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Optical Fibres on Overhead Lines

EEPS 05
TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
PLANT

Dr Simon Rowland
1.1
• OPGW, Optical ground wire
• Wrap – on phase or ground wire
• Lash – on phase or ground wire
}
• MASS, Metallic self supporting
• ADSS, All dielectric self supporting
}
• OPPC, Optical Phase conductor

There are fewer options if bundled


conductors are present

Products
1.2
Fibre and cable system protection
– Moisture
– Vibration (Aeolian)
– External Mechanical Forces
• Installation
• Service
• Gunshot
– Strain
• Wind and ice loading
– Extreme Temperature Exposure
• Changes in ambient
• Short circuit conditions
• Lightning
– Electrical
1.3
Mechanical Protection of Fibres

• Macrobending Scale of mm

• Microbending Scale of μm

These are key to the fibres good optical performance


and control the cable design

1.4
Loose tube stranding

SZ stranding

Z S
Reversal point

Helical stranding

1.5
Tubing/Buffering Strain window
Fibre
Strain +

Cable Strain
Window of 1% for
Contraction Fibre Strain=0% Elongation
- -0.5% +0.5% +
Cable
Strain

-
Fibres Fibres on Fibres touch
touch neutral axis inside wall
outer wall of tubes of tubes
⇒ microbending ⇒ microbending
1.6
Tubing/Buffering
What happens to attenuation?
Added
loss

Contraction Elongation
- -0.5% +0.5% +
Cable
Strain

1.7
OPGW

Optical ground wire

1.8
OPGW (Optical Ground Wire)
• OPGW replaces ground wire
• Strength and electrical conductivity provided by metallic
strands:
– galvanised steel
– Al-coated steel
– Al alloy or Al
• OPGW designed to have similar mechanical and thermal
expansion properties to cable it replaces
• Strands are greased to prevent corrosion: 2 or 3 layers often
used
• At the rated fault current, optical cable temperature does not
rise high enough to damage the optical core
• Wire size chosen to resist lightning damage

1.9
Fibral OPGW Design

Steel, Al, ACS wires


Aluminium C-section
Inner sheath
MDPE CSM

1.10
OPGW: Fibre in Steel Tube
• Fibres placed in laser-welded steel tube
• Steel tubes never in external strand

Al or Al-Clad Steel wires


Galvanised Steel wires
Fibre in Steel Tube
elements

1.11
OPPC

Optical phase conductor

1.12
Optical Phase Conductor (OPPC)

• Same Cable Technology as OPGW


• Replaces one of the Phase Conductors
• Special Fittings required to bring cable
from Phase to Ground
• Systems installed up to 150kV to date
• Higher Voltages possible

1.13
33kV OPPC system

1.14
ADSS

All dielectric self supporting cable

1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
ADSS Cable Design
• In all cases aramid yarns provide the strength
• Often the outer jacket is of a special tracking resistant material
• Cable is non-metallic, may be installed on live system, reducing
installation cost significantly
• Also used as temporary repair

Loose Buffer Inner


Strength
Optical Tube Sheath
Member
Fibre

Polyest Tape
er filler wrap Stength Outer
Member Sheath
1.19
1.20
ADSS LIMITATIONS
• Cable sits in Potential Field (between phases)
• Induced Current on Cable Sheath
• ‘DRY BAND ARCING’ threat to cable integrity
• In severe cases damages cable strength
member

1.21
Fields on ADSS
Phase Conductor

Clamp Optical Cable

1.22
Currents on ADSS

Current

Volts

zone 1 - 50m zone 1 - 50m

1.23
DRY BAND ARCING

Moisture/Pollution ARC

CABLE

DRY BAND
Support
at Tower (Earth)

1.24
Wrap and lash

1.25
Wrap and lash cable design
• Up to 48f
• Installed if earthwire replacement unlikely for
several years
• Installation rate: up to 20 km/week
• Live line application possible
• Design to cope with short-circuit currents;
lightning; bird-peck & shotgun
• Cannot withstand severe mechanical attack
such as large birds and heavy shot

1.26
Wrap cable Lash Cable

Standard
Standard design
design ::

Outer
Outer diameter
diameter 5.9
5.9 // 6.5
6.5 mm
mm
Cable
Cable weight
weight 28
28 // 34
34 kg/km
kg/km
Fiber
Fiber count
count up
up to
to 48
48

1.27
Lash Installation Technology
• Lightweight installation machines
• Easy transportation and transfer at the towers
• Extremely fast installation with helicopter support

Live-line installation

Radio controlled lashing machine Helicopter support


Manual lashing machine

1.28
1.29
Accessories : Tower Bypass
• The temporarily secured cable is routed
round the tower using a curved support and is
then secured permanently
Angled
support tube
Tower bypass on C-frame
with curved support + cable

Cable wrapped
Cable
around guide rod
Ground wire
1.30
1.31
Testing
• Tensile
• Vibration
• Sheave
• Lightning
• Short circuit
• Corrosion

1.32
Conclusion - The Choice
New Line Existing Line
or and
Replacement of Conductors No Need for Replacement
on Existing Line of Conductors

No Groundwire No Groundwire
Groundwire Groundwire

OPGW
OPGW ADSS
ADSS or
or MASS
MASS
OPPC
Lash or wrap Lash
Lash or
or wrap
wrap
on
Phase conductor
1.33