Está en la página 1de 10
alk" ta Soot Caroling th rm crahor® 16 usod (hough lus th eemerly by te townspeople, te plantation caste, and plantstion~ eared Yagros ass drops deigatin fr th por wet — Tange slaveoldigs once pevaled “Shia pnomenm he een dened palsy i te ‘dio ants movies wil prebaly eiforce thle sew tend salar tot ay be seein om he ona otal eats ‘An avparot teeny 1 epic tho Law Couey iglding igitonga tn day Boat [sey sora wt the Up Country tng fae (sot, oct} alo suggests revere of th Cond in prestige alias.” One mast remem, Bowevery itn lingstie feoeraphy {ck plonsogical or loses Ress mast be Jago on ts own merits, {ang emi be sore dangerous than o prot tho fae ofthe ‘ostvoalic /r/ in Seth Carolina from the fate ofthe Law Count "Ei Carling plitn observers have ated that Horry Ccoanty, te antheaternmoet coats cust, hue ganorally voted the tue way atte upper Piedmont in ett election and always fave a hon lease majority Lngaie evidence ~ ao oly the frevereation of conaticten, bat of many Lexial ams as well — “tie wot ascorsarily tr, of curso, ht oxy tose persons fn tho Doep Sout asking postal conmtietion of /—r/ weld be ely aot to stent Negroes. Many oe planttien caste wool "resent he notion of eat auch athe would rest ant-Nogre {hob visloce by poor whites, ut snes tha revision o acl a= fies fs argly a mate of educate, it can hardly be withoat g- iflence that ie South Cardin the postvoalis/=r/ loses eonseio= Toon among the group with ho great aout of eatin. Tt als ‘worthy of ote it ssost evry Iyching in South Carolina in he last. Iwonts-tve years cocaneed te ceuntie Whar to eld work fr the South Alone Aas bas distor strong snetotion o posto Pd {The predieton tat postvoulle /-t/ sgh be roabiitata sn south Carolla hs been tata out hy rocot tues, motably Ke O'cain, ‘avon talon, User of Choa 071 ‘The Relationship of the Speech of American Negroes to the Speech of Whites. In Collaboration with Veginia Ginn MeDavid 2 Alma without exception, any cobolr sting Amerieun Negro spcch, wheter ae ane in set ot aa at ofa Inger pro= Jet, mur lone of to wiley eld sxperstions.¢) et n= hts tat thee eno epeech form lente au ef Neve ergin ely tn te tata ot Negro pista charactertatie (2) he mus ow that, Hes probabte tat ome speech forma of Negrose—and ven of come Whites ~may be derived from an African eatural background tbe Hora procesoce of cultural transmission. Such aaceuaty f e- Mig folk htiets cetiom anes when ne ix stung tm gs of bes American minority groupe. For thea, Ite generally asd, Mog ot esata nh rine acess mal we, te With foreign taguagetachground ~ such a0 the Peaes(anis Ge Mase — ins been speaking a ivergnt varity af Eatieh for several Useratons i an otervinimigly Hralnh-peahegsron, Sure Pathing inter speech that caaot by expe on fhe hee ofthe ca Hite contacts betwen the speakers ot wo langges, We are gnsrane Daas, Geran n Wisconsin and Pony vans, and Dutch i tho Molton Vales. We donot oan nflence onto bose of Sean- Havin ir color, Gorman skal entgurition, ox Dutch mouth shape, Dut the ground iat two lay 5 rn unges neve spon side ede, co Mt Dingle developed i Be comenit* forming Jdgneots on te speech of he Amorioan Negro, Bowevor ts process hasbeen reversed the altiraltrnsrsion Mitch rms of Alen origin ae bon stony Sn, se th talaaon o Non dln gtenn ern oases the mod oo pyaet srovved hs towne i to proneees te sound of scaly od fe the sper tat Gnas 16 Voriotias of American English tyra fet obliged to explain hat Negro speech, Ike al er speech, ‘cauray transite? ae Teas 199 the aor ofa whey 62- nted popular ecienos' neepaper quiz explained tat the Nery cm setprecoonce pst voralio/or/ tn such words a ear, beard, oF ind becauee Hs lip are to thick * sere are reasons for thi polar mtateroreaticn. One crihe most vfone that he Negro, tlle the other e008 of Gitgectangucgeurgin i edly Identieo by skin pigmentation, TNR of te average Negro be encounters, bo tntnpeets a 2 fe~ ‘Bon ofthe lecottele physical aiference. ‘The fc hat the contacts FRtkalnter and etueatod Negoce ar mitd, the normal cence etwean the to races eieg interme of th staion of white mater Int Negre sorvant, means at Negro speech Is generally Jed co {Ei bats otacntandardspeners, a best onthe Dale of speakers from diferent dateot area.” ine reasons for such alsconcptins canbe seo 1 to history of Sogre-ehite relationships. Most ebvious isthe Bstoricl {RET ttf Negroes casted the nly largo gro of ha Ameren nlton that asco hore sgsiat tote wily aed with hte cata omhage very overran th effort to Ht thon nto he Dew pat= arnof ts baste unllled ior for th plantation