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EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INC.

Long-Term Evolution
(LTE)

STUDENT VERSION

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Table of Contents

Introduction ............................................................................................................4
The Goal of Long Term Evolution (LTE) .................................................................................. 4
3G Networks ............................................................................................................................... 6
Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks.......................................................................................... 7
WiMax ........................................................................................................................................ 8
WiMax and Broadband Wireless Access.................................................................................... 9
WiMax Specifications............................................................................................................... 10
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) ........................................................ 11
Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO Rev C) .............................................................................. 12
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 13
Introduction to LTE ...........................................................................................14
LTE Overview .......................................................................................................................... 14
LTE Features............................................................................................................................. 14
LTE Services............................................................................................................................. 15
Technologies Associated with LTE .......................................................................................... 16
Interoperability.......................................................................................................................... 17
New and Wider Spectrum......................................................................................................... 17
Frequency Bands for FDD and TDD ........................................................................................ 18
Support for Wide Range of Terminals...................................................................................... 19
LTE Complements HSPA+ ...................................................................................................... 20
Advantages of LTE Over HSPA+ ............................................................................................ 20
Advantages of HSPA+ Over LTE ............................................................................................ 21
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 22
LTE Performance Overview ............................................................................23
Higher Voice Capacity Through VoIP ..................................................................................... 23
Higher User Data Rates ............................................................................................................ 23
OFDMA (Downlink) ................................................................................................................ 24
SC-FDMA (Uplink) .................................................................................................................. 25
Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) ................................................................................. 26
Advanced Antenna Systems ..................................................................................................... 27
Switched-Beam Antenna Systems ............................................................................................ 28
Adaptive Array Antennas ......................................................................................................... 29
Enhanced Interference Control ................................................................................................. 30
Single-Frequency Network Multicast Services ........................................................................ 31
LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network .............................................................................. 32
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 33
LTE vs. Wi-Max....................................................................................................33
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 34
LTE as an Alternative Technology to WiMax.......................................................................... 34
Similarities Between WiMax and LTE..................................................................................... 35
Significant Differences ............................................................................................................. 36
WiMax vs Wi-Fi ....................................................................................................................... 37
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 38

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Overview of the LTE Ecosystem .....................................................................39
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 39
LTE Mobile Data Applications................................................................................................. 40
LTE Devices and Infrastructure................................................................................................ 40
Roadmap for Chipsets and Devices .......................................................................................... 41
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 42
Overview of the LTE Physical Layer .............................................................43
Characteristics of the LTE Physical Layer ............................................................................... 43
LTE Physical Layer Design Goals............................................................................................ 44
LTE Physical Layer Specifications........................................................................................... 45
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 46
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .........................47
OFDM with MIMO................................................................................................................... 48
Which Technologies Use OFDM.............................................................................................. 48
OFDM and LTE Generic Frame Structure ............................................................................... 49
Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 50
LTE Discussion Questions......................................................................................51
In a Nutshell, What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)?............................................................... 51
What is LTE Expected to Provide?........................................................................................... 51
Glossary ...................................................................................................................52

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Introduction

The Goal of Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the progression of cellular technology from a 2G/3G network to
a complete end-to-end broadband network. LTE technology builds upon “Universal Mobile
Telecommunications System (UMTS)” technology to provide high-speed data, rich multimedia,
and an enhanced user experience. The final goal will be to have an all IP-based mobile
architecture based on 4G functionality.

With services such as WiMAX offering very high data speeds, work on developing the next
generation of cellular technology has started. The UMTS cellular technology upgrade has been
dubbed “LTE – Long Term Evolution”. The idea is that LTE will enable much higher speeds to
be achieved along with much lower packet latency (a growing requirement for many services
these days), and that LTE will enable cellular communications services to move forward to
meet the needs for cellular technology to 2020 and beyond.

