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III

Ailil the essential gr'amlmatic8111elements

• Complete explanations and sample usaqe

• AI'phabl@tized for quick reference

~-

An 'e a 5 ,-'10 =UIn di'e'l':sta ~ Ig'~a m,l1ill;UJ

n d c:ollmllJ a,ct: g ul d ,e to J a (l,a n,ers,E! ,th ls han dy b ook ,211 pml betica Ily iJ1'~n)duc:es the
f'
I

most essentlal g'wamllrb1lfl~~(a~ f'unctt'ion words fWQ,mla'g"li!wu tO


,zer,rZE'JI1 Each el1:'t~ is c ~ea e~,pl ined 'i n ~ .. ~I~ ~ a::tma nits terrn s, a nd ,alll~o.ssibl,eo usag@ is illustrated IdlBal1 fnr jalpane;se~llalnglJage 'fora d vijjnd~d
S~JLJdenr[5"

]In he~'lpfiull,samphe sentences,

students. at: a~~~eveiIS,r'it teaches ba slcs to ,t he' be,~;'~1tJ1 ~Ind serves as an exc;ell,ent' refere nee ner
Ile,Ejrners wlil~ben effrn 'f~o:mstu dYllng the
,5 I!J 1J~,llertl nt to cl assro om e

book on the']lr ,Ciwn from cover to (over", as well II as by k,ee.:p;-

ing it' on th@"i r desk to use as a


's-t1Ii..:liV' '., I~U)'!II'

M'alsah iIN) Ta,ni mo Ii,i' 9 r'Gldiluated


Gllli'1ld
II!"

'WrOlm

K,obe U n iV!~rs,ity ~ 198~' Vi

is (lElrrently
lUll'"

;21 g rad'UJat,~stu dent

~ jlGII~a nology' at a5-~,~a f1j,

, u nJIVerslty,

II.-. t:1l-., it:: , "';"'T' h-~' j ne' [1:5 member 011tu ie ,~OC:leuy'1lluf _E<a,( ng capa nese a J

as a F(llfe:ign :l~u;~,gl'u~~l'e.

TUTTlE
BO:HOJi1lj
Ii!!

PU1BLIS:H:~NG:
l' Ve]:""m,ClII::Ii'l

Rutl and

'Iol.yn

Wl>\''r!Ilof_

t-:-utlLl,cpub:lish]]]]g. com P:n"1I:]tleid ~D Si ng~t'pnj't;

PlUbHshed by Tuul,e Publishing,


an imprint of Perrplus Ed] Lions. (HK) Ltd.
~ 1. 994 by Ch<1i~e'~ ,E,.~["I!.ude L(). ;

lne.

All rl._gh,tS reserved; Lee uud N"l), g4-6;()4..:f4


ISBN 0·8048· iQ40~B

Fi rst ii:cl.. ion",. 1g'94i! Sixth _Pfinlillug. 2,00'3


.

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N{'w~j~ A.II?H~.rkca. r....",'r.i:tlAmeil'jc~1 & Eiu'ope


"f'l!ude rl!l.·~il i:shing Airp crt ] ndustrial Park

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3641, I nnovauon Dr~'!i,i'e North Clarendon. VI Oj1j9~~";l36 Tid: (.801) 773, 8930; Fax: (.B02, 773 6993 'El'nai ~: inIo@tlout h:pu b'~ i'ng,'com lsi

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J~JtPaJ1
"Wu,u le !lPu'i1;1 is:h.i fig Ya'E:'kan ~u i'MuJ1g, 3riiJ FioODT j'c4~12 Osald" Shmagawa. km 'Tiil:l (()J~ S"B7 0171; Fax: (03) ':J~·J7ozss
Emai'~: l[ludc-~f.!.Ies@go~. orn c

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,As[Ii] PndJb[ Bt":;rkJli:l~)'Hook:!. Pte. . Id. 13,0 J 0'0 S-el1g Road, #06-0 I J03 .sirn.,gapotf:: 368357 T~'i: (,6Si) 6160 1]30.; Fax: (65) 6180 6290 Email: ioqu i~~es@:pcr us.com.sg lpl

Part One : Dictionary of Grammatical Function Words


Part 1VlO : Grammatical Explanations 247

11

Adjectival :'.", DUDS Adjccrives 252

248

Adverbs 262 Couji unctions 2G$ Counters 268 Euphonic Chang,ts 272
Intransitive and Transitive "V'el'llbs 274

276 :PoliteLanguage 278 Prepo sitions 282 Pronouns 292 'Verbs 293
NOIJO'S

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'"CJ

ro ru ~ ro
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Introduction
Language learners come, with backgrounds and ~ nterests as varied
as people come in shapes an d size s~ To ace 0 mmo date the burgeoning interest in ~'agtlle:,,'~-,~,angu,age study is, an equal number of books and, learning aids for all levels, One resource that anyone can USi~,~ 110 matter what the ir level of J<B,-,II_- , thorough ,gm:, '), reference, Thi s one is designed for e;ase of us-e by the non-linguiet=for the non-native speaker and user 'Of
I '~'

:5:
~ ~
"a

ru m

:" p_a[l~~leather than tile student of,' ap'fifle~~+ r G~n]LaJTd,cal, ~emIrnn():~'Olgyitii, :kept t~) nl~:nrn:m,u:m.~, arF'~ detaru ~,ed, a as exp':~Ml:a~i,orns,aso why words or phrases function as ~be;y do, t Rather t. example sentences show' concretely how and where the key function words are used. It is hoped that this method '\<viU be
immediately accessible (and useful) to a wide audience, Use of 'this reference book doesn't require extensive prior knowledge of grammatical terms, nor does it demand, ilia,t the reader leM11 them, though of course one. is not at a. disadvantage for' ha ving that

ru ..c
~ ~

"~b

> 0.
o

knowledge, To look. up a WOJ[d one s\lm:ply need know how ~O' say'wt~and be grateful that romanization of 11 ,:p~e"e is easier than s.pe]ru~g ill Engli sh,
Par One includes grammatical function words arranged alphabe tically w ith entries given first in romanized form,
I

followed by'~
grammatical

,~;,ese characters, Each entry includes a. brief description of the 'word or phrase, and several

English

equ iv alents '. Below 'that follow sample sentences :'llustrating various positions within .3 sentence 'where the entry word or phrase may 'be used, In these sentence s, the au thor treats
the progressive (.te i.r,w,,) and t;~:n:,~~forms verbs as dictionary forms, of as ij];ese can. be further CO]}j ugated. The sample sentences illustrate a wide variety of everyday situations.While some of the English translations of the ~i_'BJn -e rna y seem a, bit stil ted thi s has been, done deli b eratel y urn the
I'

interes t of clearly HIustrating lite grammatical pattern at hand,

Other related or-similar' function words are cross-referenced a,'~ the end, of each emry, and if the reference occurs in Part Two, a~~rrjIn
parentheses follows,

While Part One is for looking up specifics, Part Two takes a


more traditional approach to gpaJ1rmm; examining parts of speech, their general usage, and conjugations. As, such it C4m be used, for fll1£1llier'detai led s~udy (:rf a particular part of' speec b. or grammatical usage, Usage IS, a key word throughout this 'book, as the anther has made a concerted effort to S])OIW various nuances of particular llJlB~ forms, He bas, also included a detailed C[088- re:,-en~~~nce with Part ne'"Thus if one looks up Verb Forms in Part: Two" for example, at list of words and phrases lin Part One that are commonly used with each of the verb forms Is also provided,
I I "

A further word. about verb forms is in order. Consistent with tile


minimal use of grammatical terminology, the author has, no~,used the traditi Dna] terminolo i)' for verb forms, 'Orne 'Will not find a listing for "conditional forms," for example, but rather the "baform" and 'the ~'/1'lra~formOnce again, ehe user need only know .;..j how to say something in: order to learn more about it, It is hoped

[l\ffROJDUCTION

Ii!

th~tt this. approach win be found user-friendly, Like :any systematic

approach, however,
it

one

must allow time to become ace ustomed to

One final note ~11 regard to' the Preposltions entry in Part, Two, While other sections. list ~p'a' ese first, followed by English

equivalents, this section alone lists English prepositions first


following them 'with example sentences illustrati ng how these nUlY be !~:X,.l'~ ssed run J at', nese, As these two, three, and four= letter Eng 1ish 'w'I~)rd :functi 0 n v,ery di ff e ren t 1. yin 1a:' ~$1i,~, the s exceptional treatment of them here is. not: only justified but extremely hel pful, It is the author' s hope ~~,'~students USing this book 'Wi make great progress '~ntheir study of the ~'~ _', ': ' language. 'He has.
1: .'

:5:
~ ~
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made e1!(e:r,Y'effort to ]nclude both e'v~~yday exceptional usag,e and

ru m

n the example senteeces presented here, for ']"0 no rules without exception s.
<]
ee,

,,0,;',

:,;_g'

'~~

.c
~

ru

Finally, special thanks go to Julie Iezzi and the staff of the Charles <E. Tuttle Publishmg Company 'for (heir hard and patient

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'wo.rlc~nedi ting the English content,

Dictionary of' ralD-m' ~ "'0 d · U ',"Ictton ]:,1 ,'r.1 G'_I,'_UJ.__··_~attca 'I F,''-'-'-'• 'W'" -,- S
I_ .,

m
~ ~
"a

:5:

ru m

ru ..c
~ ~

"~b

> c..
o

1~;
"
,i;

IIi"':!'IIJi U,~;'\.J'"\.1'r.,L1~II.MJ.,.

~,'"J!I'''''AT[;f"'AL'
L"',

II;iI'T .-··U·"

.'fr'li"]O'N' L ,J]
I .'

WnD 1Ll~'
• '.

..... 1;:1

agteru,

CFJ)
'~."~'~~-',

a. person who- is either of equal '0([' lower status), do (something for' that ki]]'d of person)
Vs'R.B,MeAN~NQ.:give (som.'ething to

is used witb a person of higher status or to whom the spe aker wi shes to sho VI resp eel. fa ru is very informall y used instead of this verb, The Ist person cannot be ~herecipienr,
SCI:5'hitlg,(!.',ru

Kono ho,n ()',ogemllsu.,

] give' you thi is book, (Kona ,ho,n 10 a,asldage'masll., [respectfulj)


2., A,otter te-:fnrm, of verb
~ (J) ~

~1:.:r1i.-r~,{f'J: ~ l
0

Kono j itensha

kush ite

lI:g'(t,rtitlSlI;.

I lend. you this, bicycle.


(K ono j.iten3htJ' o kashne £'(I~/dll.gem'aju:, [re8pectiiul])

~R~~;?''Y' 7 t- A a-'.A ~ -r ~ ~f'i Lt,,:o

J(,anojo ni nekkures U 0 katte ,tllIe:mal~ila,.. h 1:bought a, necklace for her.

~~ See [also kureru, mora:f~

NUl] N ,MEAN[NG:

in between, between, during, from . . . through,

among, while
1. '"

Followed by ni

r~H':3L -r -o

< t:: ~ ~

\0

,Aitftl nl tatte kudasai. Please stand in between,

2,. ,After n'oun ,+ no." folIo'wed, hy ni tj'q_:(J) rill" I~': t-~' ~ lv;!1fWi ~ -r ,~,£, L i: 0 m "d'" -"",.A,..... .~ . ua. R usu, n{JI ,Ql~_a. ,n~tanasa-san ga tazune te k'U11tlSrf..,. ~Mr. Tanaka came U) see you during your' absence.

3., After noun, +' to' ,+ noun

fis1j!fflj ~J: ~ t 1J:ti( (J) rB~~: ~

4- no,

followed by ni
WJ ~

~t
Q

YUbi,nlJloku wa eki ,to ,gakko' .'to aida fIli arimasu. 'The post office is between the station and the school,

4~ Af~e.[noun + kara + noun + made no H)8 '-IJ~ t; 15 8 '~ ~(})'Wl1*h. '!' 1-o
TiO" ,kartJju ge H..t'chi' ma;de ,ItO Qida: yasumimasu. ,I'Il take holidays from the 10th through the m Sth. 5, After verb in the progressi ve tense, followed by ni *~~"A-l~~~'~ ~~~:n£0 L. 1 ~ t::.o "{" Hon 0 Ylf},lIde iF,JI,' oilda ni nemuue shimatta.

:5:
~ ~
"a

ru m

.c
~

ru

"~b

6.

I fell asleep while I was :reacHng a book"


After dictionary ferm of ,adjoco,ve, :~ono\;vedby n i
";if:'
~I.·
'1;1

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o

:!!. Ilf,IJ ...."t) 0 ~

Il~~~"":11.

.-

'I•• ~,~~, L ru, ;J~,

I--'

L I~ ~

.J>{ L~

C ';(~0

ill L.-., 1'" ,;, motto ,Utt!."n~jO- snU1CU'tU. Study more while you are young.

'D1' ,J;.. ~ ,:..1 rr:!Q.H;;{n QllUQ"

I!l

'"

amari
ADVERB

~'~' ~

(used with. a,negative) MEANmu:: not much, not many, not enough, not well, not Vier,}!'
ill '"

'Used with negati ve 'Verb

fl,tt~'~' ~1t~i'1t'/~a

\t';

,_atas:' h,.'wa tttnttn~ ,~ tau',e'ma'sen ..


,l,

I don t eat much,

Kare no koto w,a amari J'hinmas,6n ,. I d'OD1'I' ~ kn " 1iJ.." ,i:LOU:[ him " '~,o;wm!tlcw~~ b i,
,e

~I:ri)~ t ~j:a?;:' 5m ~ i 4t
~I
1-' ,-

~Q

~§;'J:

l3~'~W~ l.~'~ ~:~,lvo

Ima fliliQ'n (]-kane .0 ,mo,t" limll~,e,,,. 1 don' t have much money now, 2,. Used 'wi'dl, negat ive ,t-dj'ec~ive

'7C~tta, ~ ~ ,,t

< ~ ~ i 1tlv

Tenk: i'\!',Q ,aman Jlita lanmasen. The w,eadie:[ :w,s not very good . ..0.. i"~ ,.J..' ., f'"~ " ) xii "1'1- "-.11. 1<: l):Ii ,t? tAr) :::t:- h :":#. '\,~ ~ '$ .:J.l- No . d;. ~! ~ ,(¥) ~.J ,~"i.:!. Kaisha wa ie kara ,(lman t,jjiu ,Qrimase'n., The 'co.mpany 'W'S. very far 'from our house, not
J, ';l:_

are

t5tt
it

DIDdONSTRA 'fIVE NOillN 'Mf;A:NlNO:: ~batt!, tbose"

h refers to :RD objlec~or objects far from both the speaker and the hearer, The ,polite form ,j "',fr ... W' hi.... or . L.:. ':; JVU. u~ V,h"also , diy' means "th- at r'~A I
-u· ... ·L,~'''-''rl tiljji, ~.'!bdrl~''1J'' ~J J! ~ ': ,'~ g, J~IIlj. ,, 'In;D;i"I:"",,'It'II!'~1 "_: ~'u'.iJJ

~that direction. n A,e becomes Q,f;U} before a noun it modifies, ,Mor~O've,r it becomes asoko when expressing "that pla.ce OV'ler there,"
1

1.,.

Followed by particle
""An
W,IQ'

r~,n~J:ro~T~~o J

r~,n'jc EI ,*O? ~ 0 ~'~T


tUJ

nan des« ka" "~Ar:ew:tj!' ninon

j ""tts-uri desu.
0

,Ac'htm "Ii tsuisara aerU'Vtl

kudasai. 'Please call me when you get tbere. .:c_ '-:;.~, i' "*" V" . "0' _,.. r: ~\d;.L lJ:_ t. ..,,-- -d'= ;:i'!.!, 0. J_ 'Iii I*' C /'1i..J ~0., "=: ~ 'f' .,,\I; IJ__" ~ i '1
,0

'·:A,cldr(l, 'W'" domaa desu ka. ' ~'.Ya;na'n()t'o~,sa~1; desu," "Wbo is, '[halt person?' "She is. Ms. Yamamoto."

_J:.

-dl= '}

_tJ~~

i:;fj,(/) Ji:~' t1) =t 0IGlnlCo wa ano tatemono no tonari desu. The bank is next to the building over there, ,(A,re becomes ana when used as an adjeetive.)

1_ -r:

r 1v'iJ:d5,-t;:
"~

~:,~, ~ i"'f

Toire WlaQ$.{,ko ni arimasu.


TIle restroom is over there. ,(A,rie' becomes asoko when meaning ~~m3Lt.place over there. ~'~)I

f!(/)~~j:

-t ~ 1:"T

Wcrtasn i no ie 'wa ,QSQ,l€o desu. M,y house is. over there, -+ See also kore, sore

arhnasen
"'_n:;'~,.i"TlV£:: ~,'<I~un :....

iI; ~ ~ =it Iv
V'IE'D"~ ~

used-. fo'r'-C ~.II.~ :, ... the neaative form mal .... ,P" ',' " -_b"'!U'i!'!b> JI"u 'a,. .
I" "

,I,

0.£ ,!..I1.

d.....
'['01" ',' _!lr..LIIl't-'!!

,nTI'.I' u: 'ilAg.1

aLII.lL-

and

~jiecti.ves

I., After (~jiecU val) noun + ,deliv,a


b.
41
-¥ :f.l' o1i ~ ~d.~L;..

0)1 ~J~'~~,

'

..~

.$ -

Iv ~

-..;J!.....b ~,<;;L, ~

n ~ :lL} 'J ;;;It 47!, IVQ

Kore

'W\{,

wattlsht no, kaban dewa arimas;en ,.

This is 'not :my bag"

Sono mandai w,a am(~T;iii:Y'ij' tlewa ,(lritnaS,f~'n., That problem is not v1ery important, 2., After ktl.~,form,of adJective
..." .I'T'\'~ i*- 1.J. ....... j 'J'~1i!Dl,j,d" v

of U)r~'Bti,~, fJ 1t~'1!tidtJ ~ £,

'*' 1tIv
l_

1,......... J. ilIli I ~ !fb L" ......"t) ,;;is:: '\, €iy

!, -±:...:i,l..
,a;.:-l";!.,

(V

Kono kika i wa dokomo 'war,~tkll,arlnmse'n., :N(Dithing; is wr.ong 'wi~bthis machine. ¥~,;1~ ,;l? t) ~ -tt A~~ L- i: Q. ! Solo' w:a sa:,nula arimtu,(!:,'n, ,deshita:.

<

It wasn ~ cold outside, '[

-,. See also aru, desu, nai, rn,a~~~:'ti Verb Forms (II)

9~rn

~t61
be, there be, exist, have

VERB, ,ME.ANlNU:

1. After inanimate subject


Ginw
W(l

4tF::ll ...... ~ ~ !ill;;r trI ~ .... ... j ~ +~111 d::: ~ ' :001,(,11' '.,d..;.w\ 'v ) II [DJI ..,_", ')1 ~.._ &Ji rJ ~,'

""'*')

I)

l~dci o mukiJ ni tlrimasu. n

The bank is on the ofher side of the station,

2,. After (object) noun + ga


'·_-"JI

r'g5~~:, i':/ ? '_ z,{tt, ~ I ~'


,~~~l~~
r •

~'-t,~),o
_~~~

J rtt
H '
Q,!['

\< \"
/,11 _ .. U>.

~'''H' eJ~ 11:..r.~ w"','" ~ -:.. -~ '~ka'wa ~~ ~~ a . __ ,~n:n~':III,"I'niPU ka. "H. ": rima "'j~ iF-i!k.', M~~'.
"Doe
V'~~
I(!

"

,.,:a,.'iEIJ I!U~~ .....

ro om h
~1~illJ!l!, .

'~I'l;JiI'!!; I~:~ ~

a shower?" "Y ... a


.. ! ... ~.

~~1i1l

it does
tI .•

\rIOii

3., Mter u~-form of verb + koto + ga


(used for expressing experiences)
I~

JkJit ~: 31ru 1"-[~ t: ~ ~ ~{tt, t 'T


"J}~/F'!i'I;;';·r·~I~J .O<T;' 1.J!~'l'., J\:Wl~ ilil'li'njf..,,,,,,,;' Ii IV'fly J V'
j:;'n,L.."t:~ _ ~j~!I;.iIP ft,y·[ ~ .. ' .~

0
u,'J.

gn'

IWMi' 1--_jI~'I~

nw'.ilti-n,II!'1'J'

4., ,Af~er.- form, of verb te


=

(used, for expressing some continuing state caused by an action)


'~<O}

Y' ~ ~~' rJ' =r d; ~ £. 1-0 j:,

'wa shimete ari .. a.~u" The door Is shut (because I saUl iO," ~~ See also arimasen, lru, koto ga: a r,(l" nai
,D,{)lJ'

atfiJ de

t -rafter, later
:5:
~

PHRASE MEANING:

1., After noun + no


1J~",?
.oJ!

t ~:.0)~"e::J ~
cf!,ltn.kll:i-i' .• V'_-'3__U"

1;:: ,__

~,it~ ~ To
.;j"1i V

ru m

~
"a

J:t'f'!UJJ1!;()

_ .. !l..!';]O

n,"" aio "",.

'~"'1 ~I[i-

,~"""lii,:n:!\vfl.lJ:~:

n'· mi:.Ut~;i)U. ~ - , o ....... ,'O!il'


.!l.!

][usually drink coffee after meal s, £;. Afte« l'a~form of verb, 1-1:j[.i)!~' b ~ '1:.til:. ~~' 'L- t:~ t fJ! t, ~ ~'2:. iTo Shigoto ga ow,ana ato' de hanashi'tai koto ga arimasu. There is something Mwant to talk [0 yow. about after I finish
WO[t~

ru ..c
~ ~

"~b

> 0.
o

3~ 'Usedas adverb
1~, -I,.,. J::I:!L u_1,:I
Y

,1&~' 9ft ~

L ~~ d::' '_

'L,..

],

... .-J" 1: "J iJ ~''O

Ate de
~. " '['I;::l'I..~ LJw:~

shirnl1,;.d.,ij ka. Shall I call you laJter'?


,de,nl1la
~ TIl ,eo...... l'~fl'I<"""'" I rW~lU! ~M"iLe;,
Iololi.no.n f-'-"'~!c

au
VER~

~,1
(added to' other verbs)
~UiANING:

escb other ~reciprocally

Dr 1'0

..

,;""!_'D'" 'J;,iI~;I' U.[!Ii..M.l~lij,U1J.",

""T'[if"I'A"
III.,_.

. ;'.

1. ru.... [Lv, w, .iriiIlJi.1I"'i;!O:' Tii"""iI"'TnN '_'_.'u,~):11 ,lr~IL.IIl


".-.

1" After' conj~:ncti:veform of verb

,Wi ~,t 1 ~ t tJfje,W u"~T 6?

T;a;s.ulc:e,'QU koto ga taisets u desu. ]t is important '[0 help each other, ,,'2lUi .E;tB r. ' ~'~ -k. '" , '~f.riIl..l,TI_ '-:0( OJ 1:j;J,J 1m I~: '0 \( \'""( L,.r atJl'z id.. r#'~ jjU-1

\._"<i'

~ t.. e' ~, c,
7'.,

,.'6:....

m' !.!'~, ± ,1 CI ~~

Sana mondai ni tsuite InlN'Rl~hiaebe katketsu: dekim to' omoimasu.


';IIi'-'-'

,-",,',l'1k-,-,--""h ", "h b'-~' .~.e ILO ~~em!~ IIiJIiJ.l __A "'U can l J!! you, taUii. W,W t • eac~, o~,~elr,.' oue th' ,',nrohlen I·'iJ..'~':n'~[.,yo _,,'',' ,3; solve i~~
111'1-;" '

',' "·'1 Of '.'. b -'. PA.:RTICLB ,MEANING .. 1 ~,wr en


I .. -'", ", W I I

becoming naraba. See Ve;r.lb Forms and Adjective Forms (D) for details about conju,gltion..
l

Note that da ,i s irregular

'~ Used in: ba- form, of 'verb "

db~';:: ~:ff~t~,fUJ' Iv~:~;t, ~'T E8~,

A.soko ni' ikeba Yamada-san ni aemas u,


1flW ,J JIJIl

vou-' b OV~IIF there jU CoGIl'I!'TI, see 'M'! y"G!'FY'\ ada C"O' vou ,,:QiJJ_Jj 'w .' • ': '\b ~ ~, 19!. < n,~f' tr '? fLo,D J:

,Motta haya,k,4li:un,b.a yokatta If l']:ruadcome much earlier, h would have, been better (1 should
0 0

*
1i;..<.lII

!I;;i,t "';';;':i'

-'-

==

,. 1 l!l;Y.l,!iy!~, ~_.'

have com ~ much earlier ') {~tr~*h~,!~,;t~[<t:_~ ~\o Kan~iO' ,g:a,AurlJ."" oshiete kudasei.
Jy"¥' . ~~,.. ~
II:.I.J _ ~ Il.,..~ , "' .' ~" ... :

'Wben. she comes ~please tell me, (for a future condieion, [no nara is used. insteed of ba after
dictionary form of verb)

,(:I,a i'
'~",

"' , ' _~O ••

tJ,o
..

···!III_,

lt9'1 _'

1tif"~

Tokyo n i i:'k,,~ 11'(1'(1, En inkansen ga ii de su y.o., no If you' re going to Tokyc, you should take the shinkaasen, 2., After (.aqjecd.v·aO noun + nara (conditional form of aa) ~ L i: 11.~.!?, ,;f17"~ t 1tlv' 0'

~")""'''' r

': , 1,.· .J'

,,~ '\

v~

m tf"
6,

t~~~ !!ft'~-"'" lJ ~,~i~:.J..{ "?

~ ., tf
'_

':!J

~.,1:-

\;. 'it

GI-..

IIr

Asld'ta ame. nartWtI ikima;se'n.


I 'WOIl" '[ go if it is rainy tomorrow. .3~ U Sled.in ba- form of adjective l. ~ 'L ~tn~f ~ft~ -r f'=·~\t~o ~? 'Yor(}'s'hiitl-'r,'eotl di5zo, tabete kudasai. If it is all right (If you feel ']i't:,e :~t) please eat, ~ -10 See also J1lcu'"a' tara, to, to is ureba. A,4jiect~V'le Forms (Il)J Verb

<

:5:
~ ~
"a

Forms {II)

ru m

ba

lI'

Ii' li'

bodo

~f,.'.~I~;l t~
mo.re ..,... the more ~~,.

ru ..c
~ ~

PHItAS~ MEANJNG: the

"~b

> 0.
o

1~ Used. 'with verb

r~~~t'tl~!'-,- ~." Q ~i

Re.wnu .sure'btl IiUru' hodo umak» narimasu .. The more you practice, the bener you can do,

-< 1&:

~I

£ To

2., 'Used with adj ecti ve

4!,~t ~!'~"~ ~. ~\r}o n ~ t~~

HaYllkertel)a ,""tli IUHl(Ji i i. The ~OIOI~l1erthe, beuer, ~


.
, ~

.;JIV~ -ail

0,0.