spstom,® ations {SER inctution of cil slavery aca batt tothe Negroes re~ ‘ited tat the when de’ any conseqental African eur hor ‘Tuas en stevry was bola a aniston bt replaced—both {i South ant oleowhore—by a racalydotorined cast sya, 120 del ty tlccetmiontonylogslton or etralegal covet, the ec for raionaliention coated. tte tector iti forthe white ecole to apnea puinae te prbn af aan eal a mecca Ne Dien ener nec cir, ho et oh {au theary afNegro inferiorly tno woitn ay ponte BJU ceo awe epesh onto bara of tbe Negev cha ven or anpertaty Svetged epoch orgs Or ie ree tbe sr Speci deny it tore are any eel dire on of he ate Go Pi a "nord, tat at he ‘Gall yore to be darted from Deteh previo pooch i tay “The Speech of American Negroes u seca Noe eta nlf he ane a dae for cine, of he same degree, a2 the Beli of he ost utente descendants of he fret stirs at Jamestown ad Plymath “The Negre, seed, tn acqivig Helish have done thi work so throughly tat hey have relaned eta taeo of ny ative Alrcan apech, Nelther have they transferred an/~ thing of nportace from tte eave tongues tothe general Tanguage. A few words, suchas vax, wlan, amt Baska, ‘ay hive come nt English fom some orginal hein a= eet, tut mot ofthe words commen posed tobe of egro rin, ett 23, ad money ave realy derived am Stolen English or ober Furopeansovrces, The mate AMei~ ‘an ftect have been completely lort.® Det cuter tush ore eine fob ak en sno, For 8 Src, och ie ‘toscoueat Arian cra tere, reckoning Att "tage Stohana tho rominor ot svage st ot uct res, {sett o th uropean savagery, to fave bcos hallowed" Tho Inertaleoverumturs of pose Alea auras, ich oe come- {inn acovers the wor of Foca Nero shay I periae arose presenstin tan oad ut wtnatly ‘hoi a astra cormectv of peropcte ite inerttable, At he bepanig ofthe contry, the opatons hed concerning ‘ho eelatioachipe hotwoon Negro as white speech may be summed up Into ethooontte stateests, ath Ereguently Beard Codey: 4. "The regionally otincentrc statement by Northermers ‘using’ an primiivenoss of wht hey consiored oc wae dust the illunce of th Nero. 2, th really ethnocentric statment that dhe Negro ot thing of hime from his African herlageexcoe fw onl charactrtetio of Negro speech— nto guns babs ta bp a sine people phyteally and Incapable of mastering the counde and tructare of ® ‘Vovetos of Amostan Each oth of those satements, we wil nd, aosaind elements of truth, Butler vas the hole uh The fet etloment as had Somparatvey ile currency and done tle damage." atthe recon Tae en ietiuionaliza ae par of whit Horekat calle "he 20h ofthe negro past? “Ta cite a mali of exams o these ates woud ‘a ite to the argues. BU fom fwo examples on may soe the rms in atone Inks single essay at nguste analysis, “Clean Brooks sougit in Wetgit's nglsh Dies Grammar sol Distonay fr the ‘eins of who called the ‘Albama-Georsia asl" recorded by ‘i dainition in Leonid W- Pays A World-List fom Bast Ala ama" te Uncle Remus stories of Jol Chandar Harris. As Ihanie peumian, Broke azsunine tht po Afeieuniase have ourvived fd tht the spec of Negro and whites may therefore bo onsiored. ‘Th fret study of Gullah was tht mad by Jobs Dosa. 3* ti general conclusions west thst Gullah was easenlly derived om {eventeuth-coniry Detsk fle speech, e adopted or miettorpreted ty eualy Instr group peal Innpable of malng English “Yo exress ote than the simples ous, la atalite soy howover, ical. “ntllptlindletce, or lastass, mest and pystealy wish aves isl in the skortning of word, the elsion of ‘lables, apd modiieation ot ovary eiffel opmeaton. 1a the inolene, motal sna physical, ofthe Gullah loc hts ost sharacortte fete «os? ‘Un the studies of Lovenan Turmor, stants of Gallabor those oleeving to Gullah speoch in tho sre of ote Work Innes oak ‘vor Hennes coclions ail words with some sight rephrasing.” A would eoom tt he lnguatc fnvctgator had Gan fami hia ‘conclusions befoo bo bossa fs ld works Even whera the Investigator a rlousy tntarwsted in gath= evi now rldane for rlatorpreng th da key tora no “The Speech of American Negroes » Diicues im the old. A Negro commun that hasbeen to on Yointd ot 20 Negro comma, and eepoted ns such by plist hn! yropagands groupe, so souctant to cect th oto invertor, sates bow well neon” Is he opeoeh ofthe Negro ow I «situation dalet variety employed to conceal informetion or stor trom tho we man, there ie Telacanes to vo we the i= [roy score tothe Investigtr.* Where the Negron accustomed to Toting he white man Bathe thnks he we man rants be toll Matte investigator may ed intrmants to enperates, ton ready loos evidence sipporting& storetype," Andis communi Whoro the eacto lies aro mort sharp drew, even sn experienced let worker may indvertenliy love rapper with Negro inormsnta hy temagroscag taboos of epoch or manner. 