Figure 1: Increase in Wireless Traffic

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LTE technology supports flexible bandwidths using OFDMA and SC-FDMA access schemes. In
addition to FDD (frequency division duplexing) and TDD (time division duplexing), halfduplex
FDD is allowed to support low cost User Equipment (UE). Unlike FDD, in half-duplex FDD
operation a UE is not required to transmit and receive at the same time. This avoids the need for
a costly duplexer in the User Equipment. The system is primarily optimized for low speeds up to
15 km/h. However, the system specifications allow mobility support in excess of 350 km/h with
some performance degradation. The uplink access is based on Single-Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) that promises increased uplink coverage due to low “Peak-to-
Average Power Ratio” (PAPR) relative to OFDMA.

Figure 2: Factors for LTE Development

The system supports downlink peak data rates of 326 Mb/s with 4 × 4 MIMO (multiple
input multiple output) within 20MHz bandwidth. Since uplink MIMO is not employed in
the first release of the LTE standard, the uplink peak data rates are limited to 86 Mb/s within
20MHz bandwidth. In addition to peak data rate improvements, the LTE system provides two
to four times higher cell spectral efficiency. Similar improvements are observed in cell-edge
throughput while maintaining same-site locations as deployed for HSPA/HSPS+. In terms of
latency, the LTE radio-interface and network provides capabilities for less than 10 ms latency for
the transmission of a packet from the network to User Equipment (UE) such as a cell phone or
wireless laptop.

Figure 3: LTE Performance Goals

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3G Networks

3G networks are intended to provide a global cellular communications with wide range of
services including telephony, paging, messaging, Internet and broadband data. The International
Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation
systems, referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000).

3G is the third-generation technology also known as UMTS (Universal Mobile


Telecommunications System) in the context of mobile phone standards. The third generation, as
its name suggests, follows the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless
communications. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer simultaneously
both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information,
exchanging email, and instant messaging). The first country that introduced 3G on a large
commercial scale was Japan. 3G networks are wide-area cellular networks that evolved to
incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony. Handsets could vary from hand-held
phones to wireless laptops used for high-speed Internet access.

Component 2G Wireless 3G Wireless


Features (Voice) Phone Calls Phone Calls/Fax

Voice Mail Voice Mail/Roaming

Features (Email) Simple Email Send/Receive large


email
Features (Web) Web Browsing High-speed Web
Speed 10 Kbps 140 Kbps to 2 Mbps
Maximum Download 20 minutes .5 to 1.5 minutes
for an MP3 song

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Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks

The main difference between 3G and 4G networks is data rates, services, transmission methods,
access technology to the Internet, the compatibility to interface with wire-line backbone network,
quality of service and security.

As networks evolve, more content choices will be available to satisfy customer needs.
3Gs high-speed communications (upwards of 2 Mbps) and broadband services such as enhanced
multimedia (voice, data and video) will attract many more customers. Service providers and
network operators have already started embracing 3G wireless standards to offer new services to
their techno-savvy customers. Put simply, 3G wireless technologies represents a shift from
voice-centric services to multimedia-oriented services like video, voice, data and fax.

Further deployment of 3G will see an explosion of personal communication devices and systems
that deliver freedom of communications through mobility as well as wide-band wireless access
to the Internet and advanced multimedia services. The 3G handsets, though, will be slightly
bigger because they will have more software inside. In fact, as handsets morph into PDAs, the
appliance we carry around will become increasingly like a computer.

LTE is the next step from 2G (GSM) and 3G (based upon UMTS). LTE provides significantly
higher peak data rates (100 Mbps downstream/30 Mbps upstream) and is backward compatible
with existing GSM and UMTS networks.

Table 1-1: Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks

Network Feature 3G Network 4G Network


Major services Primarily voice Voice, data, and rich multi-
media
Core Network 1. WAN 1. Broadband IP
2. Circuit/Packet switching 2. All packet switched
Network Architecture WAN (cell based) Integration of WAN/Wireless
LAN
Speeds 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps 20 to 100 Mbps mobile
Frequency Band 1800-2400 MHz 2 to 8 GHz
Bandwidth 5-20 MHz 100 MHz (or greater)
Switching Technology Circuit and Packet All digital switching with
packetized voice
Access Technologies CDMA OFDM and MC-CDMA
Forward Error Correction Convolutional rate 1/2, 1/3 Concatenated coding scheme
Antenna Technology Optimized antenna design, Smart Antennas, software
Multi-band adapters multiband and wideband
radios
IP Capabilities IP 5.0 All IPv6