1'i;'~I,il:'Jfio, ~fl\.J

'~n·'i:~_D
I~~~~

%0

Iii'

(JRAMMATICAt

,IFUNCt[ON WOR~S

b~arj
t

",f 7;-:. ~ on1,y ju st,


I

"ARl'TCLR ME.AN'JNG:

a] ways,

be, ready to (do), have j urn

(done) about
ru.

After re-form of verb, followed by iru/;~'"Ia;!iu


'1: ~tll~' v ~~ 0 t) Kare '.v,a asonde hf!lian in«

:uJl.ttillv

He is always playing, 2. After dictionary form, of 'verb; followed by dnJde's.u

fl£~i~~~ t 1t.~ Q tftJ~ ~ l:T

Ka r€ wa itsumo taberu bam,.i des« . He is always ready 'to' eat, 3,. After ta,-form of verb, followed by da/desu .It-' ~ ;: ~;:~ ~ 1'f::. ~fiT" t:J "'r- 0 Ima 1«;'''0 Iii ,ts.~:itQ' lltlk.tN:i' dess: I ve ju st ami ved here,

~r

4~ Affer [10'1111
Kare
'~VQ'

1f1j ~;:1~~i ~ L~ \t:. l), ~:rt;~ T'


,8

,beniJ,jj btl,tari He is always studysng. 5~ After particle

hite iru.

fJ!ijc ~~,;t rgr:t?,mr ~:

~:t ~ lr ~ ~ 'T 1J~

Ka;~oj()wa toshokan ni bailin' ikimas u.


She always goes to the Ubr,ar,~,

6~ Af~eJ noun expressing '~.eng:thl!ilJumtUy

']_~~-6I~!iJ~~ '~'4~:, ~ T e L ' '1..-:l.. L lir ~ • h' ,. ,I S.f.rj,Ul.'tan ,u\a~an:rusu tu snimasa.

J'Il be ~,way about a, week. ] '7J'i )1' -r:2~ n I: ~ f*~ ib:r:~ ,;{_f L, i: 1"P

, KKClg'll'tj;U

-~ ~..,~:..: L _.... .: , ,I... . 1... ' de R~ mro f1U,K.an talJu Ell' fl-'uemasrh ita. ,'" _: I gained about two kilograms in,one month,

-'I"

See also dale

'I.,': " - ,', h £!'J'Jid d:~su r{ ~ ';.,:~


_l;,. ~ ~

PltHDICA 'JIVH PHRAS:E NlEANlNG:

shou ld, ou gh[ to (do)

1.' After dictionary form of verb

~~~t Jv~v~f-Ir <,,~~, -r'T


You should work, hard, of ~ t:t. 1j, (/) ~ ,R -1 ,~, ~
SO'n11tl

0
+

Iss ho.ke.nme i hat.aruiu bleki desu

m
0

~ ,:,j: ~ ~ ~

mono (J kaZt beki ,de'w'a: ';'Utl.~

Y'011l

,M-otto

b Q t ,_,(~~~"'ELt~o *
lULJi~U
L" -'~,.n to ,1:" Kuru; L l.. ~ ,;I

shouldn t buy such a thing.


fle,'At aeS,t:'tt.l-a.
J!"

h td: t~~.t ~ !:,,~~iT(~,).r<. '1:T e ~ ~ Anal" w,~' mono benkyo s,~~(.,.u J beki desu.
You .:>lIL[ '0- n,'. ld study u it..
<·..
0[1 'I~" .' ~ ~.-_ •. '
t','

I should have come much earlier,

Jl.lt

t'DO;if'\ai, .
',W,I~'II

(s,~~,ru lJf!ki -if

2" Used 8!S

~'hlj:tE El Txt ~ ,¢it:.o

be abbreviated to sube lU) ,adj~cHve

may

Sore 'w:a ,chrimoku, fj,uheki ten

do,

That's me point you should pay attention to.


(dictionary form, of verb -+ beld' directly precedes the noun and da/des« follows) ~ See also nake reba l~ara~"~ai

bun.
NOUN'

Y}
n«:mCA.TIN'~1: quantity part, portion, 3,
<;

degree

I., .Af~erdictionary form of

Velm)

1t~~?ttt~
"T' L i. ..L ,atu<er,lI;.uun

f)

f.T~

. lV.a aruna-:su ..

There is enough to eat 2~ Af~erta- form of verb

·-t~~:~~~tZ,·:u-,~·Jt~l:"< t!. ~ \(~o

S'udeni' ka:ita 1Ju':t~: misete kud~ai ~ ,0 Please show me the pan that you J ve already wri tten.

J.lQ t.:5}~inQ~ 13 ~, "£ T


j

Nokodti ,bun 'w:a lotte okimasu. ,I 11keep die portion th~,t ru 51, left,
3., After nai=form of verb

~ ;. ~' \!"~£r I;j:jg 'L· "C' i!3 v ~"( T '~v \

.IroneR' ,bun 'w:akaeshite oite kudasai ~


Please retum the p ortion you don't need.

4-~ Af~efpossessi ve particle no


~h~,j:. 0) )t.t:: T fL
0
I

Kore '''1Ja 'wataJ'hi nO ,bun desu. h T1..·· is mly S,.: .9.[Ie., _ nrs ~

c'h_a
M'

~~
I!QU]'VALENT
'

]Nl;;URMAL
'E' ,"" :J.jfI'li;,_TG'· " .• l:.!--'3.J.'III,lJ!,'lI _"

of te

W'Q

orr' tara (usually used by women)

if

'!

-w- -hen-;--. ',-, ,-

used ""'f-'Q,rii" ti'I,.;'e ott...~_'. , u,~, ,t!-,._fo rm of V· erbs whose d']' enonarv IU].. u~v .~'111!li.i,- -~J' form ends with -U!' -kJA.,. tsu, O[ -ru. It becomes }a (the informal
~jr JLllt . ~

l' '"

l.::ii~

€lJIlll!k-~lJj,

('IPB'mlAf,t,.

,I

:,.,!br,

··0

",":.

1~ ,After' the stem iof te- form of verb ~ ;:~~i'--:J' t ~tt \ ,~·t '1:!'!v a :! Soko ,e',itc.1I.tl ikemasen .. Y ou must not go there, '-to At ~. ~ c. 'i' ~ n.;~lil: ~ 'j;' T' 0
Sonno koto ;() areeh« komarimasu. s
I'Il be distressed if you do that, ~ See also ikenai ~ naranai; tara fa,
m

c·:ba.u.

t -? ?
te shima« (usually used by women) mean(do], finish (doing),

JNFORM;AL :EQU]V A'].J~NTof

ing::' be gOiing to

(do something)

completely

It lSI used after the stem of re-form . of verbs whose dictionary


:fomll lends wi~h.-ir~".-ku; -isu, or -ru, . ~. ecomes jau; (the ,ru.mQ,mlU(]).l b version of de ahimau) after tbe stem. of re-form of verbs 'whose dictionary 'form ends 'w'iHru -bu, --g u, -mu or =n,u., It is sometimes
j'

followed by no when forming a question, The ,Past forms arc


c,h;attiWjatta (p,:brin) and cha!~m;Qs.hi'ta/j(;i:i,rtLt:sh.it(J. (pol ~.te )I~

1 ,After the stem of t,f,\-·f;orm of verb t ~ ~ ~ '?' 1v"f:·T'·'/J··o ~1'~


,m

~',8 'i t~ Jv.itlv E ~ ~\ ~ T o ~~ Kyo, )V,adondon ,no,lIjaim:ssu.

Mo ktl'eit:'ha:g n desu ka. Are you going: to leave so soon?

14· ..'
..

GIlA.MMA TICAL .F.UN(."]']ON 'WORDS,


;Ci'

I'(I·m. aoina

e!LV,
I \

11-"",:
-

dr~;ll'" ·la... ?'(',al"'}.'1!J.'~''0:+'''''' ... .llJH.r... l1A.!!;.,o! ,.... ., .L..J Yd'"".


oJi;

"-:;rrlo -J..".. ~'- irP"

1~~

~._,~'I.!'10.....

c; Z L..r ? ~ ~. ~

1.

.f-_. 'I

+-:'

,-)

-::t

L i'u.,D ';",.,

Kanojo ni w,c~rui oto o ,shic htlimOJj;iila'" k

I've done wrong to her, See also te sh imau

ehltteme
ADVEJU~

-;1 rJ C. t
MUMlNG:

(used with a, negative)

(not) (rut all, (not) a bir

~. Followed by negati ve verb ~~ c'b ?)~£ vl~·1tho Ci!ittOfRO' kamaimasen, I don' '[mind at all.

(affirmative sentences use SN'kOS.hi)


L ,iL" L SU~08.tlli n i'·honglo ga nanasemasu ,. l: CID speak: a ]jUle Japanese,

11;: L. n *mjQff5;t·! To

~ See also ,a:}ncu·i'.~ astaku ~;5llikV'sn i zenze» m


i'

--d' Cb'Wi. )I!L!'


,"""" ;i!'i;

],'" Used witb ta:~,form, of verb, followed. by tokoro


~!i.....'_l i aaraesu

(Of.'

b,~/uH'''i)+

~.

~ ,t 'j ztr -;-~::1" '"4:" ~~ ;it

",,~., .tJ~'m' .J:,; 1tk ......;.

yz..~' r: ~ ~ /j

I...,~ ,

-+. 0-

CI2iido sh lcoto c)'oeta tokoro des«.

I' ve ju st finished. the work,

;,

,J;:

'1 ,~~:i1-~~t:~ f) -e T !':Q~


i

(J

ChiJ.do ima tsuita ba'kan desu.


I've just arrived.
2.

Before number expression

t:,

! .. C~9~~: j

*="C < t: ~v'o


i

CAodo' ku j~' 11 i kit« kudasai:


Please come aill,nine sharp

1~ After nou n expressing peri od of time iii*Jj. [P~:7 :)''I) tJ ~:1~f ~ ~ '1:1-0 <Q
= ,.

1\1 ~h '·k· -,L, '. ~ ~"a;tstJ, yasUl'fIZ IC~~:ll lIt ame r,~~ .n~ tA,U tsumon aesu. j:J

] plan, to go to America during [he summer vacation,

~5mt.P ~:.i*h ~~~, :~ :::TtJ,~~,{iJ, ~ 'T'o 1


I=~l

I ] ,.11, deci.oe "


2,,> 3 a

KlJ'1!shi chi ni yasumi


Wl~uHiIJu,I.1S,

'L\.. ,.

;hiL. .,

~:,*nJtL 'i: ~j-

wee k c
0

0'

doko de

AI • wh"ere to spene ..'IL.. UJ!evacancn.

;5[,180;$11

ka kime masu.

-j.'

N.t ,s,all ,filt't::lttji ni kansei s:himasu., I'll complete it within a few days, See also J.u

da

t!:

-, See desu

uaga,
A.

f:'f;.J.'t ,10,.. t,J

OONnJN,CT]ON

(usually used in written language)

.MEANING:

but,

however

1. ,At the beginnlng of sentence


0

rt!t.~tj:*·v·"? t:: t! iJ~~ < Q)~'n~~·b,~ttt2:·o

Se'ns:o' w,o Q",vat.la.. Daga: oku no inochi .g.a ushinawareta. The war is, over ..However; many people Iost their Uves, 2~ After dictionary ta-. or nai- form of verb/adjecti ve -+ naln
1

!.,_, V_j

.".. tTiI,~

1=1' 11!=l.!1 ~ ~

~4;"~'\i ~.dl. ~.

1i,1'l'1. ~

v » l ...... .Ili!l~, 1/

~i

ieJI'

'm IJ .~ J:.~ R,

(". h .. ~~,

v'~

0<

Kono shohin Wa' yassd no' 88ga hinshits u go, yoksma! These goods are cheap but the qual ity :rn s no~good, 11rJ) '~) ~ tJ, t. QJ 1:1Ji,..~ x_ ~ 7)....'J t: 0 ~ "

:r.~

Kare no uchi (J taz,lJ;neta ,NO tIara, aenakatta. I dropped in at hi s house but I wasn' ~able to see 'him. J6' ~~A... t~ b Jj:o' ~ttL'f~' G ~.~ \0 j){;ji TaJrai' n dagaka''W,GJulkereha. rUlriaru'Xi~ lfs expensive butI need to buy it, 1ili El (et: 1J~0 t: At f.3. t;'f: ft f&,~ 1:~ t:Q O.r''UJsl~lr-okt~;akana ,II da.gtJ saig,.o made mita. n Although ~rwa.,;]];;t iD~er'esl~ing.! watched It to the end . T

<

.3. After (adjectival) noun


"ir Ji:P.: m.r ~~~~"

~:±

tr- (J) t/ ,J;.~..t.n,~--h ~,~) u ,!::i,fJ ~~~,~ lJ


do· , ....

-+ na +, no/r:
Wl
do.

t? t-~,0'.

Kare wa "e,ijibu na: ,nQ d:aga

n1)ryoku

(fa ,t(Jriju$i ..

He is sincere but lacks the abrrn'~.~ty., . See also dake-do, ga (.2)f ke redo (mn)

dakara
'1;".'

....}-c$. .,J.~,r~ l,,-=,.11 ~


'·fflil!;.! iLlEi.it •• .. n~' :fIirr ,I:'4".!!!"I1 J'!fLIC.l.'-U'I Wl."IIU.

ii"""Oii.'I~ FJ.Jr·cn" ~.'!I!~"II"I'J."!I.

,iii . ''!I O'IIi'ii"':~ '''0·· lJI!JI.~lIIi ,;:"

;r;o,

th at'
11. -

Ci

i:!I'W

"i'iIIJ~'Y' therefore .... because J.:II. ." .,,' .IIl!!u.L


j. . ..... ,;GI.
-

Iil!.

,gab:'" =

..I_on.!il

al.iiA-~

.... D ,r·

III

.~, i'

~"T

I. At dwe begi nning of sentence f-h - -k t: '... 9 J,...;. ..~;.I1li.~S'm ',?~.~ - 1~~ 4oC, 0

"Jiko ga ana so' de ;!j:U ne" ~ 'Ee, dalulra okuremasi: i ta: "~Ibear there was an accident, n "Yes, that' s why . was brute .'~~; 2. After dictionary, ta-, O[ nai=fb.nll ofverbsadjeetive + noln ib L.. t: ~,J:.1f. s. f!,tJ':j; ~; '7 ~q e v)'Q

r·~

J r x x, ""'§i" IJ~' ·6·~.,fl,. '''"'"" r: r:_.:::i'ii J"1i


.j"

~'j""

(J;: v,'::: 0

<~ ~ ~
11iJ~.

Ash ita: W'Q, ,kayaku o'kJru ,n .d:a·ltl'l'rt. mn;nenasai.


G
.... 1"'" ~ .... .. ' ~ !Ur '~-JU'

bed now because Y' u have o a": ~ ·~.!u


1_ ,

,'\.i'·",

. :jt ~, ~'J:. ~, s .

n ,d'oJ,a--r--a: anaia mo haJ/aku' ikinasai .. Y,O-Uffather has already gone 50 :~I'Ou. hould. hurry aLod g'o too. s 3" ,Aft'er (adjectiv,al) noun + no -+- noln 1;1 .G: i: ~ ~ j.J.. Iv "It -/)~ ~, Q ·t. fWj ~jL 7j: < "'C' tl. ~~, i ,,-tt" i:.~ I? ~t· Otosan wa

.ma itta

.~ ·rr? t: Iv t:: 1;1, ;


·iGLJl.1.Il.;;)'1fg. I 1
I

11'0.' II;

o·a: • lU,tr-· e,lIjy.l~ m-i!n

12fJ ~

t....!fI- < tr ~~ .~ ~ :~, 1J


J •

t:ii.!CII'j"':~'lI" ~(.U .. W]"

IIi' ...... IL.U

morrow u '"
I ~ ..~ ~

;ivQ.

.A nat:a

W,eli

gaku;s.ei .n"
,H

n' do1Ulr-tl rna tto henqlj

s h inakute

W'tl·

lkemasen.
Because you are
~ See also kara

student you have to study

more,

dake

t.!' ~r
only, j US~,~simply! as much as. as . . . 38

:P.A'R.TICLE:MEAN.[N(J:

A!IUlAl ,flalle' o ,ai' sn ite imasu.

I Iove only you, ~ tt 1t~"T:'~ ~ (f) tt ;tH~t!. ~:t~ -j- 9

Sore go dekiru no 'wa tBra dO'lie' desu.

'T'lU''O istbte on I y nne w. 0 can do it ']]1.S L


.,1 -.: " . [ . ,",
f-" •

i-'

'.

,,-

,".·1

'.'

+.

2. After particle
101') '..... /....... '-

-:&.

ti"' ~ t.

..;.4" h ... '~

r~., I....., V ii1r.:l1 L ~'" '. '_

l,

Anata to' IdnAe

hanas hftui'.
0

,I want

-t rJJ'lb~ ~ij4rM1~:t:"~t ~ 'T ~t

to,

talk j U st with you (alone),

Sana dijbut~·u wrJ o.kin'~l'V,~1 i tflai'e imasu. n Th~m animal exists only in Okinawa,
3,. Af~er dictionary form, of verb/adjecti ve, followed by dDldesM Vi'imi ~ l:" II ~,.76 t!~t~T 0
,.l\.,cU-e'
IT --

wa.. l1em.. _. -~,. .III I~e l~· itf£:r.,U'. uue t ...J!...... __ '

He is only sleeping.

v I.. :i.. . j',.. • ,R,ore \Iva tan,a.f, utJ'lif' desu., A mtl n, yo",u a rUl1'llSetl .. '. ....
i,

~,l1Jf~1J\f.:~t'""C'To
_AI' . -. ~Ui
So

I;i' ~ 1:
o

< a;

~I

'~+1-Jvo

Th.]" ';,.... So

1· m (l'~ I~_~~.!I!J

exeen

~-o!r.r,~.t~

Cll·

ve
. '~.r.

';1;'" It!

lL

not ~
Q

""0" Q!:.

I~VU'-

O'E'lIIflI

4., After ta- form of verb/ad j eeti ve, followed by da/des u ~,.1'L~.~ ~:,*t:. ~t1:T t! Kore £] ,ni.'n i ldta €lake' des«. I ju st came here to see this, & L~iJ -o t: t: ~'t~'T SMicashi: nemukatt« 1r:ltllnJdes«. I was j ust a tittle sleepy" :;. After nai -form of vernb/(ldj ecti ve followed 'by da/des t~
Q

1:i /t_ ~i~l~ ~~1: L ~~) tf. ~'tI:T'o


1.'0 WQo

v nare

L,' h< ';.;1 '8 _~ oman ~1,. nanasm 0' snma:~ 1 desu ,UlU,

I simply don t talk with him so ofte n.,

,)'_-@.j!.<·-I-"''J;:t-t r: .. ' '


;n', .. .I..!! _....

{..J'"!.i),

i:'" ', ~. 1:"' ' ......

{:I

JJ. itakul~aidale tle's.,Q ~ I j'UD.Sl don' t WMt to go.


s:
UII!!

After ,~m]
' ,.

'11!JJ"!:JI~L t•.iv ~... InO"Illl!Jl1i o:!I;d' I~'"",.... :1 ll.l-l· . J!JL

,if~~

lillin

~i~~Jff::g~ t':~l~*:. t.::f5cffl*~~ii) t


Kare \Iva ,Jilme,i.."n'IUi dale'

t) ~

'-t!~ o Iv

de tais hita se ij i ka dewa arimasen. He :~ merely famous, and not much. of a politician, s
7., In idiomati c expressi inns (hetween tLeki ru and adverb)

~T ~ t~-c:'~,~t!~tP < ~ £

;: ~,;:,~,"'( < t: e 1J~,o


soon as you can,

A,~u,mal:a il'elcirifl illite hQ/JlIk,fI, kok« ni kite kudasai.


Please come here again tomorrow as (after suki-na or hoshi,,)

~} ~ '~'t.:!~t1t.r{'""( <. t:! ~ v~o

SHk-j..na 4:ake tabete kudasai. Please eat as much as you like, 8., Used instead of hodo in the pattern '. '. '. ba .'.'.' hodo .... - J~ --~R':"b -~mak UliWiAiI;. ri'H~ -p,i, non; rima ",,;,M." na»'~~, __ DlUryo.i!t'I.:~ sureoe .:l!·'~r~~ The harder you tW'y~ tffil'e etter you can do it. b 9,. Used in the pattern . . . dake de nG'K:tJ . . . rnO tgttc~jB *~t.!~,t-r:~'( "7 :i / A ~-Et.~~~.:tti To ,K>aflojo wa: nihongo d'rii,ede n(j'ln'~ furans ugo mo hanasemasu.
dL£ijl it' - - -Ii'

::0...,

~
l~

ru

~jJ'T"tt~!t" Q t!.~,t ~ <. ,1:£ '?


-

J:' To

''''iF

fa

'1f.U

She cau speak not only Japanese but. also French.


-» See also ba . . . hodo,

kag.i.ri~,shika

dakedo'
~I

t:"~t, ~
however, though,

J:NFORMAL CONIUNcnON OR ADVERB MEAN1N(l'~' but,

1. m suill nevertnetess

d' - .t-'l.." '..' • .' l~ ,A :no·· u,rU~lla,g.a totemo ,()';$ hi '. ,fJ'.(Jt;.' !E:':_.OI ta_-:as,ug~,,,,,,, l< /1,. ...u., .
, -,' ~" - -.:. -, ,., . I. -l' .', - ,. I _'" 1.1.

3,0_' • .

ii"':'!'Ei< A 'k"'iJI;_iII ",. 9i'"]'r" A II'

o~i!u~JLn

JlI

'"-"II M""'I6ll~:'_~.l.IIi.1

I"N''.......... ',1"1 'WO'D'nCi "0 ... .~.":.:.~.J!

I want that car very much~ However, it is too expensive for me,
-i<.;H..Jr' v _z_ r
I._ ~)' It::." ~{" ,N -~ ...__ k' d. , _:-';J: ;C_

t. .,.;. L.

1 -*'

L tJ'

~} M~ ~,~ ~~.M._ iii _.:il I-r


jl _:n..

>:) f._

.J!r.,..

Dakedo sonna koto


0

~~~j:_'W~T j::~t,t:~~, ~~f~ 1:~j:&) ~ ~,'it Au £


Kare
w,a SRinsessa

shinakereba yokaua. I wish I hadn't done such a thing, though,


W,ll

,0

desu. Dakedo

tI:rft'tlri {iJ;/(i

deWtf; arimasen.

He is kind. Still I don ~ lite him very much. t

2,. After (adj ~c~i al) noun v tl 4,;;;;E',J..<r' - r L.. W "7 B ~ ii~F.:Jr: ~ c, J.ti ..). ~i~:y li'!i. 0 0: -.- N'~ -¥ ~ -J- J" n:~e J...-t"n;Jn d,'Oi,.,""""ll,.e~~I;&O'l]1i(!'u· ka Kyo~ -- --_ WIll you go out though it, IS, rainy today? 3" Aller dic~io:n:aryfoon o.fverbladjecdve + ,~oln
A
o?
.

'l[;iJn
r-[J{.~ ,'-

I&J!tI!\5 - -- - -

~ErUU' --

- --

-'

~~" -

..'

J!'ir~UY .- -

. - , - --!AI. .. '-

T ~ '? ~]!.,,t..: ~ ),;v t':11 t\, ~2: 1:'~ n ~,R '''J t: ,; tt,~\t~Q) 1J~ ~au ro
b16~ i:4t Ato
~I

_' ro
":C

::;e:
"C

Sumo
J',.--,"

.0

,nitll;"

n ita/uula doko de kippu

ka tta ra ii no ka

waMi'~rnas.en.'
J" w~nrt,~O see SUD10 wrestling, but I don l"[ know where . CaJ[ buy ' a ticket. ..(. After ul:=.for:molf verb/adj feu ve + not"

s: em

ru

ry _ -f D' ~',~

-:).i: Iv t!.

~t ~ff1 fJ}; '1J~tjT 7J~L V\ 1:';t'

,no ga Ifluz:ula;u:hll desu: I. boughta worn, prODeSSlJJi~but it is difficult to use, t% 7J '>:) t: Iv t!. ~;tlq ~ ~ L~ t W(, L tr~ '1;:. r1) 1:T 0 c ~ T r~,."",~ ,tHl.... ..'''''' .t. ,. ;1:.. J1 +J:"..... . ."J Jl. a'M~M~'~W ,galt-'uO R ",",':f,," ,J d'oif:ld:lemo noss uxau« no ue'su., It WaJ8 expensive, but J really wanted it.
WllPLi.rO a

kas«

,n; da'kedo tSU/uIU

See also

dag,a, ga

(2'),.ke',r:e'do(

11$0)

dare

'.....i'T'I:::lJ!l;'D T .L.I." J, ~v iI'liG 'n. '.':. .£,.,17\ ~.J;"IIOU ,~~T J!r~;' A 'p;'TINIr"· 'W' hIy .' ATI·\fl::'· "DO'O' .... ..~ ...' ... ....n;;l fi :.IU. .:.... n _

t.3.tt

1. U sed in subjective case with


-,ik~ ~ / .... , .;1i

g'(l

'-',IiJ IJJ!

+,i:~~~:-:::JL., ',biil~\K \ _~ L (_

-:#: "_:j.-.";')o_~0' ~ ~ I)

,Do',,,, ,ga kats a to Oimni"uJ.s,~t ka:


~n;¢~ ~ n~tiJ L t::.(J)~~m"":J'~ ~.~, TtJ~o i Dare It/; 'kart! 0 kowashha na ka shi,tte; imasu ka.
Do you know who broke wis? 1NII.O do: you think will win?

,2" "Used in objective case 'with oIrd f!. 1;':; L '"C' ~ '\ ¢' Iv '"'E 1:-"/)~ 0 Da,te 0' sagtJsJdt(t tru n desu Jus .. 'Who are you looking for? 1::' it ~-=~'lif} t; ,,~fJ) 1:' T~o

n~' , ~

::0...,

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

altai no de su ka. 'Who do, you. want to. see?


