — AT: Morality Claims (2/2) Inequality is inevitable, Capitalism is the least painful. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/online First, inequality. Every social system produces inequality: if not inequality of wealth, then inequality of power or inequality of military might. We only have the choice of which kind of inequality we wish to subscribe (0. Many nations have claimed to eliminate market-based inequalities, but they have done so only by creating non-market inequalities ~ a Soviet nomenklatura, a ruling military elite, an elaborate black market, or a set of non-cash perks. Inequality is an unavoidable feature of human life in organised societies, and capitalist i equality is the one that provides the most openings for upward mobility, because t that hierarchy you do not need the largest sword or the most votes, you only need to accumulate economic resources. ‘The race for wealth is inevitable. Allowing growth through capitalism is crucial to preventing, domination through military expansion. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/ontine Critics of capitalism argue that wealth confers power, and indeed it does, up to a point, Show people the road to wealth, status, or power, and they will rush down that road, and many will do some rather unattractive things along the way. But decisive criticism unless one supposes, fancifully, that there is some way to arrange human affairs so that the di advantage vanishes. The real choice is between becoming wealthy by first acquiring political or military power, or getting money directly without bothering with conquest or domination. If itis in man’s nature to seek domination over other men, there are really only two ways to make that domination work. One is military power, and that is the principle upon which domination existed from the beginning of man’s time on this earth to down about two hundred years ago, when it began to be set aside by another principle, namely the accum-ulation of wealth. Now you ‘ay feel that men should not try to dominate other men - although I do not see how you could believe this in Australia given the importance attached to sports. You may like to replace man’s desire to dominate other men, and in a few cases it is prevented by religious conversion or a decent temperament. But as long as the instinct persists, you only have two choices, and if you ‘choose to compete economically you will reduce the extent fo which one group of men will tyrannise over another by the use of military might or political power. Capitalism does not alienate. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/online Alienation, I think Karl Marx was wrong, it is not work that produces alienation, it is idleness. People by and large prefer work to non work, even though in many parts of the world society has done its best to encourage non work. In the United States, people when asked how they feel about their jobs almost uniformly say they like their work. Americans are gloomy about the decency of their culture and the justice of their politics; it may be one of the supreme ironies of our time that they are often more satisfied with their employer t ith their community. If 50, Marx has been stood squarely on his head. Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me.,.but itl help" KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — AT:Revolutions Revolutions fail to engage the root of the problem. Michael Zimmerman, professor of philosophy @ Tulane, 1989, “We Need New Myths”, pp 24 Marxism, as Robert Tucker has argued, can be seen as a distorted mythic symbol in which the struggle of good and evil within the individual is projected onto social classes: the blood-sucking, capitalist class fights (vainly) to dominate the creative-productive working class. When the capitalist class is destroyed by the proletariat, alienation will supposedly be destroyed as well. If Marxist revolutionaries can bring down the center of capitalism, the United States, world-history ‘will supposedly begin its Golden Age. This myth is so attractive to many people because it ‘portrays in social-class terms the problems that each individual must face. A person committed to the revolutionary cause can throuigh this projection postpone the painful process of their own individuation. It goes without saying, of course, that capitalism is in fact responsible for social ills, but neither the capitalist class nor its individual constituents are the embodiment and source of evil. The dark side is an aspect of every human being; it cannot be eliminated by social revolution Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Environmental Protection (1/2 Capitalism creates a system of surplus necessary for environmental protection. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/online Itis also the case that capitalism makes if easier to deal with environmental problems, Enviro- nemental problems exist. Airis free; we consume air without charge, we emit pollutants back into the air, often without charge. And if something is free people will consume more of it then they really need, or at least much more than they would if they had to pay for it. Since we have found no way to endow clean air with property rights, we do not know how fo limit this except by the use of an external authority that will put some restrictions on it. To compel people who are engaged in production and exchange to internalise all of their costs without destroying, ‘production and exchange, one must be able fo make proposals to people who do not want to hear them, induce action among people who do not want to act, and monitor performance by people who do not like monitors ~ and do all ofthis only to the extent that the gains in human ‘welfare are purchased at an acceptable cost. No regime will make this result certain, but only democratic capitalist regimes make it af all possible. Why? It is not that capitalists believe in the environment or have a wish to improve the world. Itis because they are part of a system in which the world must be improved if they are to survive. Capitalism brings three advantages to the environmental task: () Itcreates and maintains a private sphere of action. A private sphere of action makes capitalism possible because you can operate free of government control, But by maintaining a private sphere you also provide a protected place for people to stand who wish to make controversial proposals. You ereate a world in which the critics of capitalism ~ those who wish to see capitalism restrained in order to protect the environment - have an opportunity to move. No such world existed for them in the Soviet Union, and no such world exists for them today in the People's Republic of China. The absence of a private sphere means the absence of an environmental ethic. (if) Secondly, capitalism produces prosperity, and prosperity changes, the minds of people, especially young people. It endows them what we in the social science business call in our professional journals, post-materialist or post-industrial goals, That isa fancy ‘way of saying that when society becomes rich enough for everybody to be fed and where no-one has to struggle day and night to put food on their table, we begin to think of other things we can use resources for. Those other things include taking care of animals, protecting the environment, preserving land and the like. The prosperity induced by capitalism produces of necessity an environmental movement. How that environ-mental movement is managed of course isa very real question; sometimes it is managed very badly, other times itis managed reasonably well, Environmental policies in capitalist systems will vary greatly ~ from the inconsequential through the prudent tothe loony ~ but they will scarcely exist atallin non- ‘capitalist ones. (ii) The final thing capitalism brings to this task is that it creates firms that c be regulated. sometimes tothe fact, Consider the alternative Suppose the government ran everything, What would be egulated? The main reason why Eastern Europe was a vast toxic waste dump, and why many parts of China are becoming a vvast toxic waste dump, is because the government owns the enterprises and one government agency does not - cannot - regulate another government agency. This is because neither the regulator nor the regulate has any personal motives to accept regulation. But they can regulate firms, and s0 when firms are producing wealth and people decide thatthe distribution of wealth ought to be mad to accord toan environmental ethic, capitalism makes thal posse ‘You may think that dis trivial statement, You all know tht business Sems are elated — vantage ofthe frm, sometimes to ts disadvantage. But don't think you realise the importance ofthis 10 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Environmental Protection (2/2 Biodiversity loss spells extinction. narrow ecological niches, These ecosystems inherently are more stable than less diverse systems. "The more complex the ecosystem, the more successflly it can resist a stress... [like a net, in which each knot is connected to others by several sirands, such a fabric can resist collapse better than a simple, unbranched circle of threads — which if cut anywhere breaks down as a whole." 79 By causing widespread extinctions, humans have artificially simplified many ecosystems. As biologic simplicity increases, so does the risk of ecosystem failure. The spreading Sahara Desert in Attica, and the dustbow! conditions of the 1930s in the United States are relatively mild examples of what might be expected if this trend continues, Theoretically, each new animal or plant extinction, with all its dimly perceived and intertwined affects, could cause total ecosystem collapse and human extinction. Each new extinction increases the risk of disaster. Like a mechanic removing, one by one. the rivets from an aircraft's wings, 80 [HU]manKind may be edging closer to the abyss 11 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me.but itl help KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Ext. — Environmental Protection Capitalism is crucial to preserving the environment and saving lives. Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 4/23 / 2008, ip://www-catoor/ dailys/0 25.05-2.hund Indeed, we wouldn't even have environmentalists in our midst were it not for capitalism. Environmental amenities, after all, are luxury goods. Amoria ~like much ofthe Third World today —had ro environmental movement to speak of unl living standards rose sufficiently so that we could turn our attention from “Stply providing for food, shelte, and a renonableeduaton to higher quality of fetes. The richer you are the more ikely you ave to he an eniconmentalist And people woulda be rich without capitalism, Wealth not only breeds ‘environmentalist it begets environmental quality. There are dozens of studies showing that as per capita income initially rises from subsistence levels, air and water pollution increases correspondingly. But ‘once per capita income hits between $3,500 and $15,000 (dependent upon the pollutant), th ambient concentration of pollutants begins to decline just as rapidly asit had previously inrease This relationship is found for virtually every significant pollutant in every single region of the plant. tis an ron la Given that wealthier societies use more resources than poorer societies, such findings ae indeed counterintuitive. But the data don't tie. low do we explain this? The obvious answer-— that wealthier societies are willing to trade-off the economic costs of government regulation for environmental improvements and that poorer societies are not — is only partially correct. In the United States, pollution declines generally predated the passage of laws mandating pollution controls. In fact, for most pollutants, declines ‘were greater before the federal government passed its panoply of environmental regulations than after the EPA came upon the scene. Much of this had to do with individual demands for environmental quality. People who could afford cleaner-burning furnaces, for instance, bought them. People who wanted recreational srvices spent their money accordingly, reting profi opportunities forthe ‘Provision of untrammeled nature, Property valies rose in cleaner ares and declined in more polled areas, shifting {Capital fom Brown to Green investments. Market agents will supply whatever itis that poopie aze willing to spend money on. And when people are willing to spend money on environiental quality, the market wil provide Meenwhile capitalism rewards efficiency and punishes waste. Profit-hungry companies found ingenious ways to reduce the natural res: puts necessary to produce all kinds of goods, which in turn reduced environmental demands on the land and the amount of waste ths! owed through sookestacks and water pipes. As we learned to do more and more with a given unit of resources, the waste involved (which manifests tat in the fra of polation) shank. This tend was magnified by the skit ava from ‘manufacturing to service industries, which characteris wealthy, growing economies. The Inte are fr less polation Intensive than the former. But the former are necesary presents forthe ler. Braperyeighs a necessary prerequisite for free market economies also provide strong incentives t resource healt ‘Without them, no one cares about future returns because no one can be sure they'll be around {to reap the gains, Property sights are also important means by which private desios for resource conservation and ‘reservation an be sealized, When the government, onthe other hand, holds a manopoly on such decisions, minority references in developing sites ae ernie (sce the ot Soviet block for details). Furthermore, only wealthy. societies can afford the investments necessary to secure basic environmental improvements, such as sewage treatment and electrification. Unsanitary water and the indoor air pollution (caused primarily by burning organic fuels in the home for heating and cooking needs) are directly responsible for jon deaths a year in the DEVELOPING[SICIThird World, ‘making poverty the number one environmental killer on the planet today. Capitalism can save more lives threatened by environmental pollution than all the ‘environmental organizations combined. Finaily, the technological advances that are part and parcel of growing economies create more natural resources than they consume. That's because what is oris not a ‘natural resource” is dependent upon our ability to harness the resource ‘question for human benefit. Resources ave therefore a function of human knowlege. Because the stock of aman [knowledge incresses faster in fee economies than it doesn socialist economies, it should fe no surprise that most natura reources inthe western world are more abundant today than ever Yefoe no aller which measure one wes. 12 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Racism sm solves racism. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/online Capitalism promotes civility in another way: it makes prejudice too expensive to afford. The great Nobel laureate economist, Gary Becker pointed this out in a book written 40 years ago. People didn’t take it seriously then but I think we must take it seriously now. If vou say to yourself that you will not serve or employ blacks, or Turks, or Cypriots, or whatever group, your society happens to be hostile to, you will reduce the number of customers you can reach and the number of potential employees you can hire, This has the effect of shrinking your market and raising the wages of those employees whom you can hire. Now in some environments, such as in the American south until the 1960s, it was possible to maintain segregation in public facilities, because the legal system and its surrounding culture supported segregation so strongly that a businessperson had no chance. Embedded in a thoroughly racist community, capitalism could easily exist side by side with prejudice, because there are no competitive disadvantages to acting on the basis of prejudice. But once that legal and cultural system began to crack, once there were a few opportunities for hiring people on a non- discriminatory basis or serving customers on a non-discriminatory basis, firms changed. dramatically. The nationwide firms changed the fastest, because they realised that capitalism is incompatible with prejudice. None of this is to deny the important role played by law, court order, and the example of desegregated government agencies. But imagine rapid desegregation ‘occurring if only law were operating. It would be slow, uneven, and painful, Public schools desegregated more slowly than hotels and restaurants, not only because white parents cared more about whom their children went to school with than about who was in the next hotel room, ‘or at the next café table, but also because school authorities lacked any market incentive to »or different pupils. Indeed, a statist economy will nat only resist desegregation, it will allocate economic benefits ~ franchises, licenses, credit ~ precisely on the basis of political, ‘lass, ethnic or racial status, Itis capitalism that really requires a cosmopolitan attitude. 13 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but it! help KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Democracy (1/2 Capitalism is the soil of morality and individualism that is key for the successful growth of democracy. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997, “The morality of capitalism, a/online ‘These are the assumptions upon which a capitalist order rests, and I think most people hearing, them described will not dissent profoundly from this argument. But now the more controversial part of my argument, My second pointis that capitalism in the long run strengthens the moral sensibilities. It does so by sustaining a liberal social order, by sustaining and indeed creating ‘titicism of capitalism itself, and by enhancing civility among citizens. Capitalism is essential {to liberalism ~ and by liberalism I mean the principles around which a free society is organised. thas become clear during the last half century that democratic regimes only flourish in capitalist societies, Not every nation with something approximating capitalism is democratic, but every nation that is democratic is to some significant degree capitalist. There are capitalist nut they do not do very well. There is a lism that the defenders of democracy offen ionship between democracy and ca overlook to their great disadvantage. 4 Pudding can't fil the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Democracy (2/2) Global democratic consolidation prevents many scenarios for war and extinction. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Ociober 1995, “Promotiny Democracy in the 1990's,"'subypubs ieadly dhadS_O1 dum, aeeessed on 12/99 OTHER THREATS This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to oue security and well-being in the conning years and decades, Inthe former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread. The Mow of illegal dr power! international crime syndicates that have made common eause with authoritarian n ave utterly corrupted the instirations of tenuous, democratic ones, al, and biological weap fe on Earth, the elobal stem, app cendangere icon i associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of deinacraey, with its provisions for legality accountability, popular sovere STURY The experience entury offers important lessons. ie fashion do nat gto w do not ansress ag neighbors to au ’ their leaders, Democratic governments do not ethnically "cleanse" their own populations, and they are much less likely to face ney, Democracies do not sponsor terror lJ weapons of mass use on or fo threaten one another. Democratic countries form more reliable, open, and enduring trading partnerships. lathe Jong run they otfer better and more stable climates for investrrent, They’ environmentally responsible because thes mst answer ta theit own citizens, who Organize to protest the destruction of their environments. They are better bets to honor intemational treaties since they value leva abligations and because their openness makes it much more difficult to breach agreements in secret. Previsely because. within their own borders, they respect competition, civil lberties, property rights, and the rale of kas, democracies are the only reliable foundation on which a new world order of international security and prosperity can be Baill. 15 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me...but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Capitalism is crucial to economic growth. Janos Kornai, professor of economics @Harvard, 2000, Journal of Economy Perspectives, Winter, vidnt Let me refer here to an author seldom cited these days: Viadimir Lenin, He announced, right at the start of the introduction of the socialist system, that the race between the capitalist and socialist systems would ultimately be decided by which could ensure higher productivity.” ‘The real significance of the turning, point in 1989-90 is that the socialist system lost the race. This is clearly confirmed by comparative statistics showing the two systems’ economic results, taken over along time-scale. As one example, Table 1 compares three socialist countries with four capitalist countries at a similar level of development in the base year of 1950.Not only did the GDP of the socialist countries grow more slowly than that of thecapitalist countries, but as shown in the last column, workers in the socialist countries spend much longer at their place of work, In Table 2, Austria is compared with Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. This comparison is historically justified, because until the end of World War I, Austria, Hungary, the territory that later became Czechoslovakia, and part of present-day Poland constituted the Hungarian Monarchy. Austria was always the most developed country in the group, but the lag, by the other countries increased further under the socialist system. The result of the economic race between capitalism and socialism shows dramatically in the case of the divided countries: ‘compare East and West Germany before reunification, or present-day North Korea, on the brink of famine, with prosperous South Korea, 16 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itt help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Impact — Ext. - Growth Capitalism creates growth, Janos Komai, professor of economics @Harvard, 2000, Journal of Economy Perspectives, Winter, vidnt ‘The second major advantage of the capitalist system is that technological development is faster, because the capitalist system is more inclined to pursueinnovations. Capitalism and entrepreneurship Clear the way for enterprise andinitiative in the economy. It makes more effective use of human and physicalresources than the socialist system, This means that measured over longer historicalperiods, itis faster at increasing production and labor productivity, and thereby the material welfare of human beings 17 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but itl help -—-— KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Spee Perm — Solvency = Do Both “the Perm solves. Allowing capitalism to expand is crucial to finding solutions to its shortcomings. James Wilson, professor of Government at Harvard, 1997 “the morality of capitalism, a/online acm sown ccs, When Daniel Bell published his famons e552 “The Cultural gqupowers Hs Ou77 Salis, he argued thatthe bourgeois culture rational PSE and cone vad created capitalism was now being destoved by the succes of A011 ceetolsns cen both a parven cas of ch plufcrats and corporate TN and a counter Capita ea neletuals and disaffected yout he ater Bega to have Fell Soy ne a pok vo be the reed, hypocrisy and Philtnism ofthe former, Thi 2 et first vane py Joseph schumpelc, the geat Harvard economist in his 1947 ook Capitalism, Beep cy was a emarkable book because it bens with the propositcn ee, —————— will be ver ea Ey its eueceases, Nov I hike was wrong to sty that captains 9 destroyed, tut he was right to point to the changes capitalism brings in the s Land political order that art as ge an ever-growing eve-loger challenge tothe right of capitalism 0 exist ‘Nay they will do this s by creating and sustaining a class of intellectuals Capitalism requires intellectuals. Business people support universities - especially, it would seem, those ieee at devote much oftheir faculty's time to attacking business people. It supports dene for a wery good reason: capitalism understands the value of reason and knowledge, understands the value of scientific inquiry, It knows that whatever the intellectuals may say on deat party circuit or speaking on television programs or veriting in quarterly journals, thelr general lovel of activity is essential to the dissemination of knowledge. But by creating and {ustaining an intellectual class it creates and sustains a group of. ‘people who inevitably will saan cellce of capitalism, just as they are critics of democracy, culture, and religion. Taullzctoals ive ina world of artificial models that are designed in their mind to capture some part of reality and, unlike practical people, they think that those intel-lectual models in some vee actually describe reality, And when you have the view that the world ought to fit your model and you notice that it does not, you assume that there is somte-thing wrong with the ‘world. Roligious zealots are destroying vour pure spiritual insights, government officials are Contaminaling your right to communicate, and capitalists are sustaining a gross consumer- oriented materialist society which cannot support intellectuals atthe evel fo which they are entitled, But ths process of creating and sustaining your own critics is unique to capitalism ‘There is no other economic order that does this. All other economic orders have to be overthrown either by military rebellion or by internal collapse because they do not accommodate them-selves to critics. Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but it'l| help” uo KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Spec Perm — Net Benefit — Cooption Their radical rejection of the system will spark a capitalist counterforce that will crush the revolution. Reforming the system from the inside is crucial to stopping capitalism. Nowlan, Professor @ University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, May 1996, Red Orange: a Marxist Journal of Theory, Politics, and the Everyday, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 289-326 ‘opposition, and be sufficient. In order to forestall tendencies towards rap) counterrevolutionary cooptation and bureaucratic degeneration of a (post)re Proto-socialist) regime, it is necessary to begin the work of transformation of institutions and relations, subjects and practices destruct mn can never within capitalism today, drawing upon and working with those tendencies within the logic of capitalist development that prepare and point the way towards socialism, Revolutionary socialist opposition within late capilalism today must take advantage of and build upon possibilities that derive from the contradictions inherent within the essential workings of late capitalism itself, and this means, most importantly, pushing forward, expanding, enriching, and working towards the full realization of the tendencies already inherent within late capitalism towards collectivization—and these are tendencies towards collectivization not only of relations within production but also towards collectivization of relations which precede and follow from production and which extend out of and beyond production, Revolutionary socialists must support and develop tendencies within late capitalism that work towards the supersession of predominantly private with predominantly collective modes of subjectivity. In general, itis important for revolutionary socialists everywhere to support collectivization against privatization (especially of right of access and opportunity to ‘exercise social and cultural resources, powers, and capacities) and to push for the socialist democratization of collective relations begun under capitalism (and which, as such, often involve Partial, limited, distorted, and even despotic forms of collectivization). 