1m epie of these dificlic, the lat af entry bas even nich information githeved boat both white and Negro speech, sad Ihecutares in whi thoy aro use, co Oat we are now ao to speck tvs age, samen orate, an Sere, Fe Ion he everett air ene atest oth nudge, stmoty bewuee thy are what oople tre toed fo. Nore Jurge-scate sd ofthe Ameriean Negro under the diction of the Spoiishrocologist Gunear dat unt tbesuepices ofthe Carmeste Corporation, ®* There tava been sientine etnies, both descriptive In! comparative, of Atroun languages” a of pln and ereolized Fingungce, especialy the cuits of Melaneotan pigs, Chinese pl Ahi Ta, spd stan Creole Hall" of Haan Create by Sean: oaiee,* of Louisiana Negro-Prensh by Lane,"® and of Papiamento (tho crotlnd Nagro-Duich-Spenish of Curgeo} by Predarck Agar Ce Coland Harris. Th South Alas records ortho LIne {ies oft United Stes and Canada neovide material for comsar~ In hto apt Yer spores inthe same commis, and Turns has new gitoest ontibusion by his seventeun yen of research in ‘Th sty of Aion langues tae sorvod two purpsosy in 1 tw obvious one af eating cctal oe pote ema fo 0 ‘Vaetios of AmarioanRaglah socslary ith in American Negro speach, By prowling a rocor ithe stitial featrys of Alsee languages-plovemles, mer nly ad syceit he sable tt =e0 tat some foares of {atone of gnorta sagen, Dt Paty fhe persistence of emething| from Afroan speech, Moreover, the comparative work in Asian Tengunges hs Feveaied thigh dogeee of rracaral similarly betwee ths languages ofthe sre from wach net ofthe slaves were takes, roast make for tommon teede ino epoch of American Negroes, egardlece ofthe motial unlateligtilty oftheir origzal languages." "The sty of pine sn croolioad languages as Ukese facie the intent stay of th relationship hetoon white a ‘Noteu spoedh It hasbeen nepentodly thon tat these lngueges are ft init fete, with quan and cious way of ssi Sn in ha oach of ho ae it own dtnte strato, and at hey re ‘oth of sets rly a the blo loown languages of Western Europe. Coneaquly, the tvestigatorof Noro speech in ths cou ‘iy hae precadet for makings sctnlifc description, es 0 should Inula of amy alct. More innit pertinent the research ‘sway Brain Negro Portuguese, a Hitan Crelo enable ‘ho sont of Anorican Nag speech i assay hath aprile svcturelfeatare feof Aiea origin or not 4 corain entare of Gatlsh synteny, fe ao fond in Braniian Negro Portagueee, In Haitian Creole, snd in Papamente, and reotnbles 4 serctural futur ‘teeveral West Aiea ngiges, i Wkly Sate at eaken rm ‘Te Lingtette atts projet provides tremendous mass of sta for evalsting dect-elaionshipe witha Enlsh-speaking North ‘Ameria: ad tis to tho cooperstien promised ty Beieh sears, ‘tiny soon soa a to wae the iaterelationshioe of al forms of Present Hegish, Bi thelr presbt tate, the records for te [rlatio seaboané sree of ori setoment, in Walch Hans Karath— ‘he director of the peojestiepntioulany interested, show the cum parable ovals of 1,500 ifervews in over 790 commanies fom hatorn New Reunvick the Altamaba Vale aod orthesstorh ‘Rorida, "Me roronl surveys=inder Abert barokvan i the North Central stato, ander Harold Allon nthe epper ides, wer Henry ‘Alowantor inte Marine Province ad thse rece be ‘vere inclale pone 2400 more intra of eetual wong vin informants native to the ommenition vestigated, "hago tcorde Tho Speech of Amarican Negras a lctote 40 Nogro taformante in South Asani sae, af Ia Nowe Hagan an New Brunei aa inmge mor tn tho Cult Stes. Those stdos Inve atcrptod to olan det fo Negro and ‘hit informants of tho same econome and edetiona Iva in the ns community im auc away one can avoid the compasses, propory rested by Nagre leaders and by serious tbolare of ll Frcs of urtavosing thn oct calf vite and Me lost fetad agro" And with such dts aralale, one fidemae aheopol~ fits navy predicted yobulnry and phnolgy ary aot mations So skm pigmentation but ofthe seta contats sol economic oppor Ics of te Inormant Porhaps the groatest single coxsbution to an itllgent eappraial ofthe relationships betwesn whit and geo speech ha thon tho nsestiaton ofthe spe ofthe Gulla Negroes by Lonenga 1. Troe. ‘Though ombodyng only pax of Me fn, Me 10 Nook, Acennians ithe Galak Ditec, copes effectively the notion Hint ho Amoeiean Nogro lost a is Iaguage ant Me eutare nde Mh tngat of chattel slavery and tho plantation systems Torte's vert tatomoat is impressive aaogh that an investigation of Cllah toch igioeeaspreral hoseand ame prentably derived irom tho Inguagee athe part of Aiea from which tho slaves were ten Th the imple conluntone any set tore npecasiver tht aay ruta fntures of Gllah ave ale to ound insole ates South Amerie and he Caean, inte pido-ike tre English {ost Afsion, eal in many AsicarInguugee™ttis presereation of Aen strctarl trite Ie mor eopestargitent forth So Jortance ofthe African semen! Inn Calla act fn y ager fc in hefty of Gullah cular} tan ay sumbor of dale of| Yocabulary.