DU"-16 di

3~ Used as ecmplemenrthat

describes subject
_J, ....-i-l

r.;2t.Z- ..... P.;F' ~ ' if . it L. _A_: J'..:p.. CY} ~.. "- ~ ..... Ji.., 0 'il;,. \"~': i.;J' _- iii ell. .. -'~

l:'

~ ii' t.- - C

-::a= ...k"lj () _:~ I.).'

As,o'ko n,j' taste i ru ,1J:ito W'Ci dare desu lea.

'Who is Ime, 'person standing over there? 4,. Used, in possessive case 'with nO' iJ tt ~;t !.:tt OJ "1:"1- jjt~ 0 t

,Are 'wa;dare no' kuruma desu ka. 'Wbose ear is maru:?


L n~,j:, tLO),'rj"'~,!,k';Q~:b1;', ~ t:!.

.s~ Used

'Do youknow whose bag 'this, is'?


'with specific particle (,dal~' -+ ka: someone, anyone) t:_ tt if!! 7J~'lv~ 0 ,~t::_: V 1~ T 0

Kore wa 4tue

"0 kaban, ka wakarimasu Ira"

i 1--j:P'Q

,Ilarl!ka' ga i",~"mitai desu. Someone seems to' be there. (dare + 'fUJ' [used with a,negati ve] ,:110 one nobody) f':t1. ~ ru ;£ 'it luo DaTiemo denwa ni demasen. Nobody answers the phone, (dare + demo: aDybody,~everybody)

:~~=

t!.~. ~ ~-. (J)'-~,~*'-'~#r:,1:'~ r _.._ ,>1 '0 ~ 1FX,',I~!;J.,'.~ j~'11


I!.,.. _

~ ~ ~0 ~

+.

dar,o

t:.';;,?

~, See desh«

dSBU

t:1MlC'AN:' _.l.L~ o. 'IKr,~'


l,

~_!1D'D '1ITIl _ lei 'r GI1i._ID

abruetl y b e!a:iIIfIi (d'oin'g. ~y ~'~1 :~"""g~1(_.,.IIIf"\ someth ::.. . someth :_.;.; . Uv . _ ',~ iVLUJUIlJ.o). and take out, (do somethi ,g) and go out
Jt!"·l~,~. .' .
i~~,IIJ.ll

IV',

,I.

IJIV

a"

I.. After eonjuactive form of 'verb


t!. l t.:.o Kare wa tabako 0 su.ida'shitl1.. He began to smoke.
'~'~,ltl
~ (J)"lJ'~' ~~ -e,:::_,

1~~j,t:_,[ ~

{l)jl.fiiP; ~'~ T ~ ~~
0 -kane

m T;::
0'

C 'i;t-r: ~ t

+,
Kono kado de kono g inko kara
clekimaj'J1. .

,h,iiidQs,_1. 10.t,0 ,ga;

'W:hhthis card you can withdraw money from this bank" fA~j: ,,.t < tt~ ~t9:JtIti L t~o

'urI

"!I:.ata~'t~i 'wa .,OAU Jugyo

.~.

J_.

nR,

IteUa:S;Tl-1~a. ..J' :1'. .,.

I would often skip' out of classes ..


--90.

See also hajimeru

datte

f:: ~ 1:"
women

Ir(lrf(),RMA:l fAQ.'ID':DCL.!E OR OONJtrN:crrON

(usually used by [children) .MEANE.NO: but, because, also, even


:1~ At the 'beginning' of sentence (in ans wer 'to' a question)

and

rtt ~ t: <. ~~lOJO

"Ikitakuna: .n"i?j,~'iDatte tsukarete iru ,n; da .,nono."·; "You don't want [0 go?" "Because I'm t].f\ed.,"'~ (in r-epW,y to an imperative]

.J I ~~n -r'v} t:'9

¢ ttt~b

'7)0

J
l~

::0...,

ru

''''iF

fa

~'cM''()= J'·p'rn,1Ii!I! !U ed ~ Y'." Ti; ~, ~,~nfl,;t,oIQ.''"'" r-,~'!Ii,~l\:~L~ J "" .;;o' :i'oil':"'~:rj 'M,,;if;. mO:M'.Fii . U" ':_ "It' s time yon went to. bed." ~ But "m not sleepy, ,,~,
_, r. . -.~. I ~~~. l~"~
II:'Ii
;;o£!,'''';~,~'
,",I

r:~,.,<t~f~ ~ r~' T' J:, ~


~~-"!I'~;
IJ

J r r: ~'"([Mit < :Z:"~~ A.. f':' ~ OJ J


Q ~~f._~:
if 61',;:,t.t
~li~

~'!I'

,~.t"l!~' !f'I~"~ "!I.;

'!

'.r'~Q).I-,p'

'!'~

2,.,

~~t·t!_ ~ -r~*'~J~ ~ t:; z., Ka'ne;m{).ch;~latte fil/co'-na: told mo aru. i


d- ~,~ ftl'l,n,;Il .:J_,u "., _J' .. ,;'i! w,a I,}'a .'.·a.rrq.~as"f"-;-.l'-.'~'uuu~ely~ aa. "Lhate S1LICh things," "I do, too,"
,~,~,A, , .n.nM,-

After noun

Even rich. people Brie unhappy' sometimes. r d? J\; ~ ~ C ~t~~ t!Q J r:fAt~-?,"'( ~~,~ v
.!'U}~:Q
.,~ -"1',:f.
" ".'..•
U

t.:o J

3. 'Used with interrogative P[O'rnlOIUJD ,(d(:u~.f!,'j! an, and doko + dane mean every body, everything, and. n

everywhere respectively) t.:n:f.! ~ l.:c-h~: tt~, ~ t T


Dare da.fte sore ni
leV,tt:

okorimas l:L

Y4' ,.

~l'.IDCAL

RJNCTIo.N WORDS

Kant '~va supotsu nara .nall dtl#e dekimas« .. If it's sports, he c an play ,ev,eryWin_g-.
-)0

See also demo

de

"'C
at, in, on, by, with, from, 'because of, for
Vie

[li'ARTICLE. MEANING::

Be careful not to' confuse this with the, conjuneti Ellilecopula da.

form de' of

1., .Afler noun expressing place where an action is performed (takes the particle 0)

n..f±il· S' gt:t(.~~~.~$Y}l~

L- '!. 11

0-

R!;atashi wa maln.icki ,ltlkkiJ de 06'.18'0' I ~tud.y Bnglish at 5Ch.o-Oru every day, ~.i;±~~~~c7' ~ .~~ ~ "(~'~i:~t a

,be~o

shima-su.,

he1d die' terebi 0' mite :i'ma;i:u. He is watching television in..his room. 2. Afeer noun expressing place w·.hen;; an event is or where an

Kare

'W'll

action occurs
(takes the panicle. gal, 11.*'(/)·*1:)'~-. 7" 1'7j"tJ, ~ .~~To,

Kan.(Jjo no it€' de pa{U',a arimasu. There win he a :parrty at her house,


~!~ l:£ 'i~

-e-Jtr·;6~:a..i]{+·.Q {). . lll!!,J .. B.. j!I ..

Yane de .~anlka o to' g,a sure ..


I hear a sound on

the roof.

Pilr,1J

'wa.,kUTfl~'[U'[de'

icnihtJl1 se ga

takai.

P~BU],is

the ta]J)e,st in,the class.

4,. After noun expressing method or means

~l.tl•• '~.fJ:'$~:1T~,£ T'o


Wa,tasAi W:Q ,llens'Au. tie .shi:go't'O ni ikimasu. I: goO 'to work. by train, ..r'~ z: ~ .,_A tt @ ,(/,)['r.)[ Q) ~ JWl~ ~ h, t L t: 0 J ..; ".n[ ~I"'" v :~:; uJ..,iFiii:iJ,tj d,'~ vomima it.. ita ~!JI1IJ.So iNt-~i ~'ft S' I read the news, in yesterday' s new spaper, ::!I "mrt± l' / 7' ~!F IJ~,=c < t~~ \t ~0' Namae w:a inku de kaite kudasai.
-.l'!j[M.i"'!i[~l}ii'lr'D:!U U'i .•~ ,1I!·l~.1' 'M 1n
Irrv'~ iUJ~ ,II!'![.L¢"

,L],';-litil'.UIIPI'.fil.

,:8 _ '!D- .).

"..

~i!'l II! ..

,ro'

I'rl LI!.

::0...,

~
l~

ru

Please write

yOUF'

name in ink,
0

''''iF

fa

5. After noun expressing material or ingredients

rd~J:*,t:fl:"t;n~

Sake.' 14"\a ,tome' de tsukurare ru. '1'.. ',... ...,...j , axe '. 'f' 8'.... :IS m~JJiule,rom, nee, 6,. After noun expressing reason or cause .I>I-'~,~ ,c;;:" Iu ~,J:~ ~i"~ I J .• ~v~ ~" ·~l~ " - ~ - 1~J;,. '!;" ·,Itl'IV \. CI

~"'*" .

Her 'fa!lllier died of carnoer" ,IJ,~ t::. QJ ,S '1J,!!,t'f1:" <

*- ~'~'~: i

L i:

Ana'ta. no ,(Jkage' de um{ll/{u ikimashita.

It weDltt smoothly thanks, to you .. 1.. After DOUO expressing how 00 action isperformed

tJi~~Ij:9t=ii2fJ04=-'

'0' l;1,__tf)):A

JC ~

'r"~~¢

36

'II'

GR.A.MMA llCAL

fiUNCfION WORIDS

ShinkaJt;1en '\'Va' jiS'ok:u .ni hyakki:rQ ijo' no lu"iidQ de .hashi'ru" The sh inkansen runs mtspeeds ofmoee than 2JOO ]_~d'~Oim,etersper ' hour, 8. After' noun expressing time taken to finish an action

1~1U]~'1ir ~ ~ T'o

,Ieldjilmn de kaerimasu.
I'Il be home ':nan, hour, 9., After noun ex pressing point in tru me when somethi ng terminates

1*h~~~ B "1:'~b ~ iTo


}';asumi' 'wa (;ISl., de low,arUnas u. The vacation will be over tomorrow.

10.. After noun expressing price 2: (})~tlli ,5 'Tpglr:Ji ~~, L tz; ~ Kono tokei W'Q gosen t!'lJ de kaimashita. I bought 'this watch '[or five, thousand yen, 11,. Atter noun expressing age fL ,j: 25;(' ~i~tIL, t~ ~ 0 'v Wa:lashi 'wa: ni'ju go rid de' kekkcnl shit-al,
I want to marry at the age of twenty five,

12m After noun. expressing quanti ty 6, (/) l" "7' l- ~ ~t41m1:'2.00 :p:J' t. ~ L t: 0 Kono tomato 'WQ ,'O'R Ito de ni hya:k~~, shimashita. e,i:i These tomatoes, cost two hundred yen. for four, ~), See also des 14" dewa (1 J~ kara; ni

'1"-'11 .o d.r~: a-,_~~~,•

PI~EtHCA ITVE P,lfJlASE


,', ,.,>.'.
I, l' -,,~~. '1'-'-'11'''-''

used in written or form a] ~,an,gua,ge :i nstead of .. tiaAl·"esu to exp lici j y ., .nrm tb pIiecedirung: statement. . l'" tett affi ':"'11'·'- ie ..'.....
-! '-I::-_"II!!!' .":....•. , ... ';'"

l Arter (adjec:tival) noun


m

itM~,~J:.l4tit*l~:jJ~ !? nt~·~·1:~,Q
:Kinkl1ruji:~ is
,8.

,Kinkakuji tva ju yO'n sefti n i taterareta $'era~e,' aru.


temple built ,run the fourteenth century, 2.. Af~e.rdictionary form of v,erb/adjle-ct.ru.'V·e ,+ no Xi) sur:ebi2: onda; wa kaikets:,~~arem no; de (Jm., m s

~,? Ttt~!r~'a,'i:M=~ ~nib

(/)~,2b,~

The problem ''ill Mbe solved in this way,


k@; ~

~t8f(J) ~).1~ t Ib~IE'L 'Iv l o» "'r'~ ~


correct,

J{,ekkY'0k~1 kare no IU: koto ga t(Jila~~hii de ,ur,ft. ,I\'I'Q

After all what be s,a,Y S ig

See a] SiD des«; no desu

deklm

'1! ,~ .Q

be done 'be finished, 'be ready, be n1,OOe" be born, become pregnant, be formed, be good
'VE_IU3, ,ME_A_N1No.:

can perfonn. SlQ:methin.g, can


existence

(at}, come

jnto

l. After (object) noun +- ga

r.Q)ji~:·iJ~'~~'~
''''V'

Til~o J
I

r~j~~,~ T ~~,'~
"j'

..1'!i..UT$lma no

.'

- -li'ji,;IJ -IH -..J'..-;r,~:.' ~ . - .... ,;;o·litt H.;r;~d~;f,~ ,0;" fI~fi.,'m~R

a:

j. «a. '~H-:·· "...d. ki ..,:{U~ ,e'· Ul1,{l'SU,

jlj

"Can you dri "lie a,car?' ~ Yes ] can, 1'; -q 1 ~t ~;;tB *.~t;t J: T'o ,Mafku 'w,a, nilu,u'tllo fila YQk~ ,(le;kim;a~',u" Mike is V0·:ry good. at Japanese, 2.. Used. as, intransitive verb

< ~ ~ ~.

1:' ~ a: l.r 1,,= 0' S/~i.g()t'() gtJ dekima:S:'/d'ttJ ~ The work is finished.
1,1,..·-=p' "J
LLm'J.{ ~

-+. I ...J"

S1zQ~ji

,1lO

yoi ga: 4eldmtuh,im.

~~'~±*!iL'iJ,;;,t?T~ t'To Mi:so wa daiz« kara thkimas,u.

Preparanou for dinner :~s, finished, (Dinner is ready.)

'Miso is made from, sovbeeas.

Uttx. ~:~fmtlll: '1::'0 ~

Ka11ojo ni kodomo 8(,1 dei;i;tll,. A ch~'~d 'was, 'born to her, I(or She is going to have' a baby.) M t:~ L'~~'~ J~ 1J~7:~, t: 0

mr

Ekima,e ni atarash! i biru ga atildta. /{y,uyo ,gatlekita node shissu rei shimas«.
Som
U
oIi!I '. \r.I
I~.

,~~m' ~,t: QJ' -e ~tL lJ~~


~11IIi"Ig.a:;,"I'lI't-' ~JJII
·~~li.::f!· JL~~a.:l! .'

A. new building has been 'bull t in front of the station.

L. i -'sf
",".Vi .'

business hias com e ,!


.~

.;Ij';J ~,

J.2' .Ji,

i z.. v "':J

M. h...,,;o, 'II:Ii, '/'

7' -e-ss-n f' :s.. ~ ,/ 1:.1" 'I....' ~ ~

L..r... ,1"';':

have t~,r ,i]j:U I .'. _ 't '.


~II1I n
,I,)
C' .....

.t-..... LUI,

leave

I!hz.O'~ .~ "

O,mtJ';j'hi.r,'Oi urabu ga Idekima'!d,it{l:,. k A, 11niq ue club was set up, ---+, See "",l""if'iI; 'i!l .... .I!U:!,~ILI' @i de ':~k-;'.... aa '.
, ~,f!;;,;,

,d.Jj,,]! V c'W,

,~--:"'iI',.n;

l4 ; , "'" . ~,,,,' ~

1' ...

Id:,A---

-,~.!.I;I'
oi'i;

'P:AJillCl'iE OR. CONJ11[JNC110N'ME A_NfJN0::

'b1lJ~, or someth ~ even, ng,


,

ef

m spite
,

l,Jl" . ~

""jiI1i'\j!' P;.at.iI'IJ'

1., ,At the beginning' of sentence

1:t~)?~T~-b"J:o lJem\(J1 mo ososegiru yo.


'Bu~:,'l'" S bJO late now, w 2,., Af~fJf rn:rnlt~u<Q~JJ~jltive ord w

Dar« demo .s:onna koto 'wa shi'tj'e imasu.

1tAZ4i'~,j:,~'~ ~ ')tAt ~ ~9'o


'1'"
.I

Anybodyknows such tbings. (Anybody knows that)


,r.,. iJ Qtf.emano 'wa~ nan ,~_e'l'nlJ' b taoemasu. I eat any (kind 00 fond"

1J~'0~

t ~,t"':J,~ ~ ~T

,ltSll demo .telcka desu. A~Flytime 'will be fine.

c~ ,~ ~::ff~ i 1"'0 ~~ 'fJ::*::0...,

Drito' demo ,shigOi'O ni ,i'dma's,u~ I will go anywhere to work, '~'? ~ ~ ~~~\1;TQ = ,.-Ii - - •• ....J'~ na ~emo n:, ~'£,~., Any w~y is ,aUd.gbt (= don't care.) 3. After (atdljiectiv'iad) noun
::l __.::::. ~ 1

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

--r: () it# t.= it tJ:'


l

,K{j,hii 46,,.0 ~omi'tai fW\


I'd like to drink coffee
O,t;OIUJ

-Jc:A ~O)ii$,~:iD; ~~~AiJ{~~i To Tt


shiranai hito ga imasu. There are even some grown-ups who don't know that kanji, q$l,,;j: B lSi H ~ ~ ~JI~, i T'Q Kate' 'w'a, nic'h~yolJi' «6;",0 hasarakimasu. ; He, works even on Snnt1ays.
SOliD, 0'
~ ~ ~:.Ul zs, k"~i '-.. "t) ~.J~r::1ti' ~ _ rll::'

Q.[

something,

ilem;o

kanl;'

" T0

Ame d~.(J shuppatsu shimasu.


,Ir. m going
'to

leave even ~I it is I,amy ~

4,. After specific particle

JIi,~"iJ~t? ~~, ~'±'WitiJi.i, f. T'o,

~akyij kara demo .ftifi-san ga m iemasu.


---',!l>

See also ,~t~~d.~~.!! ..~-... .•• !!.:emvIU£~,!!i'V dane ~I(-ury,., ~'::.n.1"",I. :':'~ ')
_ ""' ..... ~.;J ,

,,t:'" - "T" '~' -_, .~ven .~.ro-m..o~.yo .: t. .Jr"iIlJJ 1..' cue b . "I... " roM" - ~-' 'iJL:i

- seen" c- _

-~,o""!I,

fiG'!'L,,n d~~~~I

'~L
~

"~

t-

~l /

1.. After noun


0')
~ fT"I, I[ -h:;'''+v » ./''1;.1) _."'J"'./III

l'

t, oJ.{ }' ~. f" C' FV I;,..

L
"~

'f.

.;

0'

Ano hi to ga h~owaito-.sa',jdes.bJj T.ba~, an ts pro b~~blylVb'. llit,e~ m W


a.

Jk:~r~ll,'T'~1: L J: ?

Tokyo wa asu ame tle'sJljj~ It may be rainy in Tokyo tomorrow. 2.. After dictionary form of ve~bJadjective sF -_ J~ ~l:sn~ ~ ~:.~ Q 1: L ! '1 0 '£
go j'i made ni ,k'atnJ Paul 'win 'beprobabl y be back 'by five, ~ ~.t: ~,'V:"0 l· J: ~: fr 1: L J:: .~ .AntJt:a mo issho« i tiu,' ,ailS·kil. You 'w:~ngo tog'e~hef,.'won't you? Ul:j{ 'J: t, =c t ~ v l 7:: L J: ~ o (with rising intOJ1fl:lion) n
'wo;

Poru

,d",h,,;,.

<

·0

tote 1110 kire:i' d,.'S·ho .. She is very beautiful, isn't she? 3. After nal~lonn. f vemhlldJective o .-e' Q)fr~tt±RI B i "1J ~: "T:' ~ ~ ~ ~ T L J:. l' 0 h" A -b·' sd i ·~,~e\rt$ntU _~eS::,_61.,. S'ono sn ~gO't,o 'wa '~OY'o.U$ ~i_;e n~d .~'." "d The 'work will probably not be. completed by Saturday. Kanojo
'1-'IIi1'

,,=

-]i;.

See also des«

de-su

--r'T

(similar to "be" in Bnglish) ]'NDIC.ATING: someone or something equals something else; someone or some= thing is :in some state or condition; someone or something has some quality; someone or something is In some place or POSi.tJ..OD:,
POLITE AUX.n_.IARY VEI.B

something is iU some
ID. .

time

A:fter' (adjecd:val) no Ul1.

~AQ)~·mJtt~,.;_*~""t
Watas.h;i
'r;" 'it./

nO'

namae wa ,suto·lenji deJ.'"


Ii... ,_

My name is Kenji Sato,


$(

·k Ie _ .if....!'.:1 - _ :r... K" .. para to mal,-JJ' ,ga ~tesseta ~eS't~:Jl'.I.n ~n:o -

m ;; ;/

~I~
-~

~)l<'_ c. -7 "'.I :/.l7 -+~J.p I~"~ 1:,.., .,.. ..I N :J\..,m

L 1,,---, _ »:
IJ.

.P'au].ud. Mike 'were absent yesterday, .fL ~,;t.~ ()) ~i:~: t l. t ~.J: '1:T Wata.rh i 'W'Q sono kettei ni w,a totemo .manltD.lu desu, I am very much satisfied with the conc'ill:usion.

_'JE

£~j.4"-Ji('-1:·T

,An~'W,ll ima k:,y,oto desn ,.


M'Y older brother isin Kyoto now, r:l·~~t- ... ,j:,*.0)8~.B~TiJ'~'o ~
'!o.KoI'lsiito' 'w,a;

tsugi

no

t"tci:iy,o,bi

J r'iv)~, ·t1'~'To desu ka .. '~ ai, so desa .. ~ '~.H


!!· ~·!

"Is 'the concert next $:ul[da.y?'; "Yes, it. Is.. K nare

f~',J: 8 *,A'""'C~i~ ;~ t =it J.vo


'W,U

"'h ,.~ .c_ a~,!O~JltI d e'w,Q

., a-TllflSSe.H.,

He is not Japanese ..
2. After d~!c~tlonM.Y {D:f ~djectwve :f.O[l1J1} (,de3~~ the ,end of the sentence makes :it polite) at iI(J)·tp·v~t:~~t 1;: ~ T ~£,~ L'~~'~'T ~ o Kare 11;0 kalta e wa totemo saba rashl'i desu"

:.' pi ctnres he The .~,",:'.~ lw.J. .JJIJ ,". dr ew


Wi±il I" I~· ..._.

;4-l.~1 very,.....wonderful .• ' .. :,",.-.. - . ,JUI]lI.u~.Jl.llu <:iiT"!t:i

dews,

'~1-11:-,
~

~~

t, ~I)-, L~~..

DOUBLe PART[e[J~

(made

u:p

of de and

'W1Q) MEANJN,(j:

in, at,

as

far,

judging from, by

1.,. After noun

w' ......... 19J'i.~' JJ;" I~ ,~ i::: d:. +0 , ~±~m'J..t: '~ )I

,~,~ -r.: ~::

:5:
~ ~
"a

u.

T:6.kylJ dewa buldGCl ga taka:s;ugimas.u~

ru m

In Tokyo prices are too :mgh,. It,~,~ 1:t~l~J;tI~l~~o)"7':A ;). ~ r J:, t) '~1I1¥1:T0 7 Sigaku idew,i! kare W,(l hoka no kurasumeto yor.i mo y.ush u desu.
In,mathematics be w s superior to all his classmates
+lm, ~ ~_ I,." ~ }~,!".Jr:.i,
~ 'V'_~

ru ..c
~ ~

"~b

> 0.
o

~4-

~,J.........,

>,"'" "? ,f:'-, ~, _•• ~~.J.;.,'f~. v I<:J !if.-! / J IJ

\ ~" ~ t, ,~ ~: '~ ~ !if C" !l:i;~"" ,~ ,

+.

Ano 1'0,8H ilewQ kare 'wa kis{j "'0' ,Hlai.,. Judging from the looks, of things, it doesn' ~seem :he'11ceme,
~Q)~,~t'~~;;tlli~lli55t'T:T
0

:n rus one fifteen


--+ SI6eJ

'Wa~s:hl~no tokei dewa ic:hiJi j~'1g.o /u'n,desu.

by my watch..

also arimasen, del j:a

dew,a

~.

~t (2)
'M!lEANING::

CONJl1l.lCfWON

weU~then,

SO~well

then, if 80

.DewQ kore de' shitsurei shimasu. 'Well" Lmnst be leaving now .. ~ l..l. t:t. :i:.$' ..z, 1'i ...r.,.. l ~ -t" J;;i:]; 1;.,. hti,' ,J:.~. -!l;._ • . L,.. l,=./'V )I' .1:)- 0
Ta '

'!.,_-

.Dewa naze S,(j shUa n; desu ka. d ,.? Th en, Wh •. .:1:. :Y'OU •. ·0 .If:.' · Y did • ·
~ ~J:,~ ;;, ~ ~ ~,~ i' T 0
SiO~!.1give

D·ewG ,mo akiramemasu.


If ~p.
l~

::0....

ru

''''iF

fa

,.'1-

uO
r"'~fii'~if'i;~~T-iiiVr,:'~.t'1-_ _ ~_~.g .AUV~'D ~
_J.~ ~ ~I'\ __ vun

r·-"~A-;·;;,"r!i'"'f;'":' btV __ , i'li:~{'


~tYJ!J6! ~Lr1/~~~"1;U I;
~.

w:h-~aM
__ _

-, WI~U.

~.~W

about_ u
~ __

1.. FlO' owed by verb + no.ln


(may be replaced with the phrase do yaue z J..l ~ t.~ .... '7' J -r i\'I~ I'J.. c, ") + I~I ,\,/1':' ~.,,-...i;l~o -~l!..
0['

dono yo ni shite)

Sore 'w'a.do: suru

11

desu lea.

How shaH I do if?

~ a: 1:
,iG"'~"" •

~'~I

.L;;;lt]'

rnade 00

11" < A.t~-t·~f~O


If!l;U

)I.e;;.

~:r..

.~~ nd aesu KGI'..

Hi~JiW can .. go 1

to the station 1,'

2:. Followed by desu '~' B ~,:i~;tti!: l' ~." 7.po J 1


(may

be replaced bY' the more polite word Ue,aga)

44 .'

GRAM:MATICAL 'Wtl

:R.JNCTrON 'WORDS

Kyi)
:J ~

klbtt~ wa: do de's,ll' ka,

How' are you feeJing toddty?

,V-L·· ..,~ . d= son ~~' aemo 'PP'{U~',_:" d ()'~_esu k tl. ~:

t:. --'1;' b 1ff t:~''''~'T tr 0

How mbout a, cup of coffee '(or something)?

