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UNIVERSIDAD JUÁREZ

AUTÓNOMA DE TABASCO
DIRECCION DEL CENTRO DE ENSEÑANZA DE LENGUAS
EXTRANJERAS

“ANTOLOGIA DE LECTURAS DEL CURSO


DE COMPRENSION DE TEXTOS EN INGLES”

CREADO POR: EDISON GÔMEZ RODRÎGUEZ


INTRODUCCIÒN
La presente antología está conformada por lecturas que tienen como
finalidad esencial la comprensión efectiva de los estudiantes del “Curso de
Comprensión de Textos en Inglés” del “Centro de Lenguas Extranjeras”
(Cele)

Las lecciones incluyen una serie de textos con actividades que implican
estrategias de lecturas, (skimming, scanning, la deducción, así como el
uso de estructuras gramaticales y vocabulario diverso) que permitirán que
el proceso cognitivo del estudiante sea más integral.

Para que dicho curso tenga un mejor aprovechamiento se sugiere que el


estudiante tenga nociones básicas del idioma. La propuesta fundamental
de esta compilación de lecturas es guiar al estudiante, por medio del
desarrollo de una serie de estrategias relacionadas entre sí, para que
cumpla con un objetivo primordial: demostrar que ha comprendido la parte
de un texto escrito en inglés en la que se encuentra interesado o que
necesite ya sea por motivos de estudio o laboral entrar en contacto.

El aspecto visual es importante ya que le brinda al estudiante la posibilidad


de obtener información a través de fotografías y pie de fotos, lo cual es un
soporte valioso en la comprensión de la temática a estudiar. Es por ello
que se incluye material fotográfico.

Así también se incluyen algunos ejercicios gramaticales que refuerzan la


comprensión de la sintaxis del idioma inglés.
OBJETIVO

Proporcionar al alumno material de apoyo que le permita desarrollar la


habilidad lectora de textos diversos en el idioma Inglés.

JUSTIFICACIÓN

Esta antología es importante ya que complementa las lecciones que


forman parte del curso de “Comprensión de Textos en inglés”, con la
cual se pretende que el curso sea más productivo.
Unidad 1: Oraciones Simples

ALL ABOUT ME

My name is Valerie Martínez. I’m 25 years old


and I am catholic. My birthday is the 5 th of
january. I’m a secretary at Franklin High School. I
was born in Sacramento, California and I live in
Stockton, California, at 2718 Louis Ct., zip code
95203. I live there with my husband, his name is
Carlos Fernandez, and our anniversary is the 8 th
of june. My school is University of the Pacific
(UOP), I studied at that college. I studied
languages and learned to speak Spanish,
English, French and German. I like Reading in all
languages, one of my favorite books is called A
Thousand Splendid Suns. When I have spare
time, I also like to watch movies, one of my
favorite movies is Forest Gump, especially when
he says “Life is like a box of chocolates, you
never know what you’re going to get.” I also like
watching Bones and Friends on televisión. On
weekends, my husband and I go to clubs, we like
to listen and dance salsa and hip hop. When
we’re tired, we don’t go out; we just play póker or
monopoly. I think everyone should enjoy their life
like we do, like my grandmother used to say
“Life’s too short to be sad.”
A. Lee la siguiente lectura y subraya las oraciones simples. Despues responde
las preguntas que se encuentran al final de la lectura.

1. ¿Cómo se llama la persona que se describe en el perfil de Facebook?


____________________________________________________________________

2.- ¿Cuál es su edad y estado civil?


____________________________________________________________________

3.- ¿Dónde nació y donde vive ahora?


____________________________________________________________________

4. Describe su perfil general (nivel de estudios, actividades cotidianas y lo que le


agrada hacer en su tiempo libre)
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

5. ¿Cuál es su libro y película favorita?


______________________________________________________________________

6.

______________________________________________________________________

B. Escribe una oración simple acerca de ti, e identifica los elementos de esta
misma.
Priscila: I <sujeto> like watch<verb> movies with my family <complement>
Héctor: I (subject) study (verb to be) nursing, (complement)
KARLA: I (sujeto) work (verb in present time) with my father in his own company (
complement)
Génesis: I (S) work (V) at the Mundo Maya University. (COMPLEMENT)
Rosa Eva I (s) am (v) a student at DACEA (UJAT)

Unidad 2: Formación Y Función De Las


Palabras En La Oración.

A. Individuamente localicen los diferentes tipos de oraciones utilizadas en el


texto de la canción “The Thin Line Between Love and Hate” que se encuentra a
continuación:

The Thin Line Between Love And Hate"

It's a thin line between love and hate The sweetest woman in the world
It's a thin line between love and hate Could be the meanest woman in the world
If you make her be that way
It's five o'clock in the morning She might be holding something in
And you're just getting in That's really gonna hurt you
A knock upon the door One of these fine days
A voice sweet and low says (who is it?)
She opens up the door There you are in the hospital
And she lets you in Bandaged from foot to head
And never once does she say "where In a state of shock
have you been?" That much from being dead
You didn't think your woman
She says "Hold it, Could do something like that to you
Are you hungry, did you eat yet, You didn't think she'd got the nerve
Let me hang up your coat now" Accidents speak louder than words
And all the time she's smiling Louder than words
Never raises her voice Louder than words
It's five o'clock in the morning Louder than words
And you don't give it a second thought
Come on
It's a thin line between love and hate Come on, baby, baby
B. Escriban las oraciones localizadas en la canción, en el siguiente cuadro, de
acuerdo a su tipo:

TIPO DE EJEMPLOS SIGNOS DE


ORACION PUNTUACION
Afirmativa a)
b)
Interrogativa a)
b)
Negativa a)
b)
Imperativa a)
b)
Admirativa a)
b)

C. Responde las siguientes preguntas


1. ¿Te gustó la canción?
______________________________________________________________________
2. ¿Por qué?
_____________________________________________________________________
3. ¿Cuántos personajes aparecen en la canción?
_____________________________________________________________________

4. ¿De qué trata la canción?


____________________________________________________________________

D: Escribe las preguntas de la parte B en inglés y compáralas con un


compañero.
E. Analiza las oraciones subrayadas en el texto “Having a Blast in the Windy
City” y menciona a qué tipo de oración pertenecen (afirmativa,
interrogativa, negativa, imperativa y admirativa).

so it should be called the


“Windy City”.

Do you like pizza? Let’s start


Happy holidays, FANTASTIC FLYERS. an imaginary tour with a slice
Welcome to Chicago! My name is of pizza and then you can come
Joe Giovenco. watch me play a little one-on-one
I’m your guide on this Chicago with Michael Jordan.
adventure. I’m a fourth grader at the We will visit the Museum of
River Grove Public School. My favorite Science and Industry, it is the
subjects are art and math. When I grow Chicago’s number one tourist
up, I would like to be a hockey player attraction. It is big. It takes several
and an architect. I’m a good hockey visits to see everything. Don’t miss
player. Last summer, I played with the the 16-ft tall heart that really
Illinois Select Hockey Team. The finals beats, the real coal mine, or the
were in Canada. We were the only full-size submarine.
team of 9-year-old boys that won! I Now, try the big-wheeled
know I would like to be an architect bicycle. It is called a ”bone
because I like to draw buildings and crusher”. I can see why. If you fall
build them with my building block set. off it, you will probably crush a bone.
Do you know something about After checking out the bicycle you
Chicago? It is famous for lots of things. can visit other places. Don’t miss
It is the third largest city in the United the Chicago Fire exhibit.
States, gigantic skyscrapers, The I don’t know if Chicago is the
Chicago Fire, Championship teams with most beautiful city in the world,
sports super stars like Michael Jordan, but I love it.
delicious hot dogs and Chicago Pizza.
Some people know Chicago for old Come soon!
gangster movies and because it is a
totally fun place to visit.
Many people think Chicago is
called the “Windy City” because of
the strong winds that blow off Lake
Michigan. It is not true. A
newspaper reporter gave our city
that name in 1893. He got tired of
people bragging about how
wonderful Chicago was. He said
that Chicagoans were full of “wind”,
F. Menciona las oraciones identificadas en el texto anterior.
G. Responde las preguntas sobre el texto.

“Having a Blast in the Windy City”


1. ¿De qué ciudad se habla en el texto?
_____________________________________________________________________

2. ¿Cómo se llama la persona que narra la historia?


_____________________________________________________________________

3. ¿Dónde fueron las finales de Hockey?


______________________________________________________________________

4. ¿De qué edad eran los integrantes del equipo?


______________________________________________________________________

5. ¿Qué quiere ser el narrador cuando sea grande?


______________________________________________________________________

6. Menciona algunas razones por las que es famosa la ciudad de la cual se habla en el
texto.

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

7. ¿Quién le dio un sobrenombre a la ciudad y en qué año?

______________________________________________________________________

H. Escribe dos preguntas en inglés sobre el texto e investiga las respuestas con
un compañero.

1.- Q: ________________________________________________________________

A: ___________________________________________________________________

2.- Q: ________________________________________________________________

A: ___________________________________________________________________
Unidad 3: Vocabulario General Y Significado.
Cognados Verdaderos

A. Deduce de la siguiente lista de cognados verdaderos, su significado,


basándote en la escritura
Inglés Español Inglés Español
human activity
line events
social satisfaction
effect office
industry production
hospitals articles
special complete

B. Lee rápidamente el siguiente texto y encierra los cognados verdaderos y


escríbelos en tu libreta y busca su significado. ¿Cuántos de los cognados son
palabras claves?

The Scent of Love


People use perfumes and colognes to make themselves more attractive to the opposite
sex, but do fragrances work in the way that people think they do? Research carried out
by the Smell and Taste Foundation in Chicago indicates that the answer is probably no.
For example, most male colognes contain male pheromones (scented sex hormones),
but the study has proven that pheromones can only be perceived from a distance of 18
inches or less. This means that a woman would already have to be very close to a man
affected by the pheromones! And apparently, women are 1,000 times more sensitive
than men to musk, the active ingredient in most female fragrances.

So why do perfumes seem to work? According to the research, it is because the seller
in perfumes and colognes produces a sense of well-being in the wearer. The result is
that If you wear a fragrance, you feel happier and more confident, and therefore more
attractive to the opposite sex.
C. Check your comprehension

Lee el texto una vez más y completa las ideas.

1.- ¿por qué las personas usan perfume o colonia?

______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

2.- La investigación demuestra que:

______________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

3.- Las fragancias funcionan porque:

______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

D. Escribe tres oraciones usando “use to” del porque las personas usan
perfumes.
Empieza la oración con

1.- People use perfums to _____________________________________________

2.- _________________________________________________________________

3.- _________________________________________________________________
Unidad 4: Vocabulario General Y Significado.
Cognados Falsos
Cuántas veces no hemos escuchado, escrito o dicho: “I actually work and study.”
queriendo expresar “Actualmente estudio y trabajo”… pero ¿estás seguro que es la
traducción correcta? En inglés existen muchas palabras que suenan y se escriben casi
igual que en español, pero ¡cuidado! —no tienen el mismo significado, son “falsos
amigos” o false cognates (falsos cognados).