®” Perhaps most sgatean fal, thong hay Ato Athy Trory js the evidence from phonological strstane: ke the Tngagos of Wack Aéica described by Westerman and War Calla Jn he los complex esto of vet phonemes than sr wr ‘neety of Pastis; fardoemore, Gllzh hata remastable worms, ‘ut only in phonomke arvcare but in the ponte shave of vel loponesy atone a strech of wasey four bury mee oft Sth ‘Aaae coast in tho vory region whore there Ls @grester varios Anon the daiots of white spaedh than one ean nd eizowbere 0 Tinlistropaing Novth Amorica—a unitarity diol to explain by ehaneey or by any of tha old explanation of Neer spoech* Numer work hat ars ade schol aase ofthe peste of the African backzround in Attrieas Nagro specs hough his teeta ee alee ae are ar ‘As by-proioce ofthe ld work for the Linguist Atlas and shor diaoet Ets, eeverat bite of evidence have hoes found at fggest how comparative sadly of Negro and whitospoech may be “set iniacatig avs of atl or ptasttalinerractal Lena Iie ot without statioance tat Chicage-bors Negro eaten atthe University of ilizos have proserved many sharactrtetleSouthech ‘words tat are urknown fo white students of the same age tnd ety, ‘or thi ichizansbor Negroes inthe age group between tty ad trey have the South Midland dobthngs In dane ed as, aloe the alee of older-foneratin chiara Negroce Ie indetigatahae from tht of thee white contomporarics. Nor ean one overlook the ‘nd Atlan tora to avoid tho forme Bavng preatne Is Teal white “peoch In favor of thle cencepton of New England speek, ves ah {tis evidence te poly aad uneyetematized, (ealradyiodlates tat {atere community rola abalyess shoal isle «aby of ditect, iteeaces wii he commun expecta thes tm summary, we et evaluate te reatlonships Debean Negro and wate epoceh inthe ame sotto spt a any antheopolO= Bt stutoraceultation We must ay aaieelmacontrie preuece SlallKinde-po lose the teadionnl Sothern nesinpson of Rerto {nterorty than te equally gb statement of carer Negroce(pethape ‘tener in Afrea than in the Unite Stats) that no stuly of Neo ele taro by whites an be valid because tho Whiteman dootn't understand the black man's min.” We mat remember that coneuslons ane val nly no fe ae hey avo based on vad dat, and atthe deconery tt now daa ay ell for now eonelaetne-—theuh we can hardly mpc fo draste a madifcation of ltudes au that mate poral fn he lst ttmeration bythe ee of evidence from African Langage a fern realized Negro epeech elnewhere Is the New World. What no ot luton wo Fach wl probaly cme by eerson of Ste win the First, tho ovorshotming balk ofthe material of Ameria ogee epenehin vocabulary au wll atin grammar poy — "th Spek of Amerioan Negroes 23 ‘ny a on would expect torre from the speech of the whit groupe wich Segives conta in contact. Sometimes these cotacte have Ton sue that Negeooe spy spac the heal yale of standard sh#® ee also sly tae many reli Torin trom lsh a= Toes are eter protorved it tae speeh of some Amarican Nogro frowpe tan in American vite spocskaot rare fins of Yoeltey In aso aie of grammar and even of promotion, 0 far as tho currence of agen phone in a von group of words concerned. ‘tos al, the proservation uf reli fore Is made possible by geo= foveal or eulteralisoltion. If Afreananis survive #4, 48 Gall Pets of he lng aneees shy of th Galla-spealdng commities naan ofthe Sothern cate ystem vhich uted otacts be {cen white and Negro spewiersy so can relic forms from Sov {wonhoentury relish. everthalasr, the borrowing tat not bet all in be direction Tho Lingaltie Atlas iacatee tat mat words ote by Toraae aE ot [Acai avian have boon fa over by Southora wes ep gpread fae Isom th areas in wisn he plattion eta lurid. Tho fon fev whish hase words have spouronlyepread hd large Regro puatons gus in ele history." PM "coli, has boon reorded Sradesiy trom the Puede Rives fo Sevamairchely for Negroess fh sometimes efored iy whit nformaate ae a cbaracarstle "Naso Worse"? Buea, ‘wai tm," as spond nto the South Carolina Plott, specially tn the conampiuous designation of poor wites| fie poor bia dogg board (ot. Cull [seolnses,yealo-208 