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WiMax

WiMAX is a short name for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access. WiMAX is


described in IEEE 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) standard. It is
expected that WiMAX compliant systems will provide fixed wireless alternative to conventional
DSL and Cable Internet. WiMAX is an emerging technology that provides high-speed mobile
data and telecommunication services. It is a “Last Mile Broadband Internet Access” technology.
It is intended to replace cable and DSL in some areas.

Typically, a WiMAX system consists of two parts:

• A WiMAX Base Station: Base station consists of indoor electronics and a WiMAX
tower. Typically, a base station can cover up to 10 km radius (Theoretically, a base
station can cover up to 50 kilo meter radius or 30 miles, however practical considerations
limit it to about 10 km or 6 miles). Any wireless node within the coverage area would be
able to access the Internet.
• A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a stand-alone box or a
PCMCIA card that sits in a laptop or computer. Access to WiMAX base station is
similar to accessing a Wireless Access Point in a WiFi network, but the coverage is more.

Figure 4: WiMax Network

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WiMax and Broadband Wireless Access

The desire for bandwidth-intensive Internet access and other voice/data services has never
been greater across all geographies and market segments. The DSL market, based on a variety of
wireline infrastructures, has succeeded in reaching millions of business and private subscribers,
and continues on a rapid growth curve. However, to supply the quick rollout of infrastructure to
the last mile has become a difficult and expensive challenge for carriers who cannot keep pace
with the demand. This has brought about a situation where subscribers who live in developed
areas with broadband-ready infrastructure can enjoy all the benefits of DSL services, while those
who do not, require another technology solution to fill the void. The need for Broadband wireless
technology and specifically the introduction of the new WiMAX standard fits this agenda
perfectly.

Typical point-to-multipoint Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) systems are composed of two
key elements: a base station and subscriber equipment. The base station connects to the network
backbone and uses an outdoor antenna to send and receive high-speed data and voice to
subscriber equipment, eliminating the need for extensive and expensive wireline infrastructure
and providing highly flexible and cost-effective last-mile solutions.

Figure 5: Broadband Wireless Access

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WiMax Specifications

The following are major points of WiMax (Wireless MAN IEEE 802.16) functionality:

• Range - 30-mile (50-km) radius from base station


• Speed - Up to 70 megabits per second
• Non-Line-of-sight (NLoS) between the user and a base station (BSS)
• Frequency bands - 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz (licensed and unlicensed bands)
• Defines both the MAC and PHY layers and allows multiple PHY-layer specifications.

There is no need for line of sight (LOS) connections between subscriber terminals and the base
station in WiMAX technology and it can support hundreds if not thousands of subscribers from a
single base station. It is also specified in 802.16 standards that it will supports low latency
applications such as voice, video, and Internet access at the same time.

Figure 6: WiMax Metropolitan Wireless Network

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Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) UMTS, is the third generation (3G)
successor to the second generation GSM based cellular technology. Although UMTS uses a
totally different air interface, the core network elements have been migrating towards the UMTS
requirements with the introduction of GPRS and EDGE. In this way the transition from GSM to
the 3G UMTS architecture does not require such a large instantaneous investment.

UMTS uses Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) as the radio transmission standard. It employs a 5
MHz channel bandwidth. WCDMA (or W-CDMA) stands for Wideband Code Division Multiple
Access. WCDMA is direct spread technology, which means that it will spread its transmissions
over a wide, 5MHz carrier. WCDMA is the leading 3G wireless standard in the world today. It
was adopted as a standard by the ITU under the name "IMT-2000 direct spread." WCDMA is the
technology used in the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and with data
rates up to 2Mbits it has the capacity to easily handle bandwidth-intensive applications such as
video, data, and image transmission necessary for mobile broadband services.