Se les llama “false cognates” a las palabras en inglés que por la forma en la que se
escriben o se pronuncian, se parecen mucho a una palabra en español, pero en
realidad el significado es diferente.

I actually work and study.

 Actually – Se parece a la palabra actualmente; sin embargo, significa in reality


o really (en realidad o realmente).
 Actualmente  se traduce como currently.

Por lo que, si quieres expresar: “Actualmente estudio y trabajo.” la forma correcta es: I
currently work and study.

actually = realmente exit = salida
actualmente = currently éxito = success
assist = ayudar fabric = tela
asistir = attend fábrica = factory
attend = asistir large = grande
atender = take care of largo = long
carpet = alfombra lecture = discurso
carpeta = binder lectura = reading
compromise = término medio library = biblioteca
compromiso = commitment librería = bookstore
embarrassed = avergonzado record = grabar
embarazada = pregnant recordar = remember
A. Completa con la palabra correcta en cada oración.

1. I __________________ school on Mondays and Wednesdays. 

2. Maria is going to have a baby. She's  ___________________________.

3. I used to live in Chicago but I ______________________ live in Florida.

4. What's her name? I don't _______________________ what her name is.

5. I keep important papers in a __________________________________

6. She needs to cut her hair. Her hair is very _______________________ 

7. He loves her but doesn't want to marry her. He doesn't want to make a
_____________.

8. He's made a million dollars in his new business. The business is a


great ____________.

9. The radios are produced in a ______________________________.

10. The article was very interesting. It is a very interesting ____________________.


B. Choose the correct word cognate to each sentence:

1. Did you know that Chrissie got ________________ (embarrassed/pregnant) on

holiday in Ibiza?

2. The ________________ (signature/subject) I hate most is maths.

3. Begonia is a very ________________ (kind /sympathetic) person.

4. Keep ________________ (removing/stirring) the soup the whole time.

5. I couldn't agree more. That's a very ________________ (sensible/sensitive) idea

.6. The filmThe Quiet American was a box-office ________________ (exit/success).

7. How many ________________ (idioms/languages) can you speak?

8. ________________ (Actually/Nowadays) I'm living with my parents again.

9. The poor live in the ________________ (slums/suburbs).

10. The police came to my ________________ (assistance/attendance)


Unidad 5: Palabras Derivadas Y su
Función Gramatical

La derivación lexical consiste en construir palabras nuevas a partir de una palabra-


raiz, mediante sufijos o prefijos. Este mecanismo de creación de palabras está en la
base de las famílias de palabras, es decir de grupos de palabras con la misma raiz y
que hacen referéncia a diferentes aspectos del mismo concepto (por ejemplo, una
acción, la persona que hace esta acción, el resultado de la acción etc.):

to invest (invertir) – investor (inversor) – investment (inversión)

La raiz puede ser un verbo, pero también un adjetivo o un nombre:

A. Elije la palabra correcta de las siguientes oraciones de acuerdo al contexto.

1.  He gets a lot of  enjoy / enjoyment / enjoying from football.

2. Money doesn’t always bring happiness / unhappy / happy

3. It is dishonest / honest / honesty to take something that isn’t yours.

4. My dad gets very patiently / impatient / patient when he has to wait ages for the
train.

5. I want to be a science / scientist / scientific when I’m older.

6. It’s snowing. You need to ride your bike care / careful / carefully

7. Personally / person / personal speaking, I didn’t like the film,


8. She's obsessive / obsess / obsession with fashion. She buys all the fashion
magazines.

Unidad 6: El Párrafo Y Su Propósito

A. Analiza detenidamente los aspectos que son esenciales para identificar el


propósito de un párrafo.
Identificar el propósito (o propósitos de un párrafo) te ayuda a entender la organización
de un texto. La primera oración y su encabezado (si tiene uno) pueden darte pistas
sobre su propósito. Estos propósitos pueden incluir:
· Introducir un tema
· Resolver una pregunta
· Dar un ejemplo
· Describir una solución
· Continuar con un objetivo
· Proporcionar datos y estadísticas
· Crear un argumento
· Sintetizar ideas

B. Identificando el propósito. Mira la foto y la descripción de la misma, después


decide cual o cuales son los propósitos del pie de fotos.
 Introducir un tema
 Proporcionar estadísticas
 Ayudar a explicar una foto
 Cuestionar
 Brindar una definición
 Proporcionar datos
Antes de leer:
A. Matching. Mira la foto y lee la información debajo de ella. Luego relaciona cada
palabra en negritas con su definición.

Bacteria are so small, you need a microscope to see them. E.coli is a bacteria that
can be found in both animals and humans. Many strains of E.coli won’t hurt you but
some can make you very ill or cause death.

1. ________________________kinds of groups of bacteria

2. ________________________sick

3. ________________________a kind of very small living thing

4. ________________________a machine that shows a larger view of something very


small
B. Predice. Mira rápidamente las fotos y encabezados. Marca ( ) en la
información que tu consideras vas a leer. Luego lee el texto para corroborar tus
respuestas.
· How a doctor found the cause of an illness
· How E. Coli has caused many deaths around de the world
· How more people want to become doctors

The Disease Detective

1 Six children were in the hospital. They were very sick, but the doctors didn't know
what to do. They called Dr. Richard Besser, an expert on strange illnesses. Dr. Besser
knew just what to do.
Finding a Cause

5 First, Dr. Besser needed to find the cause of the illness. He used a microscope to
look for germs like bacteria in the children's bodies. Dr. Besser found that all the
children had a strain of the bacteria E. Coli. Then he looked at the Bacteria's DNA. The
DNA showed him that this strain of E. Coli was dangerous to humans.
10 Where did it come from?

Dr. Besser knew E. Coli could move from animals to humans. Perhaps the children had
touched animals that carried the bacteria? Besser found other E. Coli cases in the area
where the children lived. But it wasn't enough.
Besser then made a list of what the six children had eaten. They had all eaten cheese,
apple, juice, and fish, but not the apple juice.
Case Closed

17 Besser went to where the apple juice was made. He saw that there were animals
around the apples tree, and he saw the workers using dirty apples that had fallen on the
ground. More importantly, he saw that the apples were not washed before the juice was
made, and that the juice was not heated. Doing these things would kill the bacteria.
Besser then knew it was the apple juice that made the children sick.
Besser's E. Coli case has a happy ending. The children got better. And what Besser
learned that day now helps keep others safe.

Reading Comprehension

Multiple Choice. Escoge la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta.

1. Otro título para el texto podría ser ________________.

a. Good vs. Bad Bacteria

b. Looking for answers

c. A Death at the Hospital

2. ¿Qué sucedió primero? _______________

a. Dr. Besser found what made the children sick

b. Dr.Besser made a list of what the sick children ate

c. Dr.Besser went to where the apple juice was made

3. ¿Qué información del E.Coli es falsa?

a. It's a kind of plant

b. It can make people sick

c. It moves from animals to people

4. ¿A quién se refiere They en la oración 16?

a. The sick children

b. The healthy children

c. Both the sick and the healthy children

5. ¿Qué causó que los niños se enfermaran?

a. Old fish

b. Dirty apples
c. Smelly cheese

6. ¿Con que consejo probablemente el Dr.Besser estaría de acuerdo?

a. Never drink apple juice from a supermarket.

You should make it yourself

b. Stay away from animals that live near trees.

They will make you sick.

c. Don't eat fruit from the ground. Wash the fruit before you eat it.

A. Identificando propósitos.

Lee el texto de nuevo. ¿Cuál es el propósito principal de cada


párrafo?

1. Parrafo 1
a. To give background information
b. To summarize what will come later

2. Parrafo 4
a. To list a sequence of actions
b. To answer a question

3. Parrafo 5
a. To introduce a new topic
b. To answer a question

4. Parrafo 6
a. To describe the end of an event
b. To predict what will happen

Comprendiendo el uso de las comas


Saber como los escritores utilizan las comas, ayuda a leer y entender los textos mucho
mejor Knowing how writers use commas helps you read and understand texts better.
Observa algunos usos de la coma. Debes usar comas:
· Para separar elementos en una oración
e.g, I enjoy taking pictures of people, animals, and flowers. (list)

· Para separar nombres de ciudades, estado o país


e.g, I recently traveled to Rome, Italy to study photography. (city, country)

· Al introducir una palabra o expresión


e.g. At first, I was shy about taking pictures ( sequence )

· Para separar diferentes ideas en una oración


e.g., I have a camera, but it's not a very good one (connector)

· Para introducir una palabra o frase en una oración


e.g., I am, however, a very good photographer (connector)

Analyzing. Subraya las oraciones que usan las comas correctamente


1. I flew to San Diego, California, last week to see my sister.
2. She moved, there several years ago.
3. When I got there, my sister took me to the zoo.
4. She works at the zoo, so she gave me a tour.
5. She works with, bears, wolves and, monkeys.
B. Completion. Agrega comas a las oraciones que se muestran a continuación
(El número en los paréntesis indica los números de comas necesarios.) Revisa el
texto anterior para confirmar tus respuestas
1. Joel Sartore is a writer teacher and photographer. (2)
2. And that led to a nine-day job and so on. (1)
3. To get into National Geographic you have to give them something they don't have.(1)
4. If you do it for the money you probably won't really be happy. (1)
5. If so you'll enjoy the work much more (1)

Unidad 7: Estrategias De Lectura:


Skimming, Scanning Y El Uso Del
Diccionario
A. Skimming es un método que consiste en mover rápidamente los ojos en un
texto con el propósito de obtener las ideas principales del mismo así como la
visión general del contenido. De una ojeada revisas todo el texto rápidamente
para saber de que se trata. No lees palabra por palabra, en lugar de ello miras
el titulo, los encabezados, las fotos y pie de fotos. Lees la primera oración de
cada párrafo, y rápidamente lees la conclusión.

B. Basandote en la información anterior, skim (lee superficialmente) la


lectura siguiente. Despues discute la información encontrada con tus
compañeros.

Called the “Ship of Dreams” the Titanic was the biggest passenger ship of its
time. Its makers said it was “unsinkable”, but the great ship sank on its very
first trip.
I've Found the Titanic

As a boy, Robert Ballard liked to read about shipwrecks. He read about the Titanic. "My
lifelong dream was to find this great ship," he says.

On August 31, 1985, Ballards dream came true. He found many items that told the sad
story of the Titanic's end. For example, he found a child's shoes, a reminder of the
many deaths 5 that happened that night in 1912.

In 1986, Ballard visited the Titanic again. This time, he reached the ship in a small
submarine. A deep- sea robot-a "swimming eyeball " - took photos inside the ship.
When other people saw the photos, they wanted to visit the ship, too.

