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US010763: 1034 ‘7TB2 2) United States Patent (10 Patent No: US 10,763,477 B2 Hermann 4s) Date of Patent: *Sep. 1, 2020 Hoa COMMUNIC TION BETH Sear (nia0n) Bool 86 OID Beal BATTERY PACKS S927 (01902) (Contant 2) Inventor: Weston Arthur Hermann, Palo Ait, CPC... HOIM 16/006; HOIM 16!00; HOLM 10/633, (72) Inver: evan Artur Hermann, Pao A Se aplnton ie compe sec sy (71) Applicant: Testa Motors, Inc, Palo Alto, CA (US (73) Assignee: ‘Tesla, Ine, Palo Alto, CA (US) 66) References Cited (4) Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term ofthis eee eee patent is extended or adjusted under 35 4448858 4 S984 Graft a USC. 15405) by 201 days, SHONDAD A 41999 Droate ea Tis patent is subject to a terminal dis- (Coninved) claim, (OTHER PUBLICATIONS (21) Appl No. 151406823 Boyd, Steven J, Aug. 28, 2006, Hybvid Electric Vehicle Cmtol (@) Filed) yan. 16,2017 Stacgy Tse on Power Lose Calculations, Maser of Seiense “ Thesis Vigna Polyochnic Insite and State Univer. 67 pp. 6s) Prior Publication Data (Continved) S 201710125760. AL May 4, 2017 Primary Examiner —Ula € Ruddock Assistant Examiner — Frank A Chernow (74) Attorney, Agent oF Firm — Knobbe, Martens, Olson (63) Continuation of application No. 13/027,018, filed on —_& Bean LLP. Peb. 14, 2011, now Pat, No, 9.548,616. (Continued) 6 ABSTRACT A system and method for mitigating the effects ofa thermal fevent within a non-metalair batery pack is provided in Related Us ton Data 1. Cl painetene (2006.01) Which the hot gas and material generated during the event is noi ras aoiso1) Gretel in the noua aloof mea toy poke (Continued) The metal-air cells provide a large thermal mass for absorb- us. ing atleast portion ofthe thermal energy generated caring cre HOLM 2/1282 (2013.01); BOUL 1/003 dye event before itis released to the ambient environment (2013.01); Bow 1792 2013.01}: BAOL 37003 As a rest the risks to vehicle passengers, bystander, frst (2013.01); Bool 370061 (2013.01); BOOL responders and propesty are limited S081 (2019.02); BOOL. 53714 2019.02}, BOL 5465 (2019.02) BOOL S12 2019.02) BOO 25 Claims, 7 Drawing 100 (Gon 22-=--- ES - ) 1 101 Metal-Air le 1 Battory i \ a 105 i ! 407 \ i —[Controtier }4 Drive Train 1 1 ' Ne Ai ! jon-Metal-Air ro a Pack I i vom) a US 10,763,477 B2 Page 2 (60) Provisional application No. 61/372.351, fi on) (2) Related U.S. Application Data 10, 2010, Int. Ch, ‘HOLM 212 (2006.01) ‘HOIM 100533 (201401), ‘HOM 106613 (201401) B60L 1/00 (2005.01), B6OL 102 (2006.01) B60 300 (201901) ‘HuIM 1044 (2006.01) ‘BoM. 50ST (2019.01) BOO $821 (2019.01) ‘BOO 3827 (2019.01) BOO $3765 (2019.01), B6OL 38726 (201901), B6OL 58720 (201901), ‘BOL S812 (01901) BOO. S314 (201901), BOO. S816 (2019.01) Hos 700 (2006.01), ‘HOIM 210 (2006.01), HOIM 100828 (201001) HOIM 10730 (2006.01) HOM 10/32 (2006.01) HOM 10/34 (2006.01) ‘HOIM 108 (2006.01) ‘HUI 1208 (2006.01) HOIM 106567 (2014.01) HOIM 106561 (2014.01) HOLS 714 (2005.01) HOIM 12/06 (2006.01) Bool, 50164 (201901), B60 $824 (201901) us. Cl CPC. on 21077 (2013.01); HOM 2/1233 (2013.01): HOLM 10/0525 (2013.01); HOLM 1030 (2013.01); HOTM 10/32 (3013.01): HOIM 10/345 (201301); HOLM 10/463 (2013.01): HOIM 107486 2013.01); HIM A/613 (2015.04), HOLM 10/633 (201504): HOIM 12/08 (201301); HOIM 16/00 (2013.01), HOLM 167006 (2013.01); 1027 770029 (2013.01); BOO 3/0046 (2013.01): BOO $064 (2019.02); BOOL 38/24 (2019.02): Boot. 2210/30 (2013.01); Bool 2240/12 (2013.01); Bool. 224014 201301): BoOL 2240136 (2013.01); BOL 22404421 (2013.01): Bool 2240545 (2013.01): BOOL 240/547 (2013.01); BOOL 22401662 (2013.01), BOOL. 2250/12 (2013.01); HOIM 10/6561 (201504); HOLM 10/6567 (201504, HOLM 12/06 (2013.01); 01M 2200/70 (2013.01); HOLM 220020 2013.01); HOIM 2220/20 (2013.01), ‘025 7/14 (2013.01); YORE 60/12 (2013.01); YOR 10/682 (201301); ¥O2T 1077005 (2013.01); Y02F Ja7011 (2013.01); Yo2T 107044 (201301); ¥O2T 107061 (2013.01): YO2T 1017066 (2013.01), YO2T 107072 (2013.01): YO2T 10/7241 013.01); YO2T 107258 (2013.01); YO2T 107291 (2013.01): YORE 90/121 (2013.01); YoRT 901127 (2013.01); YO2T 90/128 (2013.01); YoRT 90/14 (2013.01); Y027 90/16 (2013.01), YO2T 90763 (2013.01): ¥O2T 96/169'(2013.01); Yous 30714 (201301), 66) References Cited US. PATENT DOCUMENTS. S902467 A $1999 Wang et Soosaa A $1999 Ui GAGSISL A 122000, Gartstin ta ‘1681585 A 122000 Negish S878 B22 2004 Deguchi O7BSD BY 82001 Liv wal ‘6798027 Bi 92001 Yamada {698861 BY 10.2008 Yoshizawa eal. 7198123 8243007 maa ta 73a0"707 2 YOO Domglly ea 7436402 B2 102008 Oxshinsky eta 74081 m2 12000 7332960 2 $3009 Kumar 12200) Phethand ea 12010 ‘skim 112010 Elder eta 7897202 B2 122010 Lukie etal 7933608 82 42011 Yamaguchi 7oao2s BL S201 Henman S406 BE 12012 Mula eta SISOS12 B2 $2012 ely eral S2012 Kelty eal 72012: Sakai eta 102012 Hermann 122012 Ridder tal. 142013 Hennacn ea 126 82 $2014 Hermann Saio.9o7 B2 $2013 Henmann Sas0974 Bo $013. Stewart ee a R472 BP 62013 Stat eal 854327 B2 92013 Kelty ea 597414 2103013 Hennann al. SSc603 B 102013 Davisw a 12013 Hermann 620,30 8212014 Hermann eta. 800.17 82 G2014 Stewart ea SSONATI B2 82014 Start ea: 9300631 B2 | 122018 Hermann etal o348.i6 2017 Homann HOLM 161006 9'380.832 BY 12017 Hermann oa 20030108726 AL 62003 Yoshi anns0s208) AL 32005 Maslov eta aonaooniase Al 22006 Zhu 20070212596 AL* 9 2007 Nebvigie HoIM 1042 ‘22961 20080027639 AL 1/2008 “Tyo SUWORDONAL AL* 92008 Yoncrnochi .... HDIM 21105 298 20080245587 AL 102008. Sastry eta SonULO IRL AL 62009 Sabet 20090287366 AL 112008 Davie ata ‘90522803 Al 122009 Souk al BDLRL42 AL “62010 Pease O174484 AL 72010. Siasubramaniam etal 073525 AL 32012 Owens (OTHER PUBLICATIONS ‘TheFreeDictonay, defniton of “enclosure” and “enloae" down loaded Des. 31,2013, 5 pp. * cited by examiner U.S. Patent Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 1 of 7 US 10,763,477 B2 401 | Metarair \ | Battery Pack (105 107 Contralier fy Drive Train 193 | ether f Non-Metal-Air ——| Ambient Batery {| <=) ee = Environment ey) Not U.S. Patent Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 2 of 7 US 10,763,477 B2 301 203 205. ) ( en Non-Metal Air EES] ecient Ambient FIG. 3 ed] mT = Environment = 303 sy) 4101 Na oo4 301 ps 205, \ =a Oar Ambient FIG. 4 |" eatery SSS PO catonmen Ss Sst 200 \ 1037 Noto rot oN a Non-Metal-Air SS FIG. 5 Bator, Ambient Environment 103 ] Sa 101 S201 U.S. Patent 700 Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 3 of 7 608 US 10,763,477 B2 U.S. Patent Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 4 of 7 US 10,763,477 B2 90! 401 == 603 901 a 805 902° — Ye FIG.9 907” 806 c_— t~-903, 4+ @50000000 (| OOCOOOCCO | a17 103 | QOOOOOO0OOO | QQOOO0C0O0. U.S. Patent Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 5 of 7 US 10,763,477 B2 FIG. 10 1000 Controller ~ 4001 FIG. 11 708 | 706 Controlter 1001 U.S. Patent 605 FIG. 12 FIG. 13 Sheet 6 of 7 Sep. 1, 2020 US 10,763,477 B2 814, 104 L == 603 | 813 F&F == i 1 896 = SS SS —| =< — \ = | ss 804 803 got Controller 1005 Toot 603 805 x (1 806 o ) = 902 SS ( — { SS 101 SS 5 = 905 Eee 904 A > OOCOO0O Controller O! O 1001 103 | OOOOOOO00O le} 605 U.S. Patent Sep. 1, 2020 Sheet 7 of 7 US 10,763,477 B2 Controller DOOOOO0O. 188 | C99000000 rT] 00 1400 FIG. 14 US 10,763,477 B2 1 HAZARD MITIGATION THROUGH GAS FLOW COMMUNICATION BETWEEN BATTERY PACKS CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION The present US. Uility patent application claims priority pursuant to 35 US.C. § 120 asa continuation of U.S. Utility pplication Ser. No. 139027,018 ented "HAZARD MITI- GATION THROUGH GAS FLOW COMMUNICATION, BETWEEN BATTERY PACKS" filed Feb. 14, 201, issu- ing as US. Pat. No. 9,548,616 on Jan. 17, 3017, which claims priority pursuant to 35 USC. § 119(@) to US, Provisional Application No, 61/372.351, entilled “HAZ- ARD MITIGATION THROUGH GAS FLOW COMMU- NICATION BETWEEN BATTERY PACKS le Aug 10, 2010, al of which are hereby incorporated herein by refer- ‘ence in their entirety and made part of the present US. lity patent application for all purposes. FIELD OF THE INVENTION “The present invention relates generally to batteries and more particularly, to means for mitigating the effects and hasan associated with a battery pack thermal event BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Batteries come ina wide variety of types, chemistries and ‘configurations, each of which bas its own merits and weak nesses. Among