Ds Ie alensplicd tw a eaese thant along Wer punk anced tot nds ad use, a5 ving might be used, by nurses danling Tiaot, by oblren st play, andy courting, couples is krown through- fu he plain entry from Georgetown othe Altamahe Tver, and Mh inland ommanies frequented by patton umes inthe malaria ator. Jthy board, san board ft. Gullah (eta-bod) isn mime fe the wana Berka Coan, S.C, Pines eam he be oof pall str of South Carson geass, "peanut, Ie fund Irom Cheaspae Bay aad te Potomac Hver euthwoot theagh the odnone of oth Colas and Georgia, and alg the coastal pats from Goorotown south. Coster, "arte," ts fund throught the 3 plain al the lower lon am the Cape Fear ver To ‘Gist, Kind of uth, Ie troqoniy eoordod jn te conta “Gta noe reurded nthe Atle, Aoedow noun ue er) ‘hs spread fr Deyn! the Sout okra «stole Seuera reget [Rumbo, a thick soup with an okra lace" et Gullah ['goroe) okt) iol known; eae, "ners, ia a comaan ingredient ‘cooker and canly inte Christan sod Sevannnh arr) dt be ‘usl Charleston snme for a ohil's Negro marae; Gesaee i common Ip tne with milly insulting coating, by Up County Sout Carolsians ata lckname for any Low Ceuntryman, especialy one {rom the Charleston ares; gsc (or chigges tthe common Southern ame for minute tect with a pcliviy for burroving in human fleeh; war out, alo known az nore-meth ff. Galak ("wonas"], Mende: le’, fe a common coastal pln namo for a ed of ‘sh ul, omen," wey known the Chateston areas ay ‘ype of structaral moral made of coment and oyster cells, oe sit ego of bak intrmtc," tx fequesty ood for ftedalsons ot asco Wl in Sth Carliian and Georgia coastal communion; ‘hut, "oisoue dame," Iva peal prac of the Tews formally fara Olah word formation ts concerned, talect 00 shy raporte Turner's egeston tht many Gullah oompoande and ‘romatpoctie expressions may reflect African practce: yar! 3 "poorly tained Segue poacher," and fs cjaony ab aber have ‘on recorded eiey Inthe Goong and Charoston area tn tho Senoo Valleys fowl “hock owl lsge ow," ound occa ‘Slonall ihthe Sih Carlin coat plan lgodt-nou "ae Dll ‘op (le Glia [blast nor |) haa tna ecard hte Sastoo and ‘Svat ally, abd along th coast from Georgetown tthe Fovia line" Kot rocordd in the Aas bt commonly eonaierd to bo of [Negro origin are such melabore as srect-mouth, "to fater," sd Prom Negreoe—ahator tho form stn origin an Afianism for a reli of early Ena wage—nsny wha foi peakor> tog the rath Carona const hav taken fora the parle with he satetve ‘tpmrpars, ne e-come for tell go eather Sante wandnrd tothe ‘eapeoad folk form foro, Iemay poses be hat the Negra play= ator of well-to-do wits cilérenfespecaly oye) and the Nogro ervanta t wham they have bos accutomed ze a lent partly ‘eeponebl for fhe more fequoreoocarraoe al tho gber geo cf eltzral tolerance for nonstandard fora Sneed space tn he South than cleowhore.*° ty phonology, many white folk tnformante i tnd soar the Calla country aoe tho labial /",+/~ [3,9] oF sopace tach Pv by oe bilabial vetoed pirct (po Turoee inotee Ippon fn Galas *® -Perkapa the greater onde in Southern epeech yd aces Ccber ee ected fy tet Cal Gullah and African languages have relatively Tees complex oa els= lors than English aoe in other parts ofthe United Stee, Farther= nore, the sting ination pattoraenotced in such conmuntio as (Chartasten and Georgetown sousent the possi that Negro infuses In ths feature might ll be investigated, ‘with 2o much apparent, the nest sop fo plan ttre work. Nerskovite as alresdy ate sgentons set paces fo be ineert= sate and types of linguistic investigation tobe conducted." To these ne might ake few adations. Americo-tiberan lish eeraaly "hold e ested, to aoe Hoth the extent of reasularaen 9 Alrea Sl the surevae of ait of southern American Erglish."* Oe the Dovagiae-Casoopole area in iloigan or Dreeden tp Ontari th settled by sofagee eaves Urauph ut of he uth song the Under round allroad) or the relics of the New Drunewise etlnents ty Iho slaroe of Now York Lyalets and he Nova Sots sats y It be expected to sccar, but where Nogroiuene i impretabo— tre shoud be a eariysarvey of Newioundland, apd intensive ray Uf oleeta communities Inthe Martine Provcse and ofthe Hence Inlnde on the North Caroling court etneen eatso ao Ntiningon Yrurthermore, in community etuies whore Negroes are aterviewed, Io eld worker should not ony inorviow representative of eovoral ge koupe and eduational group, bus should also make election {itor of the aunber of genertions the faniliee of informants ave Ic resident in te eomrmaniy. 