When Ballard returned information 2004, he found The Titanic in very bad condition.
Other 10 explorers had taken away about 6, 000 items, like clothes, dishes and shoes.
Some even took pieces of the ship. They think these things should be moved to a safer
place, but Ballard doesn't agree.

Ballard believes that taking things from the Titanic is like robbing a grave. Instead, he
wants to put lights and cameras on and around the shipwreck. This way, people can
see the great shipwreck. This way and remember what happened to it. "As long as she
needs protection, says, Ballard, "the Titanic will always be part of my life".

Reading Comprehension

Opción Multiple. Elige la mejor repuesta para cada pregunta.

1. ¿Cual es el tema principal de la lectura?

a. How visitors to the Titanic leave it in bad condition


b. Robert Ballard's hopes that more people will visit the Titanic.
c. How Robert Ballard found the Titanic and wants to keep it safe
2. La primera vez que el exploró el “Titanic”, Ballard _____________________.
a. took photos inside the shipwreck
b. found a child's shoes in the shipwreck
c. used a robot to look around the shipwreck
3. ¿Cuál de las siguientes oraciones sobre Ballard es verdadera?

a. He read about the Titanic when he was a child.

b. He swam into the Titanic to take photos.

c. On his second trip to the Titanic, he found the ship in bad condition.

4. Según el texto, ¿que vieron las personas, que motivó que quisieran visitar el
Titanic?

a. the submarine Ballard used

b. photos from inside the ship

c. items that were taken from the ship

5. ¿A quién se refiere they en la línea 16?

a. Robert Ballard and his team

b. other visitors to the Titanic shipwreck

c. people from the Titanic who are still alive

6. ¿Con cuál afirmación Ballard probablemente estaría de acuerdo?

a. People should not remove anything from the Titanic.

b. Lights and cameras will hurt the remains of the Titanic.

c. The Titanic wreck should be moved out of the water completely.


Reading Skill
Identificando la idea principal de un párrafo
La idea principal de un párrafo, es su idea central. Para determinar la idea principal,
skim el párrafo y pregúntate, ¿Cuál es el objetivo del autor? La primera y última
oración de un párrafo, así como también su encabezado (si tiene uno) pueden darte
pistas sobre la idea principal.
A. Opción Multiple. ¿Cuál es la idea principal del siguiente texto? Encierra en un
círculo a, b, or c.
a. The Carpathia took over three hours to get to the Titanic.
b. The Carpathia answered the Titanic's call and helped save lives.
c. The Carpathia was too far away to help stop the Titanic from sinking.

On April 15, 1912, at. 12:20 a.m., the British ship got a call from the Titanic. The "Ship
of Dreams " was sinking. The Carpathia was 93 kilometers (58 miles) away. It traveled
at top speed to where the Titanic was, even thought there were dangerous icebergs in
the ocean. It arrived at 3:30 a.m., over an hour after the Titanic sank. Still, the
Carpathia was able to pick up 711 people. The ship then went to New York, arriving
there on April 18.

C. Matching. Vuelve a leer el texto en los párrafos señalados. ¿Cuál es la idea


principal de cada párrafo?

Párrafo 1: a. Ballard read a lot about the Titanic.


b. Ballard's dream was to find the Titanic.
Parrafo 2: a. Ballard found items like a child's shoe.
b. Ballard finally found the shipwreck he was looking for.
Parrafo 3: a. Ballard reached the ship in a small submarine.
b. Ballard returned and took photos of the ship.
Parrafo 4: a. Other explorers had taken things from the Titanic wreck.
b. Ballard thinks taking items from the ship hurts the wreck.
Parrafo 5: a. Ballard wants to protect the Titanic.
b. Ballard wants to put lights and cameras around the ship
Scanning
Cuando localizas información específica en un texto, sin necesidad de practicar
una lectura detallada, estás aplicando la estrategia “scanning”. Cuando revisas
rápidamente una lectura, solo buscas la información que necesitas. No es
necesario leer todo el texto.
Por ejemplo, para la pregunta ¿en dónde se encuentra el Area 51? Busca el
nombre de un lugar en el siguiente texto, posiblemente una palabra que comience
con (Nevada U.S.)

Sometimes pilots see mysterious lights in the sky. Others have seen aircraft that look
like disks or “flying saucers” We call these “UFOs” (unidentified flying objects) Some
people think UFOs are aliens spaceship visiting earth.

A- Definiciones. Mira la foto y lee el pie de foto. Después une cada palabra en negritas
con su definición.
1. pilots a . machines that fly
2 . aircraft b . people who fly airplanes
3. disks c. from other places or planets

4. alien d. objects with a round shape


B. Skim. Rapidamente utilizando la técnica skim, revisa el texto, ¿de que se trata?
Encierra en un circulo a, b o c. Despues lee el texto para verificar tu respuesta

a . UFO sighthings around the world

b . a famous place to see UFOs

c . famous movies about UFOs

Have Aliens Visited Us?


1 Many people have stories about seeing aliens. Here are two.
Judy Varns works for a group called the Mutual UFO Network. The purpose of this
group is
5 to research UFO sightings. Varns thinks a place called Area 51, in Nevada in the
U.S., may be the best place on Earth to see UFOs. One day, she took some photos in
the area and saw something she thinks is a UFO. 'We saw this little disk-shaped thing in
our photos. It's kind of exciting," she says.
Pat Travis lives near Area 51. One night, she saw a strange light. In the sky.
10 The light's movement were unusual. Travis saw the lights move sideways and up
and down. She saw them make many strange moves. Travis thinks it was a UFO.
A fake alien body lies in a display in Roswell New Mexico, where people think an
alien landed on Earth. Some people believe the ship and alien were taken to Área
51.

Secrets of Área 51

15 Some people think Area 51 is where the. U.S.A. Air Force keeps secrets like UFOs
that came to Earth and the aliens inside them. But really, Area 51 is a place the. U.S.
Air Force uses to test new technology, such as new kinds of aircraft.

James McGaha is a pilot who flew airplanes at Area 51. "There is absolutely no UFO
activity at

20 Area 51," he says. "No flying saucers, no live aliens, no dead aliens."

So what did Varns and Travis see? Bill Fox worked at Area 51, too. He thinks he
knows the answer.

"We did build some strange-looking airplanes," he says. “I could see why some
people would 25 think they were UFOs."

So are UFOs real? You'll have to decide for yourself. But if you do visit Nevada, keep
your eyes on the skies.
Reading Comprehension
Opción Multiple. Elige la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta.
1. ¿Cuál de estas oraciones sobre Judy Varns es verdadera?

a.- She works at an airport in Area 51.


b.- She helped Bill Fox build new airplanes.
c. - She works for a group that studies UFO sightings
2. ¿Cuál es la idea principal del segundo párrafo (de la oración 9)?

a. Pat Travis lives near Area 51.


b. Pat Travis thinks she saw a UFO
c. Pat Travis has seen many unusual things
3. En la oracion18, la palabra kinds significa __________.

a. A lot
b. Types
c . People
4. ¿Cuál era el empleo de James McGaha en el Area 51?

a. He flew airplanes.
b. He made airplanes.
c. He took secret photos.
5. ¿Que significa? "I could see why some people would think they were UFOs." (oración
24-25)

a. I agree with people who believe in UFOs.


b. I saw UFOs near Area 51 with my own eyes.
c. I understand why some people think they saw UFOs.
6. ¿Qué persona probablemente diría? "I believe UFOs are real, and could be alíen
spaceships"?

a. Bill Fox
b. Judy Varns
c. James McGaha
A. Scan. Lee una vez más el texto. Encuentra y subraya estas palabras en el texto tan
rápidamente como puedas.
1. Earth 3. Flew 5. Dead
2. Sideways 4. Saucers 6. Skies

B. Scan. Lee las siguientes preguntas. Piensa en las respuestas que necesitas buscar.
Despues (scan) o lee rápidamente el texto y escribe las respuestas. Intenta
encontrarlas lo más rápido que puedas.

1. ¿Quién trabaja para the Mutual UFO Network?


____________________________________________________________

2. ¿Quién vive cerca del Area 51?


____________________________________________________________

3. ¿Qué prueba realiza the U.S Air Force en el Area 51?


____________________________________________________________

4. ¿Cuál es el trabajo de James McGaha?


____________________________________________________________

5. ¿Qué construyó Bill Fox?


____________________________________________________________
C. Encontrando la definición correcta de una palabra en un diccionario.
 
Cuando buscas una palabra en un diccionario, con frecuencia existe más de una
definición. Para encontrar la definición correcta, primero identifica a que parte de la
estructura del texto corresponde (por ejemplo, sustantivo, verbo, adjetivo, adverbio,
etc). Después observa las otras palabras en la oración para ayudarte a encontrar la
definición correcta.

A.Matching. Identifica la forma gramatical de la palabra “Smart” en las oraciones


siguientes. Despues une cada oracion con la definición correcta.

1. The actor's clothes are very smart._____________

2. I bought a smartphone.________________                 
 
3. Smoke makes my eyes smart____________               

4. The bear is very smart ________________      
  
                        Smart / sma:rt/

adjective
a. Good at learning
b. Fashionable
c. Controlled by computers Verb
d. To hurt

 B. Completion. Encierra en un círculo la parte gramatical de cada palabra en negritas.


Despues busca la palabra en un diccionario, y escribe su definición.

1- At the center. Doug and Lynne Seus train animals.  


     Part of speech: noun/ verb Definition: _____________________________ 
 
2.- That's more difficult than it sounds. 
Part of speech: noun/verb Definition:______________________________ 
  
3.-. Honey Bump took a bite out of my back.
       Part of speech: noun/verb Definition:_______________________________ 
 
4.-. I had to wrestle her to the ground. 
      Part of speech: noun/ verb Definition: ______________________________ 

Unidad 8 y 9: Afijos.
 
Prefijos Y Sufijos
Prefijos y Sufijos
Los Prefijos (e.g., un-, dis -, mis -) Se localizan al principio de las palabras, y los
sufijos (e.g.,-al, -ly, -istic) al final de las palabras. Conocer el significado de los prefijos
y sufijos pueden ayudarte a entender nuevas palabras además de ayudarte a construir
tu vocabulario.

A. Completion. Observa los prefijos, significados y ejemplos. Escribe nuevas palabras


para cada prefijo usando las palabras siguientes.

act paid national


Prefix. Meanings. Examples. Your ideas:

1. re-. again /back to. return. ___________________

2. inter-. between /among Internet. ___________________

3. pre-. Before predict. ___________________

4. un less uncomfortable ___________________

B. Completion. Observa los sufijos, significados y ejemplos. Escribe nuevas palabras


para cada sufijo usando las palabras
pain assess invent
siguientes.