§frit~fi~ c~ 1: L..i: il~ j' '1


0

,Kyoto ryoko

do' deskila ka. HOiW' did, you like your trip to Kyoto?' ~'n~ ~ orJ l:" h,t,,:,~ t:~ ~T;6o 1 So re o ya:tt,e ,n.itara; do des/,o ka. Ho w would. it be if you try it? (Why dOD ~t y01Jl try it?)
lV,(t
~ IJ,.J~

:1" Used. witll the 'verb


i'T'i, '~'-t>~

t.. ;~,~ 1m' -;r L l ~'U.~

'v

amO:i\l;
~,:;.t!
,.,..~ J,,~

r~, ~

lJ

0<

W;h de you. mmx 0 this pICnn ? "ah~'0 , ~L,"_'I","" 'f' _IUS, ,. re ;: ___.., WSiO dosh:ite See
1,j1

.Y' ,~, u: ,ft,ono e ()'e;dJ O'mMmaSu. Jf,.tl, ..

do,ko

c~ 2:
rrva
WORD MIEAN']N'G:

IN'ffilUtOOA

w here what
I'

1 'Followed. by desu
+

t.'~Y.fib'.inkyoJcu dolo des« ka. '~'iAno 'wa gi'nko nXJ m,uM' desu." "Where Is the post office?" "Ir's on ~llileother side 01 tITha!t bank,
f.;

r ~1I:ffl}
p~",

tt t~' '1: ~rl'~ .J r d6 ,0), ~,fi ~ i


0

OJ ,rQ] r 1 1:

-r-

,J
ll;

G" k-KU' aesu. '_,:(.~;:;_1 ..J~ "Where is Mr"T;a.nmca now?" ~,He is at school."
r,~ ...;I';t" -'-s anai'!;.U -san 'wa tma 'UO,HO'
~I 1'.,,,.. "es", sa.
;'1' '" ~

rrn ~ ~ At ~J:~' ~::

~T'n~',o J r~;t;(~T

2.. Followed 'by locational particle 1l%1t'~±t~'~ k~ftlv (!Vll) h iE-Til~o

Kanojo wa "lo,lto ,rli' sunde ir« n desu ka. Where is she living? 1*,# ~:, t t ~fj Iv ~T ;.Qr~,o J b fr ~ '3: ~ fvfJ J V '.. d:.iL- . "J., ..J ,L, ~ .']' .... ' . -,:ulSlUtU fU w,a::.'(J~.;()e lA-U n UJeSM sa: ','" ~'D"OA'O 111mo tamasen. "'~' - .1"... "Where are y ou going for the vacation?" ~"M won go any-

r~

<

r r : ~:

110 .

t~

wnere,
ii!.. -

'!]I

C-:' ;: '1: ~,., A.t 1:-', iY\,


~_!E.l

~u.Aru'

noflrl~.....4"",

"'~~~Ii' ,~'I~

~'Ifl,i

,~:;J'./O)

t~I;r~'J ~

"'j.t

:~'r.;'1 1't~1;!!

'W'ber-e shall we meet?' ~i1l:'t~'~'iP 'Lt~ipo


Karu;jo 'w.~,dolo, leora ld'masn ita ka

~*i

W'here did she come from? OVhere is she from.'?)


,3,. Followed by possessive particle no t:~rJ) T)V ~:,if8'i:' Q, ~ D'O.1;;a nt;' hote ru n i tomaru n desu ka. At w:ha:t hotel are yoa s,ta.yi,ng'?' of. Followed by subject marker ga;

::0...,

~
l~

ru

-c+ e-,

''''iF

fa

'i" 'ft (JJ !:~ :Of~:~ '~/\/ ';:"T' '1)), g ~


dk ,'~o,'-0'
,~O'g,s

-.(J',f,'(?'

. aesu It; w:ar:tun de .G.

'What',!), wrong \-vl~hit? -), See also dore, its«, ka, nani

doko:ro del wa) :oitd


,~J]:RAS~ :MHEANlNG:: 'be 'In]j,OI

t: ;: Q ~(t±)
out
Or[

~ \t~, the q,U€:s,'D"on,be m,ore, ~hM " ,.,

a,

this Is

an occasion for

1. After dictionary form, 'of verb/adjective


~,~T ~.:h ( t:.~ ;:J 1:,~j: ~'0 z: ~

Ryoko ni iR,n do,k,lro dew,tJ nai.

IGO:hl.m; on. i) trip is ou~of the quesdon. "!jjE --M' l..~'" ~ ~, .4. ~ ~ J :W~UJ'~'1V .~), L. ~ ry. 1:,d:. U) In) ~ J:l.. nut 0 :75..lIif1T ~ ...J= '0 ~ cJ.;;''l:£. ~.r,~ji1:~ IUn· ,g,a Ii doko.ro dewa ·a.rimtt!et'., K lsek! desu ,. It is; more than good. luck, Mt is a miracle.
JL,~ ~I!!:' 'j5 -? ~ ~ 'Q G' ~ 7) '1: !J:: .~ 'Jj, 0 J'_ d ,..I ,.Jo'~~an use ~ruut}lfi,;oro ee nal ~.. o 'r . , J 'tr
~ !!!io'J.\o'.-dE. .__ -

~..,.

~ ,~. ~

Th:ru s is not an. occasion for joking,

PHRASB M:EAN1NO:: far


OOrnlUatry

from, to say ftothiing of, not to speak

ot lDucb
:5:
~ ~

:mo r-e, (aot) . .' .' much :.es~,~ot only . '. " b~n . . , 'not .' .. on the , n .

ru m

1~ After (adjecti val) noun (~e paytlUem dokoro ka . mo emphasizes the second item in ~..... ,comparison 'with the first) 1i~j:,S; r. 1_,. '1J" ~ ~'~ t .~r!ritt -9" c Kate wa .tdholngo d€J:Kl).ro' ,lui. chugok.,u.go mo Jum!f1s.emtIsu .. He can speak not only Japanese but Chinese as weIil. ~. ~ ~ 7:> i~f~Jlt ·ft·x;:, 'i: ~ lVo t Nil;,; .dolcar,o .kg:sakana .80 tabemasen ... I don" ~ even eat 'fis'b much less meat ~'1~'~ ry ir'~,~ ~ *t.. ~: ~d:u'Tir~Lv ~o .Do,iftll.BD dollo.To 1uJ ,ei:g.o .mtJ w:ata~'h i ,ni 'wa mUZi~ka;s:hH.. .English is.difficult for me, to say :notbin.gof German. ,t: ~ 11 'fp~~: II~ '1".: T'0, -t·1 .Ame afJi;OT:9 m ni ,naTi sO dess,
a a.

"a

ru ..c
~ ~

*m ~

"~b

> c..
o

c~ ~

Rain-it looks; more Uke snow ~ 2~ After dic~io(l]jary'form of verb/adjecti

,~"d

Vie

'd._ O"~ l-~a _ -Ok '.__


."

..

"'(

,,-,'

d-~ ..Jun,o
." " "'-

"

~_~ ~ J j:

1::;: ~ ~~'r5~ L ,t ~, : 1:"' t

.If{J''~'w,a war:au dokoro it! okotte shimana. Far from la1J,gblng~he got :totaUy angry.

~! ~~ ~,,;;;01~x:ti~~ ~:tfi~
0

Kare 'w:akasAl/toi dok'(J,ro ka tensai da.


He is not only clever but
a, genius,

3~ After n:al.;='fomru,01' verb 1 '~1f, ~fi:i: :i) ,~ \t'~ ~';:, ;;1 ;,¢'~X 1ij ~ ff ~ "'('~~ e ~;t: l
itte iru. Not only does he:not help, but be complains,
Kal'f:'
0

wa tif.ftsMdaw,anaj' ilo,/{o'l'o ,ka' monk«

do.o

t: t

D.u::·O:Il_M~ALWo.RD' ME-AN.[NO:; heUo~good-bye, 'U'18nK,

you, sorry,

'V,tti)'

(much), somehow, just

1,. Used 10 gr-eetings r~2bo J r~',3b'~ ~,?


~!I!

p"'": ;I'!' J' Cl.,


.~~!

j.j

'V:~
.J,_

ali'
e"

,,01110 ~
,IU"_~'

J:~, -... ' ..


~"'ji!! ~V'

s. J r,c~~
.:1
j'

"'~H':'~"HH:'lJj~ hifrI.'w"
'!-~

you?" (G l.....:li' to :>:1 ·_... <:",~, . r~,n~'~1LL!T,o j, ~'O


11i,I. ~

,!:"ea b~u

you ) ,~':'0
'_.r.

:.1

de shitsurei shimasu;' ~~ Djim(J',;;'~ .~r ,Ieaving '!l'UJW '~Good.-bye." m


"'til

KO'tf.'

T. ~:~

2~ Used

"',Oi-s:.aldni doto." Ko're' 'Wd di'mo;, .~ "Please go ahead, (After you.) "Oh, thanks." ,1. UBed to express :apnlo,gy
!U
~,!

rJ3j!e~: r oJ ~

'~Oexpress

thanks
¢

r;: n,~,j:"h' C~?b

rs-, J r.~)~ ~~
!';

~'o,

*3t3C~T;tP,o J

"Itai.

"'~A~ idomo'iIj ,D,cdjo[)'u desu ka:'

48

i!!'

ORAMMA1'[CAL RJNCTlON WORIDS

"Ouch," "Oh, sorry ..rue you all right?"


ls,um'intasen

[I'm sorry] is dropped after do"~o)

4,.. U sed as adverb B.n T l:: .? t -t·,~ =1t ~ ([) ~


.Olk~:r:et:edO.RiO
5.1~lniwlll'l7e'n.

I' m very sorry

~~-IID' ~'1~~ ~t)i C 1 ~~v~~. To

tOI

be Iate,

Go-sb insetsu do.o ar,~gato'gozaimasu.


,;;:: ..J..

Thank you Vlery much for your kindness, ·U'.<'!IoA.·' I~'l., - . '" ~~·t_ ,,~, WhlW .u1eg.udv,e ,~tt t::,(JJ ~ ? ;:, l:, 1/' -j b b1J~ ~ 'I; ~ Iv" Anata. no iit kO'&O' ,ga ,do,mo' '~V{lkll;r:i"$a$e;ft,. Mjust can' t understand what you say,.

c~

:5:
~ ~
"a

t~'1~,~Q)At±~~:,A

&:, ij:lJ~D

ru m

.Doma ano hito ·wa. ki ni iranai. Somehow M don~ like 'tilJal,t man, t
---j\O,

ru ..c
~ ~

See also doshi temo

"~b

> c..
o

U
.IJ.ff'ERROG.A TIYB PHRA.SJE .MEANING .. 'b ' ow
. .' -, '," -.". ,. ." -.'. '. '. .• .,. '."........ .'. '.' ,... 0.many h.ow muc . how.,. onb'~
0;

. .. .

h-

I'

..

I-

how u·._

f"

lQJ.. J!

"liT'

....n·!l:u .ll.!IUI1v",

'ii!\l!l; ~ ~

.Il.u~j_~

l .m.i·w·:'· ·o·ft·en ...


._Ji~!I' .. ,.'

, -.'.' -

1;. ,Before noun


C:(J) ( ~
DO'lUJ'

~~, t 'L t: "1;)'0 ,kur;-a:i',kitte' 0 (ztsumentasn ita ka .. 'v}to~~

How many stamps have :youcollected? 2. Used as adverb

=:, 6 'v~t, lR,i ~ t~OJ <


#~

~ v:'1J~;j)

~ .~

T'I6~o

.n,O,K'O

t:I'

l...... .~~ 'J~' sara es» maae

uO'1I6'

:r.. J_ AUrQIrr, l'~· K,aKaF,~"UJ.s,u./UJ.

~~li!"iI~'V.'

";"1;';;;0";;;;

~~~lIi .. ~~I'

:'~~."'_;

_,A!"", ... ill' ,.,. Uf~"!gi

.'

.rIIi ...•. ·7

does l 1!-,I"I,'I... , h ,.? o . H ow iong .•• es tt take ftom h erie to tne stallion'~ 1

Jtt

e'n) < ~ \J~i6)'7J~' ~~' T~~Q


kura!

Kl:~n,ma M"tl' dOlfto lc;urai kakarimas u lea" How mech does a car cosl?lHo;w' long does it i~e by (;;11'1'
, See, ,a]so

dore

t4h

lff,lIERR,Oo.A1I'~VE PRONOUN :MM.N[NG:: W']lic.n

"be polite form is doch! ra, which also means "who" Of "w-:,'b'ls"r. e "~I D... ".0' ~11!'I!'c· .... do "",:,'..('ij befo re ''llIJ non i'fIi ~I 'W·'· .0'. difi B,!!" _ "11[,[, .• mo ~ ,~~W,1I.rv. UJt , JJ1.
'~Il

,f"a

~J

I!JJ'W'....

'1I:l' ~.:.JI

U1

1f~~V'

"-,,.

!!i.I

g,

. U _.~,IL

JljIIJ,.,

~!a~

becomes del: when expressing "where," '0,.0 .,.. , ,.' ',_, ., ,.. ,.
. , . ,.. . I

1,. "Used as subject


~ 0)

'?' -; ~n~~'~' tf IvYi::1.!' ~T i?

fJ~',o

ga: i'ch.ib'an y.aL~'~~ i desu ka: f 'iL" il"', Wh'tc h ,. tne Cheapest 0:, tuem,'~' " IS ;.,'t.. .• ,2,. 'U sed IS object ~ itL;fj1v:' 1;, ~f fu ~=f'~, ~'T ';~'o
,KORO' uchl.do""

Do,,-e
;: t7)

ichiban suki desu ka. Which do you like best?'


I.

g.'

'

,Q

,3 "? (1)1 ?

t:)

c~,n'~ Y' i i=' '7)' ~


aQ:rtl'

Kono ~nU'$'s,u ucbi .no

o e rabimasu ka.

Wbjich do you choose of these t]l[ee? 3. BrefoI1~noun (changes to dono )1 ,I!::,? (1)*;!l~;J3''b L'; v l ~-t ,}~o
D,~'dO

,ho,. ,g.aomoshiroi desu 1<0"

Whl!cihbook is interesting?

,so •

GR.AMMATICAL FUNCTION WORDS

4., 'Used, with specific particle


(dore -+ ka: MY) :: t/) R ~~tL';O~J.f!.7: ~
,Koj1O'

nto,.~,lle,.a li kara suki-na ,no 0 o-erabi kudasai:


.Any one is

,u,chi:ilare' ,b ,cftoaai dekimasu ka. Can you spare me ,any of these? (,dore' + demo: whicbeve.r~ ,any~'hmg) ~ tL'1: rt lv"~ ~'ip, 'J, tif ~ 7;t (J) ~ ,1.3' 3i lfT ~v l d,

T"ij~,o

:fin1e, so please ,pic:Jt Uue,one you like"

(dor:e + emo: all, any)

Kono .ho.J! wa do"" mo koilomo, ,ni;''wa mU:l.',u-KfJiJ'hi ~su8'iru. ,A'my of these books is too mffi~1I1t for a, child,

~ UJ*,,;t "t::tL. '\b ~fm:~: L. T ~r,~,o ~~_

:5:
~ ~
"a

. See also dolo

ru m

.c diSlUie

ru
~

,t~ L-C ~
'wby)
in

"~b

.IJtTBRROGAT.rVlE AD'V,rulB MlEANl.NG.;

what

wa.y,~

bow

> 0.
o

a.

Ailing a reason

l:?

L"('~

,nij~hiieokuresa n des« ka.


Why were you. .la!l~e? 2". As'kjp! ,3. method

n t.: A/'c: T ;j\o

;:, QJ!:j: tt

r 1L"'[~ < Iv !E'T 7J);'Q

Kono j,i
---+

,da,'sllite kaku n desu ka. How' do you w'.ri.'tethis charaeter?


Will.

See ~18oidoJ naze

dlosbi'temo

C,.,

u'"j' l ~. ~"'(' 't>

ADV.I2RB, ~lEANING:' nQ

mattet· what, (~oO . .,'.by

any

means,

811,

any

cost, can't ile~:I,pl(doing something), simply (not)

1,. Used 'with affirmati ve

~'; L l ~,~tliJ!!~JZ:~'~~T
0

DijjJ,hite'tn0' sore g.a l:iit8UYO ,de:S,1l'.

I need it at Uly OO$'L ~; L '1:' ~,'tt/I) ~,t


2,. Used with. ne,g8JJtive

~ ;E, ~ ,:If,'

L ,t

'~l

"£, T

Dis,h item 0' kanojo no koto (J /cangtJ'e,t,e' is hlma.i'mas u. I can ~~ help thinking of :her"

~ " L""( ~ 1:tt '~' t? :n,~ ·ftIV Jt;{., n,v,s;hi~e!m'o' sore 0 oboe raremas fJ,8 ,
IJ'·u·st c a-n.", m e;. m0·' r'lIL~e t "z
_. _'.
"0"

i::' . _- -_ ,

-s-··

I. ,."..
.

'J'-

~'; L..'=C ~,fr~ i:

<~

..

,.!l

,'["t·

i~

i:1t Avo

DiJ;J\hite'm0' iki,taiu

(JT,ima8tJlI.

. D'·~ L''"t·, . asmta ,o.S,lld, emo .'....it.


'-"f

I sim;ply dion''t want to go, L:z. "'" 'L -r: :..11.. '~~ 8 ~ ~ j'''' fjh:' h ~~.h c, "'.)1 ..' ~ 1f:), Il:71 . _ 3:" ~"" M' .; ~1;n;.;",.A. '.,'j: .
'[0,

"~,I,,.

M do. • ',J:.'
'C' .~,

J4i'.t;

'".j! a,;. ~
.-' ~ ", • ,'.'

t.'lI ~,~

Iv 0
.

nanmase«. ,II' ,1:" :" 11.. ~" L"Q,m,orrow aa I mus,,,,,nmsi ,:h,"t u'y '''''''~' ., ' no matter w hat ,
.,jI•. "
c' "

......J ,.. ), mUa€ - ,nz .. ~,'., -L.. ..-L. oenaxereoa

,.,.t.""

,~ See also domo

d,o,zo
.& .~.

,~' -) ~' nlease certainlv - _'J',


(li"'Iij'I'i!iI, QtlI.W,I~~~ , . _~"

lmiiV·:IQfEi;B·'"_ '1.IE'li',""liJ11l';,J·G'" l .lff' ~GLi:)~l~~ ~":_;'lli~ 'JI:1_J]\ .L"',l1D.nJ'I~Il~,"· ..•

here ,~,t1...,i-' .')J ,w.


_

1,. Usedin imperadve sentence

r ? ~Jd~. ( f': 'i; ~~ -s-r


DiEd' stnvat1'e kudasai.

Please srut down.


Kochir« e (jOl8.

~.-;;~,t~1 ~o

Thi S Wjiy,~ please, :2 Used In reply to a request

~D' J',. £.... I':" J'.,. H" ., .;,._. . ···,enwa 0' .~QSldl'e' .~uremasen "i!r..a,· '. a'~j',uo"o ... ~ 'Can I use your telephone?' "Yes, certainly. "'j
'~"';I; j'

r··~~~ft L 1(' < :«-.1: it 1v';6~'o .J r~±1v}~, t:.? e, J


:I"

rtJ:~t~,/~~Lp~'<n~4tAt7J~o
;;;,~ ·-:I!i,,·o:t;f:n C ".'I' .'ItiliU
,If)eD'l':!' r~
~'lli

Jrtq1~o.J
[.
'111!

()
'."

.~~ .....,
~.

"h-P~·t'NI'lr.R~~· .... ·j'-~lirFo~.n !~, ~


I; . ~

!i;iD:t';i1 ." . ....,. ~l~ ll~ ~.

n ,,'n':;:~II'

,1J'fJ:~

"'Would. you lend me your pen for a while "in "S ure,' (Here ~t

is.)

1. ~

After noun
~

~ t. ?

Lr

t,..

't.

£ ~,I

/;'~' + v·......... "-lp):.::!: ~'-~·o 1T?'''( ~

to,in Ie' itte kimasu. I'm going 'to the :ms;[tt.room for a mement. r~i3~fJ? 't~2: ,c ir':,;; t -t7}~o J r~'~;t~~ ~ ~>It·A.tc J i.e-H' -, '-,~' • ,'r~ . .u • ;y-o.'il' 6' uta K.aEO ga arsmasu ~,. ' "I' (!J artmasen. ,~ -, '
,Chatto
~I I;..,~ ,.;

' ;H''I £1.'v:e 'vAl, b a. J!L,;!'U ,~JE1


C 'j ,;fi~1 , I"

'[-...... ,

J!W!

~ ,t, :fl'""" ab tJt i5, ~ l'\ A f.f ,o'~,~t) £: iT 0


turn to 'the right
I,~:

'K:'" y' . ,,:-: ,f:)"r; O~. •

ro

~'~N:,'. , 0,

11' 'Ii!.. i1lI 1- ,,II. ,1I!J.Q.¥en.

'if' 'I'!'

111.

,K!uio f) ,.igi e magarf~ to basutei ga Qri'n-l.flS:U."


]I YOu.
--'J!>

the corner, you'll find at bus stop'.

See also made, ni

gao 1J~(1)
'riUt'f]iCLE
.~NDt[CATINO::

tbe subj ect or nib ject for specific verb or

oojiecd've
If the subject is contrasted with other thiags, .... fnrrnati bout IIJ.JIlJ~ subieet i given ~"V"'" 'FC!'<p! ilfjb,GlI 1·, .,~J._ua. JJljJ.J· a.!JJ -'·~.t~~It.. r.~ u
F'iI{1FIi '!liI< ,U.lJ
"_J.

Of

If only :pwa'~
~l'~'~

j).l

._

Jj ..:;:I1

t'!

..

'~'I!.r.i

,t

.t~'

'~""oGI!.,", -. 'li~~'

O·.<1Ji

hiio ga &.u'lJ,dJ""'stm ..Kare ·W[G. kOlr:n[ no sensei desu .. des» This is ME'.. Suznki. He. is a high. school teacher.
KOfU)

~-iU)[O] ~ -] ~: if:; '~J./ A, $t Y

r~·1Jf.·ao~ ! T'o

SA,in,B[Dno .muti). ni .g.a;Jfj'o.r.in, sMtando' ,gil arimasu ..

Then ~s .a1 .gal station on the other side of the traffic' signa]. ,t!:. 1':' b .to '.! ~ L·'~~t:.~:\ tJf 1;, i:;-0 v T()~'!emo oish ii Rie,i' ga' s,himasu"
It smells very dellcious. 2.. Aller stressed subj ect .:r;" -sez- ~ 7!'... L ~ 1~ 1'Ji;;; 7J ~~{;.. "@:- ..... ~. .o 'm .~t l.. '. ,ga sore 0 smmasu .. ....... h" _~_aHM,d·
~,.I!,.

I~ do it.. ( Let me do itl'l' should do it.) 1]] 3.. After interrogative fiiJt¥~~ Ivtt ~:.l3 t... ~~(J)~-t·1Po b~ Nani ga S'():m1'(J, 111 omoshiro! no des« ka. 'What is so runny? 4,.. After subject in a relative [clause

~ 1PA "'? t: tJ ):
W~.hi

'7 ~j: 8 *~.1:T·o

,ga .lea'ita ll;(J'DJ6'ra; 'wa: .nUl0n sei des u'" The camera ] bougllt is Japanese-made,
$,. After subj ect in
:8.

subordinate clause

m1ii1~~·tt~f'tr ~ ~ t6 i .-" <. (f) A.e' ,gu JU'reh jku no 0 )'amema5'.u.


0

r$ ~'1Jr* t: t:, ft.;l l. < t!.·~11' 0 :Yoko ,Itl kito,ra oshiete kudasei, Whel1 Yoko comes, please tell me ..

If it rains, '11 give up, going. ,if'fI;' 6'·... A- ff....uIIlJJ!~~ ....t-' of v· erb/adj ecti . : .11Ir&.1J. jU,'m a' u· ',~ ..!i!t.ll
·1i\"

.'-r.i. ,',

,'Pf ~

''IIl',a,

'e·~p'Il;",;D;''''' 'n A,.·


.jj.~~I~.

it'!

'1·

let

I(JI'

·p··O,it"·il:"jQ.II:!·t!'l' .. a~~I!i.I.;]I~'lIL··

;1'0"0 ,,'-?-AJIl..;]I11!,. "". ,Ci!~ ..~ II:!'~

enee, ability ~necessity ~desire, emotion, or sensation


~ :a{tiY'if'Jv4f IVi) ~~1t I'iv.
Ima (j!-ktin;e z,e-n:z:e,n; arimasen. I: have :001 money now, ~~.~t;~ ~: ~'-+- -tJ)o, 8'""'F"",IlI!:!, . __ C' ,~ ~ - 0 Nlho.ngo' ,go .deicirrL(IS,U Ira. Can ,J' \IOU soeak J apanese? r-

,a

fJ ? t: 8 EfH~f~ iOrtt~ C ~
,h ..;.. i, ~J I ..... 'if
~

I,

"!j,o

.Mdtto' jiyfj}ikan, gd' hOlir.hii"


I. wanm,much
"""",3
iT'i; ~

""* irt: "1./ ....... e, J.f.fri__ft' .:L. l.J ~~,

more free time,


0'

Hcm,Jlji ,no .lco.rJO; "a shiritai.

I' want, to Kn,OiW'

H *,Q:)*:r{,~Ii)' 'i?'1:ti T' L 7jr,~ .~~, ~f k'ff ~~~;


n10

me truth,

.Ninon no tabemana
'----i'~ .. ~ ' (IJ~,. 1'~U'!iJ
it'

nalr;a,dt1v,a fw.bi ,gil .i(."hj;i:Jan.s'u-'kidesu.

Of Japanese foods I like sushi. best See ""11.,~O·· A.'.rII r,"'~l;' .HO' L ;.';'
rlt ',," ,.
'WI1'

. ," y.

gil

t:P (2)
but, ,Md,
.i:::!I~~1

CONJUNCTION MEM;JINU:

, 1 Ble;t·w:- een
,Ill -

I ...

L"~~

·tI';,'!II.fO: , 'IL.-T1(·.

,"""'O:-·III"1·i!fI··"""" -1',t"I~:lV·: lP!! ,0'.Jll. -nfHt!');;e' ~1II'I"f;r .... nl O':Ji'U "\"' U.r·ru.i3-I..W~I.~ 'I.:.r-.Wl9.." ~ !IUlltlld.lJ.a~b .u

"";;'2~

,Guw;&mimas'hit(J: go atune deshita"


I tried bard but] failed, 2~ To simply connect two clauses '~I r+n ;: 1# L i ,.-dL- i;''l,'" -z,±- ,g ~,: ~ ~ T ~ _ _, jO ~ 1l:_~
,_ I

e i;' ~'_ _ TemokQ ~o miis:himflJU' gtl, 'R,tJc,hfJ ni o~ai de:kil1tQ:s',u ka; '" ' -- " ,-,,,',,-.. ·'Il..'1 ii;.-~'O ., Y name ' ,,'''''' ' ',-,' ..,.1,...· "W'·.:,."",u ]~IIir b. e, ,pos~n'!IJ~e.,-', .see tbe 'k, 'r.;; ,ru,S, M,~a., ',",'o ,Y,,~ I ~ I!!JOSS ,
,$
Q

~ '41:'

*~~ 'l,.

~'r;;, ,I!' WJi~hi 1J_..i"~~

liil 01:,:. -'lU ~,6:., L.J.",,",.)iit, ,~ ....I..... ,ss=;


~

t:.,,!..;.,

't... -r: 'lie. :k~'~. 'tli,~ 1)

L ~,~~IJ '0 1,,"


_ iF_~ ..-

.j-..",~,~.'~

'J.

Q1.. 0

S,Q.m'oei:ga e ,mlmas/dta go tetem« ,omos,him,katm ,tiesult)" I saw that movie, and it Wi3!S ',ery interesting.

.,.,.
~1;.lI

.3,~AJt.the end 0':" strru~.en'ce


(S~lles,condition and.leaves conclusion '~O bearer) the ~ ,;!:, ""( ~ l v ),IV 1:' T' il~ " ".' JmQ totemo is(J,ga~hii ,n desu ," '." '. 'I~m very busy 1l0'W • , • (so [ can't he] p you). See also dag;tl dokedo, ker:-edo{mo}, nagara, 'UJ ni
j~

---,';>

g~rll.

~t,~

(added '00 'the stem, of certain adjectives to giwe a more snbj eetive feeling, orto tai- laf.ln of verb] .MJRA.N1ING: ,( someone)
SlJFFfX: VERB

WI11'[;sifeels Oio:me:dtin,g)
Garu usually lakes a .300 person suhjec~ in t]]e progressive form

when 'timesubject is specific.

,56 ~

(UtM1MAT[CA1.

PUNC1JON WOltDS
o

1BE~,jtb, ~. t ~\v'iilI 7!~ L~:{ 0' -r ~"t ~t


Kare 'w,amotto ii kurunta o hoshigatte.' imasu.

He wants a. better car.. (the particle ga cannot. be used a:fie.[the dU'5Ct obj ect with ,guru) =f11t~j: <~.i3'~f~t·O)I~~ v1;it'Q 0 T ;: Kodama W(l .u~g.u abate no ,hllmlii,hf' 0 KfJWllglUR. Children are easily scared 'by ghost stories. 2. After the stem. of adjeeti V{~expressing sensation ~, (J) ~J" tliiA ~;t < 'm! fi~ "( It ~~ T 0 "'J

v- ~

,AIM}

ke'ga' nin w,ahidoku ,i:/ag,atte' imasu,


m

That :injured person, looks 'to be in terrible pain, 1~~i~~t L·ib *:~'? v~~ To 7: "("
Kare 'w'a. soto de totemo sanJug.Qttl1' imasu.

He: is 'very sensi tive to cold. outside. 3" A fter cnnj uncti ve form of verb +- ta

1!ir.'~j: 3

(ta,~'-l- garu becomes taga:r:u)


0' ''Y' ) -(~:

fi ~ -j;'("9 t: t:

\il ~

lGanojo w,a yijr.oppa n.l lId.gaNe'

lmasu,
Q

She is.eager to visit Europe, if ?t ~ f/) A ~;t.!fk ~ -11t tt ' i: tJ'~~ Gita no II ito 'wa uta o I;itaiJaga,u.

The guitarisr wants ~ See also tai, hoshii

'to

sing a song,

:lloro

sumx (of ti me) MEANm'G:: about, around

z6

L'f::o Wataski to kya rorain wa fa! so, 'wa s hJc',II;i j,~ ,,'oro' (.~i) okil' '"t mas,~~r:;o Caroline and I got up ab out seven 0." clock this morning'. 2., After i.tsulnan ji
~j:~~Jj
~ Q)~'~,J:'~}
Iri~U

;fL, t,~, '~' D

71' /

~,~7~::: ry(~=)t~~, i