rechargeable batteries, also refered 10 as sccomiary batteries, one of the primary disadvantages is their relative instability, often cesuting in these cells requi- ing special handing during fabrication, storage and use ‘Additionally, some eell chemists, for example lithium-ion secondary cells, tend to be more prone to thermal runaway than other primary and secondary cell chemistries “Thermal runaway occurs when the intemal reaction rate ‘ofa battery inereases to the point that more heat is being generated than can be withdrawn, leading to a furthe ‘increase in both reaction rate and heat generation. Event ally the amount of generated heat is great enough to lead 10 the combustion ofthe battery as well us materials in prox- Jmity to the battery. Thermal runaway may be initiated by’ @ short eicuit within the cell, improper cell use, physical abuse, manufacturing defects. or exposure of the cell (0 ‘extrome extemal temperatures During the intial stapes ofa thermal runaway event, the cell undergoing minaway becomes increasingly hot due to the increased reaction rate and the inability ofthe system to withdraw the heat at rapid enough rte. As the temperature Within the cell increases, so does the pressure. While the safety pressure release vent built into many cells may help to release some of the gas generated by the reaction, ‘eventually the increased femperature in concert with the ‘increased internal cell pressure will lead to the formation of perforations in the cell casing. Once the cell casing is Perforated, the elevated intemal cell pressure will cause ditional hot gas to be directed to this location, furher ‘compromising the cella this and adjoining lations. ‘While the increase in cell temperature during « thermal runaway event i sufficient to damage materials in proximity to the event and to Jead to the propagation ofthe event t0 ‘adjoining cells, its not until the hot gas escapes the coaines ‘of the cell, and potentially the confines of the batter pack, that the risk to people and property damage is significant. 0 o 2 Tis is because while the eveat is confined, the gas gener. ated by the event is primarily compose of earbon dioxide ‘nd hydrocarbon vapors. As a result, the autoigntion tem- perature (AIT) of combustible materials in proximity’ to the event is relatively high. However, once this gas exits the eontines ofthe celVbatery pack and comes into contact with ‘the oxygen contained in the ambien atmosphere, the AIT of those same materials will derease significantly, potentially leading to thee spontaneous combustion. Isat his point ia the event eyele that extensive collateral property damage is Tikely to occur and, more importantly, that the risks to the vehicle's passengers leaving the vehicle, orto fist respond- ers attempting 10 contol the event, becomes quite sizn Accordingly, it is desirable delay the escape of hot was from the cell or cells undergoing thermal runaway to the ‘ambient environment as long as possible, Similarly, itis ‘sirable to lower the temperature ofthe hot gas before it reaites the ambient environmeat, thereby further lowering the risks to passengers, bystanders and first responders, as ‘well 3s reducing the potential for the spontaneous combu tion of materials in’ proximity to the event, The present invention provides a system aud method for achieving these seals, thereby limiting collateral damage and the risk to frst responders and others, SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION ‘The present invention provides @ system and method for mitigating the effets ofa theemal event within a non-metal- air battery pack. In accordance with the invention, the hot ‘gas and material generated during the event is directed through the metal-ar cells of a metal-sir battery pack, the netal-ar cells providing a large thermal mass for absorbing atleast a portion of the penersted thermal energy before it js released tothe ambient environment, thereby lowering the risk to vehicle passengers, bystanders and fist responders as ‘well as limiting collateral propery damage In at least one embodiment of the invention, hazard mitigation system is dislosed that includes a power source comprised of a metal-air battery pack that includes at last fist, second and third air passegeways and a non-metalair battery pack that includes a hot gos outlet; means for coupling the hot gas outlet to the third air passageways and ‘first valve that controls the aie low out ofthe aon-metal-ar battery pack and through at leasta portion of the plurality of metalair ells comprising the meta-air battery pack. The first valve is configured to prevent air low during normal power souree operation and permit ar flow upon the occur- rence of a thermal event within the non-metal-air battery pack, The fist valve may be configured to switch from the Second position in which air flow is prevented to the first position in which air How is penmitel when a preset femperatire of pressure within the non-meta-air battery peck is reached andlor exceeded. The hazard mitigation System may further eomprise a system controller coupled to the first valve and a least one temperature sensor within the non-metal-air battery pack, wherein the system controller switches the valve from closed to open (eat from a second positon 1 first position) when a temperature monitored by the temperature sensor exceeds a preset temperatre that corresponds 1 a least one of the non-metal-ait cells within the non-metal-air battery pack entering into thermal run- away. The hazard mitigation system may further comprise a system controller coupled tthe frst valve and atleast one pressure sensor within the non-metal-si battery pack, ‘herein the system controller switees the valve fr US 10,763,477 B2 3 ‘closed to open (eg. from a sevond position (© a fist Position) when a pressure monitored by the pressure sensor ‘excoads a preset pressure that corresponds 0 at least one of the non-metal-ar ells within the non-metal-ar battery pack ‘entering into thermal runaway. The hazard mitigation system may father comprise a sccond valve corresponding to the fist air psssszeway ofthe metalar battery pack, the second valve configured to close upon the oecurreace ofa thermal ‘event within the non-meta-air battery pack as evidenced, for ‘example, by the temperature and/or pressure within the ron-metl-air battery pack exceeding a preset temperate oF pressure, The hazard mitigation system may furher com- prise a second valve corresponding to the first air passage- way of the metal-air battery pack and a system controller ‘coupled to both the frst and second valves, wherein the system controller may open the frst valve and close the second valve when (j) a temperature monitored by a tem- perature sensor within the non-metalair battery pack ‘exceads & preset temperature andr (i) @ pressure moni tored by a pressure sensor within the non-meal-ar battery pack excosts a preset pressure. The hazard mitigation sys- tem may further comprise a second valve corresponding 10 the fst air passageway of the metal-air battery pack, a third valve corresponding fo the second air passageway of the retal-air batery pack, a least a frst temperate sensor within the non-metal-air battery pack, at least a second temperature sensor within the metal-air batery pack and @ system controller coupled to the fist, second, and third valves as well asthe fist and second temperature sensors, ‘wherein the system controller () opens the first valve and closes the sconid valve when the temperature within the rnon-meta-air battery puck exceeds a first preset tempera- ture, (i) maintains the thi valve ina closed position whea the temperature within the non-metal-ir battery pack ‘excoods the fist preset temperature and the temperature within the metal-air battery pack is less than a second preset temperature, and (il) opens the thd valve whon the tem- perature within the non-metal-air battery pack exceeds the first preset temperature and the temperature within the mtal-air battery pack exceeds the second preset temper- ture. The hazard mitigation system may further comprise @ second valve corresponding to the fis air passageway ofthe mmetal-air battery pack, a third valve corresponding to the second air passoueway of the metal-air battery pack, at least ‘first pressure sensor within the non-metal-uie bllery pack, ‘at