Sufijos. Significados. Ejemplos. Tus ideas


1. –ful. full of. careful. ________________

2. -ment. act or manner. enjoyment. ________________

3.-ion. act or process. action. ________________

4.- est the most tallest ________________


C. Definiciones. Escribe la palabra con su sufijo. Después escribe una definición.

Word. Word + suffix. Definition

1. colect. _______________________ ______________________

2. treat. _______________________ ______________________

3. youth _______________________ ______________________

Vocabulary Practice
A. Definiciones. Usa el siguiente vocabulario para completar las
definiciones.
electricity. future. grocery. laboratory

mirror. program. surroundings. treatment

1. If you look into a (n) _______________________, you see yourself.

2. A (n) ______________________store sells different kinds of food.

3. Your ______________________are the places, conditions, and things around you.

4. A(n) ______________________is a room full of equipment where scientists work.

5. After you receive ____________________for an illness, you usually look or feel


better.

6. You _________________a machine by giving it instructions so it performs an action.

7. The __________________is the period of time that will happen after the present
time.

8. ___________________is energy that travels through wires and is used to operate


machines.

A. Completion. Completa el texto usando la información en el cuadro


Science fiction writers have long dreamed of cyborgs-people who have machines as
body parts. Now that dream is a reality. Scientists have discovered ways to
1._____________________machines to pick up signals from the brain, so people can
operate them by thinking.
2. After she lost her arm in a car accident, it was difficult for Amanda Kitts to do the 2.
___________________ shopping and other everyday activities. Now Amanda has a
robotic arm.
This technology is still very new. Though it has been tested many times in a
3.________________, it needs to be tested with real people. It may not work for
everyone. However, many believe it won't be too far into the
4._____________________ before scientists succeed in fully joining humans and
machines.
B. Lee el texto, encierra en un círculo diez sustantivos (nouns), seis verbos, seis
adjetivos, y dos adverbios. Despues lee el texto más cuidadosamente.

The Right Job


People make career decisions for many different reasons, not all of them good ones.
Often we are persuaded to go into a particular career because one or both of our
parents work in that field. Or we may decide on a career because we want to earn a lot
of money. Making money, is of course, a practical and valid consideration; however, as
everyone knows, money doesn't always buy happiness.
In order to be truly happy in your career, you should carefully consider what kind of jobs
are compatible with your personality and abilities.
Are you sociable and happy around lots of people? Are you ambitious and highly-
motivated? Then you might consider a career in sales, marketing, law, or politics.
Maybe you are thoughtful, considerate, sensitive person, and you love helping other
people. You will need to have these characteristics in order to be successful as a
doctor, nurse, teacher, or social worker. Of course, being very creative and ongoing,
can mean that you might be excellent as a politician, teacher or actor. People who are
comfortable working alone and are careful about details may be happy as accountants,
editors, librarians, or research scientists.
Deciding on a career is one of the most important things you will ever do. You should
discuss your opinions not only with your family and friends, but also with your teachers
because they can make recommendations based on your abilities. If possible, also talk
to a career counselor, who will understand the importance of matching personalities to
jobs.

Check your comprehension


A. Encierra en un círculo true o false. Tienes que deducir las respuestas.

1. Some people are unhappy in their jobs because they didn't match their personality to

the job.

True False

2. Lawyers and politicians spend a lot of time working alone.

True False
3. Doctors and teachers share some of the same characteristics.

True False

4. Editors and librarians are probably very organized people.

True False

5. It is equally important to consider your abilities and your personality before you

choose a career.

True False

Vocabulary focus: Sufijos

Los sufijos son terminaciones agregadas a las palabras con el propósito de cambiar
su esructura gramatical. Por ejemplo consider (verbo) considérate / considerable
(adjetivos) considerably (adverbio) consideration (sustantivo). Si comprendes
como los sufijos cambian la estructura de un texto, te ayudará a comprenderlo mejor.

1. Observa los siguientes sufijos comunes en inglés. ¿Existe algún


equivalente en español? Escribe (N/noun) (V/verb), (ADJ/ adjective), o
(ADV/ adverb) junto a las siguientes palabras. .
-ion: decision – recommendation __________(i)ous : suspicious, famous __________
-ity: ability, mobility __________-al:moral, legal. __________
-ness: neatness, attractiveness __________-able/-ible: definable, edible__________
-ance /-ence, significance, presence _______ -ful: beautiful, awful __________
-ian: historian, politician __________-ent/-ant: repellent, dominant ________
-ist: biologist, anthropologist __________ -ly: completely, happily __________
-er /-or: lawyer, counselor __________ -ize: socialize, criticize __________

2 ¿Cuantas de las palabras de la lista anterior son cognados?


Practica
1. Observa de nuevo el texto anterior. Encuentra por lo menos un ejemplo más de
cada uno de los sufijos mencionados.

1.- _________________________________ 2.- ________________________________

3.- _________________________________ 4.- ________________________________

5.- _________________________________ 6.- ________________________________

7.- _________________________________ 8.- ________________________________

9.- _________________________________ 10.-________________________________

Unidad 10 Part Of Speech.


Conectores De Secuencia Y Condición

Entendiendo a las oraciones complejas


Las oraciones complejas se conforman de una oración independiente y una
dependiente conectadas por una conjunción. Las conjunciones incluyen: at the
beginning, first, then, before, after, when, while, finally, (indican secuencia) if, whether,
until (indican condición)
I plan to go on a trip after I save enough money.

If I save enough, I want to visit Florence.

Predice. Mira el título, fotos, y pie de fotos de esta página, ¿por qué crees que
Shah Jahan construyó el Taj Mahal? Lee el texto para confirmar tus ideas.

The Taj Mahal was built by the emperor Shah Jahan for the love of his life
Arjumand Banu Begum The empress is more famously known as Mumtaz
Mahal-----chosen one of the palace.

A Love Poem in Stone


1. Often called "a love in stone," the Taj Mahal is well- known for being one of the most

beautiful buildings ever created. It is also perhaps the most beautiful expression of love

in the world.

The emperor Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal for his empress, Mumtaz Mahal. The

couple 5 lived happily together for 18 years. Then Mumtaz died during the birth of their
fourteenth child. Before she died, the emperor made her a promise. To remember her,

he would build the most beautiful monument in the world.

8 The emperor poured his passion and wealth into building the Taj Mahal. It is said that

it took more than 20,000 people and 1,000 elephants to build. They worked for over 20

years to build the monument and its central dome, which stands over 73 meters above

the ground.

11 Soon after the building was finished, Shah Jahan's son became emperor. He put

Shah Jahan in prison. Shah Jahan lived there until his death 1666, when his body was

put in the Taj Mahal with the woman he loved.

14 There are many legends about the Taj Mahal. In one story, when the building was

complete, Shah Jahan had the builder's hands cut off, supposedly so they could never

build anything as beautiful as the Taj Mahal. These are interesting stories, but they are

most likely not true.

18 The love story between Shah Jahan and his wife ended sadly. But the monument to

their love still stands today. It is visited by millions of tourists, who came to see the

marble change color in the light of the rising sun or a full moon.

A: Opción Múltiple. Elige la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta.

1. ¿Qué otro título podría ser adecuado para esta lectura?


a. The Emperor and Empress's Home
b. How an Emperor Showed His Love?
c. The Beautiful Writings of Shah Jahan

2. ¿Cuándo fue construido el Taj Mahal?


a. after the death of Mumtaz Mahal
b. when Shah Jahan's son became emperor ?
c. while Shah Jahan was in prison?

3. ¿Qué otra forma de decir It is said es posible? (line 8)

a. It is true that
b. We said that
c. Some people believe that

4. Who does the word He refers to in line 11?

a. Shah Jahan
b. Shah Jahan's son
c. Shah Jahan's father

5. ¿Cuál de estas afirmacione sobre el Taj Mahal es verdadera?

a. It took 20 years to build


b. Shah Jahan died inside it in 1666.
c. Its central dome was never completed.

6. ¿Cuál es la idea principal del quinto párrafo (line 14)?

a. The Taj Mahal has a very dark and sad history.


b. Shah Jahan was known to be a terrible person.
c. There are many stories about the Taj Mahal, many untrue.

A. Scan. Vuelve a leer el texto. Completa cada oración con una conjunción.

1. ______________Mumtaz Mahal died, the emperor made her a promise.

2. ______________the Taj Mahal was finished, Shah Jahan's son became emperor
3. In one story, _______________the building was completed, Shah Jahan had the
builder's hands cut off.

B. Tips for Visiting the Taj Mahal

1. Enter through the south gates (if /while) you don’t want to wait in line for a long

time.

2. (When/Before) you visit, keep the areas inside and outside clean.

3. Take off your shoes (whether/before) you enter.

4. You can also wear shoe covers (while /after) you are inside.

5. (First/Then) Do not bring video cameras, they are not allowed inside.

6. You can hire a guide (if/at the beginning) you need it

7. (Until/If) you hire a guide, hire only the ones with official I.D. cards.

8. Do not touch the walls (when/then) you are inside the building.

Unidad 11: Part Of Speech: Conectores


de Contraste Y Adición
Comprendiendo a las oraciones compuestas
Una oración compuesta se conforma de dos oraciones simples unidas por una coma y
una conjunción. Dentro de este tipo de oraciones se utilizan conectores que sirven para
agregar información (and, besides, moreover, in addition, furthermore, also) así como
también para contrastarla (but, however, although, nevertheless, in spite of).
Ejemplos:
I want to buy a new dictionary, and I need some new notebooks.
I want to buy a new dictionary, but I don’t have any money.
A: Lee la siguiente lectura y de cada párrafo formula una pregunta y a la vez
subraya la respuesta. Después intercambia cuaderno con un compañero para
contestar las preguntas.
Men's talk and Women's Talk in the United States

A. Marriage often is not easy. Love often is not easy. Sometimes friendship between a
man and a woman is not easy. Maybe a man and a woman love or like, but they argue.
They get angry. Later they apologize (say "I'm sorry "), but it happens again and again.
What's the problem? Are men and women really different?

B. Deborah Tannen says yes. Men and women are very different. Tannen teaches at
Georgetown University. She writes books about the ways people talk. She believes that
men and women talk -and think -in different ways. She tells about some differences in
her book. You just don't understand.

C. The differences, Tannen says, begin when men and women are children. Very
young boys and girls are similar to each other. In other words, they like the same things
and play in the same ways. They aren't very different. But then there is a change.

D. When children in the United States are five or six years old, boys usually play in
large groups. One boy gives orders. For examine, he says, "Take this," "Go over there,
" and "Be on this team". He is the leader. Boys also brag. In other words, they say good
things about themselves. They do this to have a high position. Position in the group is
important to boys.

E. Girls in the United States usually play in small groups or with one other girl. A girl's
"best friend "-her very, very good friend -is important to her. Girls don't give orders; they
give suggestions. For example, they say, "Let's go over there," "Maybe we should do
this," and "Don't you want to play with that?" Girls don't usually have a leader, and they
don't often brag. Everyone has an equal position.