19 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me.,.but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The Ayn Rand Special — Perm — Net Benefit - Moderates ‘The belief that capitalism is the root cause ofall societal ill closes the possibility of pragmatic solutions, and fractures the movement by isolating moderates as capitalists. Richard Levin, president of Yale, 1998, The Minnesota Review, 48-49, a/online As a result of this view of the world, many people on the far right and far left are single-causers; they believe not only that everything the demon does has bad effects in our society, but also {that everything bad in our society is caused by this demon, Right-wing extremists hold feminism or secular humanism or ZOG responsible for drugs, crime, floridation, and the decline of "family values," and many leftists—including some appearing, in mr—claim that capitalism is {the cause of racism and sexism (Cotter 119-21, Lewis 97-98, Young 288-91), This, in turn, leads to the belief that there's a single cure, and only this one cure, for all these social ills: the complete extirpation of the demon that causes them and the complete transformation of society. Thus extremists on both sides tend to be all-or-nothingists, to reject all reforms as “band-aids" that are doomed to fail since they don't get at the source of our problems and so won't further this radical transformation (Neilon/Moyerson 45: 26868) Many areas sllenacins who belive the tarsformation ‘will e brought about by an apocalyptic clash tetween the forces of good and evil ending the permanent defeat ofthe devon and the creation of wopi(fr fundamentalists this ia iteral Armageddon and Second Coming, or mii t's RalfoWa (Racial Holy Was) orth uprising te patiols agaist our tailorous government foeold i Te Turner Disses with ts Hiderian "fina sltion,” and for Marine its the proletarian revolution that their anther ells wil be “he tinal confct." Another consequence of their polarization is that partisans at both extremes try {0 eliminate the intermediate positions between them, often by denying their differences. Neilson and Meyerson say that "we should see liberalism and conservatism as flipsides® (45: 269) and argue that Republicans and Democrats are really the same (47: 242), as does Tom Lewis at greater length (89-90). Similarly, George Wallace, in his racist, third-party campaign, insisted that "there isn'ta dime's worth of difference between them." More sinister is their tendency to “disappear” these intermediate positions by equating them with the opposite extreme. Mccarthy ‘and his followers attacked Democrats and even liveral Republicans as "pinkos" and "elow travelers” and Marxist ‘regimes condemned socal democrats and even communists who deviated from the party line as fascist counierevoltionaries who nas be liguidated. Some extremists onthe academic let employ this ectic apainst ‘moderates and liberals although with les lethal results, The same Marsist critic who called mea "self-confessed eral” lio called me, in another essay published i the same yea, a"eactonary"(‘Teminator 64), and Donald Morton and Masta Zavarcadeh consign Gerald Graft taney Fish, Richard Rot, and Andrew Rosato the ume comp as Rosh inibaugh (2-9), (Neilson and Meyerson’ attack on Bérubé is moe restainedthe worst thing they call him is a "ibeal ‘lars [5: 267 47:239, 25] at they ty to connect him, as note, to supporto the fa ight in Central Americn) Sach people nee simplistic division ofthe political world ina two polar opposites with no awhivad altematives ust, ss they need a simplistic explanation ofthe eause and eure fal our problems), because they can tolerate complexity ‘acertanty That mental set, believe isthe mos significant similarity (oe "qaialence Between the fc right and far let 20 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me,..but itl help" KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph ** Tough Day for Teddy 21 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me.,but itl help” KY Fellows 2K Cheaters Lose Ralph ‘ough Day for Teddy ~ Impact rowth Key to Space (1/2 Growth makes space colonization inevitable. Robin Hanson, assistant professor of economics @ George Mason, 2001, online IC our growth does not stop, it must continue, And it cannot continue this ong without enabling and encouraging massive space colonization. Spatial/material growth requires it, technical growth enables it, and economic growth induces technical growth. ‘We must spread to space or face extinction Stephen Hawking, smartest person alive, 10/16/2001, “The Case for Space Colonization Now”, online ‘The human race is likely to be wiped out by a doomsday virus... unless we set up col in space. Although Sept. 11th was horrible, it didn't threaten the survival of the human race like nuclear weapons do,” said the Cambridge University Scientist. "In the Jong term, I'm more worried about biology. Nuclear weapons need large facilities, but genetic engineering can be done in a small lab. The danger is that, either by accident or design, we create a virus that destroys us. Idon't think the human race will survive .. unless we spread into space, There are too many acc jonts that can befall life on a single planet.” ‘We must set up colonies away from earth to guarantee life Stephen Hawking, smartest person alive, 10/16/2001, “The Case for Space Colonization Now”, online ‘The argument is that man may soon destroy himself on earth before he can set up a backup, civilization elsewhere. Now sar may or may not be the only life in the universe capable of abstract thought, but we surely must agree that much would be lost if man's existence were to cease right now. Trillions of trillions of potentially happy and productive man-years would never.come to pass. We are obligated {0 do all we can, now, to protect this future! In the last {generation or two, mar has clearly reached some sort of milestone or turning point. The present is unprecedented, and so the future is completely unpredictable. For the first time in man's history, many things seem to be doubling every decade or two, such as population, research, energy usage, pollution, nuclear capability, total knowledge, and more. In addition, man has achieved the ability to destroy himself and all his future generations. The probability of man's arly increasing at a rate much greater than, for instance, population growth. An in-depth study could well uncover some alarming statistics here. IC behooves us to immediately begin work toward getting a self-sufficient colony away from earth. We just may be the only life in the universe with the foresight to have "moved out" before it destroyed itself. So, should America go all-out for space colonization? What follows can only touch the surface of this question. The points that are made, however, are fell to be convincing enough to warrant immediate and forceful action. Many of the ideas in this book are very new and very portant, Read them with a receptive mind and criticize them fairly and logically, remembering all the while the importance of what’ at stake. "What can happen, will happen." - Anon 22 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but itl help KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy — Impact — Ext ~ Growth Key to Space Growth and domination of nature are key to space colonization. Michael Zey, PhD and director of the Expansionary Institute, 2000, The Future Factor, 15-16 Ultimately, humankind’ progress in the area of dominionization will drive our species to achieve a much greater feat, vitalization, the spreading of human intelligence and consciousness first across this planet and eventually throughout the universe. We will infuse the cosmos with humanness, bring order to chaos, beauty to the barren, life to the void. Dominionization of our home planet prepares us well for the vitalization of the planet. Before wwe can oversee the development of other planets’ topography and climate, we must first learn to perform such operations here on Earth, To rocket from one sphere and travel to the stars we must develop highly sophisticated and powerful forms of energy including nuclear fusion and solar power. In addition, dominionization helps humanity achieve the level of material affluence required to pursue vitalization, an enterprise of Brobdingnagian proportions. Not until we we a high level of material abundance can we even reasonably expect to reengineer th ‘ortunately, humanity is rapidly mastering industrial and agricultural techniques and technologies empowering us to eliminate scarcity and create global affluence. 23 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me,..ut It'll help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Growth key to solving scarcity. Michael Zey, PRD and director of the Expansionary Institute, 2000, The Future F. tor, 20 Our efforts to achieve dor forces of nature and over the Earth itself ‘have a major beneficial by-product— the creation of a superabundance of food, goods, so: of energy, and manufactured products, This end of scarcity on a global level isa landmark event in human history. During the Macroindustrial Era, we are redefining the concept of "the {good life." More important, the rapid diffusion of wealth and wealth-generating technologies and knowledge isin turn enabling the global population to participate in the dominionization Process. Tn the agricultural domain, breakthroughs in biotechnology and genetic engineering ill deliver to humanity a veritable cornucopia of new agricultural products that resist disease, frost, and infestation, and have a longer shelf life, Cel factories and plant tissue technology are making possible the mass production of vegetable and fruit in artificial environments, Hydroponic plants will grow in waterless soil! The sum total of these efforts will provide goocis and food to the multibllions inhabiting our planet-for the frst time in human history the world's population will be well fed, well clothed, and comfortably housed. And a very large population could be served, perhaps 40 to 50 billion people or m 24 Pudding can’t fll the emptiness inside me,,.but itt help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact — Growth Solves Environmental Destruction. Growth and technology are crucial to halting environmental degradation. Michael Zey, PhD and director of the Expansionary Institute, 2000, The Future Factor, 22-23 Humankind’s invention of the "supertree” illustrates one of the least-acknowledged benefits of the hyperprogress occurring during the Macroindustrial Era: although economic, technological, and industrial growth occasionally cause problems, such as pollution and possible reduction in the supply of some natural resources, our technology ultimately generates solutions to the very problems it creates. Our civilization requires wood and paper products to continue progressing, In the process we temporarily reduce the available source of these wood products, namely trees. However, our resourceful species just as quickly replaces these commodities—in this case we applied genetic engineering techniques to produce greater quantities of wood. In fact, economi growth and technology directly counteract environmental degradation, Studies indicate that while a developing country's early economic growth initially can lead to pollution and waste, ‘once that nation achieves true prosperity it then possesses the resources to clean its air and purify its water. In his 1999 book, Earth Odyssey, environmentalist David Hertsgaard reports that the poorest cities, not the most prosperous, were usually the most polluted. The citizens in these places can buy cars, but cannot afford cars with catalytic converters. According to the World Bank, once a nation’s per capita income rises to about $4000 in 1993 dollars, it produces less of many pollutants per capita, At this income level a nation can now afford to purchase the technology to purify its coal exhausts and the sewage systems that treat and eliminate a variety of wastes, 12 Although China is switching to cleaner technologies such as nuclear, it still favors the use of its locally abundant, and therefore cheaper, resource, coal. We can predict that once countries like China become more affluent they will have the wherewithal to clean up their atmosphere. Technology is now being used to deal with waste produced by tanker accidents and other unexpected events that can send millions of gallons of oil or other chemicals, ‘gushing into our pristine lakes and oceans, One novel method, bioremediation, uses microbes, bacteria as it were, as a veritable cleanup crew, for everything from nuclear waste to oil spills. This new environmental technology is based upon the notion that bacteria are the perfect agents, to literally “eat” industrial waste. U.S. Microbics is one company that specializes in this increasingly popular technique. (Publicly held, its stock symbol is BUGS. .. seriously.) In early 1999, it announced that its new production plant had commenced shipping microbial blends to teat hydrocarbon-contaminated soil. U.S. Microbics used biotechnology, bacteria mostly, to clean up sewage wastes, including diesel oil spills. According to the company, “naturally occurring bacteria blends are used fo convert the hazardous diesel fuel into harmless, earth-friendly, chemical byproducts." 13 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but i'l help’ KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy — Impact - Growth Key to lanotech Domination of nature is crucial to nanotechnology, which will solve scarcity, poverty, and allow for space travel, Michael Zey, PhD and director of the Expansionary Institute, 2000, The Future Factor, 23-24 Through dominjonization, humankind is gaining control over the elementary dynamics of lature. Nowhere is this better illustrated than in our attempts to control the behavior of the atom itself, Earlier in the twentieth century, American scientists working on the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, New Mexico, successfully split the atom, an accomplishment that led to the creation of the atomic bomb. Italso opened the door to the development of nuclear energy, which provides a significant proportion of the electricity generated throughout the world. While we can split the atom and use it for energy and defense purposes, we have not yet achieved a true command over this essential building block of matter. Until recently, the inner workings of the atom have been considered an unpredictable frenetic maelstrom of activity outside the realm of ‘human control, Now, a burgeoning new science known as nanotechnology tantalizes the ‘species with the possibility that we might indeed corral this elementary unil and direct its behavior. In theory, nanotechnology would equip our species with the ability to construct muaterial— clothing, food, body parts—from the bottom up, one atom ata time. In essence, we would suddenly possess the power to “grow” almost any object—a tool, a human arm, or a rocket ship—by simply selecting the correct atoms and then programming nanocomputers to construct ‘the object. If we do succeed in manipulating matter to this degree, scarcity and poverty will become faint memories from a bygone era. Nanomachines about the size of viruses could take a pot full of ingredients, and build an automobile one atom or molecule ata time, simply by placing those atoms and moiecules just where they ought to go. Ben Bova, in his book Immortality, described the process thus: "Building an auto would be like a swarm of invisible genies working more silently and swiftly than a noisy, clanking factory.” From a heap of charcoal lust, ordinary carbon soot, nanomachines would produce an automobile, an airplane, or any ‘other object. Imagine for a moment a car with the structural strength and lightness of diamond. ‘Nanotechnology will enable us to develop "smart materials" that could adjust to changes in the environment and advanced materials so durable Protracted space travel. 