leat a socond pressure sensor within the metal-air batery pack and asystem controller coupled othe first, second, and thied valves as well as the frst and second pressure sensors, wherein the system controller () opens the frst valve and ‘loses the second valve when the pressure within the non= mmetal-air battery pack exceeds a first preset pressure, (i maintains the thitd valve ina closed position when the pressure within the non-metal-sir battery pack exceeds the first preset pressure and the pressure within the metal buttery’ pack is Tess than a second preset pressure, and ‘opens the third valve when the pressure within the non- metal-air battery pack exceeds the fist preset pressure and the pressure within the metabair batery pack exceeds the second preset pressure, The hazard mitigation system my further comprise a second valve corresponding tothe fist i passageway of the metal-ai battery pack, a third valve ‘corresponding tothe second air passageway of the metal battery pack, at least a first temperature sensor within the non-metal-air battery pock, at least a fist pressure sensor within the metal-ar battery pack and a system controller ‘coupled tothe fist, second, and third valves as well a the first temperature sensor and the first pressure sensor, 0 o 4 ‘wherein the system controller (7) opens the frst valve and closes the second valve when the temperature within the ‘non-metal air battery pack exceed a preset temperature ‘maintains the third valve in a closed position when the temperature within the non-metal-aie batery pack excoeds the preset temperature and the pressure within the metal-air battery pack is Tess than a preset pressure, and (i) open the third valve when the temperature within the non-metal battery pack exceeds the preset temperature and the pressnre within the mota-airbatery pack exceeds the preset pressure “The hazard mitigation system may fuer comprise a see- ond valve coresponding to the fit air passageway of the metal-air battery pack, a thied valve corresponding t0 the second aie passageway of the metal-ae battery pack, atleast 8 frst pressure sensor within the nonsmetal-air battery pack, atleast a ist temperature sensor within the metal-air battery pack anda system controller coupled tothe frst, second, and third valves as well as the first temperature seasor and the fist pressure sensor, wherein the system controller (i) opens the fst valve and closes the second valve when the pressure ‘within the non-metalair battery pack exceeds a preset presse, (i) maintains the thin! valve ia closed position when the pressure within the non-metal-ir battery pack cexcaeds the preset prestre and the temperature within the ‘metalair battery pack is less than a preset temperature, and (ii) opens the third valve when the pressure Within the ‘non-mietal-air battery pack exceeds the preset pressure and the temperature within the metal-aie battery pack exeoeds the preset temperature. In at least one embodiment, th coupling means comprises a duet, wherein the hazard mit gation sysem further comprises a second valve coerespond- ing to the fist aie passageway of the metal-ai batery pack, nd third valve corresponding tothe thind air passageway ofthe metal-ar battery pack, wherein during normal oper- tion of the power source the third valve is closed, and wherein when a thermal event occurs in the non-metal battery peck, for example as evidenced by the temperature within the noa-metal-air batery pack exceeding a preset temperature o the pressure within the non-metal-ar battery pack excooding a preset pressure, tho second valve is closed And the third valve is opened. The hazard mitigation system ‘may further comprise a plenum to det the flow of at from the fist and thid air passageways through the plurality of metal cells. The aonametaair battery pack may further comprise high pressure relief valve. Tn at least one other embodiment of the invention, 2 method of mitigating the effects ofa thermal event within a ‘non-metal-air battery pack is disclosed, the method inciud- ing the steps of coupling a hot gas outlet corresponding to the nonsmetal-ae battery pack 10 an ar inlet of @ metalair batterypack upon the occurrence ofthe thermal event witha the non-metal-air battery pack and directing airflow from ‘the hot gas outlet through the air inle and through a plurality fof meta-air cells within the metab-air battery pack. The ‘ncthod may further include the step of opening a valve that cconrols the air flow from the hot gas outlet when the temperature within the non-metal-sie battery pack exceed a preset temperature that corresponds fo at east one of the on-metal-air cells entering info thermal runaway. The ‘method may Further include the step of opening a valve that controls the air flow from the hot gas outlet when the pressure within the non-metal-air batery pack exceeds reset pressure that corresponds fo at least one of the fon-mical-air cells entering into thermal ranavay. The smcthod may further include the step of monitoring a tem- perature within the non-metal-ar battery pack, comparing the monitored temperature to a preset temperature that US 10,763,477 B2 5 ‘corresponds to atleast one of the nom-metal-ar cells enter- Ing into thermal runaway, and opening a valve that controls the air low from the hot gts outlet when the monitored temperature exceeds the preset temperature. The method may further include the step of monitoring a pressure within, $ the non-metal-air battery pack, comparing the monitored pressure toa preset pressure that corresponds f at least one ‘of the on-metal-ir cells entering into thermal runaway, and ‘opening « valve that controls the air low from the hot gas futlet when the monitored. pressure exoveds the preset pressure. The method may further include the steps of ‘opening a frst valve that controls the si Hows from the bot as outlet and closing a second valve that controls air flow fom primary air source through the mal-tr battery pack ‘net when the temperature within the non-metal-ar battery pack exceeds first preset temperature that corresponds to at Teast one of the non-metal-air cells entering into thermal runaway, where the primary sir souree is diflrent from the hot gas outlet, The method may further include the steps of closing a third valve that controls air flow aut of the metal-air battery pack when the non-meta-air batery pack temperature exceeds a first tempersture and opening the third valve when the metalair batery pack temperature ‘excoods a second temperate or when the mtal-ai batery pack pressure exceeds a preset pressure. The metho! may Turer include the steps of closing a third valve that controls ‘it flow out of the metal-air battery pack when the non= metal-air battery pack pressure exceeds 0 first pressure and ‘opening the thind valve when the metalair battery pack pressure exceeds a second pressure or when the metal battery pack temperature exceeds a preset temperature, ‘A furher understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be realized by reference (0 the remiining portions ofthe specification and the drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 illustates the primary components of an electric vehicle that utilizes both a metalir battery pack and 2 ‘conventional battery pack TIG.2 illustrates the basic elements ofa hazard mitigation system in accordance with the invention, the figute showing ‘operation of the battery packs during a normal operational, peviod: TIG, 3 provides the same hazard mitigation system shown, in FIG. 2, modified to show operation when one or more ron-metal-air cells eater into thermal runaway’ FIG. 4 provides the same hazard mitigation system shown Jn FIG. 2, modified to show operation a the pressure within the motal-air battery pack exceeds a preset level IG, 5 provides the same hazard mitigation system shown, in FIG. 2, mosifed to show operation of secondary high sre relief valve: TIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment in which both non= metalair cells and metalaie cells are contained within @ single batery packs TIG, 7 illusirates a modification of the embodiment shown in FIG. 6 in whieh a barier separates the now-metal- air cells from the metalair eels; FIG. 8 illosrates an embodiment utilizing @ metal butte’ pack and a conventional battery pack with a duct inerposed between the two packs; FIG. 