F. Little boys are usually active; they do things. Much of the time, little girls sit together
and talk. When children grow up, nothing really changes. Men usually do things
together. Or they talk about activities such as sports and things such as cars and world
problems. They talk to give or get information. But for women, people and feelings are
important. Women often talk to show interest and love. Although a man and woman
speak the same language, sometimes they don't understand each other. Men's talk are
almost two different languages. But maybe men and women can learn to understand
each other if they understand the differences in speech.

Ideas principales
¿Cuáles oraciones tratan sobre hombres? ¿Cuáles oraciones tratan sobre
mujeres? Escribe M (men) y W (women) en los espacios.

1.-__________When they are children, they usually play in large groups

2.___________When they are children, they usually play in small groups or with one
friend.

3.___________There usually isn't a leader in the children's play group.

4.___________They talk to show interest and love.

5.___________They talk to give or get information.

Vocabulario nuevo

A. Utiliza los ejemplos y las palabras en paréntesis para comprender estas


palabras. (Las letras mayúsculas en los paréntesis son párrafos de la lectura
"Men's Talk and Women's Talk in the United States ") Escribe las letras
minúsculas sobre las líneas.

1.____________apologize (A) a. Ideas ("Maybe We should do this ")


2.____________orders (D) b. to say ("I'm sorry”)
3.____________position (D) c. commands ("Do this")
4.____________suggestions (E) d. same.
5.____________equal (E) e. place in a group.

Unidad 12 Pronombres Y Adjetivos


Posesivos

POSESIVOS
En inglés, para indicar pertenencia o posesión utilizamos los adjetivos y
pronombres posesivos. Muchas veces se habla de “posesivos” indistintamente o de
“pronombres posesivos” para referirse a ambas formas, pero son diferentes.

ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS

Un adjetivo posesivo, al igual que otros adjetivos, se coloca delante del sustantivo y
cumple la función de determinador.

 Is your father at home? - ¿Está tu padre en casa?

 The girl loves her dog - La muchacha quiere a su perro

 The children will visit their grandmother - Los niños visitarán a su abuela

En inglés, el adjetivo posesivo se usa delante de los sustantivos que indican


partes del cuerpo, parentesco, vestimenta y objetos personales, mientras que en
español es más común usar el artículo determinado:

 I hurt my arm - Me lastimé el brazo.

 He put his hand in his pocket - Se puso la mano en el bolsillo.

Los adjetivos posesivos concuerdan en género y número con su antecedente (el


poseedor)

 I lost my key .
 I lost my keys.

Pero en otros idiomas, como español y francés, no ocurre lo mismo. El posesivo no


concuerda con el poseedor sino con la cosa poseída.

 Perdí mi llave
 Perdí mis llaves.

PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS -

Un pronombre posesivo no modifica al sustantivo, sino que lo reemplaza.


Concuerda en género y número con el poseedor.

 This is my car. It’s mine - Éste es mi coche. Es mío


 Annie's dress is red. Yours is green - El vestido de Annie es rojo. El tuyo es
verde.
 I’m sorry, that suitcase is ours - Lo siento, ésa maleta es nuestra

EJERCICIO ll

A. De manera individual, lee el texto”Pablo Picasso ”, subrayando al


mismo tiempo las oraciones que contengan pronombres y adjetivos
posesivos ,

PABLO PICASSO
At the age of 13, Pablo Picasso, the son of "the house my mother wants will be hers". A
the artist José Ruiz Blasco, was a few years later the dream of his parents
magnificent draftsman. Because Pablo had became true: a nice house was theirs.
a special talent, one day his father told him:
The pictorial revolution was the response of
“these brushes and paintings are mine, but
art to the avalanche caused by the growth
from now on, they are yours.” Everybody in
of technology at that time.
the family accepted that those objects were
his. Later on, José Ruiz abandoned his Pablo Picasso signed his works only as
profession and devoted his time to teach “Picasso". The 1980 exhibition at the New
Pablo. In 1907, at the age of 26, Picasso York Museum of Modern Art is considered
initiated cubism with his friend Less the most impressive example of his work.
Demoiselle d’Avignon. One thousand of Picasso’s works were
exhibited throughout the entire three-floor
The Spanish painter created an
museum for a four-month period, at a cost
artistic period in which he was the supreme
of two million dollars. The exhibition
exponent of modernism. The surprise
received close to a million visitors, almost
aroused by this new way of conceiving
eight thousand people a day. In 1989, his
space was such that André Derain, a man
portrait was sold in a public auction in
who was his contemporary, thought that
47,800 dollar
Picasso was mad and could hang himself
"behind his great painting". Pablo and Texto modificado y adaptado de: “Vuelo”
d’Avignon thought: "the future is ours, the Magazine. A Publication of Mexicana de
success is ours, too", and Picasso thought: Aviación.
EJERCICIO V
A. Trabajando individualmente, escribe en la columna correspondiente los adjetivos y
pronombres posesivos que subrayaste en el texto anterior, sin repetirlos compara tus
respuestas con un compañero.
B.
POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESIVE PRONOUNS

C. Ordena las oraciones y escríbelas correctamente.

1. My/ These / brushes and paintings/ are


____________________________________________________________
2. success/ This / ours/ is
____________________________________________________________
3. your/ gifts/ are / Those
____________________________________________________________
4. theirs/ comfortable/ house/ was/ The
____________________________________________________________
5. His/ portrait/ sold/ was
____________________________________________________________

Unidad 13 Parts Of Speech:


Los pronombres relativos

Utilizamos los pronombres relativos para referirnos a un sustantivo (una persona o una


cosa) mencionado antes y al que queremos agregar más información o modificar. Los
pronombres relativos pueden referirse a algo o alguien en singular o plural. Algunos
pronombres relativos se pueden usar sólo con personas, otros sólo con cosas y otro
exclusivamente con lugares. A continuación, tienes una lista de los pronombres relativos.

Pronombre Persona Cosa Lugar

That 
X X
que

Which 
X
que / cual

Who 
 
X X
que / quién

Where X
Donde
EJEMPLOS:

1. - I know a person who / that can speak seven languages.


2. Yesterday I met John and Mary , who are my brother's friends.
3. Everybody was talking about the robbery which / that happened last week.
4. Someone stole my money belt , which contained my wallet and all my
documents.
5. San Cristobal is the city where I like to go on vacation.
Lee el texto siguiente y subraya los pronombres relativos que se
encuentren en el.

“MY MASK AGAINST YOUR SCALP”


All-in wrestling is a very exciting top-quality spectacle

Wrestling today is one of the professional sports that has caught the imagination of the
Mexican public. The majority of fans find it a theater redolent of great emotions and
quality in which the dynamic actions of their heroes not only satisfy their desire of
entertainment, but to a degree at which some of the tension of their daily lives can be let
off by supporting one side or another.

The most famous ring in Mexico where international wrestling is performed is the Arena
Mexico. However, wrestling in our country lacked a figure who really caught the fans’
imagination, and it was then that perhaps the most important wrestler of all times
appeared, “El Santo”, a young man with a silver mask, who little by little conquered
international wrestling and simultaneously blazed the trail into new markets for the
industry of the ring, into films, television and textiles, since then they have produced
unimaginable quantities of the most extraordinary masks, capes and other costumes
similar to those worn by star gladiators.

This has been, then, a brief run-down of the panorama of Mexican All-in wrestling, a
sport which, like any other science, discipline, activity or profession, accumulates
anecdotes and experiences with the passing of time, and which in one way or another
make it the “best All-in Wrestling in the world”.

Texto tomado de: México City Times February 1999

B: Analiza las siguientes oraciones, posteriormente llena los espacios en blanco con la
palabra adecuada (persona, animal, cosa o lugar) a la que se hace referencia.

-Santo is the most famous wrestler who fights in the Arena Mexico.

1. Who se está refiriendo a ______________ que es un(a) ____________. (persona,


animal, cosa o lugar).
- Mexico is the country where wrestling is a popular sport.

2. Where se está refiriendo a ___________ que es ______________.

- Wrestling is the spectacle that I like the most.

3. That se refiere a ________________ que es _____________.

B. Analiza las siguientes oraciones y, de acuerdo a los ejemplos anteriores,


completa los espacios en blanco con una de las opciones.

1. Wrestling today is one of the professional sports that have caught the imagination of
the Mexican public.

 En la oración anterior that se refiere a _______________ que es ___________.

a. profesional sports a. persona


b. lucha b. animal
c. público c. cosa
d. lugar

2. Wrestling in our country lacked a figure who really caught the fans’ imagination.

 En la oración anterior who se refiere a ______________ que es ______________.

a. lucha a. persona
b. país b. animal
c. figura c. cosa
d. lugar

3. The Arena Mexico is the most famous ring where wrestling is performed.
 En la oración anterior where se refiere a____________ que es ______________

a. ring a. persona
b. lucha b. animal
c. México c. cosa
d. lugar
4. Wrestling is a sport which accumulates anecdotes with the passing of time.

 En la oración anterior which se refiere a ______________ que es ____________.

a. lucha a. persona
b. anécdotas b. animal
c. deporte c. cosa
d. lugar

5. A wrestler is a person who fights against others.

 En la oración anterior who se refiere a ________________ que es ____________.

a. otros a. persona
b. peleas b. animal
c. luchador c. cosa
d. lugar

A. Estrategias para la mejor comprensión de vocabulario desconocido en un tetxto


1. Decide si la palabra es necesaria para entender el texto, sino, ignórala.
2. Revisa si la palabra es un cognado. Si lo es, no necesitas buscar su significado en un
diccionario, a no ser que sea cognado falso.
3. Verifica si puedes deducir el significado de acuerdo al contexto.
4. Si no puedes deducir el significado de la palabra, y esta es importante, consulta tu
diccionario.
5. Si existen diversas traducciones, piensa en el contexto del texto para decidir el
significado correcto.
6. Si es una palabra que deseas recordar, escribe la traducción en tu libreta
posteriormente.
B. Lee el siguiente texto y después realiza los ejercicios
1. Encuentra por lo menos 2 pronombres relativos en el texto y encierra en un círculo la
palabra a la que se refiere.
2. Encierra en un círculo cuatro palabras del texto que desconozcas.
Patently Ridiculous
If you are an inventor, a good patent lawyer is a necessity in order to ensure that
you receive credit, and possibly money, for your invention. There are many examples of
inventors who have not been recognized for their inventions because they haven't
protected themselves by applying for a patent, which is the legal registration of a product in
the name of the company or person who invented it. A particularly unfortunate inventor was
Nikola Tesla. He was Thomas Edison's assistant at the time that Edison was
experimenting with electric current. Most people think that Edison invented alternating
current, but actually, it was Tesla who realized that alternating current was more efficient
than direct current, which was favored by Edison.