1m this may i sould bo posetble wo esblish a procedure for Notormint whether form ound among Nogrows In he Sut esky lobe Afroah or fuk Bugis i origin ‘The invertigatorsbould cbeck Its oacerrenoe i Newtoanland the ane el, New Hampshire I Maine, Cape As, Cape Col ad the offabore flende~all know le selle arena without probable Nog infos, tthe frm te found inthe later communities, whotber or not tie foze in the = ‘Variotlon of Ametican English Driseh tee, 8b ronsnable to euapect that ite eyo te not Arian, ‘ough ao may coeeds a rlalarement hy Alea iaftence,™© Con~ {ht Paplamento protabiy have Asta ogg As with many other sapests of datct intestigaticn, th ball comtary of vests of Nero speech and ite aftatione wth white feck tas ef many questions unanawere. But thas provided a {Exmovork within whieh there teste can be bth aoked and anewered tore intelligent than berctotre.** The ligule scent bas Tenrned sotto ook down apn ther fra of mech that happen ‘itr from he own: he can hoe that fe bie il cease a Lok dn “Ettcet, or fo fancy ry noeesary correlation elween the EMEA tear Haugen, “The Aaatel Language, XVI 1980, 210-31 “he most widely pblotsd arguments for the allegedly cautice neta f the Negro apd af he genera inferiorly are Scrome Dowd, The Nogeo in Amveriesh Lite ew Yor, 1920, and TA Tlinghast, The Nogro tn Aries asd Amecien ew Yor, 1040), ven eo sympathetic stfert of the Nogro ae Howard Gam sccepied the storetype of Negro tnfertority ne early work, Seca snd Ment Trae ofthe Negro (New Yor, 1910, ‘SSE Mag Ansrican THane (vem York, 19%), m8 on ps 905: ‘moro is solutsiy no bolgtes bie Sr it [Negro dsc Negro aro as capable of pronoun Hnlish word perfectly a8 whites ‘Alvrt F. Wayam, ‘Let's Bxplore Your Min,” asin the "pda apo. 865 Allen Walley Roud tae ety, "Tho Speech of Neeaes in Colonial America," Journal of Ngee Misiary, XIV (890), 217-8, Araning hie ateiol om he advertromer for vans slaves, ows lea light on the proceas ofthe Negroes! lara of Enis Hoccnetace,p. 25%. "The present sty he that dag clonal he Specc of American Negroes a tines there more Nogrons tall stagee of profioteny i thet ovtedge fags constant stratum of resenty seve ence witht any Tish, those who were leering English daring thts frat yore a fhe new cot, anda group vho hd learned suecoseuly. The Nogeoe bor is this county iavuriabiy aord, scoordng tothe Yeeords, food Bnglsh. The colored race were taco, gaint thle ‘wth huge probin n adoring now lange a strange ours, and ete sucooes, i tho ht of ee opera, Wa "ho generation ser he lvl War also witnestod the White race, fe pried in which ne Nene myth wan ao ely pub Moise by Cotdnena, Chamberlain, Madison Grant in le Tha Pasig ‘Groat Race ew York, 1978), abd Homer Loe ia He Th Ds Tike Sasen Qvow York, 101, and i whlch European inpeai ‘rae rtlnalizod by Kipling and there ae benign paternalions—"the “The Haglich ofthe Negro," American Mercury, (1920, 190-93, ap. 01. Seealno Krapo, he Bngleh Langage in Ameticg (ow York, 1929), 1, 161-03 235, "ijlville J. Merskovits, The nyt ofthe Nagro Past ew York, 194). 9.32 "iach of what hae been ppulaly Labeled se ‘Southern yee," uch ae the ditects ofthe rothern Appalachian, ie poo Pty sot Southern at all, but Sat Milan, deetatve from Pensa ‘ais. "The commen nein of linguste Mon and Dine Line enaratig "Northern" fom "sauthers” speech ts wimpy duc to a0 frteneous inference from an ovoreinoliied version of the poiiat Iistory ofthe nineteenth entery "Hla Karat, A Word Geography ‘oft Eastern Una Stata (Ann Arbor, 199}, pve 0 ago MeDval review of Kurath, New York History, XE (150), 442-44 oul’ fe the rected varity of Engleh span by oaoeadaste of Neg elven in th aren of ee, tig, aod Sea Inna fo plantations slong the South Carolin ad Georgia sonst, The term Gossee te ntneties use, either nea synonyen fr Gla or tea destin forthe Gllah spoken in Groat "To Foo eat as Doo weed by eloetontte and thet attr to shame cultured Sothernere—or thee who mould ike futaidore eons thm as eure Sotherners—int vag ao hoe en ate alten Ivor of southern Kee, etary ee a Variotice of American Kole Hngland, oF whatever dialect he elcatontet apes cr sete up a8 motel of elegriee. For the este netive—s dere to depart from the "ogni patter of the eter race—ple tho dewtieation of eastorn New England with aboltetem ae oer efor to break the carte jst in the South, ested Southern Negroce eomesimes motel ait te speech on that of castor Now Began. kerio, rome Nogro cipal syatnms are incind to favor such Now Brgla speech sate farses asthe (978, n0"50| forme of ether paler, and te 40" falad "oad (2,2 forme of all ast dies, EBs, el siovty als Pee 2 "Th Relation of tis Alsen CootiaDisloot