9 illustrates & mosifieation of the embodiment shown in FIG. 8 which allow the dct ofthe system shown jn FIG. 8 to he minimized or eliminated FIG, 10 illustrates « modification of the embodiment of FIG. 6 wlizing a system controller, 0 6 FIG, 11 ilusteates « modification of the embodiment of FIG. 7 utilizing a system controller, FIG, 12 illustrates a modification of the embodiment of FIG. 8 utilizing a system controler, FIG, 13 illustrates a modification of the embodiment of FIG. 9 utilizing a system controler, and FIG, 14 illusteates a modification of the embotiment of FIG. 13 in which the systom controller monitors pressure ‘andlor temperature Withia the metal-air battery pack. DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS, In the following text, the terms “battery”, “eel! and ~pattery cell” may be used interchangeably. The term “bat- tery pack” as used herein refers to one or more individyal batteries that are electrically interconnected to achieve the desired voltage and capacity fora particular application. The individual batteries of a battery pack are typically contained Within a single piece or muld-piece housing, although iis possible to include multiple battery packs within a single piece or muli-piece housing as described below. The term electric vehicle” as used herein refere to an all-electric vehicle also refered to as an EV, a plug-in hybrid vehicle also referred to as a PHEN, or a hybrid vehicle (HEV), @ hybrid vehicle utilizing multiple propulsion sources one of whieh is an electric drive system. It should be understood {hat identical element symbols used on multiple figures refer to the same component, or components of equal fanetion- ality Additonal, dhe accompanying figures are only meant to illustrate not limit, the scope ofthe invention and should sot be considered to he to scale, ‘Secondary cells may atilize any of a varity of different cell chemistries. As used herein, a “conventional” cell or “conventional cell chemistry’ refers to a cell that ilizes Iihium ion (e.g, lithium iron phosphite, Tithium cobalt ‘oxide, ether lithium metal oxides, ee) lithium ion polymer, nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, nickel hydrogen, nickel zine, silver zinc, or similar battery chemistry. In ‘contrast and as ned herein, a “meta-ar cell refers toa cell that utilizes oxygen as one of the electrodes, typically passing the oxygen through @ porous metal electrode. The ‘exact nature othe reaction that occurs in # metal-air battery ‘depends upon the metal used in the anode and the compo- sition of the electrolyte, Exemplary metals used in the ceonstretion ofthe anode ineinde zine, aluminum, magne- sium, ioa, lithium aod vanadium. The cathode in such cells is typically fabricated from a porous structure with the necessary catalytic properties for the oxygen reaction. A suitable electrolyte, such as potassium hydroxide inthe case of a zinc-air battery, provides the necessary ionic condue- tivity beeen the electrodes while a separator prevents short cireuits between the battery electrodes. ‘Due tothe use af oxygen as one ofthe reactants, metal-air cals offer a number of advantages over 1 conventional rechargeable battery, most notably their high energy density ‘and high capacityto-volume, or eapacity-to-weight, rato. Given these advantages, they are well suited for use in electric vehicles, especially in a dual source configurat, which one o¢ more metal-air battery packs are used in conjunction with one oF more conventional battery packs (ea. lithium jon batlery pack(s)). This configuration is illstated in FIG. Lwhich shows the primary components of ‘an FV 100 that wilizes both a metal-ar battery pack 101 and ‘conventional, non-metal-air battery pack 103, As prev ously noted, as used herein metal-air Batteries refer (0 any cel that utilizes oxygen a one of the eleetrodes and metal US 10,763,477 B2 1 (e, zine, aluminum, magnesium, ion, Itium, vanadius etc) inthe construction ofthe other electrode. Conventional battery’ pack 108 ulizes non-meta-ae eels, and peeferably ‘ones that provide high power density, thas providing & ‘combines posser source that achieves an optimal combina= tion of energy and power Exemplary batteries sed in ‘conventional battery pack 103 include, but are ot limited, lithium ion (eg. lithium irom phosphate, lithium coball ‘oxide other lithium metal oxides, e.), ithium ion polymer, nickel metal hydride, nickel cadmium, nickel hydrogen, nickel zine, silver zine, ete. In a prefered application, battery pucks 101 and 103 are coupled wo one or more drive ‘ators 105 hat provide propulsion to one or more wheels of EV 100, A controler 107 optimizes the vehicle's dual power source, ie, battery packs 101 and 103, in light ofthe curent battery pack conditions (eg, slate-of-charge, temperature etc), preferred battery pack charge(discharge conditions, tnd the various operating conditions. Exemplary operating ‘conditions inelude those placed on the system by the user (ex, distance, speed. acceleration, et), road conditions (eg, uphill, downhill, trafic, etc), charging systom (eg. available power, available time for charging, etc), and ‘eavironmental conditions (@g, ambient temperature, humidity, et) The gas communication system disclosed herein may be used to mitigate the effects of one o more cells within @ ‘conventional battery pack undergoing thermal runaway’ oF ‘undergoing a similar thermal event FIGS. 2-§ schematically ithastate the base operation ofthe bzard mitigation system ‘of the present invention. It should be understood that these figures, as well as those that follow, are intended to illustrate the operation of the invention, and therefore do not show other aspects ofa system utiliring the disclosed dual power source. For example, these figures do not show the power ‘electronics, control system, and drive train components that would be necessary to use the dial power source in an ‘locric vehicle, as previously illustrated in FIG. 1. Itwill be ‘appreciated, however, that the inventors envision the use of the dual power source with the disclosed hazard mitigation system within an eleeeic vehicle (ie, EV, PHEY, HEV, ete) fs well as other applications. Inaccordance with te invention, during normal we, €., ‘during normal vehicle operation, metal-airhatery pack 101 ‘and conventional battery pack’ 103 operate in a manner ‘consistent with a conventional dual power source system, AS such, power may be drawn from one or both battery packs 101 and 193, depending upon current battery pack condi- tions (eg,, stateof-eharge (SOC), temperature, et.) and system needs (eg. vehicle needs such as speed, aecelers- tion, road conditions, ete). FIG. 2 illustrates operation ofthe buttery packs during this nomnal operational period. As shown, preferably conventional battery pack 103 (also referred lo herein asthe non-melal-sir battery pack) is sealed from the ambient envionment. Metal-air battery pack 101 is necessarily open to the ambient environment as the metals cells within meta-sirbattry pack 101 require oxygen, for ‘example taken from the ambiem atmosphere, since oxygen js one ofthe reactants and therefore is necessary in order for the cells 10 diseharue. Battery pack 101 also requires a volume, such as the ambient environment or a container system, during the charg eyele when oxygen-rich eluent is ‘generated, Du to the requirement for oxygen during opera- tion, typically all of the meotal-aie cells within meta-aie buttery pock 101 are provided with equal access to the a flow. For example, inthe exemplary s¥stem shown in FIG. 2, mectal-air cells 201 are shown positioned in parallel relative (0 air passageways 208 and 20S. inthis configura 0 o 8 ‘ion, ether passageway may be used as an inlet, leaving the colle parsigeway 10 operte as an air outlet, Other approaches may be used to insure sullicient air Bow to each fof the metal-air cells within pack 101. For example, sir may ’e forced throng a plenum that is used to feed the entering arto cach ofthe cells. Iwill he appreciated thatthe present invention isnot Iimited fo a specific meta-air cell config ration within battery pack 101, as long asthe metal-ir cells fare provided with sufcient access to oxygen, thus ensuring Proper operon FIG, 3 illustrates the next stage of operation, when a cel or cells within the non-metal-ar battery pack 103 eater