Tesla went on to conduct experiments in radio wave transmission and he invented


an oscilator which produced a strong radio wave. In 1895, he was ready to transmit the first
radio signal, but his lab burned down and he was unable to. In 1896, Gugliemo Marconi
patented a wireless radio transmitter which contained a Tesla oscillator. The oscillator
made the radio signal strong enough to transmit across the. English Channel. Tesla never
got credit for his part in this important invention, but Marconi won the Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1909.

C. Encuentra las respuestas en el texto.

1. La definición de una patente:

2. Dos logros de Nikola Tesla:

3. Dos motivos por los que Tesla fue un inventor desafortunado:


Unidad 14: Voz Activa Y Pasiva
A. Reconociendo oraciones activas y pasivas
La lectura de textos con frecuencia incluye una mezcla de oraciones activas y pasivas. En
las oraciones activas, es el que realiza la acción indicada por el verbo.

En las oraciones pasivas, el sujeto es el que recibe la acción. Mira los siguientes ejemplos
y observa como se forman las oraciones pasivas.

Active Passive (be+ past participle)


The boys found a mammoth. A mammoth was found (by the boys).
The man's cousin had sold it. It had been sold (by the man's cousin).
Scientists will study it. It will be studied (by scientists).
B. Analisis. Lee las oraciones siguientes. Encierra en un círculo el
sujeto de cada oración. Despues marca cada una con una (A) de activa
o de (P) pasiva.
Ejemplo: (People) found 158 paintings in a cave in France.
1. These pictures were painted by early humans A. P.

2. The paintings show early man and mammoths. A. P.

3. Mammoth tusks were used to make tools. A. P.

4. These tools were used by early man to hunt. A. P.

C. Completion. ¿Son estas oraciones activas o pasivas? Elige la palabra o frase


correcta. Posteriormente verifica tus respuestas en la lectura.
1. Dogs (had eaten /had been eaten) part of the tail.
2. The body (took /was taken) by helicopter to a museum.
3. The mammoth (sent/ was sent) to the Netherlands.
4. Further studies (will explain /will be explained) how mammoths lived and died.
The Mammoth's Tale
A. Predicción. Mira las imágenes y pie de fotos de esta y la página siguiente. ¿Qué crees
que le sucedió al mamut después de que fue encontrado? Discute con un compañero.
Despues lee el texto para confirmar tus ideas.

Lyuba died when she fell into wet mud near a river. The ground froze. It kept Lyuba’s
body whole. In 2006, melting caused Lyuba’s body to wash free.

Lyuba is the best preserved mammoth mummy in the world


1 Imagine finding a body that had been lost for 40,000 years.........
The strange animal in the ice looked like it was sleeping. Ten-year - old Kostia Khudi and
his brother had never seen anything like it before. But they had heard stories of the
mammoth.
5 It was an imaginary animal that lived in the ice-filled blackness of the Siberian
underworld. Their father, a reindeer herder named Yuri Khudi, went to ask a friend for
advice. But when he returned, the body had vanished.
Yuri soon found the animal's body leaning against a store in a nearby town. 10 While he
was away, his cousin had sold it to the store owner. Dogs had eaten part of the tail and
ear, but it was still in "as close to perfect condition as you can imagine", says scientist
Daniel Fisher. The police came to help. The body was taken by helicopter to a museum.
The animal was a baby mammoth from the Ice Age. 15 It was female, so the scientists
named it after Yuri's wife.
From Siberia, the mammoth was sent to the Netherlands and Japan. Scientists there
studied it more closely. Detailed studies of her teeth and tusks showed she was just one
month old when she died. 20 Ongoing research has also shown us the sequence of
events that led to her death. Lyuba fell and died near a muddy river. The mud helped keep
her body frozen until she was found, 40, 000 years later. Scientists hope that further
studies will help explain how mammoths, like Luba lived. They also want to know why
mammoths became extinct. 25
Reading Comprehension. Elige la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta

1. El texto es principalmente sobre ____________


a. animals that are now extinct
b. an important discovery
c. what life was like for a mammoth named Lyuba

2. ¿Cual de los siguientes eventos sucedió primero?


a. Yuri's cousin sold the mammoth to a store owner.
b. Lyuba's body was taken to a museum
c. The police arrived to take Luba's body away.

3. ¿Cual es el propósito del segundo párrafo? (oración 9)?


a. to describe the condition of Lyuba when she was found
b. to describe the difficulties of studying a mammoth's body
c. to describe how Lyuba was found again and taken to a safe place

4. La palabra it en la (oracion 11) se refiere a ____________ del mamut.


a. ear
b. tail
c. body

5. ¿Que se puede deducir del texto?


a. Yuri's wife's name was Lyuba.
b. The mammoth died when the Ice Age ended.
c. Yuri's cousin didn't know what the mammoth was when he sold it.

6. ¿Cómo murió Lyuba?


a. Dogs killed her
b. Hunters killed her
c. She died when she fell.
Unidad 15. Sinònimos Y Antònimos

Los sinónimos son grupos de palabras que tienen el mismo significado. Conocer
diferentes palabras que tienen el mismo significado, es una manera de ampliar tu
vocabulario
A. Une las palabras del cuadro con las palabras siguientes.
usually take part increase self-confidence certainly block out
imagine pressure

1. visualize_____________________ 5. normally _________________


2. self-esteem__________________ 6. stress___________________
3. eliminate______________________ 7. augment__________________
4. of course______________________ 8. participate_________________
B. Practica.
Ahora lee el texto siguiente y subraya las palabras mostradas en el cuadro anterior.
Piensa en el contexto de cada palabra y verifica tus respuestas del ejercicio.
¿Cambiaste alguna respuesta?

SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY

Interviewer: You are a sports psychologist. What does that mean, exactly?
Dr. Morgan: I work with athletes, mostly professionals, who have lost their self-
confidence and have low-self-esteem. They’re usually athletes who take part in individual
sports like tennis or ice skating.
Interviewer: Don’t sports increase a person’s self confidence?
Dr. Morgan: Well, certanly they can, but sometimes if a person is not performing as well as
they can, their self-confidence is destroyed. The y begin to fear failure, and that becomes
a self-fulfilling,prophecy.
Interviewer: So, how do you help athletes with this problem?
Dr. Morgan: I use techniques of imagery and stimulation to control their levels of
confidence.
Interviewer: Can you explain?

Dr. Morgan: Yes, imagery allows you to prepare for things in practice that haven’t
happened to you but might. When they do happen, you have already learned what to do. I
also use imagery to teach athletes to imagine success rather than failure. If you think
you’re going to do something well, you usually do.
Interviewer: And that really works?
Dr. Morgan: Absolutely, I had a client who was a champion high diver. He had been
competing and winning for five years. He had an accident in a competition and lost his
confidence completely I’ve worked with him for six months, now, and he has learned to
block out the image of hitting the board and imagine himself in a perfect dive. He has
started to win again.
Interviewer: That’s amazing. And what about stimulation?
Dr. Morgan: I put my clients in training situations which are as close as possible to a real
competition. For example, I ask them to train in front of an audience and we have
simulated a competition with judges. That way, they get used to the pressure of competing.
Interviewer: Thank you Dr. Morgan. I ‘m sure our Sports Today readers wll find this very
interesting and helpful.

ANTÒNIMOS
Los Antonimos son grupos de palabras con significado opuesto. Ejemplo:
big/small
A. Enlista tantos grupos de antónimos como te sean posible.
Encuentra los antónimos para estas palabras en el texto anterior
1. team ________________________ 5. success________________________

2. partially______________________ 6. more or less_____________________

3. decrease_____________________ 7. high___________________________

4. lose________________________ 8. amateurs_____________________
B. Comprueba tu comprensión. Lee de nuevo el texto y responde las
siguientes preguntas.

1. ¿Cuáles son los mayores problemas que los pacientes del Dr. Morgan tienen?

______________________________________________________________________

2. ¿Cuáles son las dos técnicas que el Dr, Morgan usa?

______________________________________________________________________

3. ¿Que deben imaginar los atletas cuando compiten?

______________________________________________________________________

4. ¿Por qué la simulación es efectiva?

______________________________________________________________________
Unidad 16: Parts Of Speech: Preposiciones

RECONOCIENDO PREPOSICIONES
Existen diferentes tipos de preposiciones incluidas aquellas que indican hora, día
(at 5, on Monday. For a day) lugar (in India, at school) traslado (to the library,
into the wáter), y posesión (a friend of mine, the boy with black hair). A
continuación se muestran una serie de ejemplos de preposiciones en inglés.
above at behind below by during for from in inside
near of on to under with

A. Lee el siguiente texto, encuentra y subraya todas las preposiciones.


Dear Gloria

Greetings from the United States! I am in San Diego now. My apartment is very small and
expensive, but it’s nice. My roomate is friendly too! Her name is Anne and she is from the
United States.
My life here is very busy. I am at school everyday: My classes are in the afternoon and at
night. In the morning, I am usually at the library. There’s always a lot of homework!
On the weekends, I am busy too. San Diego is beautiful, and it’s very interesting. There is
a wonderful zoo here and there are many parks. San Diego is on the Pacific Ocean, and I
think there are thousands of boats in the harbor. I am in love with the ocean!
The weather in San Diego is usually very nice. In the morning, it’s sometimes foggy. Most
of the time, it’s sunny and dry. It’s time to study again I miss you alot! I’m homesick today
but I really am happy here.
Love Kate
B. Verifica tu comprensión.
1. ¿Cómo se llama la chica que está viviendo en los Estados Unidos?
______________________________________________________________________
2. ¿En dónde se encuentra ahora?
______________________________________________________________________
3. ¿Cómo es su habitación?

_____________________________________________________________________
4. Describe su rutina diaria en los Estados Unidos
_____________________________________________________________________.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
5. ¿De quién está ella enamorada?
______________________________________________________________________
6. ¿Cómo es el clima en San Diego?
______________________________________________________________________

A. Lee la información sobre la Basilica de Santa Maria del Fiore en


Florencia, Roma.

Among the world’s most amazing domes, the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence is
second in size only to St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican City. Today this dome is one of the
Florence’s greatest sights. But for over 100 years, the Basilica was unfinished because
builders of the dome couldn’t build the dome.
Responde las siguientes preguntas sobre el texto anterior.
1. ¿por qué es importante el domo de Santa Maria del Fiore?
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

2. ¿por qué no pudo ser terminado el domo?


______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Subraya todas las preposiciones que puedas encontrar en el siguiente texto.


Consejos para visitar el Gran Domo en Florencia.

 Any visitor to Florence should climb to the top of the cathedral. It’s an easy walk up
the stairs to the dome area.

 The dome is covered with lovely paintings. Look, closely at the walls graffiti that was
made by other tourists. Much of it is over a hundred years old. It gives you the idea
of the many people who came before you.

 From the top, you get a great 360-degree view of Florence. You can see many of
the famous places of the city from there.