~~~

' '!~ '~"i:'M1..-w l.{:li'''' "\,,H' J,/1,_ So..''''''-'; "I~~ ~'1i"a!l1I'" O',;Ii'Ii,IJ",\ii'l! de '~j:,rJ U~~~!I;~,b !11.,nlJl"mtit' 'W' ,WJll~J_lIJ 'W' '':,~. _. that~ bri dge be com-nleted? 'J ,A11IJ~1~'L ..... ~j' rll) . lUI U." l,lY Jk-'~Y,.
~!rY",I-<M l--tf. ~ Uif ur t;Ji'f:I! :i'JIW-ii' .... ' Yl~' ~if'I~·'~.JI" , '1Iui.·:·, ~". ,1Ib.'1OI;T1i1

,ttl

*1:iJ'~ ~ i T iJ~f)
,\.I' .~

1"~~ ~IO:)fWJ~~3: L J:

~ ;Q~o

Nan ji go,ro (n.i) uka,gaimalhv ka.


A~~ about 'what time shall, ,I'call on you?'
.,.,.
~1;.lI

,gur,a~
---+,

('¥ t-:> \t l,

See kurai

,hQj iDlc'rD,

M.r WJ ~
begin &tal1 (doing)

V,EllB: MMNTNG:

.1,. After coni nnctive form, of 'Verb


~J"

"f~

,0) B;.,~ ~~

,~ -~

-4- =:il:::. ~

~~4~ i8 ~'I'I 1m: ~~edi'~:b, L {lA ~ :.i, "mi '~~ .. '~~j

'oJ.,. ~

li.,.-6

1:

D'

'Watashi

n.o .to,ttu)dc~chi 'wa: k,yone,n; nihongo

o be'nKyij

.iL, 0'1.,_ ,i" iJl." i'~ ..... ~1J;~_'R:VJmemaJ1"trm .

My friend began to study .Japanese last year, 1i~' t;'~;'i!7' l ~m:~~jE',r) i: To IGO gatsu kara p!iQJUJ 0 narai:"Uljime'ma~,u,. ,' will start learning: plano from ,May.
See also das»

h "aZD, d_1e8U _'


oll,gb~,to (do)

~_' ~_-~ i -P _.'J,\. :I


be supposed/expected
'~O

PHRASE ,M.B.AN1NG:

(do), 'be sure to (do),

., ,After dietionary form off verb',3d}~cti vie

fit1'~ '1~ <. tt'T~T o


'WQ'

Kare

m,O'

tsuku HaZlJ, ,1J:es',fj'"


0,

He is supposed to arrive here soon. ;: (J) tJ' ;I. '7 ,,~ ''b "":J' l: ~'~~~±,",TT KO'TllJ kamera 'wamotto y,{U Mi' iutzUi des«. This camera ought to be much cheaper,
2. After ta,=:form, f '\flerhtadj ective o
L .... _,S~ '.'11'- "i~a dB. ~ __ ,_" sure I told. you that, m 3" A'f~er(adjectival) noun + na/!ltO , () l~_,a
a

.of? ~

'?

t.: ~±"'l~o

~,

..". .",. 1..l- ±,.,b .JI:.,.4~' l.,.. M d. 'i d,.'j

K :=E,1~

'1:- -J- 0 ~

Koko wa Qm.~'IJ..,na ,hatu des".,

This place ought to be safe,


'~;..a\",

im,_,t,.,. I ~,~s

Md.'}J;r;;J')(:~'> ' h\l

(J)-:-' _,.,4.,

,.,..J,;:"~--:;1'-

i;,.:-

u . :L - _L" ,fiianO}O 'wla ,dy'O:#i;]·UO

l. _.!l nata ".6IU:.

I' m sure she is sick,


3" ,Af~er.' nal- form of ;fi:Y:~,J: ,A.t ij: ~ ~
,Kanojo wa

c ~' L ~ ~~,~iTt,:o
0

verb/adiecti ve

;;~tJlnnakOEO

shinai' hQZM ila"

I don' t expect 'dlliat she :ru's,,going'lo do such a thing,

~ See

[aJ8J~)ha'z~~' nai ,ga

'II;-;,,,

iIli3Z'iU.
ID;UiElJ.A

'.' gJlI. 'fta~ ~ d.

'.',.J.. '.. ' -,~, ..

':'?' J.,.. '.

L tJ -t ~&.:'" 'ii,

t» "."

.lY~_Iz)JID.

"""IE!'

'U·~ A ·~nM~." ,;f'>~I!FIii'f1IIO' l~,L£,jtlJr~llIl.l·~u..l ~~JIL· " '.,

t (. :0<)" d
..

"II.

_ 1·~ ,w.~ ,i"I'YII'p.,Oir'!L1 ib.1'e ;i s ll..LJ. .'y~~, . ~.

'tho "3'['
Q.

_•
I!

.e

'Ii!

t. After' wc'U.o.nary form of vlei.t'b/a,~jectlve .~ /U, il~: i)rr~ il'o'1.Q tt -sF ~:t ~ v ~ is:Itt
b