into ‘thermal runaway. At tis stage, a valve 301 coresponding to ‘conventional hatlery pack 103 opens. As noted in more etal lows, valve 301 may’ be a pressure valve that opens ‘when the pressure within attery pack 103 exceeds a preset pressure limit. Altemately, valve 301 may open when the ‘temperature within batery pack 108 exceeds 2 preset tem- perature. Altemately, valve 301 may be under the control of ‘system controller that determines when to open valve 301 for example by monitoring pressure andior temperature Within batery pack 103. Note that valve 301 may be a simple open/close valve, or may open in stages, for example depending upon the pressure andor temperature within pack 103. Once valve 301 opens, the hot as and material senersted during the aon-metl-ie ells) thermal runaway event escapes from pack 103 and is directed into metaair battery pack 101, and through the metal-air cells 201, as illustrated. Note that asthe purpose of the invention is t0 mitigate hazards by delaying the bot gas generated during the event from reaching the ambient atmosphere, preferably the pathovay 303 that couples the two battery packs is sealed to prevent, oat least minimize, the hot gas exiting from pack 103 from coming into eontaet withthe ambient envi- ronment. Various ways of sealing this passageway are described more fully below. Tn alton to forming pathway besween the non-metal air battery pack 103 and the metal-air battery pack 101 luring this stage, preferably outlets (¢, passageway 208) {rom the meta-air battery pack are close Once the pressure ‘becomes great enough, and as illustrated in FIG. 4, valve 205 is opened. Opening valve 208 allows the hot gas ‘escaping from conventional battery pack 103 to pass com- pletely through meta-ar battery pack 101, Depending upon the sizeof the thermal event, as well a the thermal mass of ‘the metals ells 201 within metal-sir pack 101, potentially the temperature ofthe hot gas passing through the metal-air pack has been suficenty lowered t0 eliminate, or greatly reduce, the risk of spontaneous combustion, In atypical configuration, the bot gas and material gen- crated during the thermal event will eventually clog the pores of the porous metal electrodes of metal-air cells 301 ‘Accordingly ia the prefered embodiments of the invention, at least one secondary high pressure reli valve S01 is included in battery pack 103 as shown in FIG. §. The preset relief pressure for valve S01 is set at a much higher value than that of valve 301. The purpose of valve S01 is 10 provide a means for relieving the pressure within conven- ‘ional battery pack 103 oace the hot gas generated during the thermal event is no longer able o passthrough the metaair cells 301 of metal puck 101 and the pressure witin the system begins fo raise to an undesirable level ‘As previously noted, the present invention isnot limited to. specific configuration for battery packs 101 and 108 as Tong asthe necessary airflow requirements of the invention can be mct by the slected configuration, For example, in the ‘embodiment shovsn in FIG. 6, a single battery’ pack 601 is US 10,763,477 B2 9 used, this battery pack ineluding both meta-ae battery pack 101 and non-metal battery puck 103. Note that ws used in this configuration, battery packs 101 and 103 refer o groups ‘of cols and as such, the groups of cells may or may not be ‘contained within enclosures that are distinet from the enelo= sure of battery pack 601. In system 600, the groups of cells ate not contained within distinct enclosures and therefore mmetal-air battery pack 101, containing metabair cells 603, and nonemetabair Battery pack 103, containing noa-metal- cells 605, are showin phantom, Ifcells 603 and 605 are not contained within separate enclosures, the system may or ‘may’ not uliize a separation barrier between the cell iypes. A\ separation barrier may be used, for example, to control heat flow oF air Now between cell types during normal battery operation. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 6 no separation bare is used. In system 600, pack 601 inchudes at least a pair of passageways 607 ad 609 that allow air to low into and out ‘of pack 601. The Now of air though passageways 607 and 609 is preferably contolied by valves 608 and 610, respec: tively. [twill be appreciated that while passagewsys 607 and 609 are shown as singular passageways, each of them may be comprised of multiple passageways in onder to provide sulficent ai flow, and therefore oxygen, for metal-ai cells 603. During thermal event, passageway 609 is closed (¢g using valve 610), forcing the hot gas and material generated by one or more non-metal-air eels 605 undergoing thermal rnaway (0 pass through metal-ae cells 603 belore being ‘expelled through passageway 607, In some embodiments passageway 607 is closed (eg, using valve 608) during the Initial stages ofthe thermal event, thos delaying the escape ‘of hot gas to the ambient atmosphere. Typically passageway 607 is opened soon after initiation of dermal ranaweny. thus ‘ensuring thatthe hot gas passes through metal-air cells 603, Altemately, passageway 607 may be opened only a small ‘amount during the early stages of the event, sullicient 10 direct the flow of hot gas through the metal-air cells while sill limiting. airflow out of the pack, As noted above, preferably battery pack 601 includes ® secondary high pressure rele? valve 611 to avoid over-pressuring pack 601 ‘once the pores ofthe porons metal electrodes ofthe metal ‘cells 603 become clogged. FIG. 7 illustrates a slight modification of system 600. As shown, within battery pack 701, metal-air cells 603 are fcparaied from non-metalair cells 60S by barier 703. Barree 703 prevents the flow of air between the two ses of cell. Accordingly, during normal operation ai flows int the portion of battery pack 701 containing meta-ae cols 6038 through one or more passageways 607, and then out of this portion of the battery pack via one oF more passageways 18. Typically the direetion of air How depentls upon the orientation and positioning of cells 603 within the battery pack as itis important msximize air flow during the ‘ischarge eyele in order to optimize battery perfomance. In system 700, during thermal runaway event a valve 707 opens up an air passageway 708 through barrier 703, thus allowing the hot gas and material generated during the ‘event to flow through metalair cells 603, In addition t0 ‘opening passazeway 707, preferably the passageways that ‘control airflow into and out of the portion of pack 701 ‘containing metal-ar ells 608 ae also adjusted, for example tring passageways 70S (e.g, using valves 706) to opti mize the flow of hot gas rom the non-metal-air cells through the metal-tir cells. For example, in addition to opening passageway 707 of system 700 during thermal runaway af @ ‘hon-mital-nir cell, preerably passegeway 607 is opened and passageways 708 are closed, thus directing the How of hot 0 o 10 ‘as and mistrial from the non-metal-air cells through the rctal-air cells before exiting the pack “As previously noted, the present invention may be used in fa variety of different system configurations. System 800, shown in FIG, 8 utilizes separate batery packs, ie, metal fir battery pack 101 and conventional hattery pack 103 Preferably, and as shown, «plenum 801 is used to dire the flow of ai through metal-air cells 603. It should be under stood, however, that other means may be used to ditect the low of air tough cells 603, and that pleaum 801 isnot a requirement of the invention During normal operation, preferably aon-metal-r bs tery pack 103 js closed as previously noted, and aie is Girected into plenum 801 via passizeway 803, the flow ‘through passageway 803 under the control of valve 804 After passing through the metalaie cells 603, the air leaves, battery pack 101 via one or more passageways 805. The air flow through passageway 803 is preferably controlled by @ valve 896. Oncea non-metal cell 608 within battery pack 103 begins to overeat and enfer into a thermal runaway condition, a valve 809 opens, allowing hot gas and material ‘zenerited during the event to exit pack 103 via passageway SIO and enler duct #11. At approximately the same time. valve 804 closes and Valve 813 opens, valve 813 allowing the hot gas expelled from battery pack 103 to flow throu ‘duct SIL snd into