 Inside of Florence’s cathedral is a 700 year-old clock that places the end of each
day-or the 24th hour- at sunset instead of midnight .
Unidad 17: Compound Nouns

A. Comprendiendo a los Sustantivos Compuestos


Un sustantivo compuesto es una palabra creada al unir dos palabras. Se puede formar con
un sustantivo + sustantivo ( e.g., homework ), un adjetivo +adjetivo ( e.g., white board), o
una preposicion + un sustantivo (e.g., afternoon).

Polar Pioneer
Antes de leer
A. Completion. Lee las definiciones. Despues completa la definición siguiente con la
forma correcta de las palabras en negritas .
On foot: By walking
Sleds: Objects used for traveling over snow
Team: A group of people working together
Member : One of the people that makes up a group
In 1909, Matthew Henson became the first man to reach the North Pole. He did this as a
1.__________________of a 2.- __________________, led by explorer Robert Peary. To
to the North Pole, the explorers traveled by ship, in 3. __________________pulled by
dogs, and 4.________________.
B. Quickly scan the passage on the following pages In total how many times did
Peary and Henson try to reach the North Pole? Read the passage to check your
answer.
Robert Peary and Matthew Henson both wanted to be great explorers. When Peary
needed someone to join him on his trip to the North Pole, he thought of Henson. They had
once worked 5together in Central America. At the time, it was unusual for an African
American to be a well-known explorer. Henson wanted to change that. So, he thought the
trip would be hard, he agreed to go.

First, they traveled by ship to Greenland. The members of Peary's team lived among the
Inuit 10people there. The Inuit called Henson " Maripaluk-Matthew, the Kind One". Henson
learned their language. The Inuit taught him how to live outdoors on the ice, find food, build
igloos, make snowshoes, and drive dogsleds through the snow and ice.
To the Top of the World

15 Between 1891 and 19066, the Peary -Henson made seven attempts to get to the North
Pole. Each time they learned hard lessons about the dangers there. Sleds broke. Dogs
died. Men got hurt they got close to the North Pole, but the always had to go back.

20 In 1909, they decided to make one more attempt. Peary and Henson found themselves
within 56 kilometers (35 miles) of the North Pole. Peary sent Henson ahead. Henson
made a trail through the snow for Peary to follow. Peary followed 45 minutes later. "I think I
am the first man to sit on top of the world, " Henson told Peary.
The team returned home as héroes. Both men's dreams had come true.
They were the first explorers to reach the North Pole. 25
Múltiple Choice. Escoge la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta
1. ¿cuál es la idea principal del segundo párrafo? (de la oracion 8)?
a. The Inuit have a difficult life in Greenland.
b. Henson learned how to speak the Inuit language.
c. Henson learned many things from the Inuit.
2. ¿cuál de las siguientes oraciones sobre Matthew Henson es verdadera?
a. He was from Central America.
b. The Inuit called him "The Kind One ".
c. He was the leader of the team on his trip to the North Pole.
3. La palabra their en la oración 10 puede ser reemplazada por__________.
a. The individual Inuit's
b. The teams
c. Peary and Henson's
4. La frase hard lessons (oración 16) se refiere a ____________.
a. Things that are hard to understand
b. Ways they learned to break up hard ice
c. Things they learned because bad things happened
5. La oración “Peary le pidió a Hensón que se fuese antes”, (oración 21) es similar
en significado a __________.
a. Peary sent Henson a message.
b. Peary asked Henson to go first.
c. Peary and Henson traveled together.
6. Which of these staments would Henson likely agree with?
a. He and Peary were a good team.
b. Bringing dogs to the North Pole was a bad idea.
c. The explorers could have reached the North Pole without the help of the Innuit.

A. Noticing. Lee de nuevo el segundo párrafo del texto. Encuentra y escribe cuatro
sustantivos compuestos en el párrafo. Fijate en lo pequeñas que son las palabras usadas
para crear cada palabra.
1._________________________ 3.____________________________

2.________________________ 4. ____________________________

B. Completion. Encierra en un círculo las palabras que consideres crean sustantivos


compuestos. Posteriormente escribe los sustantivos compuestos.
1. class mate room student

2. black life board bird

3. out side one doors

4. some body day color

5. day food time light

6. rain wet coat water

7. sun shine set yellow

8. up hill class grade


Unidad 18. Pronombres De Referencia

Pronombres de Referencia
Los Pronombres son palabras como por ejemplo he, she, it, they, y them, y usualmente se
refiere a un sustantivo previo en un texto, es importante saber a que se refiere cada
pronombre.

Sarah bought chilies. She put them in my favorite curry. It was too hot to eat!

Scan. En Asam, India, a una mujer llamada Anandita Dutta Tamuly le gusta comer chiles
muy picosos. Scan rápidamente el siguiente texto. ¿Por comer cual chile se volvió famosa
Anandita?

The Hottest Chilies


You may have experienced the feeling -your mouth feels like it's on fire, and the heat
causes your eyes to water. You've just eaten one of nature's hottest foods-the Chili pepper!
Chili peppers, also called chilies, are found in dishes around the world. They are in dishes
like indian curries, Thai tom yum soup, and Mexican enchiladas. Chilies come from the
capsicum plant. They are hot because they contain something called capsaicin.
Capsaicin is very good for your health. It helps you breathe better, and it may even help
keep you fit: Capsaicin makes you feel less hungry. It also makes your body burn more
calories.
We can measure the heat of chilies in units called (SHU). The world's hottest chili is the
Carolina Reaper. It sometimes measures up to 2 million SHU!
Eating a hot chili can be painful, but some people really like to eat them. Recently,
Anandita Dutta Tamuly, a woman from Assam, India, became famous for eating chilies.
She ate 51 hot peppers in just two minutes! The peppers she ate Naga Jolokia ("Ghost
Peppers "). They grow in Assam and are the third hottest chilies in the world.
"I found eating chilies was a great way to stay healthy," says Tamuly. She began eating
chilies when she was a child. She eats chilies when she is sicario, too. "Every time I have a
cold or flu, I just munch on some chilies and I feel better. Todo be honest, I barely notice
them now".

Opción Múltiple. Elige la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta


1. ¿De que trata principalmente el texto?
a) how to eat very hot chili peppers
b) interesting facts about hot chili peppers
c) ideas for cooking using chili peppers

2. ¿Cuál es el propósito del tercer párrafo? (de la oración 10)?


a) to explain why eating chilies is painful
b) to show the effect of chilies on the mind
c) to inform you about how chilies are good for you

3. ¿ Por qué capsaicin es bueno para tu salud?


a) It helps you breathe better.
b) It makes you feel happier.
c) It makes you feel hungrier.

4. ¿Cuantas SHUs existen en el chile más picoso del mundo?


a) up to 1,000,000
b) up to 2, 000,000
c) up to 3,000,000

5. ¿Cuál de las siguientes oraciones sobre Anandita Duta Tamuly es verdadera?


a) She is making a movie about Naga Jolokia chilies.

b) She uses Naga Jolokia chilies to help sick temple.

c) She started eating Naga Jolokia chilies as a child.

6. En la oración 27, la frase casi no lo siento ahora, puede ser reemplazada con
______.
a) I usually don't eat hot chilies anymore
b) I feel the heat of the chilies even more now
c) I almost don't feel the heat of the chilies now

B. Referencia. Revisa de nuevo el texto. Encuentra las siguientes oraciones en el, y


escribe la palabra que cada pronombre en negritas hace referencia.

1. It helps you breathe better. (oraciones 10-11) it. = ____________

2. She began eating chilies when she was a child. (oración 24) she = _____________

4. To be honest, I barely notice them now.(oración 27) them =_____________

Unidad 19: Adjetivos Demostrativos

Adjetivos Demostrativos – THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE

Los adjetivos demostrativos son aquellos que se utilizan para determinar la ubicación de


las cosas y son los siguientes:

A diferencia del idioma español, en el que se determina la proximidad con


ESTO, ESO y AQUELLO, en el idioma inglés sólo se utilizan dos grados de
proximidad: THIS, para señalar lo que se encuentra más cerca del sujeto, y THAT para lo
que está más alejado.

Estos adjetivos concuerdan en número, ya sea en singular o en plural, con el sustantivo al


que acompañan, mientras que en género no existen diferencias entre masculino y
femenino:

This flower is beautiful. Esta flor es hermosa.


This car is dirty. Este automóvil está sucio.

That house is expensive. Aquella casa es costosa.


That dog is bad. Aquel perro es malo.

These apples are cheap. Estas manzanas son baratas.


These pencils are in the box. Estos lápices están en la caja.

Those stars are in the sky. Aquellas estrellas están en el cielo.


Those boys are my friends. Aquellos niños son mis amigos.

El adjetivo demostrativo THIS también puede utilizarse para presentar a alguien:

John, this is Mike. (John, Este es Mike).

También se utiliza THIS para comenzar un relato de manera coloquial:

This is the story… (Esta es la historia…)

THAT sirve para indicar algo que ha ocurrido o algo que alguien ha dicho.

That was an incredible story. (Ha sido una historia increíble).

A: Ahora te proponemos completar las siguientes oraciones con el adjetivo


demostrativo correspondiente:

1. Esta casa es demasiado grande. ………. house is too big.


2. Estos son mis alumnos. ………. are my pupils.
3. Esta ventana es pequeña. ………. window is small.
4. Este es mi libro. ………. is my book.
5. Estas flores son hermosas. ………. flowers are beautiful.
6. Estos zapatos son negros. ………. shoes are black.
7. Este perro es malo. ………. dog is bad.
8. Estos niños juegan en la calle. ……… children play in the street.
9. Estas son mis fotos. ………. are my pictures.
10. Esta mesa es mía. ………. table is mine.

Lee el texto y encuentra los adjetivos demostrativos en la historia.


TERROR IN LONDON: THE DUNGEON MUSEUM
Robert Kent

Over the centuries


the people of London
have survived plague,
fire, war and disaster.

And, on a smaller scale, they have also lived through times when cruelty was an
everyday fact of life.
In Southwark, one of the very oldest parts of London, an unusual museum
reminds Londoners of these much harder times. The LONDON DUNGEON has
exhibits which look at the way in which people were punished, tortured and
executed as a matter of course in the past. But, the most chilling exhibit of all
relates to Jack the Ripper, the name given to the man who committed some of
the most dreadful murders London has ever known. These took place between
August 30th and November 9th in 1888. The murderer seemed to appear out of
the thick fogs which shrouded the city at this time and then disappear without a
trace.

JACK THE RIPPER


The first known victim of Jack the Ripper was Mary 'Polly' Nicholls. Police
Constable John Neil found her body in the streets in the early hours of the
morning on Thursday 30th August. He was shocked to find her throat cut and
her body badly hacked by a knife. It looked like the work of a surgeon gone mad.
But Mary Nicholls was lucky compared to the Ripper's other victims. The Ripper
had cut their throats and opened their bodies to take out many internal organs.
The Ripper mutilated his last victim so badly it was almost impossible to
recognize her. London went mad with fear and loathing. To what purpose could
the murderer possibly put the body parts he had taken from his victims?