a-kane s',a flwKarll .bat1l· ga nai. It is im:pos:sibh~th~t, one would make so mucb money ~ 2. Afoo!' ta- faun of 'VletrlbJadj"ecthte
SaNw ni
~~~~

. MJl..l;J

...."..r..

"'1' ~:.

~iit'I_.f.6

L _jr,,._ li~J,~.-r;. I~ L 'j .f,J

~"'l .
"{

1:1,

Kare ga mis u ,0 .;s:hila hatu: ga. n(it He CLllnot 'have made a mistake.
3. After na.i"" form of vl;~rbJadjiectiv'~ ~,7I.cjj~"! t'::·*"'( v~~.~~ t~,~~r1J: \t~o. KantJjo ga mada kite ,ina'SlunD ,ga ROJ. It is improbable th.allt she has, not arrived yet, (She should. ha vie already arrived.) 41. After adjiecttw',a]j, noun -t 1m/no f~,(f) Iit;t J! ~ {]J ~f: 'f iJ! ~ v ~0

.,.,.
~1;.lI

Kare no hanas-hi g'(l uso no


1[]1',::,,..
.II."1W~
-)!> >t'!'i"",rv alIJ,.'-J' ... J ..... .g,:rndi'li'·O· ~ 'I.... A, l~m.IlfJlJII·.,~, ~

.£...

lIlIDIi!I.·· .,

lse

haZIJ'

ga .nui.,

See also hatu des«

.NOUN ,IND~CATING:

.0

~~'1
one of ·two sides being compared 'with the other

It is alw~y:sfollowed by the particle ga.

iU~,~;i'iIi AlU',~'l~~

L,";; IJ!ur." 0'~

ea benrl de su y~
fi) ~".~_ Ii

!.11,~ ~

This, is more useful.


2,. After noun +. 11"0
~\f.·!I;).'u,D,iA

,:It III B (})n ':ofl-Jt t, ~\~'_'


iU~"if:ii,triiii:l.:; :ii:i'n~~
J'iI=u.'

tlu

'Ill'n' D"J.

~~),V

~'1l:!',(ii,,0'.t'J'!t" D ~jljlollil"p~ II:;

i.,:;';

u.1~..

,..J'...."I:"",~.
]j

Ml-II!'

Lam besier on Friday (than .on other day s of tae week)

,,/

J: ~ ~~·ifuOJn1Jtlf-~:

-c·~t
6

a.

Pan .y()r~' ohaR no' hi gtl s,uJd deS,N'~ g l.lIlJklerice better bread, (.vorl often indicates the other side of a comparison) 3" After dictionary form of 'verb/ad j ecti ve

man

J {' .A ''1!'

ff < '71i;t1!;rIJ -e L. ~ ~
tJi:t'

Basu de .ika hii ga henri d;eshij., ~M.t w:iU. be, :more eon venlenr to go 'by bus, Ie d~',yas,~u

*,~c-·tic!r 11

v}v

lQ

h,{j

g.a li,

I would rather take a. re st at home,

1J ;J. '7,,9t:±.) ~ ~ '!) -:[:::J }J 'OC:";I"~JIT'* J: 0 --:: ~ j:: :;fH - )II . v Ie ~~if.. Aame ria wa _~ar.ul:,_l~O ga oenn "Ilaesu YO',
A lighter CaJ.Il1eI,a is handier, ,4L AftJer,' nl! i~fO.flU oif verb 'i-Iu ~'~mij'~,j.,JZ ~.'t-~:1i1Jt'f
S,OIUUl
- ,.~

~t"

eiga ',>va ,ni,uzi


" ,~ . t.···l1

no ga
;:j~

ll"'T
yj!. ~, . UI,.

mashi des u.
U ~', ........

It is bener ferme not to.. !l'- ..see such amovie (mashi da/des« W:31 often used. wiili nO)1 5 After ttlFJo.nlT:l f verb o
, ..~IIJ'!IJ. ~. llu,w. ......

t,:,'~·T'.tJ.o A rui te i(ttl. ho ga Juu~td,atta desu ne.

$1.t} ""(~1~~' t~n·,~·~tJ·,-:)

It would have been faster to go on foot.


-'J

. .,ee 'lso, h~ S' (J


: .. ',"';' I",
~<

.....- ...

'.'.y · glZ ,U~, ,()r~


'1',-,-' "-'-.-

IIndol

';I, t:~ o,t' so, (not) ;~ . '.. as .. ,.~to the extent of;

':Al.TICLE MBMf1NG~about,

enough ito (do), ithe 'more .' " ~the :m,ore ...

I. Aite[' noun expressing ~eD.gthllq1l!J.antiy t :~rt~~,~i~, ~ -/p~, 1 ;f 0.' ~~ tt'1:T'o

Kyoto ,eli wa kako kana {e,hi kiro nuilo desu.


Kyoto Station is a.bout one kilometer from here, U)£tt!, t: ~ 2: iE~? ~ < t!. ~ v}o J'Upp,u:n MOdo koko de' matte kudasai. Please wait here ten minutes or SO~ ~ (l) ::1"~ k, -= 1!: 1 f D' ~3: t: .t.! ~ v ~o S(U~O I«Jhii 0' ;ic,hJ trwoi hallo, kudasai. ~ 'take about one kilogram, of that coffee" 'Il 2~ After noun, followed by a, negative J&'~IH;t8 *~f~i ~tt'-r1p L < if, i +t Ivo

.,.,.
~1;.lI

<

~I

,.r.;;;..~,gO'wa flii_tOngo' l,lOuO m uZU~S,~l;~U

~.'

~~

l'

cA'

,,,,...., L "'J',.

artmasen '.'
.,

: nglish is not as. difficult as J apanese.


"'jir , li'1tlJ'n h'Oc~0 f!i.lC'{.'to-~nU' __ d' I",,' :~ ,Mono

~ti ~~ ~" ~Jt'm ~ lb, '" ,~i ~ ~~


0

MI,a /liU "..

There is nothing as precious as. time.

3,. After dictionary form of 'vle:r'b/adj:ective ~~ ~tj 1Ji'f! ~ c~13' iJf, t:.':t ~ ~ 'L.1::. 0 til
c~ ~ ~

KQ:igai ryolrij ga detirD' ,hod:O' o-kane ga tamarimashi ta. I' savedenough money to be able to travel abroad .. ~ rl)*~±Tf;lt:~,~(/),Q f:i c~~ L ~~7:T ,~, 0

hon '}V,a kodomo demo yome'i1l ha40 yas,aiJhi,i desu. 'This book is 'So easy 'tha1lt ven a child can read it. e ~:~"L, ~i~,~,-J= 1~:lV'k""t, s l: t.~ '!i]{ '- - - c:lO jiI' '= ~JI- a-~' 'J:. ..6 0 ,_,
KO'tlDI

Ka:re to ~van(Jnas';u, hoilo sulci ,I'd niJru~ The more Etatk with. bim~ the more Llike 'him"

4,. Alter to-form, of verb •


~ ~/' ~f" -:+:- ,(f"'\'~ _ m rrh :0 .... ..J'.:rKar10

~,~ 13fI" ...-.. i...._ ',:r.,l,.q ~1"\\11 l »; ~ g., (;.. ~ \, 11 diu'" m.:lI~ .~

,r:

~;;;II;.

t, tf'" .;\.). 0~'"""",0 dI-" I;'; ,J

chilO' .no kuruma 'wa omo,ttB: hmlo takaku wa nakatta. Thi s used, car was not aJS expensive, as I ,bad, expected, ,5,. After nai-form of v,eflb ~~;t t ? ?J",tt ~ J!~'~i,tL L tz; t 'Il,}, h· I,.. 'uatQS-" 'we,mo aruxene» .' h 4 tsusaremasnua. no _jO ""~''''''' h'·' ,I ,am so tired tllat.I CaJ1~t walk: any more, ---+, See. also ba .'.' ~hodo, bakari, kura:i

"~r~~

:ho ,Ia Ii, '3:?

'~l' \! '~'~~ ,M~AMN'G::

a suggestion or' advice) be~~,er~O (do), you had 'better (do) '

PH]tAS~,(expioossing:

:i~,w[)u1d be

'Wbe,n sp eaking to a, person of 'higher status or in an, indirect manner, in is better 10 add to omoimasu (I 'tm~) to the end. ofthe phrase, ~, Aftes dictionary form of verb . (more direct dum, when following t;a=fbrm)
1~'+,-- I."'"" @M"l:,
~ ~

m,_%, rt ...

'n!=-".J;I~lr ~ tJ _

:!Ii

1', .~
'1/

Kanaio ni
lIt is better

ayalliQFU ,ho gi! ii"


[0

apologize '00' her, 2. ,Aft~r'~:-:fonn verb l ()f

,~._I ."d.. ..

8'

~',,!p ~

~'..

i:~,?(,

-r: A~

Ky

oue f',;+..,..i'..n: O'M ;';' n~ Ol,n' 'YOu. had better 'take along an 'umbrella, today.
!~ . ~.

fr'? -J." ,r:r; "" ...J.f' V',i;'~),o 1': "d.-1 ii


IJ"-i~ i

u:\"n I~~LJ'" l;"nii:1n [p."-tr\W

0', 'm.' . ,_.

!I;~~!{;;- ~, ...

~ -3 ~,,~) t:~;: t}~'1It~ ~~, t l~t~),f T' e '? '

,Mf) yanuzts: ,110 ga ii UJ omoimasu. I think it would be better for you, to gi ve i~, up,

3., MWJ' nai,~,fof1m,of verb

So.lo Ie' W£2. ikallai' Ito; .fa ia' desu y,o ..

-t" 6 ~.tt1j~~ l ~~l' '1,i~t: \! ~~T' 1 T;,tlt ~

],~really would be better tor you not

'~O go

there .

.... See also hi} ~


bolt.
NOUN'

~,~ 't;~

wbose meaning is, derermined by the particle which 'follows


FoUowed by ~o: aaoraer, (the) ow,er(s)I' some other, else

. ·oDow'e-d, de: somewhere/anywhere by Followed by ,ni: ,SlO\melrmy other" else

else

Preceded by n,o and. ~o11owed,b,Y- nilwa:: span. from, besides, in addition. to, as well as, except (:if:or lnl~, )!,
1. FOi,l~.'ow,ed'by no, before, noun. 1.~,modifies ~,~, tt~(J) iJfl.! ii ~ ~ 1:"T et JS' Balta: no Ii' ga U dese. Some other' dll\Y is better, ~,~,J~QJ A ~::I(~ £ T o i

,Bo,la ,no' hilo ni tanomimas«


I' U ask somebody else for it 2,. Ait,e!' noun +- nO followed by nilw:a
j

Ul~,(1) all'R0110
If""
m

t;E /Jr':l. ~: tI] ~ 15"' \t } ~~j: ,£ 1t Iv Q ~~


no "l.OiP\~a' stunai 'W12tmasen. li~
I~ ~

t:

., :(.,"..

r have, no acquaintances besides her. 't:"~, )l/ (f) ' iJ'l ,j: fiJ 'b ~) ~ ,£ 1t Jl
0

Blim ,ttO hoka wa nani '",0 i rimasen, I don,'t need, any~hing ether nUllru beer, 3. Used as noun, fon[)w,~dby no ~,ii, -IJ~(J) ~ j!,it 1:" .t~~ v} 0

<

Ho,l;a:no

misete kudasai. Please .~ show-. :"L~' another : • Jf.' I, cii"' il! ..0", (iIlJJjb .. IllWJ\r.I
0
'i"ri,o!!ii

4,. Used as adverb, followed by ni/de ~~,t5 '"1:~, ~ C ~\l~(])tJ,t=1·'~~A I? ~fTo

,Ilo,to de motto "as ui ,'UJ ga til. ni hairimas u. You coo get ,3, cheaper one somewhere else

~iiJ t:!.tltr!fj ,~::

< (!)~T1J~o

Boka nl dare ga iku no desu ka.


Who else is gO:~n.l;?

~, See also ig,ai

hoka nal
,PHRASE

~ 1)'jj. 7j: \i ~ i
but (do), cannot help (doing)

ME_AN.mNG: do nothing can

some thing
1," After dictionary form of verb A-s.: taramert«

,lb ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ir~j;~ '~>it'Av.a


,,;";OiL'Q' aTfmaS6'n.,
L"

I..

"

I tam do noth ~:ngbut ,give up"

bosb~~ '2 Lv·AD]ECn;Ve MEANING: want, 'w·an'~ (someone)


~,O-~Iwould

like (some-

one) to

declarative sentences. and the 2nd pierson in questions, However when Hoshi i ,.s followed, by garu~ tie Jrd person su bjeet mu st be used.
.m.D
j

The sub}ec1IT' is usually the :[st person

1.. After oh;ject

'WcMa:s.ht '\lvatotemo bide,o kamer« ,ra ho~'h~i'i desu. I want a video camera very' much. firti~' tt \ (J) '1: 11ttl; 0 ~ ~L ~ ttln h hi'.' ~-. ",gtj~O~,~ no d esu It a., I:~ ,~" ..
',Vbat do yo~ w'aJt[!7 2,. After te- form of verb
-;, 1:
r

.fL tt c ~ b '~r<>* 7J ~ :1 7j{~,i,L v ~~ T c

n,QUIl -t, g,1Z1,

.,.,.
~1;.lI

-Z-' ~:iL ~) (J) ~ T iJ.! 0 < _'- ~(},U!O tetsu d -, raJtli' ,iO,;S' 11."" nO' ,~'e.;5'U ga. eh I: - -II. I I W3ifi1 you '[0. help me for a while, ~.!t B 7P i- ,~~ r ~::z :;...'~' ,;l, ~ ';;' ~ ,/
'0 '''J

t, -=p'1i'

,~

.n:

1': ~;t L~ l it

(JJ

"1:

To
'Ta~jijbi purezento ni ,konlJyt~:t!a0 katie ho-sJ"ii' no desu.
I walJlj~. to 'buy 'me a computer as a birthday present, you ---+ See also ga (J)~ garu. ,nw.ra~

'hotOlldtJ

~;l t./v

t::

AJ)YERB :MHANIN(I::

almost, hardly" scarcely, little, few

1. In. affirmative sentence


t." ." ,",",,.j • h. S,L • r~'~g(Jtowa i,~O\J,O',KlO owanmasnaa. 'be 'work is almost fi nished .

tt*~.i~.l ~Iv,~~'b

~~

Lt::.'o

.2. Ill. negative sentence ~iIl~;j ~l, l:. B c.lv

K{})!f!snu 'wa: ho,to:ndo nihongo (J' be.nkyo shimasen de'slii ta. 1. have hardly stu died J a:'.' .m., sfj this 'week.

*~~ftt5!ii L i ~Av1: L tz;

Jfh.'~ ~ \l1~' 'itlx.-o ,Ro,tentio dare Jt10 sore .0 kaimasen. Hardly Mybod,Y buys it
); See also metra 11 to, amari

~a:t Iv ~t!n'~

Ig.
ii ..

I'!;IM P:.A 7 :1"'"

NOUN ,MEA· .ING:

e xcept (for), but, bes ~des" in. addi tion to, apart

from, (those) other than

It is often foU.owed by the particle ni or wa. 1 After noun


m

ltc,tII s: ,~~~tt~ S' fj ~d ~


~~

~l

'i T 0

S,'UI,iD,i igar; w!~ mainichi hataraite tmasu. ,'wo.r:t ever," da,y except W:edinesday .

fJf rlf]' PJ.,~'~ljc~ ~


L
i' --

fiTj ~ ~ ~ ~ '-1:t At
••

0
.'

S"~n',91:.'-',n

nan~ ~no yo.'mnnas'en,. Other than the newspaper :1 read almost noth w ng~ fA ~d:,i;~ ,t::tJ.;r~~: ·*A,lf);&tA,irf!.i ~i:.1t tvo 8 Watl.ls.hi 'wn laRata' :lgai ni' ninonj'in no yuj.in gel. imasen.
,i ~

il. _

wtn

W!ii1 arnan'

I 'have no Japanese friends apart from, you, :2,. After dictionary form of verb
:1\[" .." l,t,ge'nJ, ,~lf1at. it =h' = ga naL ,nt_:o,'o 'There; is mo other way except to :F1U_j] away ~ 3,. After reported statement ending with to l,u koto ;;l. ~';t ~~'9G~ f!_ ~, v \ 1. ~ t ,hl~,ti {iiI b ~il ~ i ~ 0 tli fu WtJ'taS'hi WtJ' kare ,ga~SILR~Sei da ta ,iu Itoto igtJ;i '~va.n;ani rna shirimasen. blow nothing except that he is ,3, teacher. ~, See also hoka
,H ,H

~i:' i

M',

f'2.. Y~"J't- 'l'-.JJ "*-,.J.~' '"'J: I h~ 1&1' r;r:;;.lJ


'!;'~

J' .... -:~

I -), 'I,,!' '. C!

.,.,.
~o;.l'

1..go
NOUN

J;A:fil
(used, of time)
MEA:NINO:

after, since, from (now) on

1 After mlO~J.D expressing time (usually followed by a particle) fr.l~~7'iiI# I ~ "':-k, 1. ~ ~ l' -r: <' ..J-:t'~" Tl~ : ~11'.rJ:":A,1~ 'l'- ~"RiP 'v \,. '. r-: C'
m m

'" ,

:t

Gogo &/dehl, ji ito n:i' de.nlva shite kudasai. Please call me after 7 P .,M., *.rJ)}J' q 8' ~jf~~i*f&~.: \rl 0 Tsug'i no llet&lI,JliJ/Ji,j #go W;{Z osaka' ni imasu. I'll 'be in OS:aK;a 'from next Monday on, Used as adverb J~il ,~~ . ~1~,,;01;,~:~"~~ l~'~""!"I 4'~ ~ ~~,0 ) '1.", ..... r.: C"

i..,

~I

19,'(}k~'o tsulet;e kudasai,


Please be more careful from now on.
~ .' S· a.s. c
'i~~

...'1I(!.O·tl~:;;;: · l":r-n~' iI1~ ,!li1tV1 )I·~~~~

J:. .... ':i'...-d «ur w

() more th an, over, mentione d', a,b ove;,[lot ····;·r I: ru II. ~ 1. " .'0' - .-_ (' J m,ore!, onoe . . . ~ .mow th at. . . ~ Slfl.Ce,. i1ruS,nag .IS oD,~er! ,.on, ,
NOLfN ,M.EANIN[ll..
':._ '.,' .' ,_.: :1,.' ..' ", ",

II!!

•••

I,"

",

'.'

-.-'

-" ,0

'I'

",.

:.1

-'I

'.:'"

I'"'

,"'-,: E].rnlY

I"

'[~.'

;.','

.'

[,-:,.,-

['

,"

'",

,;1.

"

r"l

:.

,"

I'

','-'"

I'

,']

:'

1. After noun, expressing

~;:,! "'"E,ff '

< a» ~:,:1 ~r~ ~ £tJ:.XI'"lip ~ ~ T'o

le.n.gthllquaIDui~y /priee

SO'Ko made fku no ni ,ich~'.j'ii(l" ijii kakarimasu.

U will take move than. one bout to get there, ~ .(1) l- / ;t.. ~i 2::3.f- 0 ,~' ~,)v j.]1 .l;~ ~ "f To )v I ~ v, £\.,onotonneru 'W£l RZ,.i...: ,ft,ri,r-ome'dJim flO' OJ'·Untl,SU.,
'-;J '. ,,_, •

This mnnells more than 2., Followed 'by no + noun


.Y.A
II"~,~

~'WOkilometers

long'.

.l;v ./ J.'~ '~:mI

roLl

~::~""1'10
I!,."

,,,__,~

'....

j,.,p

,I.r ~.4.

r-hi ~L 1, ~ t, ,~ .:l:' '""t" lJI..., ~._ d: ') ~

L _""-'" "I '- 0

Ijo no' nyu de' kore Wll chushi ni narimashita. This was cancelled 'for the re asons mentioned above,

184 j.j_t,(f) A, L j}~Att ,1t'A~o ~ JU}i(r:ss,ai ijo no hito shika ha irema sen " Only people who are eighteen and over are allowed to enter, 3. After the demonstrati ve pronouns kare ~sore ~are
....__,

......--i1
<11' '"'

Jr.:.A.

~'I!r_t..."

,8,0:7'"
0"

va «oeo ae matemasen.
~,.-j'_~.

~L

"'--i...

'Ii"

~~

l~f
,,'

-r: ,~...l..lL
'l.. ~-i;:_

IV 0

_J

.,~ .,,'" I can "I"" W3L1~,,W,IIe.[''t any ,'m""ronger, l, .. l;~ .;iI' t-,- tL~,~", ±' 1I:t:I:I::rTI':.m.-:r: t'
'II).", ,
'c
-I . ~ _'
I .',. '. ',_

:.1 .:._: ;I'i.!I

"

:'

I:

,,0

S'OtS'

,yo 'w-amuri

desu.

Any more l~bM. 'hali,] s imp ossible ~ ,~" At I~he lend of a clause '-f'h~~' ~ J:: VtWJ.t;:_w.J:~)J L·~' ~J'tL~;f~:t) i ,it !vi) So,r:e a ,'a",B to ki:me,ta' :ijo ,doryoku shinakereba narimasen. N O'W thtlJu. you' ve decided. to do Ir"you must work hard,

llo,llo mtuJe ,Yillta iJii kansei .sh~y.o,. As '1-'0: ng we' com th~,"" let' ~ com 'rill~le'~"'''' far J - l, I'lli' "'-'"'11'
,~ "J.~
;]I~: ,Q;:) ,

~~'I~ bo

I!;,.! !>,II, '_' .;:!II, ,~ .' ,~.-::lI _ Q.JI .. , 'I;;;<

i;:i

!I,.o,_""

'.... ,!11 c ~

_~.

bilDban

~~,-;, ~f tu

,AJ);V1E!ltBIND-lCATtNG::

the superlative degree of am,;adjecti,v,e/advtl1b

.,.,.
~t;.lI

1. ,.

Before ;ilUdjecti:veJ( adj eeti van noun/adverb t~ tJ ;I. 7 j)r:'~'~ ~ Iv ri' 11' =r: ~r ~ o» 't; f ~0
,D'OfU)

kamera ga ichiban; ,y(J's;u'i' desu ka. Wb~lc~b camera is the cheapest? .#<?' ,j", -J.~" ~.1J;t I 1'< ,. ~ -/: t: ~I;.r/~' ~)' .}o_ !.el /"l.' I~;'; J:; ? - ~,-=", L~~~~' ~~ .=r--t. '!v. ~....!-.J..... '""J ~ ~- 8 *~ ....~ ,'Ir',o ~b

J r'7'' -"I .I' _


~,!

"Dare ga ic'hiho:n jozu: ni nihongo 0 hanashimasl~~ ,n Maf/a~ Ira aesu. "Who speaks .J apanese the best?" "Mike does ,2,. Used with. predicate of emotion
_d' '" ,-' ~,

71:To J

t '~ )[..0 1)'~~ ~~, ,j; Iv tJ ~ ,re! '-t 0 ~ 'Watashi 'wa b'i.i.r,uga w'hilJtln; s'lI.ki.'tie'5"I'+'

,t~

.'H

'~Ltt~'\I'~I'-; 1v.o1' ~ i) A~tr ~t::. ~'~'o ~,;f 'Watashi 'wa ima ichi-ban igirilU. e ikita'i.,
'to go to, England most now, ~, See: also mottomo

I like, beer best,

WtIDDl:

'~ke-

~_ ,=3], ,D ..
sr-

ADIEl.CtW·f

M:fAN,1 NO: must

not, have to, ougbllto" in

CU!lle . .' •

'I'

bad,

wrong

K.olo de taboko o sune w,a ike,l1ltr~6,'ll. You must not smoke here. 1;, ';! ~ ,j3 ffj :~'l!t k -e tl v~t, 'l v \ j:, 0 ~ Amari o-sake o nonde 'w'aike'RaJ YO'" You mustn '-t drink too much. 2,. After the stem of r~Qi,~jor:m verb + nakereba of

'b

-j, 1-rtt~~ ~l'n~i\·' ~!v0. ~t,~

~~1 0

;14'-

"k ..... :t. ,m'(Jl'IlaStt'N, '. ii. ,an·utA'e,"'~f}'.tl;.:l.. .

I have to go now, (ikemasen may be replaced by Ro.rimasen) :3,. After dictionary form of verb + to'" :[o.~.ru,O'wled by tara ~'iY;;Ilf~i c: ~'i;I~t l' ~~,iJ~~~ ~W-? ~~T-:") t: ,!, ' 5 iJ{'~~~l'-r:T i
j:;,
0

AflLe' g,a ju't;u ,to fke,lMi kara kasa o matte ina ,h,ij go; ii ae'sY, yo., lit's 'better to, take an umbrella 'with ~f'0u.because if'll. be bad :if' i~ rains, (You had, better take till umbrella in ease i~rarnn s.)
4,. Used as adjective

i" tL OJ c~' :6t ~~~ ~'i~(J)I -e _;t iJ"'a r. tI


So

Sore no doko ga ikt)'J1Jai no' desu ka.

What'
-+ See

wrong wi til ift'?


Ilar;anal

WSO

~~M'ii 1'~lYU",

I-N -M'fj"" ",'FiI'iJ.~'~ ~ ;',I-C,f,--'iiL'~~,~,~U~


JIi,

fmm
,.w.'lkJ!,,,.'

,!'

'!i

'Olill 'CI"~\Or-: .,I.W, ~~L~"

1. Mer noun expres sing point in time, foUowed 'by panicle *,imJ.:lr~:~lc, L ~11t: L ~l~T Bais:hJ~'iko; wa totemo iso ga;s.'hi i desu.
0

I' U 'be V6])I busy 'from next 'week on.

lLo.nb,a~,,k" ji iii) Id' den, wa ;£'nit:e kudasai. Please can me after nine '~o.nigb:~. -.. See ,a]so igo, irai; kart/,

~'~9J:f ~~: ~:'iitm t. '1: ( t~'~ "~(j

.,.,.
~1;.lI

ikura ~,~. 'lemnJdeIDo even ... '

"l < ~
<~

"'., ., l

~, b /12'
at

:PURAS:B MEAN~Nu:IHJI matter

how (much/hard),

rhe .. '. est,

ill. Used with the stein of re-form of verb


\;l

<

~;J:~

fu ~t"0'"'(~ J:

IQ ~

~'~o

Ikura ganiJattemo yolc,1. nartl',u i. No matter how hardI hl'u ~ it' doesn'~0'0 weU. =s» 2. Used with ku-Jorm of ~dj:ecd,ve v ~ <. ~,i§ < "'C' b 5n~'~ 1:~~,~, t:: 'I,; ~ 0 ~ ,11u7(;1 ,os.oJn,temo go}i ma-de ni tsuldta,l. ] want to arrive there by five ~:tthe Iatest, 3 Used, witffi1 noun
1~1

~l

<

lS3E:t~, ¥) ~ 0)~'m~i~1~H1'~ v'o

"'1 M "

Ijl

li""iCI' ...., Ii. ,,11;-'1 IU".t'UrY:IL~'f.llM",

ili'TI-'C" t"iI!J!.i 'F'U' 'IJ.Tif'YIl"l-'"O'-'·N "" ii ,," ill" ,:.'

,I".......

W-

:O:RiF"ii)['l , ',iL.!'U!

lkur-a tensai demo son.omandai ~vaiokenai.

Even a genius cannot sol Ve,druJl~'problem. ~ See also demo, temo

mai

j.!~~

NOUN MBAN[NG::

within, less than, not more than

J.,,;fJn inoi ,ni modorimasu. I"U be back within ten minutes,


(foHOIwed by da/d:f!'su)

1rfEfr(/)Jt
,RyOW'
·.[WIU

m ~j:57iPiJ;l,~J'1:T
_
IL~.-" .

hiyo' 'wa 1,,'0 man, en; intJi: ide:st'~ The expense for the trip 'W wUbe less th an fd~Y' 'thousand yen. ',-':.lJ,_)ITII£'IiiW- 'ed bv '1.'110-) (:'0' J'
.110'
.. ~.'

!R,~=t, :: ~ 'tJ'l' t? (j: v ~'r.20jfl.i~' CT) PJT r:: T o


,Eki w.a koko kara uruite ,.~'.iu,pun inai no tokoro desu.
Th _.~~
t!>

c;,j1;;'il ~IIJ.·~U,·

rri

o'n'

~~, _,i.~

is wi t't,]' JJ.~ tw ~~,!tIL. Y" '_' __n utes' illiiII"' m':]" ~-yo. ~I "__ "_"_
"_'_.Ii __

'Jil,

:,Pll

'W__"_"L~ from 'h- &!!'FQ ' "._- '8- 'U_.., ~=" '_ -J ~~~1~

·~ra~ J.21

'CONJUNC110N

*'

MEAN[NO:,

since

1~ After noun 'expressing a past point in time

Jt .fJ' ,tA

Se1i;g'~tEll:tr'lai ame g,a ft,ttte imasen: I~~as not rained since last mODEh. h

*m 'iflrlf;

r:)

T~i ~ 0 ~ Iv

2,. After re-form of. vf!;rb .~; J+,~railh t;' ,',' .."".. ~~:b: ,.' fj-_, ~ * .";J-. t,,~ .tJ'J.>. ~ do. iifJt.,~llIJI~.....:l. '''.:J 'L M 71'-,.l,.oLt""" ~ a.. 1j c 'WaJ:£lshi wa kyosld ni nane irai go ne'n rd narimasu.
~,'II!" ,=, r~ ~)

It is five years, since. I became a, teacher . .' See also igo, i'ko'~,kara

:WW

"li, ,,Q
be" there be, exist, stay, have, be ...
ing, have

V~ERH .MEAl\llNG:

(done) ~b ~ >( done), have

been , " ,. mg

Ane
r. .-M" _·"Y
L...
0;..

v » ~JJ'1%f mI if .... ~ a,. ~

m ~h rwm ~

'. -~;. xma osasa su.., tmasu: ,'n;d'· lsr --~'.-- , 'i' s, , .... .'1... Ml).1I! er- SIS ter IS ,![i.owstaymg'C-· or ,w) V ],IElg in 0" 'saxa'
\lila
:c;
·~I~, ~.-).~

J ~ I- -t

,,'';l

L).

~J 'if~' I:J

~iI;,m

..);.{1" '!! ~'


'Ii"

a. -.1-- 0 ..,

iVatas I'd wa ,k,.6da,;i ga san nin imas«.


] have three brothers,
3., Af~ef re-ferm of verb fl, ~j:. Ii:)\_ ~ fJj '0 "'( v l ~
!f:lll,~ :~:.. • .' - • 'H
'~T¥i .II. 1W:1t_.1.

0' '.'

!f-;-,a~iaSr~~ 'wt~~·mdli y.~UU'l(J' ~nthie tmllSU' .

. I

W', ~ ,_.W,J,J'b lIl.~'" a ,~JLlIJ"Lj\~,_U mine 'iJir1;fF' 'TIl: "~I~n--...ai i"",:f,. '_' 6·lIJ~I't~'1i"ii0l; V,__ . .4Il,I"I~
11f'~v

·TjlI~'W~·;-~ J.lI!U ,_'.

.It:f- 'iij ~~ /)

j;j!;r'.ff'I ~..Ar'~~'

i.,,·~'i...

I,)

¥ .j

oudl-'iF c:tI;. ~ G!;..

Kunona nomado
Your
'$-,
J!.:j!.

gt!

aite

,lm:aSR
~ =f--

YO'.

'Cal'

window ~sopen,
j.

f~ • .~ M1l\11 l ~,~.~~~rl~~ "'f(' ~~:fu~ ~


'--d::'

If) ~ " -0

'Watashi "\fa e ij i shinb~~n10 Jande: imas« ~


. am reading an English language newspaper, (or Mr-ead an ..Bngllsh lenguage ne.w·s:p13:pel·,,, [ha;bi~u2H1actionl)
~ 0) ~

Sono mise w.a rna shi11U'ltte

',J: ~, ? M t

r:?

"'C ~ ~ £ T

im08U ~

That store is closed already, ~ (j)? ir·~ if·? t.m,jtr~$?L'~\"£


Kinif} Tiara; l.;uttO' ,ame ga fotJ;e
,Un'fl.fJ.lI;.,

Ta

It bas been :r,tlinin~sine e yeste.nj;ay,. fpI ~ 1"~. ~ it~~it 1: i'T 0

Nan! o sube.ki ka kongaetif1masu;.


1 am tbinting w.ham. do. to (informal spoken Ianguage often uses '[be' abbreviated .rulmas.u jn stead of iru/imasu after te- 1000 of verbs w hem. expressing a. continuing action or state)

th 'q t: ,;t t 1:" ,It mf n1:' ,~, Jj.. t: v...:!. t


J
,,~,
l~'r.

AnQ,ta 'Wei to te m 0' ts.uk"ttrtt,ru misa i deli ," d ",au 100k very urec. ,',

r~,Q1),~·_~·~''?~\t~iTir~o
A~·I·~';I.

,i "

.v.....0. l\.u~u·~[J.i~ ...,f.J!L~J:~> """'tltI~,~ ,.... :w...... I!~nikn u 'L':'4 ,; 'I;i"e: 'i
,;;";1

_'R>!!"

'NI' I,.. ~

'ilJL,; ""h:';'F"i
.

rv'''~.~, ~~ i:~J;t~Q t)
:~![; ~ ~:. 11;.., 'Jqr~~Lli

:i<ii<ii! ~

I{i.b

I[".i

Ha

'~'i

'Do you, know this word?" ~"N .I don t know it.' 0"
l

(Bnglish verbs, ex pressing a c ondition or s tate. are u sually translated into the progress! ve form in la, However, the negative of shine iru '[shin,tru] is the non-progressive form ,.shi.ranaL) ----+ See also ,ar!;I!, O'r,'t~'; ~Uii temasu

,me ...

b uS'.oru.~
ii'

~,j; IT''!i'l.n::::n III} .~ ;iII'1[;" ';!;N' TIi.Tif':!· Y.,D~_D ,IY.lJLi1a. " .u"[u~

W~';"5e. (someone) ",.':,w.bI_1 \r~'U(I W'U,',

i~.

I.,. iIIO 1t1.. :..~:

aether _.

~'!Ii

at the t[i''OlI'm'time e bJl~ ~: II


'.

'I:

"_ .i)~_K' .

i~

"Dare to us:holni

SIO/co

Ie .itla

no desu ka.";"Tomodachi

to'

des U,.'!'i'

~Wbo did you, go there with?" j'WiU:ru a friend." 2., Used as ad verb

~,;)~ ~ 'v" '? L ,J:


,/ ItU~ ,!!tar:--oJ
'C',b';l!fIIl,}1 ~ ~Jt

'

t:

.. h I... ,',. r, . ,~'. tss« O'IU; 8. ~'OA-UJ~o smmasen sa.


~~ly __

~:,** L;jt, ..1t ~7J~o ~ ·h


l

'W~ .. ~

I ~.__ ~

'b 3J{,IP,A':I:Il'mf:;-r. toeether now? UJ_ ~~_~ _Vt:l~-~ _tt

IU ~ '~ A-t tWItS ~ ~ irf.'~' ";) L


:YaJ?u;u:nQ.t'Q-SW1
:HSO 10

~:::i',~ L. i: '~,

to yamada-sar: g'll :iss,ho,ui tsuki"UJ~hi,ta. ,MI. Yamamoto and Mr. Yamada arrived at the same time,
-)i-

.,.,.
~1;.lI

See,

,~Jtadak,u
, .• .' -, ". ,., . _. , . .'. ,0

RESmcrfllL VE.ltBMEANINo.;e given get, recei ve, ea "nave ,some=

be

". -

'Ii"

..

.'

.•

't',

......,

...(.....

thing) done

:~, As set phrase said before meals .

~"i;t:.t! ~

a: To

ItadaklmtlSN .'
(Li't.) I'Il 'be given food,

2., After obj ect :n,OU,[I 4- o

$:fX (/)~ ~ tJ~,t" ~'~


~got a letlter 'from a

f- ~l 1:.: t!_ ~ t L.f::. 0


lJ

G,akko' no sensei lm'r'tllte.1Jlimi

iIRdtl/d:mm,him;.

~, tv:' t: t:.~ t: ~~ l7'~,jto n (J)

teacher

at

my school,

6"
.

'/

I.

'.

GUM:rv.IATU::::AL ,F-UNCrrON WORDS


.. .i ,:, "' •••
j'", , ",", . _"

I'

".','

,"

"

KO'Te 0.' i~adQ;iilaj' no desu ga.

,rd Iike to have this. 3. After t"e-fofl1[l] . of verb


Si5 shitlJ' ,iJadakimal,u;.

zf 1 L -CWl t~:t:: t -90 ~

I'Il have you. do so. (I hope you'll krn:nd],:y do so.) t, J: '-:? t: ~ ,tt· ~ ~ '0 l"'~ t~~ to: ~,O:) =fi~ JQto t.::. Chotto tore 0 "no'll;, ittuiakifai .no desu ga .. I'd hke you '~O hold thi s for a. while,
~ (/) }j!~'

t-- ~

-cv- t: t! ~ "i T tJf). j'

it)

Kono genko o lnite

itrzdake:maSB ka.

--ao.

Sumimasen ga. ekt n i iku michi o oshi.ele ittJtiaicernos;e:n' ka. Excuse me, but could you tellme the way '~O the station? See, also moras:

T J:;. ! 1t Au tJt ,. lR.~: < jH ~ ft ~'"(t ~t: t!' ~t 1t Iv iJ~ ·rr I


0

Would you look l'brou.gh 'mis maD.USCl~~:pt me)? (for

'1I'1t.J'"ll'lC'D-'JER ,IU.''IJ ,1Ii'~.

Oii'"!~n ~ L "'''i'i''ll'tJ''l:i' ,ill'!,!

·w.....
.~.'.

lEI,n 'l.1I!'"I';' &."'"""r'o""!" 'U,Il'!iJLj' l~,LrinJ:'!I,i.I~'Ii.,J.' .. ,~,lh;- .JI.lIL! ..

when what tim 1)..1,::. -I':'


,',,: ~

Ii.,;;;

It~v,; kO'ko e leila n desu ka. '\Vhen. did yon come here? ~, '0' '1:' ~ Q (J) i)~i: tJ;, i' L·to: '"/P Q

-r

ltsu dekin« ,w ka tarunemashisa


(reported speech)
2,.

ka ..

'Did. you ask when. it will be finished? 'Wi~hspecific pmicle in a qjuestio1rJ

fIt 1;(" l ~ ir~ jJlj'~ ~,? G U . aflnOjO 'wa its« ,,,a'ra


'i';L
c~ .~

~ rJJ' ~
,l.....,
-~Ir'

-9"' '1J~'o

Since when has she been sick?

At '1: ~9 i6~ Itsu made n.i'ho'n.ni iru 11 desu ka. 'Ut~'til, when (how long) are you, in Japan? 3.. Used in, noun clause in a declarative sentence 1.1 ~, -o ts'~: ~ (J) '7J~,;b 1J~'~ i ~ Iv
"'J '~

c:: B

*,.:

,vjo)i~.J-nano

.s u:e'su k :.:Q'"

\r \ ~

fJ

,ltau hajil7lllFtl no ka wakarimasen.


I don't know whenit begins"
,~" Pollowed ~ the subject marker ga ~) ~ t!l~.t. -? L k1•1:T"rj~.Q

ItS.l~,g:ayonJ's.hli des« ka.


When wru~] be convenient for you?'

it!... UlFOR:MA:L PAR1TCILE that i a eupnomc at 1;S

1Il.., ,cH:tWogeof";J' , a,e\l'VQ

I .' After (adjecti val) noun (used lor making the, ne gative form of do/des Ii~)

t: tt ~;I, OJ ':/)'i ~!t: ~',&;; ,~ '~'it Iv f~, Iv

Kore wa wasashi nO' kaballja a~e,'J.


This ru.8 not m.l" bag, (indicates a condition when fon.ow~dby negative form of a potential verb)
;: (fj,

x,~

t -t-' mtJ~~,t:, n,~ v' r

Kono ,te:nki',ja d(/kake'ro:renaf


'We can' '[ go out in this weather"
;:, q):1' ~
'~.;1 ~ ~'~

t:. ~ i"tL~j:,-r-~ 'iit ~o

,.'0

01

Ii

.....

U~·:1YLf'\

·0 A'M·"--"··w·T- -["""A i' ... ~J.""'U...


1

IIJ[

If"" Y

j·N·'-·C··
I" ~-:

-r-I·,l!"i.il';J'·

,J;Uf~

W- ·OD·n~ _",_
I.. :
~I

Kono lUJnpJilia

ja sore wa dekimasen:

It can' t 'be done wi th this computer, 2., After tbe stem. of te-:fonn. of verb whose dictionary form ends, 'with bu~ gu.,.m;[~"Of nu, and fOUOiW~d by ikena!

~. ~ '1:~1v t: ~,,~~ £·it fuQ ~t

Koko de aso".ja· ,ike:mase'n., You must not platy here.


--'; See
aJJBO

cha, d:ewa,. ilc€.ru:d!tewa

JOI

r::~

NOUN MEANlNG:

throughout, within,,-, 311 over


l~

::0....

ru

1", After noun. expressing 'period of time

''''iF

fa

~L~J:,~1*·hq:uA if~ ~ L L~~tL.t~o


WauiS'hi 'waju!lu; .1tfSlImJ'jij suni
,01

shite imashita: .

.~'was skiing throughout the winter vacarion.

18 ~T t- '~~~,'-r~~i Lt::o lcn~' ic,hi j,i' terebl 0 miie imashisu n

a.

] was watching TV' al~ daly 1ong. 2., After noun expressing period of time, follo-wed 'by ni

4t~~. ~:fJ:_tJ-r"( <

"Qnshii j'i ni' shiagete kudasai. Please complete it wi~m.n this week . .3;; After noun expressing place, <b""'~rl' _ I"-f"- 'T' EI" ~J.=rtf,e4iC JJt~IT ~ t: L 'J, 'L. m r , \ ~'....,a:- 0 .'"."
Ii· .:::.. .'I,;;.,~'I;/"
.~ .,

t.:~

~~o'

Ni'Ao.nji o ,ryoko shitai to omoimasu. ,I think I' d like to tra vel ,au. over J81p;an ..
--Ii'

See also lchii. ni

'.'.. J'" =,

J'...... iI'!Ii!U'

'!I!!

70' '7

ka
IIJj ~ Jlr·,AJ[\.

iJ~
'~in:;, ,J.~JL:E'\J..''P!I I,~_U.

IEJ;'TIC"'iL'~ ... D

;iI;:~TIl".~~·(,~:I''''II,I..er) vJi,UJII.r.i,W,
'!

.,

I!!I

__
m

l!'riillf" ~,1Il.

~I

II'!

_ Ill, _ _

W':,'~~*,'h'~r J]~ L1J~


.

n is also used to form questions, extend Invitations, or make


requests, 1.,. Between two or more
,D,(J i~ra:kue

*~~
You
CM

,nOU'~lS

~j:)''\ A 'iJ~ i&,-f~, =r:!'1T

~t 'T' t

'w,abtJ!S,u ka '(i,I~:ikat't"S,u de: ikemasu.


'[0
1

go

the 'uPIversity by either bus or subway,

2.. After each of two or more verbs in m,c:t1.0narry form,

*,~~.:tr< ~~~it~lT.Q ipik;,lt) t~ ,~t:n~f'7J:"~,~ 'l:lo

D,laigaku ni iElJ ka shusbok« 3ur,n,ka kimenakereba naranai. I' have to decide either W go to university or get, a job" jI~l&~:,ti < tr~~M ~'!!,~::fj-jj'). L ';t: L at ,? 0 <
,rae'H~~hi i tku, ,lUI edg-a 0 mi ni f-j;;u Ita shi,masno., n Let; s either go to an amusement park or go to see a mov ie, .3~ After nounclause + no 1ij#®0 t: Q)ir~o~'4~ £ ~ IVo Nani ,10, OkOf1'a no ka wakarimasen. I don J' t know 'what happened . ...,. . ~, ~..a:. 'L..z, .,. ~ .. ~t-t;1 . . ~T~ c, 'J .. -"-» T, ~' '\ fl) J. 4;&'"A." 1: ('" ~,,,,, ~ -~ 11, Q ~',dl, , :ti'1; 'IX r: C' K;o,f,ro ji 'w:a: do yalte itl:k~' no' lea' oshiete kudasai.
l,..;, (()

Please teach. me how 'to write this, character, ~ tt'1Jt*,~ ~,,(J) 7;~' Jj iJ~,biJ~~ ~ ,1t'AvQ

c~

U;;i!iiI:_ O'n :lL..,,:H'_'Llii:n,.;o'1II n.n u.n, Lon ..",Jjij.r..;'], Au" ~ ,O"IM ,Ju,JIIi-,f,,\I,"!U'.,IU "11'1;1:. I:~V ,1I'!liu. UU~"

r.

--,L...-;,-,-~, -,-.fl'.o'--' w,al'Lur~rJl.y,-SlGn".


,-•.

I don't bow whether or not this is tbe real thing'. {if :ptecedln,g clause 'bas no questi.on, words, .data [or n.ot] may 'be p~tt, after !Cal'

10

;!!'

ORAMMA.TlCAL FUNCTlON' Wo.RDS

4,. At I~e end of question in indirect speech

~tc~:

,Ka,IJ;o,j"J1ni dok,(J1 e iku n« I'D,: ,to,:t;unemashita ga, kotaemasen


deshita.
,&;:; __ J~

t:

e:~~ ""'fr' (

0)

tJ~t~Ttl,~ L t.:tJt .. ,tf,~ i it At ~ L

'0

I asked. her where she was going, but she didn't answer, A't' iIJJtWlli.r. !l-L4JJ, of ""P'Il-' f-''''',rri,if'''",'''''
r

,'~ ore 1"Va nasa no kaba« desu ka. "Hai, K a


1-'~

r',~n~~b)~ t,::Q),j~tf Iv -rTi1~o J r~j:1t}~,


'.

~'~'G'!

IjIiI;;ilfli;a1 ~J!

l~-'I!mi",_, ~~,~~~

'~1--r''''t e J
des e.~ "

si5

"Is this your bag?" "Yes, it is, ~,

I~ lh~,jtit~fT7J\~
I~

H {"

i" • _ ,~, , ,;;,aJ,'{I~,'m~ . ~ab wa »emasu

J
I;'"",

r,j1i
~"',

,A-U,~

'-:!;

j U' ". b' . .,,~ ,1-l'~:Uj ta ,'emtl:su,.


l ..
;j.

ft~~To

"Do you, eat sashimi ?"" uy'es", I do,"


:itt:' t:f'\"'"'" ,C,.., ~ G, / .ts:,,' IiJ l';[J.. --r..A), c 1". v..:; H3' 1")(. 'iF./ 'I,_ -.:!: ., f;,)"
r

Ka re no toto 0 do omoimasu ka. What do Y011l think 'Of him? 6,. After masen (to make an in vitation)
~~ --='

L. J;:

~: ~

/"'~

r' ~':fT '~1t )V~~o ~

I'sshoni konsiito ni ikin:Ul'se'u ka:~

W'ou~~,d like: to ,goO to the concert widl me? ytCD'(i. 7.. A"fte:r' re-form ~):f erb + kuremasen v
(to m .!.IV , ,_~U'>,.,G a request) _'_, ~ $i;.,~:R L lC <. fl ~1t tv'iJ~"c Jltens ha 0 kashit"e' kuremase« k«.
o!'1i;i".,ffi.

,IL,'~ ,: ,I!!;l , ~,Ij. .

W'ould you. please lend me your' bicycle? g,. After interrogative 'wold,
&,.~ ~',~ +-$.n ~'!.!. L l.~ J!1:i:::r:. ~.;Ii. I,_ ;iI Ijp lJ' '"', c.. 6
-k.,A._:;" ~: ~ I.,r ~,J. C' ~

L. ~'" 00 '. /,_

Sensei wa dare ka to tlo,ko' kB e i}{imfJ,'s'hita. The teacher went somewhere with somebody.

IP... .ir.-..,.......... .tla .= .~:m

ill

01. 0

Nani 1(1, noml.~mono ga hoshii desu ne ..

·waJID~. something
---<);
j,

'W drink,

don' t you?

See also kure ru. masen

k·agir~. iroo. ~
i()ON.nJNcr:lON'~ANrNO':' ~a$l, long as,
a, •• ,. ,

,as,'fat

as • " .

'W

s' eoncemed,

as .' .' .,as possible, unless, not later than; just

1.,. After dictionary form of verb/adjective

,fl@)~;o r~Jl .~ t§l±"1 ~:t: -ov-t: ~ C: ;Q{tj: 1.1'0 ~ IV: Zo, L ., :it:.. .,., I.", '. t: . _.atasn:• no snme ftu,g,m «are Wet uso (')tsuua koto ga nUl., As far as I know he has never told a. lie.
L: ~ ~: .~~, ~fi ' ,~, ~

_~n~~: ~tftl!~ t:, ~ l~' ;

~ ~D

Kok» ni im: .karin shiz'uka ni ;shinake reba naranai. W'e 'must 'keep quiet as :~,o:n.,g: we stay here, as 2,. After' ned=![o,rm of verb
~'7Ji'f.-!f
tt:!t· ~"._J!-.!ri c)~ v~~!)T'~jj! '

'!:)

~ ..

It'tnr'l d::' ~"~ i 'ar

,Ame ga ,fiu'artai kll;g,tri yotei ,do.r.i o.ik'onawCiTenwsu,,, It win be held as scheduled unless it rains. 3.. ,After noun expressing time limit

,~ L'i6,,~,~±~'a ~I_ '~T


I~

M:os,hUaJ'nd w,aasu ltaglri desu ..


Applications must he made no later' than. tomorrow. 4. After specific noun + ni ~Im' ~.:~.ll fiij' II i i} X. t '-tr IV 0 ~
u'nl:n,:,'1'ai: . ,-;~~1n:ru~!IJ_ .' b'· ,;"d'I~ iI1'cJ!.1 iI!I!:~' I~",",u.;n'· A.u:_,_A WI~!iJi~

w:w.... taem .. n
_',' 1~!;.!Il:~~~: ...

.;(11'

y}1ilI!.

('i,e',!!,

...

This time only I won't punish 'you. 5., After de,llru'j followed by adverb

8\2 ~ GRAMMATICAL
!o:J~iI!"]i:,,:'i/~~trin D~,ft'it~
~I Ai~~II!!l'_

FUMertON WORDS

'_"

htJ'11.l'J'j:;,~, --~~,'J,~!J\,M

"""~e ]!,"":,,,J'-:_t}! ~'J'1I'; '''"0 ""'m u~~~-~'~~'l~ V.···" ,-..

Viii

oim-

~J ;:'Ii,ji

1-~aJ'~1Il

I'd m i~e to leave as soon as possible, See also dake

Asu 'wa yuki g.a Jura kalUas.hi'l!Ra~'. It may snow tomorrow,

~tO)-g 16 C i).tIE.l \!)O)iJ'~ t Lit J: -tt Iv


j'jj
lID'

Kare na

kota ,ga tada,$R,iino ,ktliWJOs.hiremaJ6'n ~ Possiblv .. ,a.. v~·~~ riaht .r'. :.;';'!O.ilJU'.W,j" W' ,"h at . ~O:J·.::I! L'!,
oC!i It" g b,~.Wi, -~ .

.2. After ta- form, of' ve:rbladj'ec:[i've i" (J) ~t,&1;~0 t:.. (f) i\~~ Ln·t 4t Avo

Sono ,llO ga yo-kalla .nt' kaIlUl8.hir-e'rnaslen ,. . might have been better n t ? '1m"? t: (l)ir~b l:nil ~\0 n '''' M.··. ..... ._'_,v. ~;~ ~KI· ' ':t.:ill"~"Hn~ :'~!Il'
a,

,A'H~,

....,.n;it:..,,,'':U;t;1I;i·1IHE. ,!fl'i"'~ ~~~·I~~g