pleas 801 via passageway 814, Ple 801 direc the flow through metal~air cells 803. Exemplary pathways 815 ilusrate some of the flow pathways tough passageway’ 814 and plentm 801 ‘In system 800, preferably the two battery packs are in close proximity 9 oie another, thereby allowing the length ff duet B11 to be minimized. In some configurations, duct SIL may be climinated altogether. For example, FIG. 9 illustrates slight modification of system 800, As shown, battery packs 101 and 103 are adjacent to one another. In this embodiment, during a thermal event valve 901, controlling the flow of ambient (or other) air into plenum 903 via passageway’ 902, i closed and valve 903 is opened, thereby allowing the hot gos generated during the thermal event ‘within pack 103 to pass through passagesiay 904 into plenum 90S, and this through metal-ir cells 603 via exem- plary pathways 907 Inthe systems illustrated in PIGS. 8 and 9 ifthe valve 806 controling. passageway 80 is closed, the ot gss and ‘material from pack 101 will flow into pack 103 unl a pressure equilibrium is reached between the packs. The hot ‘28 and material will then be contained within the packs ‘until the thermal events finished andthe packs coo, of unt there isa failure within one ofthe packs (eg. at an enclosire joint or in a doct, seal, feed-hrough, valve, ete). Given the volume of gas generated daring a typical thermal inaway event, it will be appreciated that for most systems, main- laining a closed system is nota viable option, Accordingly ‘na typical application, passageway 805 is only temporarily sealed, if sealed at all, during the initial stage of thermal runaway. At a predetermined pressure and/or temperature, valve 806 is opened, thus allowing the hot gas and material szenerated by the event and passing through the metalair fells to exit the system, As noted above, for many applic ‘ions the temperature of the hot gas will have boen sul ciently reduced to significantly lower the isk of spontaneous ‘combustion of materials in proximity to the expelled hot gas as well as the risks to vehicle occupants, frst responders and bystanders In aditon to operation of the valve controling flow through passageway 80, and as noted in the above con figuration, preferably battery pack 103 includes a second- US 10,763,477 B2 u ‘ay high pressure escape valve 817 that prevents the system fom becoming over pressurized once the pores within the porous metal electrodes of the metalair cells become ‘logged, Valve 817 is designed to open at a predetermined pressure andor temperature that is ess than that whieh ‘wok case the generation ofa failure point in one of the packs, ducting, feed-through, seals, te, but ata suficiently high pressure, or temperature, 10 significantly delay the ‘expulsion of hot gas from pack 101 The preseat invention may be implemented cither as a ‘mechanical system in which the disclosed hazard mitigation system is automatically implemented by action of one or more valves, or asa smart system in which the valves are under the control of castro! system that determines when 'o opea andor close the control valves. Inthe first configu ration, valves may be used that are designed t0 ope! aradually, or completely, based on the pressure andor tem- perature. Inthe second configuration, which is prefered, the valves controlling air low through the battery packs are under the contol of a system controller. Regardless of the 2 technique used to contol valve operation itis important that the valve controlling the flow of hot pas out ofthe eonven- tional hattery pack (e.g. valve 301 in FIGS. 3-5; valve 707 in FIG. 7; valve 809 in FIG. & and valve 903 ia FIG. 9) ‘opens rapidly, preferably at the onset of a thermal event, thereby quickly mitigating the early effects ofa eel under going thermal ranaway and potentially preventing the initial thermal runaway event from spreading throughout the pack. A rapid response by the system ean help contain the event, thus improving the safety to passengers, bystanders and frst responders and lowering the risk of collateral damage. TIGS, 10-13 illustrate the embodimeats shown in FIGS, 6-9, modified to include a system controller 1001 that () determines whether a valve i to be opened or closed, and (i ‘controls the opening/closing of the valves. As asted below, ‘controller 1001 may be used to conic all of the valves, oF f subset of the valves. Controller 1001, which includes @ processor and memory, may be a stand-alone conieoller oF {ntograted within another vebicle control system, FIG. 10 corresponds 10 FIG. 6, with the addition of ‘controller 1001. In this embodiment, system controller 1001 “determines and controls the operation of valves 608 and 610. ‘Thus, for example, if the meta-air cells 603 are in the discharge mode, controller 1001 opens valves 608 and 610 to ensure sulicient oxy zen reaches the cells, Contollee 1001 also monitors the pressure and/or temperature within pack. {601 and compares the monitored pressure andlor tempen- ture to a preset temperature andor pressure, the preset values being stored within the conteoler's memory. FIG. 10 Includes at least one pressure sensor 1003 and atleast one temperature sensor 1008, although it will be appreciate that the system may monitor only pressure or only temperature, ‘controlling the valves based a the monitored values, Ia system 1000, once controller 1001 determines that a thermal ‘event is underway, ether by determining thatthe pressure peck 601 is grestr than expected during. nonmal ‘operation or that dhe temperature within pack 601 is greater than expected during normal operation, valve 610 is close thereby forcing the hot gas and material generated by the thermal event to pass through metaair cells 603 before being expelled through passageway 607, Assuming that the system includes a secondary pressure relict valve 611 as deseribed above, preferably itis also under the control of ‘controller 1001 as shown, although in atleast one embod ment, valve 611 is a mechanical valve that operates inde- pendently of controler 1001. If valve 611 is under the ‘contol of controller 1001, as preferred, then controller 1001 12 ‘opens valve 611 once the pressure within pack 601 excoeds ‘second preset value, indicating dat dhe pores within the etalair eells have become clogged from the material ‘generated by the thermal event and that the pressure within the battery pack has exceeded the second preset value Preferably the sccond presct value is less than the failure pressure of the pack. FIG. 11 corresponds to FIG. 7, with the inclusion of ‘controller 1001. This system operates in a manner similar t0 that described previously, given the diferent valve arrange- ‘meat. Thus, for example, during normal operation controler 1001 keeps valve 707 close and valves 608 and 706 open to provide sir flow for the metalair cells, Once a thermal event is detected, controler 1001 opens valve 707 and closes valves 706, thereby forcing the hot gas and material gener ated by the thermal event o passthrough metal-air cells 603 before being expelled throvgh passageway 607 FIG. 12 corresponds to FIG. 8, with the inclusion of ‘controlle: 1001. This system operates in a manner similar t© that described previously, given the different valve arrange- ‘ment. During normal operation controler 1001 keeps valves 809 and 813 closed, and valves 804 and 806 open, this isolating the non-mctal-air cells while providing airflow and thus oxygen, 10 metal-aie cells 608. When a thermal ‘event is detected, controller 1001 opens valves 809 and B13, fand closes valve 804, thereby Forcing the hot ges and ‘material generated by the thermal event to pass through metal-air cells 603 before being expelled through passage- ‘way'808, As inthe embodiments shown in FIGS. 10 and 11, preferably secondary pressure relief valve 817 is under the ‘contol of controler 1001, valve 817 being opened when the air low through the metal-air cells becomes too restrictive ‘casing the pressure within the conventional battery pack to increase to an undesirable level, FIG. 13 corresponds to FIG. 9, with the inclusion of ‘controller 1001. Ths system operates in a manner similar 1 that described previously, given the different valve arrange- ‘meat. Thus, for example, during normal operation controler 1001 keeps valve 903 closed and valves 901 and 806 open ‘When a thermal