THE SUSPECTS
The police came under enormous pressure to solve these crimes. But no-one
was ever brought to trial. Many people still speculate to this day about the
Ripper's real identity. Among the suspects are: George Chapman, a poisoner
who was hanged in 1903; John Pizer, a shoemaker; Aaron Kosminski, a madman
who hated women; the Queen's doctor, Sir William Gull; and, even, such
members of the royal family as Prince Albert or the Duke of Clarence. Whatever
the truth about the identity of Jack the Ripper, staff at the London Dungeon can
tell you that his evil influence lives on to this day.

SEPTEMBER 30 AT THE DUNGEON


Every year on 30th September, the museum experiences major technical
problems with the installation dedicated to Jack the Ripper. The lighting goes out
on the scenes of the two women murdered on that day. The atmosphere
crackles with a strange tension. At other times employees have experienced
bizarre happenings when alone. Candles suddenly light in the darkness. Sound
effects come on in the middle of the night. Shadowy beings flit across the visual
displays. Voices murmur from the Ripper exhibit. Whatever the cause of these
strange happenings, it is certainly true that Jack the Ripper has left a mark on the
minds of Londoners that no amount of time can remove.
Source: New English Digest

GLOSSARY
plague: epidemic disease (plagaa) loathing:  hate (aborrecimiento)
cruelty:  deliberate infliction of pain and suffering trial: legal proceedings (juicio)
(la crueldad) poisoner: someone who kills with
punished: penalized (castigado/a) poison (asesino envenenador)
chilling: scary (escalofriantes) lives on: continues to live (perdura,
dreadful: atrocious (atroces) continúa vigente)
shrouded: wrapped (envolvieron, rodearon) crackles: makes crunching noises
throat: pharynx (garganta) (cruje)flit: move along rapidly
hacked: cut (destrozado) (pasan, se mueven)

Verifica tu comprensión. Responde las preguntas sobre el texto.


1.- ¿Cuál es el personaje principal de la historia?
____________________________________________________________
2.- ¿En dónde se desarrolla la historia?
____________________________________________________________
3.- ¿Por qué estaban asustadas las personas?
___________________________________________________________
4.- ¿Cuál era la opinión de los londinenses sobre esta historia en esa época?

5.- ¿Qué sucede cada año el 30 de septiembre?


______________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________

Unidad 20: Conectores De Ejemplo Y


Causa Efecto
Apoyando Ideas con Ejemplos
Los escritores con frecuencia utilizan ejemplos para apoyar sus ideas o para
ayudar a explicar conceptos difíciles. Algunas palabras que se incluyen para
mostrar ejemplos en un texto son: for instance, for example, like, such as, in
particular and as an illustration.

Antes de leer.
A. Discusion. ¿Qué pueden hacer los robots que los humanos no pueden.
Utiliza las palabras y frases de la lista, y agrega tus propias ideas.
climb stairs feel emotions flight fires
jump play soccer run
take care of people drive cars walk on water
walk up walls work in space write poems

Robot Helpers for the home and mini-soccer players are just some examples of the
robots being built today.

D: Observa rápidamente la lectura. ¿Cuáles de las actividades anteriores se


mencionan en la lectura? ¿Crees que los robots puedan realizarlas? Lee el texto
para confirmar tus ideas.

TECHNOLOGY
The Robots ARE COMING!
1 The year is 2045. A goal is scored at the soccer World Cup. Not by a human player, but
by a robot. A robot? Is that possible? Many scientists believe it is. In fact, there are already
robots that can play soccer. Of course, today's robots don't just play sports. 5 Today's
scientists are working on robots with various skills. For example, it is possible that robots
will soon help take care of children or the elderly, or do dangerous jobs such as figthing
fires.

When people started making robots, they were made to do just simple things, mainly in
factories. Since then, however, 10 robots have changed a lot. Early robots were operated
by human. Today's robots function on their own. Some can only move around a little, like
robot vacuum cleaners, but others, such as Honda's ASIMO, can do much more. He can
run, climb stairs, dance, and yes, even play soccer.

Then there are robots designed to be like humans. 15 These robots have faces and can
show emotions. Such robots can learn new things, and show us how they "feel". Actroid-
DER- a social robot-look so human, she sometimes makes people feel uncomfortable.
Scientists aren't just building humanlike robots. 20 They are making robots that look and
act like animals.

At NASA, scientists are making a robot snake. They think it's a good alternative to
vehicles with wheels. These snake-bots can enter holes and move over rough ground.
They might one day help scientists look for signs of life on Mars. 25 Other animal robots
include the frog-bot, which can jump over objects, and the sticky -bot, which can walk up
walls. There's even a robot called Water Runner that can walk on water.

But can a robot soccer team ever operate all on their own, or play as well as a human
team? Many robot scientists definitely think so. 30 Anything is possible. One day, they
may even be world champions!

Reading Comprehension
Opción Multiple. Elige la mejor respuesta para cada pregunta
1. El texto es principalmente sobre ____________.
a. things robots can do
b. why people need robots
c. how to make your own robot
2. ¿cual es el propósito del segundo párrafo? (de la oración 8)?
a. to describe how the earlier robots were used in factories
b. to explain how today's robots are different from early robots
c. to explain why early robots could not do things by themselves
3. ¿que robot es capaz de mostrar sus sentimientos?
a. ASIMO
b. Actroid-DER
c. Water Runner
4. La palabra they (en la oración 23) se refiere a______________
a. vehicles
b. wheels
c. snake-bots
5. ¿Cuál de los siguientes robots seria capaz de hacer a un lado una roca grande
que interfiriera en su camino?
a. A frog-bot
b. Actroid -DER
c. Water Runner
6. ¿con cual afirmación probablemente el autor estaría de acuerdo?
a. A frog-bot can do more things than a sticky-bot.
b. Robots should not have to do difficult jobs for humans.
c. There could be robot soccer players that think for themselves in the World Cup by 2045?

A. Completion. Lee de nuevo los párrafos 1 y 2 de la lectura anterior. Encuentra y


escribe ejemplos de la siguiente información (presta atención a las palabras que
indican en donde están los ejemplos)
1. a sport that robots can play ___________________________
2. a skill other than a sport ___________________________
3. a dangerous job ____________________________
4. a type of robot that moves around a little _____________________________
5. a robot that does more than move around _____________________________
B. Completion. Elige ejemplos del cuadro para completar la información
siguiente.

a. he could be seen at the Henry Ford Museum


b. "I am Elektro" and "My brain is bigger than yours".
c. sitting, barking, and begging for food
d. he could walk, talk, and move his arms and legs
One of the first humanlike robots was Elektro. Built between 1937 and 1939, he
could do many actions. For example, 1.___________________. He was first seen at the
New York World's Fair in 1939, with Sparko, a robot dog that could do tricks, such as 2.
______________________. In 1992, a dance band recorded a song that used some things
Elektro once said, like, 3.__________________.
Elektro's usual home is at the Mansfield Memorial Museum in Ohio, U.S.A, but he often
travels to other museums. For instance, in 2013, 4._________________.

CONECTORES DE CAUSA EFECTO


En Inglés, se utilizan diferentes palabras para indicar causa y efecto. Algunas de
estas palabras son: for, because, as, since, therefore, as a result, consequently, due
to, because of, as a result of etc.

He must be asleep because there is no light in his room.


I decided to call it a day – because I was feeling tired.
I helped him because I liked him.
Since he had not paid the rent, he was told to vacate the room.
As it is raining again, we will have to stay at home.
It was raining, so we stayed at home.

Notes: So shows the effect. As, since and because show the cause. Lee el texto,
localiza los conectores de causa efecto y subráyalos.

DIET DAYS
My friend Harriet is on a sepacial diet. She’s too thin, so wants to gain weight. But she has
a problem. She does’nt really enjoy food. Although it’s difficult for her, she eats a big
breakfast every day.eggs, ham, toast, coffe with sugar, and orange juice. For lunch and
dinner, she eats a lot of meat, dairy products, bread and sweets. She doesn’t excercise
much because she’s affraid to lose weight. But nothing works. She can’t gain weight.

I have the opposite problem. I’m overweight, so I want to lose weight. But I have another
problem. I love food. When I was sixteen years old, I weighed too much. I went to a special
summer camp for overweight young people. I lost ten pounds. Then, back at school. I
gained fifteen pounds. In college, I went to the Slender Now Diet Center. I los twnty
pounds. Then I gained twenty- four. Nothing works. Maybe I’ll never be slender.

I put a picture on my kitchen door. It’s a picture of a very thin, beautiful woman. I want to
look like that. When I see the picture, I should remember my diet and no opne the
refrigerator. Well, that’s the idea. But it doesn’t work. I still open the refrigerator and eat and
eat and eat. Then, of course, I feel terrible. My friend Harriet has a picture on her
refrigerator door. This woman isn’t overweight, but she’s not skinny. Harriet wants to look
like that. But this doesn’t work either. So I have a new plan. I’ll give Harriet my picture, and
she´ll give me hers. We won’t worry about diets. Good idea?

Verifica tu comprensión

¿Cuáles oraciones se refieren al escritor? ¿Cuáles se refieren a su amiga Harriet?


Escribe el nombre sobre las lineas.
Writer Harriet

1. She loves food ________________________________________

2. She doesn’t enjoy food ____________________________________

3. She eats a lot of food _____________________________________

4. She went to a special summer camp _________________________

5. She lost weight and then gained it again _______________________

6. She doesn’t exercise but much because. She’s afraid to lose weight. ___________

7. She has a picture of a thin woman on her door._______________________


BIBLIOGRAFIA

1. Foundations reading explorer. becky tarver chase, david bohlke. editorial, national
geographic 2015

2. Reading styles, student´s book. mickey rogers angela llanas. editorial mc millan. 2007.

3. Interactions access, a reading writing book. pamela hartman, james mentel. editorial
mc. graw hill. 1993.

4. Interactions access, a communicative grammar. patricia e. werner, john p. nelson,


marilynn spaventa. editorial mc. graw hill. 1993.

5. World english, workbook. kristin, l. johannsen . editorial, national geographic. 2010.

6. http://www.aacc.edu/tutoring/file/skimming.pdf

7. http://projectsharetexas.org/resource/cognates-english-1-reading

8. http://busyteacher.org/12744-all-about-me.html

9. https://shar.es/1c8VH6

10..http://www.curso-ingles.com/aprender/cursos/nivel-intermedio/relative-and-indefinite-
pronouns/relative-pronouns
11.http://menuaingles.blogspot.mx/2010/08/diferencias-entre-adjetivos-posesivos-
y_16.html
12. http://www.ompersonal.com.ar/