o fhe Pro- laste of Crust Briain ston Rowse, 198). ‘ac A gore a at Mab ie Yes 0208 9) artcagy 24-01. Ono mt alvaye use Weight with cation, since a lage pur of the otdenc an whlch bo he Grammar and th Dita Aare baced vas collected by amataire with uneven Taine tad ‘Stout any syetematieproseaure. The unevennees ofthe ruts can ‘only he poroeived fone atengts to et forthe Brith oes the ‘vocabulay yarans which Kara's Wort Gaazranhy ofthe Eastern Untied Stes inctns ae aigficant forte Alani tesa. For Insta, a the variety ef arm for the eashvorm which Kara az found ropreccetative of major oF minor Amorioas dialect areas fot watcn most mast have boon fou in the Dri Ialee—only ane, tnd eaoemorm ara recorded in Weight. Tp electing hls American sources Brooks likewise shows 3 lack of aigoriminaten. ‘The part of Gorgia im which Harrie Ere! up ‘oth Alabnma and land Georgia were arene of terary—or A est Iset ities already hd becurre. Finally, te informant whose {nuve of any varity of Goorgia speech sto Unelo Romie epcaa of Hineclf we haveg bun raleed in Virgina, or "Prglay’ ae he vould calah; a Negro Pato,’ Sout Atlante Quarterly, Vt (0000), sga-at; VI Tho Spuech of American Negroes 2 pie, p.4 ‘slovenly and eareess of speech, these Gallahs seized upon ‘he peasant English used by come of tho early ettors apd by the white forvants ofthe weather colnits, wrapped thelr clmay tonguee jou eas nell ae they could, spd oriehed wih certain exproestve Arian word, (sued thre tot lt osc ad thick lps as 2 Workable form of rpoech tint twas grackaly adage by the chee lives.” Anhrose. Gotalee, the lack order: allah Sores the Carolin Coast (Columia, 6,C., 192), p. 10- "Simple langue incepts of te mastsooed slaves. with ther simple dakcta Mason Gra, Callas Nogro Lite inte Carlin Son Ilande Darbar, (Co, 1960, 9. HS ummes of 1860, Ia the spring of 1049 thore hd Oo local cotzoneray station wih was widely pubillzed bythe Cann prose a Wied by Commante fon orgasizatione for Weir owe ce, although feof the younger leaders of the Negre community were shmpatetle lothe purposes a ho Alls, efforts to interview older Negroos were Insuecestt, because Be community was aoraive baat the Wpe of publicity i tad alveay received SyprenroD, Tarner reports athe eaeler Goll records Sontstod far fower Apicaateme™eepectaly tho Atlcan-derived Horst anmee—tha he Inter ones, Sce Me Aficansms inthe lh Dita (chloago, 194), 9. 12 St ener Nog nbrmast nme geser wig ous than among whites to aceon ag athena neponace seated hy th eld worker, go matter bow élibratly fr-ftched come of Dine asegoations might be, On te ctber Bad, Tiound at eae ene Niro thereat who conformed tothe teuionlsterotspe of Nogro enh during tha part fh intevtow conte in he presence is whe ptr, bat who abandoned that wale when we Were aloe, Mia Seman, opt» wp. 12-22, SAL, Keodber, ‘Antheopology, Stet Amerson, ©1RG0KM, Ho, 8 1950, 5-98 ivi wae chosen ce doctor f te prooctbeca ‘ovsen nanan without eoloter, nd theretore witht att Nati ate ear the somite ruews. Wo Nope preblem I mamaria n An Ameriean Piers, no person ontamar itk o ‘Varieties of American Pgh fis ok can ot oo he eso Hero Ba A ogee Pu! 1s ene of tho specilstules prepare for the projet. SSS DeRose i. Grvesbor, ‘Sotse Probl in Hausa Poroln, Laugunge, XVII (8), 516-25) tudes ia Advean Ligutie Classi Seaton," Soutesteen dual 'V GN}, T90, 190-05, 1851; VT 0950) 47-63, IPD. Cx Ts Hndge att E. Ey ase, ‘Maus 'Tone," Journal of the Amgesan Orin octet, LXIV (Bad siKs2."C. 7. Hoagey ‘As Outi of laden Grammar’ (lan ‘oage Dissertation No.) Language, Vol. XX, Wo 4, Supol Gian). W. E. Welmers, "A Doseripive Gramma of Pan" Laneuege Dissertation No 99) Language, Vol. XX No. 3, Stool AAD). ‘New Lip on Consonant Charge i Kp? Ztecif i Phone nd Algemene Wissen 1 060), DE. "Noles on Tre Tangusges of tbe Sono Grovp, 1. Senn Buoy" Lanny XVI N60), 6-46) 4B4-SmL "Seon deine, Mey ant Roe of th Kjella Tribe of Libera,” Soulstorm fouraal of Anthrepolag Yao), 206-43. "Tones and Tone Writing ne," Sede in Lingustios, Vt o40}, 117. We E. Welnsors and ZS. Harris, "Tha Phonaas of Pani," Joumal ofthe American Ortestal Soca 1 ag}, B83. [Sihen SL sock staes fave Molle] ‘Shobert A. ally J. ‘Chiao Pain Bglish Grama sind Tena," Sour ofthe Augean Gren sacle, LXIV 0544), ‘Sra ne ingle rt ot Tan Ta aia, CY (04s), 10-10, 102. Melansian lishe Grammar, Tests, ocala aliore, 143) eS Sucame Saaecobatr, Le Cele hllan, onfeloca sLeynang Wettoron ae Fort-as- Prince, 86) ‘Sceorge Sr Lao, "Noles on Louitana Pench" Langage, X ae), 25-38; XI G96), 58, ot snatch i Popacecto is row in progress at Corel asst