15 26 Pudding can’t fll the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact — Growth Good Silk Economic growth is crucial to solving proliferation, environmental destruction, famine, an AIDs. Leonard Silk, professor of economics @ Pace University, 1993, Foreign Affairs, Dangers of Slow Growth, I/n In the absence of such shifts of human and capital resources to expanding civilian industries, there are strong economic pressures on arms-producing nations to maintain high levels of military production and to sell weapons, both conventional and dual-use nuclear technology, wherever buyers can be found, Without a revival of national economies and the global ‘onomy, the production and proliferation of weapons will continue, creating more Iraqs, ‘Yugoslavias, Somalias and Cambodias ~ or worse. Like the Great Depression, the current economic slump has fanned the firs of nationalist, ethnic and religious hatred around the world. Economic hardship is not the only cause of these social and political pathologies, but it aggravates all of them, and in turn they feed back on economic development. They also undermine efforts to deal with such global problems as environmental pollution, the production and trafficking of drugs, crime, sickness, famine, AIDS and other plagues. Growth will not solve all those problems by itself. But economic growth ~ and growth alone ~ creates the additional resources that make it possible to achieve such fundamental goals as higher living standards, national and collective security, a healthier environment, and more liberal and open economies and societies. oe Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me...but it help” KY Fellows 2K$ Cheaters Lose Ralph ‘ough Day for Teddy — Impac ‘ree Trade and Rights Malthus Ina world of de-development authority would be decentralized to local communities, which would act self-sufficiently. Pip Hinman, staff writer, 1996, “Utopia Revisited”, greenleftorg, a/online ‘Trainer's model of a new society ~ “not capitalism, not socialism, but a “Third Way" — seems to be largely modelled on a highly romanticised version of an Israeli kibbutz: small-scale, decentralised communal developments in which people would live, produce most of their material needs and find great personal satisfaction in doing so. In his sketch of a normal workday in such a society, you would garden, feed the hens, fix a chair do your spot on the library roster, paint the windmill, thatch the goat house roof, meet with the energy committee and play table tennis. This type of lifestyle, he argues, would ensure the greatest sense of creativity, autonomy, cooperation, control and interest in your work. 28 Puding can't fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact Turn — Free Trade - War ‘Trade Interdependence prevents Nuclear War Michael Spicer, Otin Foundation and formet Tory Mesiber Parianunt, 1996, The Challenge eum the Best and the Rebirth ofthe West The choice tacing the West today is much the same as that which fheed the soviet bloc after World War ts between n the challenge of world trace with the ajustments and te benefits thet it png to shut ou gnarkets. thal are growin al where a dynamic new pace is being set for innovative production, The problem about the second approach isnot sirmply that it won't hold: satelite techmolouy alone will ase that consumers will begin to demand those goods thatthe Fst i able 10 provide most cheaply. More fundamentally. it will guaranige the emervence cited world in which natural fenes willbe fanned and _Awworld divided into rigid irade bloc sie place in whieh suspicion and ultimately: ey: will possibly. erapt inte. a major war, [do not say that the converse will necessarily be tue, tht sn a free wading world there will bo an absence ofall strife. Bur to rade is 0. become interdependent, and that jy a wood stepin the direction of world stability, With nuclear weapans ato # penny, stability wil be ata premium in the ‘years ahead. Protcetionism promotes domestic and global war Jason Brooks. Deparment of Journatisn at Carleton University, 1999 ed, Independent Institute “Make Trade, Not Wor" hip: wan independent ongifistulents Garvey Essay 99 Brooks hte ‘What is trade? Its the natura, voluntary interaction of people for mutual benefit. Trade does not resi farce American economist Henry George writes, "Tree trade consists simply a leting people buy and sel as they want to Duy and sel. I is protection that requires force, for it consists in preventing people from doing what they want ti do." Te osder to set up a argument tinking free trade to peace. itis useful i first Yook at the incentives inherent 0 a ‘world where borders are shut by goveraments. In such a world the incentive is for war, Fitst ofall, protectionism Pats a povernment in coniiet with its own people. Consicer: In wautim, nations punish their sacisies by blackande for trade sanctions. Where 3 go Mi pursues a protectionist policy. iL essentially commits ap act of war on its ‘own people. This would be bad enough ifthe hat i ded wit its own citizens, but it dose. A protectionist govemment harms, in addition to its own people. all citizens of the world who wanted to Desiexa. follows that any government imposing protetionism ps itsell in conflict with citizens of many rations. The harmfat effects of one protectionist policy cele th sword like shock waves, "Ia national government Linders the most productive use of is countt’s resourees, it hurts the interests ofall other nations," writes Lach ie vo Mises, “the economic backwardness of a country with rich natural resources injres all those whose conditions A Amore efficient exploitation ofthis natural wealth.” What js the reswing incentive for the banmed citizens of the world? Mises gives us the answer, "us eeonomnie nationalism must result in war whet thse. injured believe thar they ave scone enovgh so brush away by armed violent action the met ois encourages war ~ an this isa sery important point to be made, Treneourages ‘countries to make War on the protectionist and it encuurages, perhaps most of al, the protectionist to make war on ‘everyone else, That protectionism leads to war becomes obvious if We consider that citizens may, Fundaenentally acquire gonds fhom absoad in_only. one of two wavs: trade or conquest. When voluntary exchange is made impossible by artiticial restrictions iinposed by governments, the only other way nations may access foreign markets is by force. A country insisting on self-sufficiency will have fo choose between shortages or War. {he reason is ‘lear: around the world, conesutrations of population Jo not in general correlate withthe distribution of naturat esourees, such as wheat, oll, oF technical expertise. In a word of proteetionism, countries will not have access. 0 resourees unless thos Jig within ts national boundaries. Is this basie problem with prove th makes extending. res. and ultimately war, so appealing, Resource shortuees caused by protection have heen 2 problem in Europe for centuries, Mises observes dat it Particular for Germany. "The Germans tied — in vain — to solve it by war and conquest.” Px isin makes war profitable, But the soliton to this perverted state of inceatives is simple: tree tide. Where horders are open jtmakes mo material difference tm ow far national boundaries stretch, Goods and servic one freely. Citizens ean migrate and 26 (heir labor sty-sbere when borders age open, To paraphrase Ay country survives by looting: @ ‘county survives through proxduetion anh tae 29 Pudding can’t fll the emptiness inside me...but itl help” AY Fellows 2k4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Impact Turn — Free Trade — US/Sino Relations Free trade is crucial to US-Sino relations The Straits TimesiSingapore), June 3, 2001 WASHINGTON -- President George W. Bush has asked Congress to renew China's normal trade status for another ear ina clear indication that he values fev tale and wood relations despite eecci fiction between Washington and Beijing Eree trade is vital for American wealth, Chinese freedom and the US-China relationship, he said in a written statement after notifying House and Senaie leaders that he will extend Normal Trade Relations (NTR) status for Cina.He sai: "Fair trade is essential not only to improving fiving standards of Americans, bt also for a strong and productive relationship with China. "Mr. Bush, a dedicated free-trade, refered obliquely to "recent events” that have roiled the rlationship, saying: "Recent events have shown not only that we need to speak frankly and directly about our differences, but that we also need to maintain dialogue and cooperate with one another on those areas ‘where we have common interests." Trade, he said, was a vial area where their interests converged, {IE CONTINUES} Mr Robert Kapp, president of the US-China Business Council, caution ‘economiz contacts with China, as advocated by those who call for Cons: deci "A decision to rupture two-way trade and ressional overturn of the President's n, Would tear the heart out of the overall US-China engagement. The President clearly understands that.” US-Sino conflict causes global nuclear war Chalmers Johnson, author of Blowback: The Costs and Consequences of American Empire, 5142001, The Nation, Pg. 20 China is another matter. No sane figure in the Pentagon wants a war with China, and all serious US miltaists know that Chinas minuscule nuclear capacity isnot offensive but a deterrent against the overwhelming US power arrayed against it (twenty archaic Chinese warheads versus more than 7,000 US warheads), Taiwan, whose starus constitutes the sit incomplete last uct ofthe Chinese civil war, remains the most dangerous place on earth. Much as the 1914 ‘ssassination ofthe Austrian crown prince in Sarajevo led to a war that no wanted, a misstep in Taiwan by any side could bring the United States and China into a conflict that nether wants, Such a war would bankrupt the United States, deeply divide Japan and p vd in a Chinese victory, given thal China isthe world’s most populoas ‘country and would be defending itsclf against a forvign agaressor. More seriously, i could easily escalate into a nuclear holocaust, However, given the nationalistic challenge to China's sovereignty of any Taiwanese alferapl 10 declare its independence formally, forvard-deployed US forces on China's borders have virtually no deterrent effect 30 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,,.but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Defense — De-dey maintains capitalism De-development is classist and maintains capitalism, even when it’s working at its peak, Pip Hinman, staff writer, 1996, “Utopia Revisited”, greenleftorg, a/online But only those with the material means and political power are ina position (o do this. Sadly, ‘the majority of people haven't a choice about their work, housing and transportation, a fact which Trainer, at times, seems to skip over. nples of what Trai ders to ‘be on the way to becoming "radical conserver societies" pose no challenge to capitalism oven if they achieve a high level of self-sufficiency. Indeed, the Israeli kibbutz movement is an integral part of a capitalist expansionist project. 31 Pudding can’t fill te emptiness inside me...but itl help’ KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph ugh Day for Teddy — Defense Crunch Not coming (1/2 Innovation coupled with new technology, make natural resources infinite, There’s only a risk that their destruction of these technologies causes unsustainable exploitation. Jim Powell, free lance writer, A review of Ultimate Resource I, 1998, http:/ /home What a magnificent book! This overhaul of the original 1980 edition, bolstered with much new data, affirms the natural harmony between private self-interest and society as a whole. Simon dramatically highlights the wonders of spontaneous free markets and the evils of well-meaning, government intervention around the world. He shows that people can achieve practically anything when they are free. He does all this while providing a splendid overview of human progress, For instance, he shows that thanks to limitless human ingenuity, the more natural resources we consume, the more abundant they tend to be, "Incredible as it may seem at first," Simon reports, not only inappropriate but is downright misleading when applied to natural resources, from both the practical and philosophical points of view." ‘Technological progress means more productivity from almost everything. As Simon explains, "We lea how to obtain a given amount of a service from an ever-smialler amount of a ource. Ifakes much less copper [wire] now to pass a given message than a hundred years ago. And much less energy is required to do a given amount of work than in the past; the earliest steam engines had an efficiency of about 2 percent, but efficiencies ate many times that high now." Remember the energy scares which became an excuse for massive federal intervention in energy markets? "The statistical history of energy supplies," says Simon, "is a rise in plenty rather than in scarcity... Through the centuries, the prices of energy-coal, oil, and electricity~have been decreasing rather than increasing, relative to the cost of labor and even relative to the price of consumer goods, just as with all other natural resources... there is nothing ‘meaningfully 'inite' about our world that inevitably will cause energy, ot even cil in particular, to grow more scarce and costly." Two decades ago, we were told that unless governments took decisive action, devastating famines would soon sweep the earth, Yet Simon reports that more private land is being cultivated around the world now, especially in poor countries, and average yields per acre are increasing, Far from needing government intervention to prevent famine, government intervention is the scourge responsible for famine. Resourceful private entrepreneurs multiply the ways of feeding people: "Using technology that is in commercial use to raise food in hydroponic artficia-light factories... the entire population of the world can be fed using only the land area of Massachusetts plus Vermont... And the area necessary can be reduced toa tenth or a hundredth of that by producing the food in ten or hundred story buildings." Wherever Simon turns his keen analytical eye, he sees human ingenuity banishing fear, "The Global 2000 Report issued the influential forecast that the world fish catch had hit its limit ‘Teveled off in the 1970s at about 70 million metric tons a year.’ But by 1988 the catch had reached 98 million tons a year, and itis stil rising rapidly. No limit to the harvest of wild varieties of seafood is insight. Yet fish farms have begun to produce at or near competitive prices Aquaculture can be expanded almost indefinitely. Land is a small constraint, as catfish farming in the Mississippi shows; present methods produce about 3,000 pounds of fish per acre, an economic return far higher than for field crops." What if there isnt any water? Simon: "People ‘create’ usable water, and there are large opportuniti Some additional ca 1 use: transport by ship from one country to another, deeper wells, cleaning dirty water, towing icebergs to places where water is needed, and desalination... An important example of a newly-discovered source is the aquifers in areas where the underlying rock has large faults.” 32 Pudding can't fil the emptiness inside me...but it'll help” KY Fellows 24 Cheaters Lose Ralph Lough Day for Teddy — Defen: runch Not Coming (2/3) Resources are abundant, there’s no uniqueness. Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 2ist Century, online Ifwe examine the earth's resource base using those three yardsticks, we do indeed come to a jarring conclusion: at the very time that the conservation labby was con and legislatures everywhere that resource shortages were lurking just around the comer, the global economy witnessed the greatest explosion of resource abundance in the history of mankind. If there are indeed ‘physical limits to the sources of materials and energy shat sustain the human popalation and the economy, as is contended in Beyond the Limits, it appears that those far beyond the human horizon that they are for all intents and Purposes nonexistent, Abundance solves crunch, Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century, online Yet declining resource scarcity is a long-term trend, evident from the beginning of human society. Without exception, every material resource imaginable has become more abundant during the course of civilization. Whether measured in terms of proven reserves or ps relative to income, a graph of the relative abundance of virtually every resource looks like the population graphs we have seen so many times before: long-term, steady growth in resources with an exploding, exponential increase in resource availability over the last 200 years, The record of the last 50 years, then, is not atypical but perfectly consistent with the observable data on increasing resource availability since the beginning of time. 34 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but it help" KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph The theory of overshoot is empirically denied, and prices prove resource levels are expanding. Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm. for the 21st Centary, online Another view holds that we are a world in “overshoot,” living off our resource capital and not ‘our income, irresponsibly and rapidly drawing down precious stocks of resources that have taken cons for the earth to accumulate. The authors of Beyond the Limits argue that "overshoot comes from delays in feedback-from the fact that decisionmakers in the system do not get, ot believe, or act upon information that limits have been exceeded until long after they have been exceeded, Overshoot is only possible because there are accumulated resource stocks that can be drawn down.36 That argument, however, isin direct contradiction to every possible ‘measurement of resource scarcity and the march of recorded history. If overshoot occurs w/ ‘we use resources faster than they are created by nafure, then the world has been in acceleratin “overshoot” for the last 10,000 years, or ever since the development of agriculture, Moreover, our best "feedback" on scarcity-market prices-tells us that resources are expanding, not contracting. (abie2). Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but it! help KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Defense ~ Energy Crunch Not Comi The energy crunch is over § thousand years away. Terry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 2ist Century, online Contrary to popular belief, energy stocks of all kinds, both fossil and nonfossil, have been increasing steadily and dropping in price, We face unprecedented abundance, not scarcity. As noted by MIT professor Morris Adelman, one of America's foremost energy experts, "The great gilshortage is like the horizon, always receding as one moves toward it."6 The world has nearly 10 times the amount of proven oil reserves that if had in 1950 and almost twice the Anown reserves of 1970. In fact, proven oil reserves are greater today than at any other time in recorded history. Oil prices have dropped 35 percent in constant dollars since 1980, When indexed to U.S. wages, oil prices have dropped 43 percent since 1980 and show steady and. continuing declines in price from as far back as 1870.7 The decline in oil prices has been reflected in the price of gasoline at the pump. Fuel prices in constant dollars are 6 percent lower today than they were in 1972 (just before the OPEC oil embargo), 25 percent lower than in 1963, and 30 percent lower than in 1947.8 Whereas 3.2 percent of total household expenditures were devoted 0 gasoline in 1972 (the lowest such rate since 1952), American households today devote but 2.6 percent of total expenditures to gasoline purchases.9 Proven natural gas reserves have als Shown dramatic increases in the past 20 years; they have increased by 84 percent since 1974, At current rates of consumption, proven gas reserves alone will be sufficient for approximately 58 Years 10 The fact that natural gas prices, after adjusting for inflation, have dropped only 3 percent since 1980 is largely a function of price and production controls that lingered into the 1980s and discouraged optimum product levels. Likewise, between 1979 and 1989 proven coal reserves grew by 84 percent, an amount sufficient for 238 years given current levels of consumption.11 On an energy equivalent basis, proven reserves of coal are 43 percent greater than the world's combined total proven oil and natural gas reserves.12 Since 1980 the price of coal has dropped 91 percent when adjusted for inflation and 243 percent when indexed to U.S. wages.13 Economist William Nordhaus concludes from U.S. Geological Survey data that the world has enough ultimately recoverable fossil fuel reserves to last approximately 520 years given projected rates of demand, although others have pegged that figure as high as 650 years.14 If historic rates of productivity increase and technological advances are considered, then we have every reason to believe that the 1,000-year trend of falling energy prices will continue for generations to come. Remember, the figures cited above are for fossil fuel reserves only. Current nuclear technology ues that the world has §,400 years of energy for the future at current rates of consumption.15 Advances in nuclear breeder and fusion technologies would ensure vast urces ad the potential and supplies of energy for tens of thousands of years, and geothermal of solar energy also promise virtually limitless supplies of energy as technology improv those sources become more economically competitive. Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me...but itl help" KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Coming. A crunch of natural resources is not coming. Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm. for the 2ist Century, online Back in 1980, during the height of the Carter-era resource depletion scare, economist Julian Simoa bet conservationist Paul Ehrlich $1,000 that the real price of any group of natural resources of Ehrlich's choice would be less at any given date in the future than in 1980. Ehrlich chose five minerals-copper, chrome, nickel, tin, and tungsten-and set the payoff date for 10 years hence. As Simon expected, the real price of those five resources dropped by 24 percent, 40 percent, 8 percent, 68 percent, and 78 percent, respectively. Ehrlich sent Simon a check-but no admission of error-in 1990. No matter which minerals Ehrlich chose, it was a sucker’s bet. All but ‘two strategic minerals (manganese and zinc) declined in price during the 1980s, reflecting the dramatic increase in mineral abundance that has occurred globally since the beginning of time. Simon renewed his offer to any and all corners in 1992, but to date there have been no takers, AS the data in Table 1 indicate, proven reserves of virtually all important minerals have skyrocketed since 1950. An examination of the price of 13 metals and minerals (aluminum, antimony, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, nickel, platinum, silver, tin, tungsten, and zinc) shows a net 31 percent decline in real prices from 1980 to 1990, When indexed to wages, those price declines are even more dramatic. "Most of the minerals and metals at the turn of the century were five to ten times more expensive than they are today in terms of numbers of hours of work. needed to purchase them."16 Declines in metal and mineral prices are reflected in the equally dramatic declines in raw material costs. From 1980 to 1990 the real price of glass fell 33 percent, cement prices fell 40 percent, metal price dropped 18 percent, and rubber prices declined by 40, percent.17 Examination of ultimately recoverable mineral resources indicates that we have only begun to tap the rie of the earth's abundance. U.S. Geological Survey data reveal, that, if current consumption trends continue, recoverable mineral resources will last for hundreds and in many cases thousands and even tens of thousands of years. 18 Physicist ‘Herman Kahn and several colleagues concluded in 1976 that "over 95 percent of the world demand [for minerals] is for five metals (ron, aluminum bauxite, silicon, magnesium, and titanium), which are not considered exhaustible." Another 4.85 percent of world mineral demand is for seven metals (copper, zine, manganese, chromium, lead, nickel, and tin) that are "probably inexhaustible." Thus, 99.9 percent of all mineral demand is for metals virtually inexhaustible over any conceivable time horizon.19 i Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Tough Day for Teddy ~ Defense — Starvation Not Coming Starvation is not coming because of agricultural shortages. We have enough food to feed billions for generations. Jerry Taylor, director of natural resource studies @ Cato, 2000, Market Liberalism: A Paradigm for the 21st Century, online The disturbing, ongoing pattern of famine and drought in Africa and Asia has added credibility to the argument that the earth is approaching a point at which it will not be able to continue to feed the "teeming masses" of the planet. Yet by any analysis, this is a time of agricultural abundance unprecedented in the history of the world. Economist Thomas De Gregori observes that "if there is hunger in the world-and so there is, in abundance, even in wealthy countries-it is because of maldistribution of food, not insufficient global production.20 "Ten times as many people died of famine in the last quarter of the 19th century as have died of famine in the third quarter of the 20th century, despite ose much larger present Population an the massive enginccred famines in Carntodia ding the 1970821 An examination of 15 representative agricultural commodities (barley, broilers carol, cele, cor, cotton eggs, milk, cats, oranges rice, sorgan soybeans, ‘wheat and woo! reveals that real price nthe United States dropped by an average of 38 percent from 1880 to 1950 ‘When indexed to wages the price of those foodstufts has declined 83 prcent since 1950.22 Clearly, te earth's cultaral productivity were being outpaced by voracious demand for food asa result of te population explosion, 5 cultural prices would be sing sharply rather than falling drsmatclly asthe dat indicate, Likewise, is clear that the agricultural output of the planet has increased exponentially over the past severe] centsres Since 1960 technological axdvances in farm equipment, pesticides, fertlizes,itgation techniques, bioengineering and sol management have fed toa doubling of world food production and 30 pen increases in farmland productivity. 23 Technologic] advances Ihave more than kept pace with the explosion in global population, Since 1948 world food production has surpassed population increases by about I percent a year24 Although global popnlaion has dou since World War, world ‘rain production hs tripled. The dramatic increase inthe availability of foodsts occurred withost any appreciable {otal incease inland commute to agricultural uses over the lest 30 year Since 1950, infact, 200 eillon acres of US. farmland have been retired asa result ofthe unprecedented glut of agricultaal commodities on the world market, ‘Agricultural abundance has translated into improved health for even the poorest in the Third Work Whereas only 42 percent of all countries reported thet average daily caloric consumption reached 100 percent of recommended lovelsin the ‘nid-1960s 66 percent ofall nations reported caloric intake at thoes level by the mid 180s, «36 percent ncrnce nos than 20 years. Fully 81 percent ofthe worlds countries, including Chine an India, now report average caloric intake of at least 90 percent of recommended level.25 Morwover, there is good reason to believe that the planet can feed tens of billions of people for many generations to come. Suitable agricultural land makes up 24 percent of the total ice-free landmass of the globe, well over twice the amount cultivated in recent decades and more than triple the acreage cultivated in any given year.26 Moreover, a great deal of the world's cropland is underused or cultivated using low-yield technologies and practices similar to those used in this country in 1910. Obviously, agricultural productivity will skyrocket as high-yield technologies continue to advance throughout the developing world. 