event is doteted, conteoller 1001. opens valve 903 and closes valve 901 in ondr to force the thermal event effluent to pass through the metalair cells before being expelled through passageway 805, 1 will be appreciated thatthe invention may be incorpo rated into other configurations and embodiments than those shown and described abave, and the illystated configura- tions and embodiments are only meant to illustrate the srimary aspecs ofthe invention. For example, the meaair battery pock may utilize more than the number of ilustrated inlets in order to achieve the desired airflow during normal ‘metal-air battery pack operation. To illustrate another vara- tion of the invention, FIG. 14 shows @ mosiiicaton of the embodiment shown in FIG. 13. In system 1400, coatrller 1001 also monitors the pressure andlor temperate within rmetal-air battery pack 101 using sensor 1401. In one eon- figuration, during the intial stages of a thermal event, controller 1001 closes valve 806, thus further delaying the expulsion of hot gas fiom the system. Onee the pressure andor temperature within battery pack 101 exceeds a preset value, or once the pressure within packs 101 and. 108 ‘equalize, controller 1001 opens valve 806. Alternately, eon- {roller 1001 may contro the amount that valve 806 is opened based on the pressure within pack 101, for example just cracking valve 806 open during the initial stages of the thermal event, and then increasing air low through passoge- ‘vay 805s the pressure within pack 101 increases dic to the ‘escalation ofthe thermal event, The technigues illustrated US 10,763,477 B2 13 FIG. 14, ie., monitoring conditions within the metal buttery pack in onder to further control air low through dae metal-air cells, ay be used with any of the other contigh- rations and embodiments of the invention should also he understood thatthe invention may wilize any means to detec the occurrence of thermal ranaiay and initiate the disclosed mitigation procedures, ie. flowing thermal event effluent through the mctal-air cells, While pressure andior temperature are routinely used to detect thermal events, other means may also be used, Jor example ‘monitoring the operational eonition of the individual non- melal-sir cells of groups of non-metal-sir cells in order to tect short circuits or other non-standard operating condi tions. Regardless of the means used to detect @ thermal ‘event, once such an event is detected, the system of the ‘invention would alter the air flow, forcing the hot gas and material generated doring the event to pass through the sictal-sir cells ‘As will be understood by those Familiar with the art, che present invention may be embodied in other specific forms “without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof Accordingly, the disclosures and descriptions herein are intended tobe illustrative, but not limiting, ofthe seope ‘of the invention whieh is set Forth in the following claims The invention claimed is 1A battery system comprising: a frst battery pack having a plurality of metal-ar ells, 3 first ai inlet, @ second air inlet, and an air outlet 1 second battery pack having a plurality of non-metal cells and a hot gas outlet, fan air passageway coupling the hot gas outlet of the second battery pack to the Second air inlet ofthe fist battery pack: and a fist valve configured to contol air fow out ofthe hot ‘gas outlet, through the air passageway, through the second air inlet, through at least a portion of the plurality of metals ells, and out of the air ontlet, the frst valve having a frst postion that permits airflow anda second positon that prevents air flo, wherein during normal operation the first valve is in the second position, and wherein the frst valve is configured to ‘witeh. from the second position to the fist position ‘upon an occurence of & thermal event within the second battery pock. 2. The battery system of claim 1, wherein the fist valve js configured to switch from the second postion to the fist position at a preset temperature within the second battery pack that corresponds to at least one of the plurality of ‘on-metal-air cells entering thermal runaway. 3. The battery system of claim 1, futher comprising 2 system controller coupled to the fist valve and toa least one temperature sensor within the second batery pack, wherein the system eontoller is configured to switch the first valve from the second position to the fist postion when a tem- perature monitored by the at least one temperature sensor ‘Excoads a preset temperate that eorresponcl oat feast one ‘of the plurality of non-metal-sir cells entering thermal 44 The battery system of elim 1, wherein the frst valve Js configured to switch from the second position to the first positon aa preset pressure within the second battery pack that comesponds to atleast one ofthe plurality of non-metal air cells entering thermal runaway. ‘8. The battery system of claim 1, farther comprising a system controller coupled to the fist Valve and to at least one pressure sensor within the second battery pack, wherein the system controller is configured to switeh the first valve from 0 o 14 the second position to the frst position when a pressure monitored by the af least one pressure sensor exceeds a preset pressure that corresponds fo at least one of the plurality of non-metal-air cells entering thermal runaway. 6. Tho battery system of claim 1, further comprising a second valve corresponding tothe frst air inlet of the first battery pack, the second valve having a fist position that permits ar flow and a second position that prevents air How, And wherein the second valve is coafigured to switch to the second position upon the occurrence of a thermal event within the second battery pack. 17. The battery system of claim 6, wherein: the first valve switches from the second position to the fst position a a preset temperature within the Second battery pack; and the second valve switehes 10 the second position atthe preset temperature within the second battery pack; and the preset temperature corresponds to at least ote ofthe plurality of non-meta-air cells entering thermal rune away. 8. Tho battery system of claim 6, further comprising a system controller coupled to the fist valve, the second valve, and to at least one temperature sensor within the second battery pack, wherein the system controller switches the first valve from the second postion tothe first position and switches the second valve to the second position when temperature monitored by the at least one temperature sensor exceeds a preset femperature that eomresponds 10 at Teast one of the plurality of non-metal-sir cells entering ‘heemal runaway. 9. The battery system of claim 6, wherein: the first valve switches from the second position to the first positon at preset pressure within the second battery packs the second valve switches tothe second position atthe preset pressure: and the preset pressure corresponds to at feast one of the ‘plurality of non-metal-air cells entering into thermal runaway. 10, The battery system of claim 6, further comprising a system controller coupled ta the first valve, the second valve, and to atleast one pressure sensor within the second battery pack, wherein the system controller switches the frst valve from the second position to the first position and switches the second valve to the second position when @ pressure monitored! by the at least one pressure sensor ‘excoeds a preset presse that corresponds 10 at least one of the plurality of non-metal-ie calls entering into thermal runaway. 