grskoity ame es pos TO ‘enobert A a Jey "Tho Afi Substrate in Nagro ‘mlb’ (rviow of Atal inthe Gullah Dist, american Speech OV 60, ate >the avlabliy of accurate ds on fhe ati pooch of ‘te stant seabaart ts enabled scones 1 mabe ineliget ope thes tothe problems af ‘iterary dale atorpreting tho does ‘through which oes an ponents alent to roprowet gla oF ‘the Speech af Amarican gros a local sponch by recpeligs i the comentinal alphabet, Atleast fur scent doctors ssertations tron this problem, ang a0 of ‘ils tat ssore® th hind of dates th war vas ty fvproseat: by James Ny Tiaell (Oe tate) on teres Toproser~ Aisne of Sotheen oes by Sumnor Teo (Tosa), ne dalot of Mh Una Rona stores: by James W. Dover (ichigan), on the Aitat ofthe Bgl Papas ad by Charles Wiliam Fostor he tories of Chari W Chest * pvidece fit the Aerican Nagro stems from an aancod cultural backgroud in Afica ted te shanagod to preserve elgiicat, ‘vais from that backzreund dows not help the ease of hace who attempt {o rationalize dsevitantory pratins a used by Nogro cls fn peyebalgsca!ineroet. ‘Shs uniformity Ie atsted tat tn Turpa'sovm ed re~ ‘ont ands eovvoborativ secordings made for Kath by Guy 8. Iiyminy Joy pincoat Geld avec gator fe the Lingle Alas. [Tora tre Secen appraealy nee Koen, Seige i Area Lila {ict @laeglngton, tntana, 192) ype USL] ‘Comparative siales of Negro aod Who wsegoy as recorded Jn atias ged recor, have eon made by Solely Grelbacland (Vl ‘orsity of Chtegoy 1970), Tor thre Potomac Valley Communi bin ty George Dove Civorety of South Carlin, 2975, for Wo ‘Vili Gilmore Simms, wove representations of slot uy nar accurate, soguarly inates quact-Callaheharataratios| ft speech of Negro lunemen, stable-boye, abd eld has But fh dine Watton, where mos of the action nas place in Chel ly be proporlyiicatas no ‘dale forms inthe seed of Negro Inelar and masor~domo, who would noemaly spon he standard Frglsh of Chsslston. “She sntancs hare following are closly paraphrased or unt rom the vue of Teen Boky Raven Ie Maat Ue, Ih Langage, V1 1950), 226-20. ‘Foo Jan 3. Posty Th Growth ad Distebaton of Pog Inlon insets Carling, State Planning Hoard, Mullen (Colney Doss "Vike eo lly forthe od-ehion hexagonal cota loveantonllypestagoany withthe omission of ie fstboar Inform oe expla te nave ty commosting tat the marerrass of the 2 ‘Variotes of American English ofp She corpae's tos tngetne a apuctus etymology witch ‘rat taors questioned poe to Tuner vestigations ‘Sumer doce net et tacky. “horse," generally recorded song the South Carole coast i he frm murah ely, abd eso posed tobe of Alsoan ovis, Pesoumably the propowed African some ary btn Tope would have Boon very uff Turner a Inaleted the ‘geographiealdlteDutton wits te Gul country ofeach Iatal tem, neo pereonal mos. I an earlier report, he eggestod that groupe of words and nines Uraeable to parGeul Aiea lat= ‘gigos woro foul elustoved in particular Gullah commtatiog, ant {hat the gengraphoal latin canbe correlated wis the pallera tf slave cotlemont Seo 'Tingetie Research and Afcan Suevvals,’ ‘Asierlean Cupel f Lenrod Sstetier Ballets, XI (1941, 13. ce dn cnonaiopoetietarase [Osi be, -aOnk/ stom {ote cotton tothe George are, ‘eh rages ae pt the mouth on ex," are alo Sreqeen heard, apd ne consdered tobe of Negro orig Neely every cultred informant interviewed in South Canoe lina ana Gosnpa ureé ant st some tse daring te Interview. fact, ene of to louchctones often used by Southerners fo sting (peers een ence arf i fm Lt tro too socially ioc to hab the proper ooesion for using aa the double naptive, and other sooh fle formay and Bence avo hase option nce, gees Os BSI Plorsowtsy ape lly pe 527997. ‘vetmers reports many cpoech forms in Americo- Liberia ‘ths havo bean recorded forthe Lngustle Ago ts the South AUanle states. ‘ilersiovts, apes». ‘tm Some Sourees of Sutherlin (ivesity, Albany 1948}, Mh Mathows atiompts fo dorivo th fl tem dons eat! thtough Gullah personal ame from tho ltrs suprsted ‘Airless etymon, Beara (Son ‘arden. Hwever, the ‘Aas records donee most equal in areas whore toro is Toast eason to suspect Horr infuence: the Shensnbah Valley and ‘aul westorn Row Carolin. Snulelt,deopte the absonco of an ‘thested Did Brelishetymon, it sos “ {e exlusivaly of Aton orn, siboe "he Speech of American Negroes 2 rots of New Hngland an to inn North tad tha are of probable ee etn sg With uch comm ca el ‘SSS Tso So Tha Ameria Lamas hes Yew ork, 196), ype IB, ncceptd he eaves Ueory ot the patty Gt Asean survivals in American Negro speach. overs in hs Sugplomeat 1 ew York, 3848}, ps BDI90, Turner's work a eB revise ls jee