~~~~t-,r.

She may have; already gone. 3, After nai -form cf 'verb ~tt ~~, L l ~::1'_Iif~~ -» 1.t~[r1)JQ":L

t L tt~' ~~'a

Kare wa; isshon i lkcl'nwi n,(I kamorJ.d,N!tt.€J·i.,


He may out go together (w~~tl]1s), 1J 4,. After' (adjectival) noun

.a *-~:~H ~ t: ~= 'mJ ¥, 1J'~'L, 'L n·i:1t A. t t, ~.J:

if.. l ..,.....L • tr;~t;'ngo'WQ' anata ru., 'wt! I:(,QDtan if,uIlJO,S'l'ifftemase,,,, N"",IL J atpl2l11eSleanguage might be easy for you, l

~p.,

See also tle:shiJ

kana

ttl< Ed:

fNfOilMAL PART!CLE MEANIN(~::I

'wonder' :~ '., . f

1.,. ,A.'t ~Jhe end of sentence


Densha n i ,WUJ ni a u kana.
I wonder if I

~ .. ~:r~~' zp 7l' ~:.s-1

rllll'~ t
Kanoj:o

wwn 'be in time


Q

for the train

,)5, 1t~ ~

1fUJ

kUF:~, ana. k
,~J.,~ '{i'"
"~O

I wonder if sbe win come, too"


"~' ...... ~. -),r, ~ ~ "=-, iii Ii,.. ","I !i{ /c)'

.V ..J' .," L ,J'\c,ore uf' U ,ILana,.

I wander' if this is all right, 2., After (,adjectival) noun (+ na no)


"-,

~ i ~ ~':' ~ 1,;'1,1..1 ~'!J.,'id. ",tn, I.} ~ iIi!..~;dl.; r.: ill

1. do ~) .);,,-:l; do rv..(' If' V./ ,J:'} t,1"o 0.

Kore wa: da re no' ,ka-DflII{no no) kan«. ] wonder whose bag this is, (.H;~ no after the adj ectival noun is often dropped) 3., Af~er conjunctive form of verb + temo ii '~''€: Ij ~,t (), 'v ~ \I ~"iJ~~, Q '-C' M,cul0 o akfJ'temo Ii kana.

'I w'cln,dl~r:~fit's okar~f'~O open the window?

,kanaraz;usbi.o
,AD'\f'E[;ffi

it-F' ~ ..,'J L ,;/ "ll

(used with a negative) sarily, (not) all

lWEA.Nrn'G::

(not) always I(not) neces-

I,. Used with negative

~~,Ij:£~T L b ,£~~~~,i,~'
ID'-,kane 'Wit; ,kaJl(lra~li;S,himol

~'h,o

Ii itsujl:(j

dewa Itai .

.Money is not always necessary,

2. U sed! with dictionary form of verb/adjecti ve + to' 'wa; ,k(Jgi'~anai' -t tL,ir{~~~~~, -t ~ ~ < 11' < C ~i. I ~ \; l'a L ~ a.? Sort! ga ka-I,'lo,rrJ'ZU',himo U;'"taiu: ik:"; to' 'W,lI' kagi:ta.,&a'i~ It 'w'rn'~ not neces sad J,y go 'weU~ ~ ~~IO~'~~'T'L ~.IE L v' ~ ~;t1R~ 'i {t fuo
sense l ga tir.;a'na"tlZlJ'g'iJ,~JnO
,[1 ,.

::0...,

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

I,.,

j,." ~

taaasna to
,,,'I' l., •~ _

wa ,ktfgmmasf!IJ.

:1..

'.,.,

The teacher is not II ways 'right.

ora
'Wh, __

1J',~
through, since, af~er~, because
i[I,

PA.Rl'~CU~,MtA~~JNG:: rom, OU~,100f, at, f


'U ..::.~ . sed

,jD,n ~~:.

'tn !L,'V

mQ<!:lIiJ]~';;1,I,.II3iC'a'u_,OJ<~,,- ~'i ,i,''';' ~ th !..... ~'~!!J.iU!i.;..' ,~" opinl seeaker' ~ .'U:..w.'V~.1II ,"'iIk.~,iir 0","" ~,!. lIi WAJ~,
I _ ~~ ,
(!,Q,

Bl

lAo'I'!I,

the statement expre ssed before kara is the reason or eanse for the, action expressed ill, the main clause. That is, the reason or cause
may be subjective or emotional, unlike node.

ill. .After noun expressing pom~, n time when something begin s i

'I~h

~d:7Ji20

8 iJ':l ,e, "'C'T

Nass» yasumi

)V,a ,sldc:ld ~aD/;~

Mts,gli;a kar« desu.

Th'
i,

~,~

=1.;...« j~-Ir '0 1:f:I;, ~Il.'';};' f"_ & cli'!;j",;.t- ~ tJ ~

II:i!o IIo;r

e:"rg;U,

m'iliTliftli~ ~ __!l..U.,I' ~~ J!!J,u"""f vscanon _


-0

.;(1' _ ~ v 1;;) from

JU~y" 'twenli,le[lli},._ ~;~ _ _


.0

l.L.~, ,~iCl;:;;

~ :;:t ...,J~I ,;sL:, '~

Galkijl w,a ha'J!A:i'j'i ,han kar« .hajim;aril1${uI.,L

School begins at eigh~,thirty ~ (kara. 'malY be replaced with 1U)

,Ana mise Wla gOZ,'trnii ji kart/, gogo roku ii made.' ,(JlJl. {mas I~. 'Thl - at -, " _..a SllloClre 18 op,en. "frn:m 'nllllii, .A.M. ,t ,£, ,P.,M.• :- i.Ii' 0
iIi" - ,_.~ -, j[ ~

a; fJJ' Jd ~,i 1oMi tr~; ,.q:l~6J~ "1:' ~~ ~,,~, ;c v:' i,T ~,~ ~, =

,0

~ CO '1 iJ~'t, IL'~t: l}'I{~,"('v~iTo ,1'i',IO kam kal~'o hlUe imasu. I' VI~ 'bad, a.cold r~rrunc,e yesterday ~

2. After noun, expressing place

__~;_U~~~~_~*iL~o
tJ.t,~ ~l ~-c 1m~' ~~,; tB: 'T.1!T ~
-:)1

"[:01;10; ara kyiJto' made s.hi'f1,kan,s,en fl'e kimask ita. k I came from Tat yo to Kyoto by shinkansen

t:~

Ka:n,o],o 'wa okoue h~eJa kara dete uta.

She got angrY' and 'went out of the room


3,. After noun expressing material/ingredients

,El

,Niho1UhM.wa 10,me' kam tsukuraremasa.


Japanese sake :i s made from rice. 4!. AfWJ' te-form 0:[ 'verlb T' tJt'~ ~l' t;, M~, L. £ T 0'

*' *'
t:::r
'l:"-

iI~ iJ:. ,e, f"~; 'ft '~T' j:,

r:M. study' after waltcblng 'TV.


~ "'="
'.,._,

Terebi

0' ,l'11ite,/tara
l_ _ ~

.benkyfJ shimasu.
0

,~j;.jj.."

'!.... . VII"" ,("II,). Ii"., l)

'4-"ii, f'_ jt§! ~

~mI! .:!" ~~ ,;3i,.

QL;~ iIIl dU -

;f"'!:1Ji;!;, '.....

~i\Ai U,~.~.l.k'~.w.n' ·~ll··-C~ . A~'

r.~, ",:r,.ro-m""I1'0 Jl~ ~IL~~ W~.

I':'

N-' ·W:O- ~", ..ti-J! '0'0' '! '".-,',

Nlh£}n til Idle ktlTtJ rokknget:su ni narimasu. It is six, m,I~~tffils since 1. came. to Japan, (here kara ::ma.y be dropped) .1'. After dicu.ofulry form of verb/adjective miff~.g 1J"Ili t:J:$~~'0 ~fl 0 ~1i~ft/\1lt ~'o Arne gtlP,lJ ,kars kasa 0' moue itta no ga ii. It's better to 'EHe an umbrella with yn'ru.1because it's gomg' rain .

to

.fLv~L ~ T;¢~,~ftA,1:'Ulr.l'~"'11 (!Ih-'; ~ w ,9'.;']' 'fr W\~YIiJ! ..." ~,r. :J.l~~ .;jI'"

< t~~v~o

,!::".~~ 1iiii'ir.l~iI1':".I1iP'''''\':''r'ir:' y','~Iii.J'''''5I''IiU~~ ~~. ':a' \rJI ,r; ii\~ ,J'.tJiJ~'li'jd· Ii'1i 1lI1r.'!~I·"'·~D ~. ~
r

"irJiniiiJlWI,I;!!i'

HI JILW v I, ~ ,,'do

1['0

l\.Jo Takai RaTa sore W,~i kaimasen. I don' ~ buy :Hbecau se it is expensive.

~"~iJ'~;,+tL~j,~"V~!~

please ...'~I-"'1DiiUJ rest ,...


I .. :,

I· ..~~~

~11!r"

'!li '~-~iji'".

::0...,

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

6,. After na~'-:forrmof verb f:_· tL~::_ t. ~:b t!t ~} iJ''j;,~ ~;t 7:'T~' ~'~o Dare ,ni mo .iwtlnai kar« oshiete kudasai.
I 'won
t~

tell anybody so please tell me.


+ toJ ~'
,,].,"j, ,[,,'

t,.After (wjjlectru,val)noun + da/des»


~ -..1= ,-.3- .1-1- .1. ~ (¥.J '1 'ro.'I~"'7" I,.,. A,ji,U
'~""".J.); ........... 't')f.! r.. ""'" 1~,~ !~ "':Ji c, ~ IJ.' ~ V"~ ....

~.11,~ ~ I .t ? ~, v
.:">"

00

'w'a,Y'f1$.f;I;ml, ties,u, ,iaTB do.ko ka e asobi ni .ikimasi'l,o,.

Let's go' somewhere to have :f~n since tomO[fllW 'w s a bolida.y"


8. A:ft~:r'ta-~f'O([].n ot verb/adjecti,v1e fA jjf f.*, IV f::' Q) ~± )9t\~~ 'O·'~~t:if"' ; '1:: '-t' 0 ~

lkit(iku nakatta kara ikimcuen desk; ta I didn ~ go because 1 didn ~ want 'to. t t -); See, also deka raj. de, ikijJ i.go', i rail' ni, node to

~~~(~~~~#;h~t~~~Lko

'Watas.hi B'a yas,u:nda no' wa kaze ,0 hilla lara desu. It is because ], caught cold that -ill was absent,

1.,. After conjunctive form ofverb

':0" '~'

(JJ ~a;

~ )=j ~'

ft. k -r
0'

< t!. ~ lit,~o

Kana no kllkikata'

oshiete kudasai. Please teach me 'bow to write kana.


(the object of the verb ka;k~~[kana] rnu sr be indicated by 1l0', since the object of the main verb oshieru ,[k"akiktua.] is alreadly md]'CaL~ed b:y 0)
'*'~ff\~Mn ,.r+ ~tiv)'~,
J~
?'~.r'r\

n:. t ".h'8',J:.-.....A v j 'nL.l j 'fj~' 4') I;'~'

In '~' :~ I 'J :;'~,' ru 0

,Ni}uxngo no b,enkyo nO' sh';.kata' ga: w'aKarimJwe,tl. I don' t know' bow to study Japanese'. (s.l1.ikata the conjuncti ve form of sur« -+- kata, is always P[[~~ ceded, by' noun -+ n.o) (the di ct'w,onary form of verb + hiJho a so expre sse IS ~ ~ how to [do]"; objec~ of the. verb before no,hoo' mast be indicated b:y' 0) ~/'l!.:4'~1" ~ ~"~f~T,~'h~:'~~.i ~ t:'~1V~o
I'

<

l(.o,n,pyilJa

o sosa s,u;ruhoho

oshie te kudasai ,.

Please teach me how to operate: the computer.

f~ ::1') 'Q ~,: P,HR.ASrE: ,Ml!A.NWN(I: instead of tor, as, in exchange for, 'run, return (for).!
ka:w,a:rrl ni

to' make up for

88 .'

G~A.TI:CAl.

FUNC1.l0N WORmlS
'''1::

.J4 .,J /J _p

'7'

~.

l'~ Mi.

.,}.

-c.-',(..po~.

OJ-I

~;1::_'

h
!J

JI..". J..
~b.

IJ. ~} 0,

":i!

Kame

Fa WD Mtlm.O'

no kawa_'ri:.ni naru ..

,A camera wiU do for (taking) notes .. 2.. ,After' dictionary form of verb 5t.~-i,~fi;x..Q1~t·b ~1=.8 *·~·t::··lti < t!. ~ V~g ~ L

Eigo
,glisb,.

0'

oshien« kaHuln IIi nihong» 0 oshiete kudasai.

Please teach me J apan ese in exchange for teaching you Eo-

-=f{~ '11ttJ
T o'Of',,":I' ..l-n:rJII· ,J.I~a;!Jw~!lrtrI4i·

i~

~:.j3':&~1iL ''''C <. tL ~ 1t'k1J'~o


t' ;Il"~ o-kane
U'-,~~"'l~

!ILrW,.:_,··g,-Jl11P iH

i..""'>w·.tI1~'

n . I~

ka shi te kurema C'eliJ


~_ i:o'L _ jI;_ L.- 1\"l~J-_' ,.

I~ _ ~aJ ..

!!'tt L~;~

t:"""

Will you. lend me- money in f,et!IUm my heThpi:n.,g you.? l~r


1. After ta~f;oml.of verb 11~'~j: ~ ~ ~ ."'cO' ~~ I:. L.: -.I \l. b ~t:-.~ ~ ..6..~~ J.J! -i"~~ #.~J.-!I;;. I~ ~. Ii . I._ .) ~ .:::r: nn·: trfJ ,1~1
::0....

~ '~,'"'7"' ~ '1! .~ •. "-"~ {;

~
l~

ru

Kare

'Wll

a-kane o muda nl ShUll ka;wari nl: isshokenmei


f{H~ hav.m,g;

''''iF

fa

haiaraite iru..

.He 1.8 working hard to make up


'~I

wasted 'money.

4,. Aftet nai·-·fo.,nw~ f 'verb o ~ ~itr{i} ~ ~1~tb ~:.'f.: ~.tv Y.2 ~.X ~ttfu.t~o Nan! nul tabl9nai kawtJn .ni l'akusan ju's,u 0 nonda. I didn t eat anything but instead drank a.~ot of juice.

<

:L Used as, adverb


,giUf,ll'fi

itb ~~:.:: ,O)~.;.;

«> r ~ &, ~f·t To

IIi kono pce'fuianto o ag,e.masu .. I win give' you this pemdanm; in return,

kered.o(mo)

~t·.:tt ""( ) ~~
though, al thong hi' but, however, and, I wish

CONJU .'Cf]ON MEANING:

1. • At the beginning of sentence

,l'±tBtI~:*6l1~:fiiJJlt iftA..t:o ~tnc~·~


ksmakaua.

Wat:ash i 'wa kare ni kuru ,yo ni nando Ina t'anonda. Ke,r-etio'ldo

*"~

iP'0

tz.;

I 'repeatedly asked him. to come. But he didn't, 2.. At the ,elld (yf sentence ~tj t, ~ t lIt' L\() At--r-T~ttL ~ t,
,0

In1iQchotto

isogtuhU

n desu keredomo:
(SOl

I can't help you). 3., .A·fter d:~.,c:t.io~Myform. ve:rbladj ecti ve of

I'P·m. little' roo busy now ,3

jc~B·t t± J: < ~TlttL t:~ t "'C t ·v~·~~ "t:T e ~ A Taro to wa~yoku. hanast« k,(Jrttdo,;no totemo ii hito des il.

m
~
Ql)

~c

I often truk with Taro and I think be is, at nice person ... 4. .Afb~;r.tai:~.fonn, f verb o

:~
~

fa

1ife1f ~:'lit.:'~)~tn~! at' iJ!.ih ~, i ·{t'~o ~ ~


1"Pf, iIlil!lIi 1~ft;.."~Mi. ~~ •. ~la~,\,__ "J"',~~!-'~ o~ ,i":i, .. jiJ ;~~:;'~ailrdij'l:Ll,In,D'l!;i'}, ~ ,;iUo;i'n 'V"II'ytl! U

[,ii'1Jj.t'i n'JIV~V'

im'n DO

1Ii' ..... :i<;i, Ii! ·,.·.ibiIn.JI'~.r.iI¥ll!

..c

(]l)

Though I want to. go O~ a trip, I have

time,
0

~=
:6

en

.5., After ta,=form of verb/adj ecti ve

.-c (J)!iS ~::,fT-:)t: ~t'nt~ M'~ ":)"('1l;! ,."* L t: ~

o o

:> 0.

Sono mise ni ,i,t1,ak.er"dtJmo' shimane imashita.

I went to the store, but 1m: was closed. ~ ,Iv il: ~ a:J 'i~ l < ;Z' iJ~0 i: ~,t:tt () f{ ''? T t:~

'L,

t.=o

i' ~~,·t L.

Sanna mono wa:hoshiku.

Hld{Q,Ua

,tertuliJ'IIU) ka.tl'e shimaima-

shisa. Though I didn' t want such a thing, I boug ht it in spi te of


m),'Sellif"

6.. After ,~1:'{;i'=:form verb of ~]tttt,~· L. ~'\i~~ttL~ ~ ~*'bQ~~~'~\D Kare ·w.aamari be~"(y(j' shilUIi.' ic,eredo,mo se is t.'Kl' ga 1'[:',
~I ~~

'0

,Ii

G~TICAL

fUNCI[ON

'WORDS

He doesn' t: s~hldyhard, but he gets good marks,


7., After (adjectiv,aO noun + da/des«

'1J!l ~dt ,£ L. ,&; t~~Jt~ ~,fi 8' tt f

Kare w,'~majblle

ua ,k)e"leilo,mo

< ~ ~ '~1t At

omoshiroku arimasen.

He is earnest, bu t nor Interesting, _'" See also dagtJ."dakedo, gao f2'A no ni

kesshlte
ADVE,litB

,~, L -r
(used with a,TIDe gative)
00 ME: A NmNG,; never"

'by no R1.eaWlS,(non

at all, on

account

1.. 'U sed with negati ve


~, fl' t;:_(f);:

t,~ ik:' l-r ~ n,'i -tl:-'.lv ~

A,nata no koto '~4ifa kes."hite' 'WaSIJremasen, I' shall never forget you, ~ OJ rg, fj, t± iR: L 1::' tr T i)~ L <. ~J: a;, ~ i it fu 0 Kono mondoi 'wa ke-,;shit;e mU1JtkaS'hiktt 'Wei arimase«.

f81,'J:~' L~ ~~~,;::,t :~'T Q A ~~.t~~\o


Ka re '~va kess kite sonna koto o s uf~~hito dewa
lI;(li.,

Thi s problem

:W

5.

by no means difficult,

He is ~e last person to do. such. a thmg",


',' See also manaku ..-",en-zen

knre

:::.. :tt
PRONOUN MJ:ANING:

D:EfMONS'fIIAl'IVE

this, these" rut

It refers to an olbjeel or objects, clese 'to both ~f speaker :md the hearer, The, polite form. is kocnira'j which also means ~ 'this person"

or ~'~dIisirection, 'P,~, Kore becomes kono before nouns it modifies, d Moreover, it becomes kola when expressing "this place" or

"here, ,.,
1,. ,FOUf)Wed by particle :: in iQ';'f ~, (JJ 1ii? i: ii'
,1(1)"-6'

j. "7

'1:' T 0

IIU .ki'no' kaua kamera des Lt., Thi s s the camera '~harJt bought yes;terda,y. 1

~,n'~'rl,t~ c 'i;t,~ ~

'ru

,Ko,r6 0 mita koto g,a arimas u ka. Have you ever seen '008?

TJ6~o

~, n.1~p,;, jj~ lv' 1" ij t -'9 0 t


lit.

KO,f"1Jkar« 8tmbarimas
r,]]

work bard from,

DO'W on,

~ 1? ICj ,o'f'IW*, ,~,Iv ~ -~'0


Kochlr" fa yamamoto-san dex',tt.
This is, Ms. Yamamoto.
L..." ~

...... ,.., .J.'E;:(=-/ d'\ ~ ~ lJ ~....... vj:w.., \,..~to, -, 0

K(I,to' lid waiashi no ie desu. TIll.8 is my house,

I'~ 8' Q)IVM:~± C:~2: 1:~T;6~D J I ~ ~ ~:~ ~ '~T'o


U

'~'K,y,ono ,sh,inb,,un wc~doko des 2,. :P'ijlill']ow,ed, by da/dese


~~~p"'r ,~, (/J ~:; 1
'.YO

ka.~,~, ~'~,"(Jko arimasu ." ni


i;t is."