11. The battery system of claim 1, further comprising ‘second valve comesponding tothe first air inlet of the rst batery pack, the second valve having a fist position that permits air low and a seoond position that prevents air flow, wherein the second valve is config- ured to switch to the second positon upon the occur- rence of a thermal event within the second battery pack: third valve corresponding to the seeond air inlet ofthe first battery pack, the third valve having a fst position that permits sie flow and a second position that prevents air flow; a first temperature sensor within the fist batery pack: 4 second temperature sensor within the second battery ek; and 1 system controller coupled to the frst valve, the second ‘ave, the third valve, the first temperatire sensor and the second temperature sensor, wherein the system ‘controller switehes the frst valve from the second US 10,763,477 B2 15, position to the fst postion and switebes the second valve to the second position when a second battery pack temperature monitored by the second temperature Sensor exceeds a first preset temperature that corre- sponds to at least one of the plurality of non-metal-air S cells entering into thermal rinaway, wherein the system controller maintains the thint valve in the second position when the second battery pack temperature ‘monitored by the second temperature sensor exceeds the first preset temperature and the frst battery pack temperature monitored by the frst temperature sensor is less than a second preset temperature, and wherein the system controller maintains the third valve inthe first position when the seoond battery pock tempersture ‘monitored ty the second temperature sensor exccods the first preset temperature and the frst battery pack temperature monitored by the first temperature sensor exceeds tle second preset temperature, 12, The battery system of elaim 1, further comprising a second valve corresponding to the frst air inlet of the first battery pack, the second valve having a fist position tht permits sc ow and a second postion that prevents air flow, wherein the second valve is config- tured to switch tothe second position upon the oceur- rence of thermal event within the secon battery pack: a third valve corresponding to the second air inet of the first battery pack, the third valve having a ist postion that permits airflow and a second positon that prevents air flow: first pressure sensor within the ist hatery pack and @ second presse sensor within the second battery pack; and 1 system controller coupled tothe first valve, the second valve, the third valve, the fist pressure sensor and the second pressure sensor, wherein: the system controller switches the frst valve from the ‘second positon the fist position and switches the second valve to the sevond position when a second battery pack pressure monitored by the second pres- sure sensor exceeds fist preset pressure that cor responds to at least one ofthe plurity of noa-mctal- air cells entering thermal runaway: the system controller maintains the third valve inthe ‘second position when the second battery ack pees- sure monitored by the second pressure sensor ‘exceeds the frst preset pressure and the first battery pack pressure monitored by the ist pressure sensor is ess than a second preset pressure; and the system controller maintains the third valve ithe First position when the second battery pack pressure ‘monitored by the sevond pressure sensor exceed the fist preset pressure and the fist battery pack pres ‘ure monitored by the frst pressure seasor exceeds the second preset pressure. 13. The battery system of claim 1, further comprising: a second valve corresponding tothe first ai ilet of the first battery pack, the second valve he position that permit ie low anda second prevents air How, wherein the second valve is config- tured to switch tothe second position upon the oceur- rence ofa thermal event within the secon battery pack: a third valve corresponding to the second air inlet of the frst battery pack, the third valve having a first postion that permits sir low and a sccond position that prevents air flow: 0 16 ‘frst temperature sensor within the first battery pack and ‘fist pressure sensor Within the second battery pack: and «system controller coupled to the frst valve, the second Valve, the thind valve, the fist temperature sensor and the frst pressure sensor, wherein the system controller: svsitches the fist valve from the second position tothe fist position and switches the second valve to the second position when a second battery pack pressure monitored by the first pressure sensor exceed a first preset pressure that corresponds to at east one ofthe phirlity of non-metal-sie cells entering into thermal unas ‘maintains the third valve inthe second positon when the second battery pack pressure monitored by the fist pressure sensor exceeds the first preset pressure and the fist batterypack temperature monitored by the frst temperature sensor is less than a first preset temperature; and ‘maintains the third valve inthe first position when the second battery pack pressure monitored by the first pressure sensor exceeds the fist preset pressure aid the first battery pack temperature monitored by the first temperature sensor exceeds the first preset tem perature 14. The battery system of claim 1, wherein the air passageway’ comprises a det, 15. The battery system of elaim 1, wherein the is battery pack is contained ina first housing and the sevond battery pack is contained in a second housing. 16. The battery system of claim 18, wherein the air passigeway couples the frst housing to the second housing, 17. The battery system of claim 1, whersin the first battery pack and the sccoad battery pack reside ‘within a common howsing; a barrier separates the fist battery pack from the second battery pack: the air passageway traverses the barrie 18. The batery system of claim 1, further comprising a plenum configured to direct ae flow through the plurality of stale cells 19, The battery system of clan 1, the second battery pack unter comprising high-pressure relict valve, 20. A battery system comprising: an enclosure; a barrier, frst battery pock contained within the enclosure having ‘plurality of metal-ar cols frst sie inlet, a second air inlet, and an air outlet, second batery_ pack contained within the enclosure having a plurality of non-metal-uir cells and a bot pas ‘outlet, the barrie isolating the fist battery pack from the second battery pack: fn sir passageway coupling the hot gas outlet of the second hattery pack to the second air inlet of the frst battery pack, the passageway extending through the barrier, and a first valve configured to control airflow out of the hot ‘gis outlet, through the air passageway, through the second air inlet, through at least a portion of the plurality of metal-air ells, and out ofthe ar outlet the fist valve having a first position that permits air flow and a second position that prevents alr Now, wherein during normal operation the fist valve is in the second position, and wherein the fist valve is configured to US 10,763,477 B2 17 ‘switch from the second position to the first posto ‘upon an occurence of a thermal event withia the second battery pack. 21. The butery system of claim 20, wherein the fst valve js configured to switch from the second position to the frst Position a a preset tempersture within the second hattery pack that corresponds to at least one of the plurality of on-metal-air cells entering thermal runaway. 22, The battery system of claim 20, fuser comprising 9 system controller couple to the fis valve and toa least one temperature sensor within the second battery pack, wherein the system contoller is configured to switch the first valve trom the second position to the first postion when tem- perature monitored by the at least one temperature sensor ‘excoads a preset temperate that eoresponcl to at feast one fof the plurality of non-metal-vir cells entering theanal runaway. 23. The brtery system of elim 20, wherein te fst valve js configured to switch from the second position tothe fist 18 position ata preset pressure within the second battery pack that comesponds to at lest one ofthe plurality of noa-mctal- air cells entering thermal runaway. 24. The battery system of claim 20, further comprising 3 system controller couple to the fist valve and tat feast one pressure sensor within the second batery pack, wherein the system controler is configured to swith the fist valve from the second position to the first position when a pressure monitored by the at least one pressure sensor exceeds @ preset pressure that corresponds to at least one of the plurality of non-metal-air ells entering thermal runaway: 25. The battery ayslem of claim 20, urlher comprising «| second valve corresponding fo the first ai inlet of the frst battery pack, the second valve having a fist positon that permits ir flow and second postion that prevents air low, fan wherein the second valve is coafigured to switch to the second position upon the aecurrence of a thermal event within the second battery pack,