38 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph 39 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Captain Shapi Impact Turn ~ Capitalism Bad (1/4) The critique fails and entrenches capitalism. Erasing old border accelerates capitalist globalization and justifies new borders based on class. Geariod Tuathail, professor of geography @ Virginia tech, 1999 ,"Borderless Worlds?”, hitp:/ / www majbill, tedu/ geog/facully/toal/ papers/ Borderless. htm. These different examples of discourses of deterritorialization are, of course, sweepingly superficial representations of the complexity of boundaries, territory and the world map at the century's end. Seriously flawed as conceptualizations of the contemporary world, the confident hyperbole of these dliscourses nevertheless has considerable ideological power and thetorical force. This paper seeks to problematize such discourses of deterritorialization in a general way by examining one of the more precise articulations of the phenomenon of deterritorialization, the 50 called ‘end of geography’ in the domain of financial markets. On the face of it, the case of global financial integration would seem to be a particularly strong instances of deterritorialization. Rather than understanding the issue, however, as a mere confirmation of an unproblematized deterritorialization, this paper makes three arguments about deterritorialization discourses generally using the case of global finance. The first argument is that discourses of deterritorialization are ideological discourses that do not describe actuality but seek tc discursively constitute and represent certain complex tendencies as both inevitable and positive developments in contemporary capitalist society. Discourses of deterritorialization, in other words, are part of the self-interpretation of contemporary informationalized capitalism. ‘They combine elements from many longstanding Western discourses (con)fused in a contradictory and unstable unity. For example, digital culture discourses combine a strong, humanistic inheritance emphasizing human freedom, liberation and fulfillment; a capitalist discourse concerning the virtues of open and transparent markets, and a discourse of technophilia which celebrates technological systems as wondrous entities which enhance human capacities and capabilities. The second argument is that what we are dealing with is not detectitorialization a re-arrangement of the identity/border/order complex that give people, territory, and politics their meaning in the contemporary world. Deterritorialization is not qualitatively and overwhelmingly new. Further, there is no pure transcendence of the existing complex of nationality, territoriality and statism but a re-arranging of their practical functioning and meaning in a globalizing and informationalizing capitalist condition. The human practices organizing borders, states and territories are co-evolving, with socio-technical networks and informationalized capitalist relations of production and consumption. Itis not simply that there is no de-territorialization without re-territorialization but that both are parts, of ongoing generalized processes of territorialization. The third argument is that the consequences of de- and re-tertitorialization at the century’s end is the creation of a world political map that is paradoxically more integrated and connected yet also more divided and dis- located as a consequence of the uneven development of the trendls and tendencies associated with informationalization and globalization. While transformations in markets and telecommunications are creating a global village, this village is characterized by a functional global apartheid that separates and segregates certain affluent and wired neighborhoods from other deprived and disconnected zones and neighborhoods [23]. The development of borderless worlds does not contradict but actually hastens the simultaneous development of ever more bordered worlds characterized by stark inequalities and digital divides, The concept and practice deconstructs itself. Borderless worlds, in short, borders worlds. 40 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn — Capitalism Bad (2/4) Borderless discourse leads to reterritorialization of geography around capitalist financial hotspots. These panopticons will use their control of the market to devastate economies and heighten the gap between rich and poor regions. Geariod Tuathail, professor of geography @ Virginia tech, 1999,,” Borderless Worlds?”, hitp:/ /www.majbill.vtedu/ geog,/faculty /toal/papers/ Borderless htm. Second, end-of-geography discourse fails to demonstrate how deterritorialization is in actuality also a reterritorialization. Geography is not so much disappearing as being re- structured, re-arranged and re-wired. Global financial integration has, in fact, produced a new geo-political complex of territory, technology, states and markets on a global scale. At the pinnacle of this complex are a series of integrated global financial centers. As Sassen, Thrift and others have noted, the development of a globally integrated financial system has not rendered place less significant but more significant [36]. Even OBrien concedes that face to face contact is extremely important as the upper levels of the global financial system. Thrift argues that international financial centers have become centers of social interaction on an expanded scale. Rather than these centers dissolving into an electronic space of flows, the volume and speed of such flows "may make it even more imperative to construct places that act as centers of comprehension’[37]. In pointing out how global financial markets are not perfect markets Clark and O'Connor underscore how national regulations make a difference in conditioning markets, "There is, in effect, a robust territoriality to the global financial industry" (38]. Third, the end-of- geography discourse fails to acknowledge and engage the construction of new geographies of financial exclusion across the planet. The de-territorialization of national financial spaces and the creation of an integrated global financial space has changes the rules of world economic affairs for both developed and developing economies. In order to attract capital and foreign direct investment to spur economic development, states have to present themselves before a geo-financial panopticon of market makers and market analysts [39]. They have to adopt neoliberal creeds in their economic management philosophy, undertake certain structural reforms deregulating ‘national monopolies’ and privatizing stale assets, and be prepared to be evaluated on a daily basis by the ‘electronic jury’ of interlinked international markets [40]. States that do not play by these rules are effectively excluded from global investment capital. While the changes of the last decade have enabled certain developing states who have followed neoliberal nostrums to obtain considerable investment capital, this has come at a cost. Global financial capital tends to be impatient capital and exceedingly volatile. In times of crisis, capital will take flight to ‘safer’ and more ‘predictable’ markets, devastating national economies and development strategies in the process. The economic and social dislocations caused by this process are considerable, destroying economic resources and investments built up over years in a few days or less. As a consequence of the ‘emerging market contagion’ of 1997-98, income inequalities between the developing and developed world have widened considerably. 41 Pudding can't fil the emptiness Inside me..but I help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn — Capitalism Bad (3/4) Destroying borders allows the world market to become amorphous and digitized. Capitalism will be able to penetrate the entire globe. Geariod Tuathail, professor of geography @ Virginia tech, 1999 "Borderless Worlds?”, hitp:/ /www.maybill, kedu/ geoe/ faculty /toal/ papers /Borderless.him. ‘The superficialities of deterritorializa se in financial markets have theis ‘equivalents in digital culture. For example, MIT media technologist Nicholas Negroponte describes the evolution unleashed by computers as a world transforming qualitative transition from a world of ‘atoms’ (large, heavy, inert mass) to a world of ‘bits’ (microscopic, light digital code) [42]. The atomic mass of territory is eclipsed by the light flexibility of telemetricality. In the warp drive of an informationalization powered by Moore's law (the doubling of computer capacity every eighteen months), the world economy will become a ‘seamless digital workplace"[43]. "A self-employed software designer in Peoria will be competing with his or her ‘counterpart in Pohang. A digital typographer in Madrid will do the same as one in Madras.” "Bits," Negroponte assures us, “will be borderless, stored and manipulated with absolutely no respect to geopolitical boundaries" [44]. Discourses touting the inevitable borderlessness of a coming informationalized world tend to be discourses peddling neoliberal visions of what informationalization should create, namely a ‘friction-free market’, Such discourses also tend to hyperbolize the “borderlessness’ and ‘global’ character of the information age, presenting images of its penetration into the smallest Italian villages ntest mo i of a‘globality’ thatis ultimately parochial to ‘virtual capitalism’ and its ‘virtu. Finally, these discourses assume away the tremendous informational inequalities across the ‘world and within states, a world where most people do not even have access to a POTS (plain old telephone service) [46] Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Captain Shapiro! — Impact Turn — Capitalism Bad (4/4) Their alternative is a fantasy that increases transnational capitalism while masking the ever deepening divide between rich and poor nations. Geariod Tuathail, professor of geography @ Virginia tech, 1999 ,”Borderless Worlds?”, hitp:/ /www.majbill.vtedu/geog/ faculty /toal/ papers/Borderless.htm. ‘Borderless world’ discourses need to be problematized by old political economy questions: Who benefits? What class promotes the discourse of ‘borderless worlds’? For whom is the world borderless? Martin and Schumann provide the context for some answers in their description of a 80:20 world where one fifth of the world’s population will be sufficient to keep the world economy running while four-fifths will be excluded from its high-speed lanes of power and privilege [47]. The top 20% are the “wired technological classes’ connected across the planet to ‘each other and disconnected from the rest living in the same territorial state as themselves. The ‘majority will remain trapped in the ‘space of places’ pacified by entertainment industries or ‘uneasily contained by prisons and the police. Robert Reich provides a similar vision of a one- fifth/ four-fifths society where the successful one-fifth (‘symbolic analysts’) are ‘secessionists’ living in similar gated communities across the globe and resolutely secking to avoid territorial taxes in order to pay for Reich’s "work of nations" agenda [48]. Luke pushes this further provocatively suggesting that for the top fifth ‘nodality’ is displacing ‘nationality’ as identity, community, sovereignty and territory are re-configured by the vast informational networks of cyberspace [49]. In the coded environment of network places, connectivity spaces, and digital domains, these national citizens are re-inventing themselves as free-lance ‘netizens, hyper- individualized ‘digital beings’ net-working on the world wide web [50]. The ‘borderless world’ is their selfinterpretation, the utopian community imagined for them by informational capitalism. Yet this cyber-community of fantasy and play is also a harsh performative workplace where ‘work for even the most privileged and rewarded requires routine ‘overwork’ [51]. Such visions ‘of the geo-economics and geo-politics of an emergent cyberspatialized world dominated by transnational informational capitalism or what Eisenstein terms the ‘cyber-media complex of transnational capitaY {52] are themselves simplified and overstated, complicitious in some cases, with the technologically deterministic hyperbole of that which they seek to criticize. ‘Nevertheless, such visions do underscore the fact that contemporary transnational informational capitalism is deepening inequalities across the globe and rearranging not abolishing borders, boundaries and territories. For all peoples across the world processes such as class, gender, race, educational opportunity, wealth, citizenship and political power are perpetually producing borders. ‘Borderless world’ discourses are the fantasies of the few that can dream of becoming digital in a world where just being is an persistent struggle for so many. 43 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me...but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph ** Biopower DA Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me...but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph power DA — Impact Turn ~ Deterrence Good (1/2) The end goal of bio-power is the construction of the nuclear weapon, which accounts for US deterrence. James Bernauer, Prof of Philo, @ Boston College, 1990, Force of Flight Towards the ethic of thought, 141-142, This capacity of power to conceal itself cannot cloak the tragedy of the implications contained in Foucault's examination of its functioning, While liberals have fought to extend rights and Marxists have denounced the injustice of capitalism, a political technology, acting in the interest of the better administration of life, has produced a politics that places man’s [SIC] "existence as a living being in question.” The very period that proclaimed pride in having overthrown the tyranny of monarchy, that engaged in an endless clamor for reform, that is confident in the virtues of its humanistic faith--this period's polities created a landscape dominated by history's, bloodiest wars. What comparison is possible between a sovereign’s authority to take a life and a power that, in the interest of protecting a society's quality of life, can plan, as well as develop the means for its implementation, a policy of mutually assured destruction? Such a policy is neither an aberration of the fundamental principles of modern politics nor an abandonment of our age's humanism in favor of a more primitive right to kill; itis but the other side of a power that is “situated and exercised at the level of life, the species, the race, and the large-scale phenomena of population." The bio-political project of administering and optimizing life closes its circle with the production of the Bomb. "The atomic situation is now at the end poi 0 power to expose a whole population to death is the underside of a power to guarantee an individual's continued existence." The solace that might have been expected from being able to gaze at scaffolds empty of the victims of a tyrant’s vengeance has been stolen from us by the noose that has tightened around each of our own necks. Nuclear weapons are key to credible deterrence and stopping CBW attacks. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel 8/10/2003, Mini-Nukes on the Horizon, I/n Proponents of a new, low-vield nuclear weapon argue that the president is "selfdeterred” from using existing nuclear weapons because of the high probability of inflicting collateral damage. They reason that a new "mini-nuke' would be more usable because it would inflict less damage to the area outside the target. And, if itis more usable, then it would provide a more credible deterrent against outlaw states and terrorist organizations. Other proponents say we must develop mini-nukes not for deterrence, but for flexibility in war fighting and as the weapon of choice for pre-emptive strikes against chemical or biological weapons buried underground, 45 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Biopower DA — Impact Turn — Deterrence Good (2/2 The impact is extinction. Clitferd £, Singer, professor of nuclear engineering and director of the Progratn in Arms Comrol, Disarmament and Intemational Sceurity atthe University of Minos at Uriana-- Champaisn, Spring 2001, Swords and Ploughshares, np:/www acdissine edehomepage, docs pubs docs SAP docs S&P NIVS lopment thai my pose mined with genetie more serious threat to human Smallpox is the most fearsome of natural smallpox will I ‘ological warfare agents in existence. ly be ata low unprecedented since:the e ‘opportuni esp absence of other complications sucli as nuelear war near the peak of an epidemic, develops spond sith quarantine and vaeeination to limit the damage. Otherwise mortality there may match the rate of 30 percent or more exp red iy unprepared and technology, the developing countries. With respect to genetic engineering using currently availahle knowledg simple expedient of spreading im ample mixture of coal protein variants could rendet a vacet ineffective, bur this would otherwise not be expected to Substantially inerease oy development of new biological technology. however, there is a possibility that a variety of infect ay te engineered for combination: atural virulewee and mortality, ruber than just to overwhelm currently available antibioties or vaccines, Knnoxen upp the power of this type of teckmology base, and thus the survival of a globally connected human family may be in question when and it this is achieved. 46 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph ** Don’t Fear the Reaper 47 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn — Space Weapons A. Fear is crucial to space weaponization, (Cliff Durand staff writer, 2003, We Have Seen the Future and It Does Not Work: The Politics and Ethics of Fear, httw:/ /pages.prodigy net/ gmoses/nvusa/webliog004.htm ‘The politics of fear has governed our national life ever since. With the end of the Cold War up ‘until 911, there was a hiatus, Without a communist bogeyman to scare us with anymore, the national security state was faced with a legitimization crisis. How could it justify its interventions against Third World countries? How could it justify continued high levels of military expenditures? How could it sustain the powers of an imperial presidency? Without an enemy, without a threat to fear, how could the political elite mobilize public support? Through the 1990s you could see it grasping for a new enemy for us to fear. A war on drugs was offered as cover for interventions in the Andean countries and in Panama, even though the problem of drugs had its roots here at home. We were told to fear crime (at a time when crime rates were actually decreasing) so we would support draconian police and sentencing practices that have given us the highest prison population in the industrial world, But the most ludicrous of all was the propaganda campaign launched by the Pentagon to try to convince us that we were threatened by a possible asteroid that could crash into the earth, destroying all life. To protect against that, ‘we needed to develop space laser weapons that could destroy an oncoming asteroid first. Thus id the military-industrial complex seek to frighten us into supporting the development of star wars weaponry. t B, Weaponizing space is key to hegemony Karl P. Mueller, analyst @ RAND, 5/8/2002, “Totem and Taboo: Depolarizing the space Weaponizing Debate’, online Where the space hegemonists stand out most fundamentally from other weaponization advocates is on the political dimension, where controlling space becomes controlling the world. One explanation for how this is to occur, as Smith has suggested, is that overwhelming U.S. space power will be unassailable, so that the rest of the world will not challenge American ‘hegemony. Either they will perceive it to be benign, or they will be so intimidated by it that defiance of the United States will appear pointless. US leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange. Zalmay Khalilzad, RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Spring 1995 rival or a return to multipolatty for the indefinite furure, On bs vision. Such a vision is desirable nor as an end in itself, but because & wor leadership. would have tremendous advantages, First, the global environment would be more open ad more receptive to American values ~ democracy id the rule of law, Second, such a world would j better chunce of dealing cooperatively with the work's major probl nth regional hegemony by renevade states, and low-level conflicts. Finally, US. lea p preclude the ter hosile global sival ing the Unied Stats and itn een oer dor hot war i the attendant dangers, including a global nuclear exchange. U.S. lealership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a muhipolar balance of power system, 48 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me,..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — Indo-Pak War ‘The fear of Death is the only war {o prevent nuclear war between India and Pakistan, Talks without this sense of fear spell failure. Louis Rene Beres, PhD @ Princeton, 1998, 14 Am. U, Int L. Rev. 497 Fear and reality go together naturally, Unless both Indian and Pakistani decision-makers come {acknowledge the mutually intolerable consequences of a nuclear war in South Asia, they may begin to think of nuclear weapons not as instruments of deterrence, but as "ordinary" implements of warfighting. 40 With such an erroneous view, reinforced by underlying commitments to Realpolitik 41 and nationalistic fervor, 42 they might even begin to take steps toward the atomic brink from which retreat would no longer be possible. "In a dark time,” says the poet Theodore Roethke, "the eye begins to see." 43 Embedded in this ironic observation is an important mes [°515] sage for India and Pakistan. Look closely at the expected consequences of a nuclear war. Look closely at the available "arsenal" of international legal measures, at available treaties, customs, and general principles, 44 Do not be lulled into complacence by anesthetized and sanitized accounts of nuclear warfighting. Acknowledge the mutually beneficial expectations of world order. 45 On the Indian subcontinent, nuclear war would inevitably be an incurable disease. The only hope for such a terminal illness Hies in prevention, pethaps through the creation of a South Asian security regime. 46 For both India and Pakistan, there can be absolutely no meaningful idea of "victory" associated with nuclear war. The idea that the concept of "victory" has no place in a nuclear war is as old as the Atomic Age. Long before the Atomic Age, certain philoso [°516] phers and military strategists probed the idea of victory with reasoned sensitivity. Machiavelli, for example, recognized the principle of an "economy of violence’ that distinguishes between creativity and destruction. Machiavelli understood the differences between violence and power. 47 Later, Hannah Arendt on this distinction, elucidating a situation wherein the technical development of the implements of violence had outstripped any rational justifications for their use in armed conflict. Hence, said Arendt, war in the atomic age sis no longer the final arbiter in world politics, but rather an apocalyptic chess game that can bear no resemblance to earlier games of power and hegemony. In such a game, if either wins, both lose. 48 Even Clausewitz understood, before the muclear age, that war must always be undertaken with reference to postwar benefit, and that the principle of "utmost force" must always be qualified by reference to the "political object." Moreover, B.H. Liddell-Hart stated: 49 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 he se be Cheaters Los Fear prevents omnicide. Harvard Nuclear Study Group, Living With Nuclear Weapons, 1983, 5 S_ Why not abolish- nuclear weapons? Why not cleanse Tis small planet of these deadly poisons? Because we «canna, Mankind’ nuclear hinocerces once los, cio be regained. ‘The discavery of nuclear Weapons, like the dis. covery of fire isell, ies behind us on the trajeciory of history: ie cannot be undone. Even if all nuclear arsenals S were deseroyed., the knovledge of how to reinvent them sould re in any ofa dozen or _Inote nations, “The atone fire cannot be extinguished preterit Complacency and produce prudence Teal os certain Wat such teats have served athe major restraint ahd Soviet Tealers ever ir the midst of contrat Have been most_carclul not to use he weapons at tieir command Tndeed, they have seen to it that American ani Set eeaete se REMIT Se iain and could be put to u 50 Pudding can’t fil the emptiness inside me...but It'll help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — Futterman Fearing death is crucial to preventing nuclear war. JAH Futterman, Livermore lab researcher, 1995, Mediation of the Bomb, online But the inhibitory effect of reliable nuclear weapons goes deeper than Shirer's deterrence of adventurer-conquerors. It changes the way we think individually and culturally, preparing us for 2 future we cannot now imagine, Jungian psychiatrist Anthony J. Stevens states, (15) "History ‘would indicate that people cannot rise above their narrow sectarian concerns without some overwhelming paroxysm. It took the War of Independence and the Civil War to forge the United States, World War I to create the League of Nations, World War II to create the United Nations Organization and the European Economic Community. Only catastrophe, it seems, forces people to take the wider view. Or what about fear? Can the horror which we all experience when we contemplate the possibility of nuclear extinction mobilize in us sufficient libidinal energy to resist the archetypes of war? Certainly, the moment we become blasé about the possibility of holocaust we are lost, As Jong as horror of nuclear exchange remains uppermost we can recognize that nothing is worth it. War becomes the impossible option. Perhaps horror, the experience of horror, the consciousness of horror, is our only hope. Perhaps horror alone will enable us to overcome the otherwise invincible attraction of war.” Thus | also conlinue engaging in nuclear weapons work to help fire that world-historical warning shot I mentioned above, namely, that as our beneficial technologies become more powerful, so will our weapons technologies, unless genuine peace precludes it. We must build a future more peaceful than our past, if we are to have a future at all, with or without nuclear weapons — a fact we had better Jearn before worse things than nuclear weapons are invented. If you're a philosopher, this means that [regard the nature of humankind as mutable rather than fixed, but that I think most people ‘welcome change in their personalities and cultures with all the enthusiasm that they welcome death — thus, the fear of nuclear annihilation of ourselves and all our values may be what we require in order to become peaceful enough to survive our future technological breakthroughs,{16] 51 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me,.but i'l help” KY Fellows 2K4 Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — Lenz (1/2) Cheaters Lose Lack of fear numbs us to the reality of death - imagining our own destruction is key to eliminating threats to our survival. Millicent Lenz, professor of information sciences @ SUNY, 1990, 9-10 + A summary of Frank's thought in “Psychological Determinants of ‘the Nuclear Arms Race” notes how all people have difficulty grasping the magnitude and immediacy of the threat of nuclear arms and this Bsychological unveality = St Only events that peopie have actually experienced can have trae @mo- tonal impact. Since Americans have escaped the devastation of nu- lear weapons on their own soil and “nuclear weapons poised for an- rihilation in distant countries cannot be seen, heard, smelled, tasted, ox touchéd,’” we find it easy to imagine ourselves immune to the fhreat.“Albert Camus had the samé phenomenon in mind when he ‘wrote in his essay Neither Viclims nor Executioners of the inability of ‘ost people really to imagine other people's death (he might have + Added “or theis own”), Commenting on Camus, David P. Barash and Jsdith Eve Lipton observed that this distancing from death’s reality is Yet another aspect of our instilation from life's most basic realities. "We make love by telephone, we work not on matter buon machines, and we kill and ary’ylled by proxy. We gain in cleanliness, but lose in understanding.”"Q{f we aré to heed Camus'’s call to refuse to be either the victims of vilhce lke the Jews of the Holocaust, or the perpeta- ors off like the Nazi executioners of the desth camps, we must se7WT> ity the imagination of what violence Yéally entails. Itis here. of course, “al the Ieratore of nuclear holocaust co play a significant role. Vout either Sasthand experience eg eh itis natura as Frank pons OW, Usa ihe eubienaeot deaths and Ta Consequences. In pycustns Gongs, cna Means Tate Seer ————L Consciousness would crete foo strong a level of anbietyov ether sok ‘Al emotions,’ In most life-threatening situations, an organism's ad. pation increases chances of survival but ronitly, neapling oer selves to nuclear fear is saps Pudding can’t fill the emptiness Inside me..but itl help” 52 KY Fellows 2K4 Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — Lenz (2/2 Imagining our extinction is the only way to prevent it, Millicent Lenz, professor of information sciences @ SUNY, 1990 2 A character in len Clarkson's The Last Day: A Novel ofthe Day After Tomorrow tells us why we need to listen to the voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Aspenfulasitmay betodoso, weneed foimagineour_ own extinction. Clarkson's Dr Toe), witiess WaWCeRT devastation on “Aierican soil, seeing many of the children he had attended at birth die of nuclear radiation, knows his own death is imuminent, He questions why nuclear catastrophe has been allowed to happen and finds tour ‘SHER enieat Togs of bale in Gnmorat Waich made oe Stemi mearingles and conTeSpRBle(-Lifon’s ose of "symbole SHUI") parol over he gent of Soviet aggression and te sub. seguen arm sac. Frank's peychology ofthe Erez) boredom, an ven move fal thing than feat, andy most impowant, the lak of nation the nab fo ia meciactany The wad portrayed in ClarkSon"s novel will soon Be deag BECaIEE people su ‘combed 10 an “automatic amnesia for the unbearable” (cf. Lifton's “paychic numbing”). Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but itl help” Cheaters Lose KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — AIDs Fearing death is crucial to stop the spread of AIDs. San Franciseo Examiner 4/15/2K2 Inth of the epidemic, many i ¥ community were confronted daily with th respect of death. Now, with the aid of medications, many HIV-positive people are living relatively healthy lives, but there is a downside. "Only fear made (HIV prevention) work in the first place," says Mareus Conant, head of the Conant Foundation, and one of the fist doctors to work with AIDS patients "The messages didnt make it work." The urgency to stop infections was removed after 1996, when AIDS drugs began to combat the disease, prevention specialists say. But tha's not the only shia. Steven Gibson, ‘Stop AIDS Project spokesman said beyond the evaporation of urgency isthe plain fact that sex without a condom feels bette. ‘The Impactiis extinction Jakarta Post, 3/6/2000 ‘There is no doubt that AIDS is the most serious threat to humankind, more serious than hurricanes, earthquakes, economic crises, capital crashes or floods. It has no cure yet. We are ‘watching a whole continent degenerate into ghostly skeletons that finally succumb to a most excruciating, dehumanizing death. Gore said that his new initiative, f approved by the US. Congress, would bring U.S. contributions to fighting AIDS and other infectious diseases to $ 325, ‘million. Does this mean that the UN Security Council and the US. in particular have at last decided to remember Africa? Suddenly, ATDS was seen as threat to world peace, and Gore ‘would ask the congress to set up millions of dollars on this case. The hope is that Gore does not intend to make political capital out of this by painting the usually disagreeable Republican- controlled Congress as the bad guy and hope the buck stops on the whole of current and future USS. governments’ conscience. Maybe there is nothing left to salvage in Africa afterall and this talk is about the African-American vote in November's US. presidential vote. Although the UN and the Security Council cannot solve all African problems, the AIDS challenge is a fundamental one in that it threatens to wipe out man. The challenge is not one of a single continent alone because Africa cannot be quarantined, The trouble is that AIDS has no cure and thus even the West has stakes in the AIDS challenge. Once sub-Saharan Africa is wiped ‘out, it shall not be long before another continent is on the brink of extinction. Sure as death, ‘Africa's time has run out, signaling the beginning of the end of the black race and maybe the human race, 54 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ AIDs ink Ext. Fear of death is needed to solve AIDs. Michelangelo Signorile, 4/1999, The Advocate, online ‘Contrary to what some writers—in particular, those who support the bareback crowi—have said, fear docs work in changing behavior. Absent fear of disease and dving, what, afterall is the incentive for staving safe? Some of these same writers have done everything from distorting studies about unsafe sex and HIV infection to clsiming that protease inhibitors are working just fine and will continue to work, rejecting increasing evidence to the contrary. As far as they/re concerned, fear wontt work because there's nothing left to fear. Others have acknowledged that HIV transmission ison the rise, but they reject fear ‘outright, claiming that tering gay men doesnt go far toward making them safe and only turns them off They say the softer, sexier sll goes longer way. But the cruth i, fear has i the past worked evention messages. Prevention has often focused on hot, healthy bodies, often even depicting images of sexy, muscular HIV-positive men. This was important not just for negative men—to eroticize safer sex—but for positive men as well in order to build selPesteem at a time when HIV-positive people were being ridiculed and stereotyped. I's partly this impulse that was the genesis of Pox magazine, and the publication's success speaks to the need for validation and hope that it fulfills among many people with HIV. But apart from the ads and the magazines like Poz boosting our morale, we were always surrounded by real life—the dying friends, the gaunt faces. the painful coughs and lesions, There was a balance in all of our lives: on the one hand, images that built the self-esteem of positive people and made safer sex more sexy and desirable, and on the other, real life experiences that were much to the contrary. And that was enough to both promote safer sex and keep people very afizid of ever becoming infected. Now, however, the balance is way off All we see—in ads for safer sex, in HIV-prevention materials, in ads for protease inhibitors, even in TV programs about people with AIDS—are handsome, healthy people. After years of activism and education efforts, people with HIV hhave won the battle to feel beiter about themselves. To overcome prejudice and despair, to rescue gay ‘people's self-esteem and self-respect, we have all emibraced images of HIV-positive people as winners, as, people who have every right to live on hope rather than fear. And rightly so—reducing the stigma attached to HIV and AIDS has meant better lives for countless thousands of people, We built a culture of hope, and protease inhibitors have, in a way, been the culmination of that culture. But we weren't counting on the ‘downside to that victory. Because we've had some successes in both public relations and medicine, the reality of sickn stract and removed fora whole new generation of vou adults It's not gone, but it is hidden: The culture of hope has completely overtaken the fear, pushed it ‘out of sight, below the surface 55 Pudding can't fill the emptiness inside me..but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 Ralph Cheaters Lose Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn — AIDs — Hegemony (1/2) AIDs destroys hegemony by destroying cohesion and killing officers, which are key to readiness and efficiency. P.W. Singer, Olin Post-Doctoral Fellow @ Brookings, Spring 2K2, vol 44, no 1 The primary connection between AIDS and conflict appears to come from the tunigue Linkage between the disease and the institution of the military. Studies consistently find that theavazage infection rates of soldiers are significantly ghar than equivalent age groups in themegal population, This is fue sstoss the glabe, whether inthe US, UK, France, or in armies of the devcloping World where the problem is magnified. Recent studies in Africa have found that ‘The resuit is that many armies are the focal pojptaf AINS infection jn their oe ire epee Inet te of Stic eres bout a ee ease that have experienced AIDS for longer periods of time. Estimates of HIV infection rates ong Alton armesare se highasseh ota eon in Uganda, 75 % in Malawi and 80% in Zimbabwe." Itis the primary catise of deathin mat armies even se sah the neo och he ene been at war overthe last cade parca eek nea eg eae ‘Stent hat soir fas wello plea een Miitres beyond te sub-Saharan Abions ADS ce ei ates wih omer inacon ates ae lowing ns one Reece om at Sera Leone wih Beak milary are cee any of anclfctiveghing foe. Theda taversaey wee ee Berar taut Gmina ae ame ease ee ee Rea alae Gree aes ee eg eT ere Th sels devastating forthe rt as ainetitaton ane lend tos ogee nen oF Sa ae Royal Anny Medical Gomesoet on is ine ek ene OK falling apart for health reasons’ Besides the effect on the regular oops and the Sonera socrating pol ai Since ose ale ope ee tenms raining effect on the skilled AIDS is not only killing regular conscripts but also officers and NCOs ~ key personnel that military forces are least able to lose. Thus, leadership capacities and professional standards are direcily suffering from the disease's scourge. Several armies, ‘ndluding those of Botswana, Uganda and Zimbabwve, are already facing serious gaps in their leadership cadves. In Malawi, at least half the general stalf is ‘thought to be HIV-positive, while the army’s commander stated that he believed a quarter of his overall force would be dead from the disease within the next three years This hollowing-out of militaries, Particularly at the leadership, Bis hollowing out of militaries evel, has a umber of added implications for secutity, As human capacity i lost, nulitary organisations’ efforts to mociemise are undermined. Preparesiness ancl sombal readiness deteriorate, Even if new recruiting pool is found to replace Sick Troops, gohesion is compromised. as they lose their leadershia ig ay unyielding, demoralising foe, the organisations themselves can unravel The higher risk within the military compounds the diseast’s Impact by transferring it to the political level. Commanders in countries with high rates of infection already worry that they are now unable to field full contingents for deployment or to assist their nation’s allies, AlDS-iveakened militaries also pose the risk of domestic instability and may ever eign attack. Namibia's. defence ministry, deeming AIDS to be a new form of strategic vulnerability, has treated military infection rates as classified information. 56 KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn — AIDs — Hegemony (2/2) AIDs crushes hegemony for a number of reasons. P.W. Singer, Olin Post-Doctoral Fellow @ Brookings, Spring 2K2, vol 44, no 1 The looming security implications of AIDS, particularly within Africa, are now a baseline assumption. However, the mechanisms by which ‘AIDS has changed the landscape of war’ are barely understood.’ This essay seeks t0 explain those mechanisms. AIDS not only threatens to heighten the risks of war, but also multiplies its impact. The disease will hollow out military capabilities, s we the point of failure and collapse, Moreover, at these times of increased vulnerability, the disease also ‘geaies new pools of militant recruits, who portend even greater violence, as well jeopardising certain pillars of international stability. In isolation, this increaset" risk of war around the globe is bad enough, but there are also certain types of ‘ross-fertilisation between the disease and conflict, intensifving the threat, The er reercen the disease and conflict, intensifving the treat, The ‘gate dyramie of warfare and AIDS bination makes bot oe hele epore devas 57 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me..but it help” KY Fellows 2K4 Cheaters Lose Ralph Don’t Fear the Reaper — Impact Turn ~ Terrorism (1/2) ‘The failed states caused by AIDs are breeding grounds for terrorist. PW, Singer, Olin Post-Doctoral Fellow @ Brookings, Spring 2K2, vol 44, no 1 S _The threats of economic and political clap from the disease can also lead tonew refugee flows. Besides facilitating the spread of the disease, the sudiden and massive population movements such collapses provoke have led to heightened region-wide tension and destabilisation.» With AIDS likely to reach pancemic Jevels in_the, Caribbean and former Soviet Union, Americanrand European governments will have in prepare for refugee crises reininiscent of the Haitian collapse and Balkan wars of the 19905. ‘The more direct security threat is that failed states can become havens for the new enemies of global order. As the UN Special Envoy Lakhdar Brahinii noted, the events of 11 September were ‘A wakeup call, fleading many]... to realize that even small countries, far away, like Afghanistan cannot be left to sink to the depths to which Afghanistan has sunk’. Decaying states give extremist groups freedom of operation, with dangerous consequencésa world away. This hazard applies. even to.seemingly disconnected state failures. Sierra Leone's collapse in the 1990s, for example, certainly was of litle concem to policy-makers in Washington and had little connection to radical Islamic terrorist groups. Evidence has since emerged, however, that the tiny West African country is connected to al-Queda fundraising efforts involving the diamond trade” 58 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,, but itl help” KY Fellows 2K4 ee Cheaters Lose Don’t Fear the Reaper ~ Impact Turn ~ Terrorism (2/2) ‘Terrorism will escalate into nuclear war causing extinction. 1 Bere, peptic ura pe 2-3) teat! La at Prd Une LNT (Tenor a Global Secs The Noctea The Cams Cig, who ills because “ths aly one way oF going even wt the pds. easel as they" numer a ert vous oul tm to sks weapons ee «promising new instunent of vengenes, Faged with such threats, governments {for security dhat might reveal only impotence. ‘be celebrated by all sides as the liberati espread disloeationm ionmadness would ssolve into insienificance, This nota presty picture. The cond of buna istry rvzae not ely the a arene mnifestasins af berate ev at bo he ”-T————C “poncerap of dst that es en i the proses sar terrorism carries not only the dark vision of cosmic disorder, but als iri hyoueh successive imitations of excessive violence. ‘Nuclear terrorism and nuclear war ‘Nuclear terrorism could even spark full-scale war hetwven states. Such war could involve the entire spectrum of nuclear conflict possibilities. ranging from a quclear attack upon 2 non-nuclear state to system wide nuclear war, How might eh fr-eacingcorsequenss of mele eons cam abou? Psthps the oat ls way ou ‘vole anit clear saul asia st y eos nse in abutber a, For esmple, cone he llowing errs Ey inthe 19%, acl nits Arb sats nighos find stn set conchae compre, malar peace seem. With a Into eas trees lal Fg acs ay ys nly he incre oh Pasian a defined by the PLO see ove ‘beat. On tev athe rope signing of he pace Sgretnet. bl a zc eude er explosives in the one. n> ‘Seon sean rset Pb rtm rl ver he man hous dad ond eds math uly te ue er ese. respon tobe public mand the gover’ of faa ave vce tes agains teri sueagbols i Lebo, whereupon Lchanes: Shine Foces ot Sarl une ae! Rete lng eit pon ialae con hi eoest to la os, ial eutres ini ars lave sted unyucsented dso ‘OFeourse, such cenit aught wt he making of even wider desetion Hoty would se Unit States reac the ttn he idle sie Wis wou the Soviet respons? IL js ertainly conceivable that a chain reaction of interstate nuclear conflict could carry one that would ultimately involve the superpowers or even every nuclear weapon state con the pli ‘Mh ett would this mean? Whether te toms of sessment be stata or human. the conscaueness ‘af nuclear war zequire an entirely new paradigm of death, Only sach a paradigm would all ‘amework forabsorting the sion of enol obieraon andthe over Tits of human desraciveness ‘Any nuclear war would have effectively permanent and irreversible side consequences. Whatever the actual extent of injuries and fatalities, such a war would entomb the spirit of the entire species in a planetary asker shorn with bodies and imbecile imginalions ‘This would be as trus for a “limited nuclear war as for an “unlimited” one. Contry to ceainsng Pergo ‘omnes othe don floied“eouneice” kes fiat woul allagly edace the chan fo rin and odceF2ver vil eauutins, the strategy of limited nuclear war is inherently unreasonable, There is, in fact. no clear picture of what states mav hone to gain ffom counterforce attacks. This understanding is reflected by the Soviet military strategy which is founded on the idea that any nuclear conflict would necessarily be unlimited 59 Pudding can’t fill the emptiness inside me,.tut itl help”