, 'Whe:.iIi."~ ~_oda.ylls newspaper?" "Here :rus

Ko'he yuki no pur.attohiJm:u wa &01;0 desu' ka.

*,~, A 'i

6 ~ 1:T"1J~'o
'00

Is this the platform for the train


3'. Before noun

Kobe?

~ O?ft~· < t~'~l<)o

l(:o,no lclltsu o kudasai.

Give me these shoes .. , ~), See also are, sore

ern take

these shoes, ..)

kosol
P'AJlT[(:lE

~ Jf

stressing something that: is, worth mentioning

r. Afternoun ~ i1~."ftLo:-> ~;11.\il,*1:T

::0....

Kore koso watasl1i' no h.osn:i'i han, de su, This is, the very book. ·tba~·1want, : fA. ~ ~·.ta*L 'kett)f~ ~j',ntf~ -~>ltIvo 'Wamshi' koso o-rei 0 iwanakereb« narimasen:
~I

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

I (not you) should be expressing thanks,

NOUN AND NOiM.IN,ALI.ZE,R. MEA.N n~o:'thing (i.n the

abstract sense),

.,, , ing,

'~O (do )I~ (~hc 'fact)

that

'\Nbcn used. '~O nominalize the preceding clause, the: nominalized phrase expres ses a fact which is, already accomplished or which ,~.'b" " .,.,:L..,1.. me speaker~ supposes w ' oe accomp 'll'sue .·d fiO~:O+""",- d s L . *..... ... . ,'L, ... .~. 'i" ; ten ne lIi,IJIJj;J;~,n as an 0bjeet by verbs 0 f mental acti V'Hy su ch as knowing;
I'

1"'"

'., ..

I'

'

ill'

'

'I.\.,.

..

I'·

...

-,

,t .....
l-U

'"""'orflr~.... ~."' ' 'Ij"I! G<~...... ·:j,;ii'!I,ct ~ md lers t-,'o:iI'iii'id-'~ hop(-,-g~ learnin lu~,," . ,Ul,:. """iOIili!, u.
'Fa; ....

Zlll.l~',"

U,U,.

.l:I' ~lLII:.,l·

,"I,ft

<

,'ILl! ,

11)' U'G ~

~,t ....

V'--"'--'.

1. ,After noun

+ no

:r... «.OSO

e=e=e.

J~I(.oll}

'!Ii'

,o'li' :?,~

KilDojo no k:.eto 'w;ayoku shine imasu. :Iknow things of her well, (I know her wen ..) 2,. After dictionary form o,f verb/ad jeeti ve ~':a 1!;;1:;- ~, ,~t. jJtl:. Iv ao 0

<~.

~;:-

-r

Kyol 'w'asue« Jr.otol 8'(1, takusan ari",U1SU. I. have a lot of things to do today,"

Je.~ ~ ,t tt1~t~, :::J: t:"t


Seeing ·~s elieving, b J: ( 1*tt ~ C, ii:'~~ "t: -to 0 R

,Miru ko\to wa shi~TjITu ko,to desu.

Yoku Ya'3um',.,' .koto' gO:' h.itsu;yi5 desu. . IS ~-;i'\;1i:!!!,':',jO·:A'f'V V;! if yc Ill' .: et ~ ougn rest It-. ~necessary .t~o-~- 0-u ) liio g-[ enh~ ;1[r'1iJ.. :r:CI~"

B ~. ~~,~fillii)::rif6' ~ t ~.I: : < ~n~ tl "!" v 0 v} J


l

yuku shirare te iru. That prices are high in Japan is well known. 3. ,AfteJ' ta=:fonn. of verb/adj ective
W'Q'

Nin(),n, wa ln~'kkag'a I'alai' kOt11

fl, jJ{'§' 0 '1.: ~ l: ~'l.i:~: x ~ < t! ~ v l.t) tA' 'Hlatash~' ina koto 0' kare ni tsutaete kudasai . ga
~,-;~.~ At-itt,3
~
'[1 y'

Please tell him 'what I've said,

)tt:ti'? r: ~ C ~ ~D~ ""('~~':f:'TtJ~o

Sachiko-san ga yotoprp'(J: ni i tttl ,1'ol(J! 0 sh iue imasu ka. Did you kn.. that Sachiko has gone to Europe? ow

4., After declarative statement


(used. as a command form in. written notices)

ft:lm~ ~:A 1j: ~~~, ,e: ~


J~~'Lii . ..-·it. ,; S"J,rr!l;l~~~ILr'" ~
" D-"''HI
UJ,llJ.
jI Irl~j_~tl~

... .ri; [r. ~~,

j<j'~'

l., ~c. i'iji.._,...jljJ, ..... ; L.... ,;iI\I1I1 flU;iIJ ~~l"~U~ ,A-u"-u II


~J

,t

l"l

eTfi,.-,o;·r·
. Jull'l!,]g·

,;I,iIt,j!!i; lILJJt~Ib!,'

'p. .

~\6icii'rlrn,~ ,;C>':::;',,,", ',II,!~dl.W.~Ii:i!~~l.'.

---:>

lrL~'i:O'to'IlZ snue lru «oto


jl;.'" • ~:..
j,

See also koto ga aru" koto ga de.ki'nt, koto ni naru", toto ni natte
. Ie .
,fii
,'.

suru;

'HO'rh], nOt

to, to tu
._

0...1, ,7"+

• .

0' 'R' . "lI."li'1!',"lLn 'W", ,',.',.' A'IUI"LiII";\l'i~C'~Jt t


!

If

Ji'" lUI -'.

rn l"N'

cr [O'k~' Wii""lllIl!n~
.. .' J:~ _"_ U~.;J!

~D~O

ga aru

t, tJt ao ~
there are occasions 'w:be,D have
j,

P[t!EI)i['CA'JTV.E

PH~ASiE MEANlNG':

(done )'j had, Wl experience tha,t I., After dictionary form of verb

t, Q)'A, c mT

L.,

t, iJf~

~) '~T tJ\:~

,A.no hito to .harll!'Su ko,to ,ga tJ'n~u ka. Do you have occasion tOI talk with that person? :2. Mte:r ta~,fo:[mof 'verb .r ~tmlm""'fr-o i: ~ J: tJlft, ~I~ Tn~o J rVl~' ,;t,_ ~ Q '~: it
' .. H-osxaiaa ',~ ~~ ,,. -, --, .' -:, ~ 1;',1., ~ ~ .J- e ~t~Q' k 'O~O g,tJ un,rI,~~ ea. "',~e'~, anmasen.
-i,n'I1'!';;J;P;~
!,~, I}" •,

fvo

'I!'

::0...,

,!

'Have
~ t:
J;'" -:7

ylCDiU
~

ever been, to Hokkaido?" "!,N0,,, I haven' t."


i ."r ..".. t...AT[ 1 L.r. l:" ~. IJ', GYJ' 1n $' ,.J..l." 11.i-o ~J ~,-~

~'

,~_aaa s u -:U M
_ • Q,",,' , , :,

'~'

-r ~. 'r:... rft

*"

~
l~

ru

''''iF

fa

'I'ha ven' ,~-ve- ,r- ;:)!!rLt, "",,0. ~1I1",~ "",.,;al '!e,..


l,
'1'

k .. (J' S,r;dila ~O";O ga ,al'Una,;8,II,. J:... ",~ t: ~ ~

3,. After IJcli-fon:n of verb t: t ~:1tJ',:i:L, ~ 'v~'~


"f't....

J ~-~:_.' "

. 1if...J~ h..... J'..~i:U ('In' ma-- ,,-:~...·~'·V'~.l'~ o· Ihi!>_ - ~~' .. ~


.s

t -t;{;j) i1 i'ito
,A~\_u!

iiHl.a~'

A...nt·,.Ji'1i' 6'''"_~'!l+iIl',I:-.iI!·J!I,~QiI;JIi~o!I ,",.t1II' ..... ...ri:HII!.ii1I!i[:Il',~'

There me, occasions 'when I don!'! eata meal,

-~' See also kota

,kow, g9 deldnJ,

t 7J':~C~
fOml

,{)I

,f~EDICA TlVE ~HRASE Mfu\NllNG::

can. (do), 'be able to (do)

1. Att,el' dictionary

3R# i: ~r':*,~ ~,C: t)f.1;: ~

'of verb
~

T'''~cP

San J,i made ,nl kur,fl ,k;oto ,gu, dekimQ's'I' ka. Are you able '10 come by three o'clock?

;fL

'WuJ!U'sni '\rllaamari ,Kan_ji 0 leaku koeo gll de'iimas,e1J.

,± IJ!:

~* ~< ::, t ~
0 1'0'*;

KfI},tO g~' uru,

=,

kttto' ,u.i ,nalte

t,,,,

II!

,13

'1Yl''T! ~, i' ~ttIv 0 ,

koto gtt t16:ki.asldta., I ~VaJi~able to m ake a plane reserv arion.


HilWki no yoyaku
2,. After na i.,.,f.o~r.m, verb of

.ba~~~~n~~t#~~*L~G
,jW'~'i'l, t? ts ~,,~:: t fli~' ~ "f'Tipo
at

I cannot wei te malny Chinese: characters

Himitsu .a morasanai koto ga, de'kimasu; ka.


Can you keep (from, letting OMt) secret?

~, Slee also d'eki,ru, koto

:koto!

,m :Dilrilll1J

;: C ~:

tl ~
it: is decided/arranged
that

lti,lIEDICA'fIVH ,f~ntAS1E Mf:.ANJNn::

- J - 1:.-." _. l. • ,Ir.. ,# .' h K.onao tokyo In tentas: Sl-WU ~lO",O IU.' n{lruntlS,',l~""
~,;!I

I~ is decl ded that I'


shortly ~

be tran sferred to tb e Tokyo o-ffl ce

,toto ,n~ natte Iru


.r'".~_~

~ C ~: ~' '":)""(1iJ ~

~
;I!i.'V'lllP, ....

~,'Bi'C'l!"!i.I"'""':~IViEI iirIiU'ft"o ",- ~'IE' 'M·.,. ;ii, "-1.1.... ....,_ .. IlLd~.J!,-,.·.··.c lIt.m-]l~A_.:::IIE :" .~"&olf"~!WJ.~u·~1

'be scheduled ,.....r "JIO) 'L,>=!i, ~ ':.' .:..ib.. ~.; ..... : _. _W.vIUlJ LUI \U.:·I"'~I O~

!r.;.,Ar·V~Il~.·j '[·-0· _.",

ted

(do)
1.. After wcdonary form of verb

~J,i9~,~': ~ ~ ~:~

< ~ t: ~=~ ~ ~ tr\ ~ To

Kare wa' ku]! ni Koko ,nJ ISMku k,oto ni Ratte' i'mo;sR"

iIlIL ,Ig'

,.-'

'j;_Xli.,1iI '.....-IC-· ,'~ -, RA.lY.II.Jv,uA.]" _ A:IL.,

0-' -

Fl ""'!.t"'!"Il"'To-,-..:r W' !,'II.~, 0,10,1''",('1 ,UI"IiL.II ,I,' ,~"I '-_

He is due '~O arrive here at nine, tlf::. -;,~j:~,~.tf;~:2i' ~ ~ t ~: 'l?'~ ~,~ -r 0 'f 'Wata.~hi',t{LC.hi.' W,~ toshokan de au kota ,ui natte i.as',g:"

W'e m-e lromeet at

the library.

._ '1,,,, ~... ..__ t:.. ~._

L-

_'_ "'"

-r:

L '}
'1;1'

.... ~,

'Z.

1,. ,After dictionary' form of verb


-* «~nllJ JIr~4¥""' '~t1L, i~11: 7"....,_ t.r '::n:=-t 1"",-- ~
,~~,~I';!

L....

c,

't.

J'_ ~

Ii.... '_

"L "."... ~V

II . ~

-.;J.-

.~

,"*"", 0'1
l~

::0...,

Neru mae ni hon ,0 YOttnR kfJto ,ni s;hite imas«. 1 make it a 'rule to read, (a book) before going to bed, .2~ A:fter nai-,fonn of verb

ru

''''iF

fa

::Br~ip 'L L ~ ~ \ 2: ,e::

~:

L,"'( v~~ To

Yofukas.hi 9,hi'llm' l£'(J~(JIni 1,lllite imas,u ,. 'I make it a rule, nJO'[ to stay up late.
koto nl suru
to (do)

;:

t: ~:,T ~ '
decide: to' (do )!~make up one' S mind

~REDlC'ATIVE 'PHRASE MEANIN'O:

1'. After dictionary form of verb 9'),'\::l ~. J?~ ,0 ~, C: ~: L, t L:t..:o Tabaka 0' yru-nern koto ni' sldmas,him'" I've made up my mind to give up' smoking.
2~ After nat- form of verb

"L.rr,~1J"'" 'tt "!I ~ ~L. 'l~ '!!......r- ~~ 'II, ...J.... , ~l~o hi boO , ' ,~~ Z~Z11; wa ~Il_JHtli!1~It (j,to .',9,h"f:IIl,(l~~l',ta,. _ M d a rJc·
.jl.!I~~:l§. ' [a:-~
, ._ ,-,

~ ~t ~ ,~±" I 1".'", I' I

"7-,

JI_ .... ,

'.

'

--

:-

_--

:-

,- ",',

'.~'

,'1'
• ..

~.-

I.

,-

_,"

I've decided not to. waste money,

kudasal
~

< t!.~,it ~
(1~"1'r' e )' m,,'
~.IU.. .,. _ '.

:POlITE COMMJ\_ND mRM: MEANING:: ple-ase give '". . to me; 'please, do


so m et....
, •• I •

'~'1ii'i IfF U.llJj.lJj.I.~

It is usually used for expire s sing a request on. the speaker'


'n"",A'

S-

~.ru..".

1. After noun +

Please give me a call at eight ;:" (I). :; '"t T"Y l- c ;( iF' ~ ~ < f:: ~ ~\~I ,K01UJj41te'tto to. %.UbO:H 0 ,k:uiimai.,
i

8~ i:'fE'fif5 'k t: ~ 'v ~ 0 Hachi,ji ni ,de,,,, wa 0' ,kudasai.

<

Please give me thi s jacket and, these


and these slacks.)

8] acks,

( 'Il take dna j acket

2. After te~:~Ornl verb of


~,l7)~*U)~' ~

JJ ~¥j{x_

"C <. to!~, ~

~Q

Kono inn) i 1'1;0 kakiksua o Dshief'e' lUloosai,. Please teach nr.tebow to write this, 'kanji. 3. After nat-'form of verb + de'

i t~'~T lfj~~

\f ~ ~

-(

t:!.~,~'~()

,Mtula ikrmai'tle lli;ud'as,ai.'.


:P}.e3J~eon't leave yet, d

See also kure rU ponte, Language (II)


1

kural

<.; ~\
about, approximately, ~s. ... as . ~," ~othe extent

PAR,TI'CLE 'r.1EA, ]NG::

of .' ~," only, a:~least, enough .. " to (do)

· ,e m ace , sura). GiUr.a,~can. b use,d, i :p1 0fJ~·· 1. ,After' noun expressing Iquant.ityl~le:n,gtb

LOfl~ <. ;. \: ~ S' ~,~I flJ'

JllS:S:Q't'Su'

iif. 8 l~,f~
~If'jl

kaimash! ta,. I bought ~bou.tten Japanese langu age books. 1ij(~~'*~ A ~ 7' ~) 7 ~:317JEJ ,~~~v'! l-t.:o Kanojo '~Ilaosutoraria ni san Itage.tSB kurtJi imashita. She was in. Australia for about three months,
10

,brrti !dhol1go no bon

*~ .ft!

it}~'

L, i: 0

<

~,K

• • L"" l' ,"'l~ ;{I'n L. In.,~ t. . auucni iC'~Ji "iiI! ,riurm" 'Wi! b'/!'f![1;,jiJ sh.. it> J " ~ ~n'a,~ere.vanar:ancU.

< t? ~\tt~~

L ~ t.ttL~rtJ-,; il~\,o every


day,

One must study at least 'One hour (kun:iI' + wa means "at least")

.2..

After DUlIn

:1':: it t a; ~ t: <: ~ ~ \ .l;-¥ t~' T ~ ,A, i:Jt"1:'~; £ '1t kQ

,D'(U'i(3 tlR'atil kKrtli jOl.U ni tenis u go, dekimasen. rna Nobody call play tennis M well as you"

'.f'nir!~ ~ ~ O~Hj:,~ ,;rz t: <. ~ \I~'1:,t ... Sore ga dekiru no W,Q lanata: lural desu. ''Y'OiU ar-e the only one 'who can do it
D [5

3,. After demon strati ve pronoun ,-t-' n < ,; 1i ~.f~ : ~ t)iJJ~'~ i''T 1

Sore' lu,rai watashl demo wakarimasu.


Even I can understand ~hjjtmuch, ;:n ,L; tt 'iJ 1l;r ~ ~ \"=0 tl,~ <? t: ~l:-? '"1/1.'1;; l ~~'o Eo,r, ku~mi Uji'sho tv,akatta 11,0 ga; U

<

It' s better to buy a dictionary as good as 'lb.i s o;ru,~+ 4., After dono

tJ'~Q K ore w,a dsmo k:ur-ai' shimas u. ka.


~"r"~

~n~± < ; ~~ L J::"(/)I


)::(j)

'How much does ~hig cost?


~,~:~'

< ,[? ~

\1J);'~

-' ~

T1Po

,Eki JTU1'de dtj'lUJ k,urai kakarimasu ka. ',~ long' does it take to. ~hestation 7: low

1ilriJ~: t~(J) ~1=tr~, ~f)1'o i .Isshullu$ 11i iltJDO iu~r.aikissaten ni [ik,i"la,St~' ka. $ ? ,[[I,OW otten d' 0 you ,go to a co fii:l e snop 'in a wee,k,,-. c, ~':e ~," 5~ After' dictionary form of' verb
'1['1:' ,

< ~,~~~~:m:
<

~ aJ~~j:,-=ff~n'{~dJ, ~

C3~ ~~' ~ L. ~ ~1:T'o

1C()1I;ohon 'wa kodomo ,ga yome:rn RllrtJ; yasashii desu.

This bo ok is easy enough for a child. to ,read..

6.

Afte~r nai -.form. of p otential verb

~ B~1 ~,·f~11'"(!~ ~\ < ,Cj v~,~,~ t,~ ~ ~-r.:T'Q

,K,y,Q '~va tQt[~'11W gamm't de'Kilt4i ,/n;;"fli samui desu,

Itis so cold today that I can't endure it, (It: is, colder than can endure today.)

~1~,~,tj:' \f ~ < ,~~ ~ifnt..:u I

M 0' a r'tdr;en ai' .k,~ittti.'tsukareta.


] am ti red to the ex tent 'tbat
--j;

C an I' U

walk any more, (1 am, too

tired to walk any more.) See also dono kur;(JzJ hodo

kurern

< tL~,
give (something), do (something) for, do a. favor 'by

VER:B MEANING:

doi.ng (8omethwng),.le~ (me) be satisfied 'with d.o(i[l,g(something)

IID ·

GRAMMA'I'.[CALA.JNCT'[ON
'~'i.":

'WORDS
iIIh"I-'
I[

, ' ,"-, K,urer,u,

13

used 'to e""'n t"


1.13!b<,

'A.,lF.--f!L-o!JI,i:I'

l,:l.,f"t:'

""t(:lr',..,', lUg of '1;' 0,. ,~l v

.-' _lll..g somet'~h-':""


'I'

'iI;

1110

'I

",~,

1I;.1U!!!e"

speaker- or to ruslhe:r family member, 'The fHS;l ,]JCrSOll is, never the subject, Kudasar« U1aY be substitued 'with persons of :h~,g;be'[ status
lor to w,bom, the speaker wishes to show respect,
l. After object noun

+ 10'

,"' "h tani '" t l_ ,', K'l1.1UJ}O 'wa w'!a,f[U' ] . no :an}o"- b,~ ill';. suteta-na
,,,'U;remaS,fI.~lid~,.
,~~ ;L~~

qjttc,!~,(})~~

Ef ~:

T'--C ~

ij:

-:I 'v,~;,;,

?!:

< tL *, l t:':

,~ ,ptJ.l',fj,z,e,'iJ,'O 0

,tIL ~i,m:t~~ < h t L r: ,j~,o


2. After re-form of 'verb Kanojo
,['i'fiJ.,'P

She gave Di]'e a nice present for my birthday, (the recipient coo 'be 2nd person 'with ,3, past tense verb or in a aimple questicn)
l~

::0...,

ru

Kare 'wa ,den'lt!'Q; () kurf1,'tn(JJn ita ka. Did he give you a,call?

''''iF

fa

':fJi*1j~j3~~l~J~.fI.i!'~fF~ < fL'~ L-t;.:o 't"


ga osshii ryori
0

t:Jl'u/ru.:tte' RKr6'l1Uj'.rd"ua.
....:I:: ;c'1Ik 'ILU @lll.~

f:' tt,~~-=p{~r:l 'l ni 'Lt::'1J~e Dare ga ,tietsuaatto' b1'i6,mashi~a lea. 'Who helped you ? ~ / t:i4r L"( < tt ~l(itv~~o t ;t~,1.J~''"'(~);~';l t; ~ ~:, 8

1i31~IJ_W~'

'nll;"'~n<:'ill""""'d"_' a- d:@':]']"II"!.']" ,tr.·Il.'~li;·w, ~ "_ '_~ _

<

I~,

ous
~ e- I~~

for m
'~Ji!lrl'l!_ ...

',,::'I!
I~'f!'

Pen 0 !«I'shlt,: ,kRr~'mtlS,er.1, ka. Wou1d you, :kindly lend, me your pen?

--!i;'

Sensei ga teinei ni nihongo 0 o;s:hiete' ktulas,aiRUIS'U. The teacher teaches me J apanese :res,pectfum.Uy., (b~d{Jsaru shows respect toward the ~eeacbet) See also ege rt~,~udasai, morau k

*,~,~ 1r

~t,;t.'~ ( f':~, ~\ iTo

.• ada,

~
.~j

s.:

-Jrf.

L In affirmative statement or question.

~m:tt~·t':II·0l~)~ ~ (}
~,a)~~

Kare wa mada nemutte i_a's,u..


He is still sleeping,

t: ~ C ~,,£ t':jt,i ""(\'j: ~

-t:6~'D

'~at;Q.shi no i,N,i{J ko.r;o 0' tnmla oboete limasu: ka. '00 you strnUremember what I said? ,13:)t ~ .k ~j, '~ t!. j8 \t ~'1: ~tP {) l t ..:la', i: ~ g~[IJi O· osa H w'n ~~if.~t-~ n_,'''.l'FI' Is your father .stiD. young? 2., JIn negati ve seatence

::a

.•. ~

n_;Ii!l' ~

. _ 'l~'

ii<i'Iii,';--

IV'

j'~,.."I~' .jn<p]iol'

'-~'~~~I~

JjIi.

,~~

~,~

ilfr* i ~

Md- ,~

.* r.:
'W'll

,J-:2."-

l".,.,

l".,.

..,,_,

'.:i,"ftL
,~

-r:
I;.,.

I ,7fi.

's1'

':'"l" _;~ d.. ~

F1v. 0

Kanojo

mada koko ni kne tmase» '"

She has! not arrived here yet, 11::~ ;t, L t:tJ,~o J t:!.'-r: ~ ~ 1i-,fuo
~!I;M~~:.q; e'i!tlmu;S' h' l,~aKQ. i'Ji ""M'_l d d' r., .. o " J•• ' -- . ,',.a'.Q:tCl:.
.-'Ii ',;!,'

r~,

r~

e.~l.maS(9I:J;,

j,'.""

-. -. - n

jij

"Have yon finished yet?" "No, not yet/~


See also m"o

made

t '"'C'
until, to, (from .' .' ,) through, up to, as far as

.P.ARTICLH M.EAN]NG::

before
I, After noun expressing ternporal/spatial/qu antitati ve limit

Kayob.i kara ,d01l}.b,' mad,

*_, 13

iJl~ ,;

±am 81 ~ ~1m1~rl~:1ii·1.- 0 ~
TYQI/i{)

ni ikimasu.