Figure 7: UMTS and LTE Architecture

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Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO Rev C)

Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized is a 3G mobile broadband technology used by


major carriers that provides typical speeds of 600-1400kbps download (with bursts up to
2000kbps) and 500-800kbps upload “completely on a wireless network”. You take the internet
with you and surf the web in your car, on the train, in the airport, at a convention, on the road in
your RV... you can even share the connection with multiple computers using a 3G router, just
like you would with your broadband connection at home!

Advantages over WiFi:

• Always on with seamless roaming!


• Signal can travel on same cell sites as cell phones
• No 300-ft range from the cell tower or "hotspot"
• Customers can access their corporate VPN (virtual private network) anywhere they can
get a cellular signal via a secure, encrypted signal
• Can download and run video clips in real time
• Can provide service to customers outside of cable-modem or DSL areas

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Study Questions

1. What are some of the major differences between Wi-Fi and WiMax?

2. Why is Wi-Max considered a “Break though” technology for wireless broadband?

3. What are some of the major differences between 3G and 4G wireless networks?

4. How does Wi-Max compare to DSL and Cable in terms of Internet Access?

5. What is Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)?

6. How does a technology like “Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO)” compare to Wi-Fi?

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Introduction to LTE

LTE Overview

The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard represents a major advance in cellular
technology. LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as
well as high-capacity voice support well into the next decade. LTE is well positioned to meet the
requirements of next-generation mobile networks. It will enable operators to offer high
performance, mass-market mobile broadband services, through a combination of high bit-rates
and system throughput – in both the uplink and downlink – with low latency.

Long Term Evolution (LTE) is one of the choices for next generation broadband wireless
networks and is defined by the 3GPP standards as an evolution to a variety of 3G wireless
networks such as UMTS and EVDO. Its high data rates enable advanced multimedia
applications. The LTE network architecture, network interfaces and protocols, air interface and
mobility will provide advanced mobile broadband services for years to come.

LTE is an evolution of the current family of 3G mobile wireless standards. A main objective of
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is to support IP multimedia services, including VoIP and high-
speed data applications, with an “always-on” end-user experience comparable to that of fixed
internet access, and at a lower cost per bit. This is achieved by a flatter network architecture,
improved spectral efficiency, providing a more flexible spectrum deployment, lower operating
costs and better integration with other open standards such as WLAN and WiMAX

LTE Features

Long Term Evolution offers the following features:

• Up to 100 Mbps (Downlink)


• Up to 50 Mbps (Uplink)
• Simplified Architecture
• Advanced MIMO Spatial Antenna Technology
• Open Interfaces
• Flexible Frequency (FDD/TDD)
• All IP Backbone

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LTE Services

Long Term Evolution (LTE) will offer the following services:

• Mobile VoIP
• Data (High-Speed)
• Text (SMS)/Multi-Media (MMS)
• Video-on-Demand
• Social Networking
• Mobile Conferencing
• M-Commerce (Banking/Advertisement)

Figure 8: LTE High-Level Architecture

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Technologies Associated with LTE

The development of Long Term Evolution is associated with the following technologies:

• WiMax-technology used for Wireless Metropolitan Networks (WMANs)

• OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)- OFDM technology has been


incorporated into LTE because it enables high-data bandwidths to be transmitted
efficiently while still providing a high degree of resilience to reflections and interference.
The access schemes differ between the uplink and downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the downlink.

• SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access)- SC-FDMA(Single


Carrier - Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the uplink. SC-FDMA is used in
view of the fact that its peak to average power ratio is small and the more constant power
enables high RF power amplifier efficiency in the mobile handsets - an important factor
for battery power equipment.

• MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output)- One of the main problems with previous


telecommunications systems concerned distortion from reflected waves. By using
MIMO, these additional signal paths can be used to advantage and are able to be used to
increase the throughput.

• SAE (System Architecture Evolution)- With the very high data rate and low latency
requirements for 3G LTE, it is necessary to evolve the system architecture to enable the
improved performance to be achieved. One change is that a number of the functions
previously handled by the core network have been transferred out to the periphery.
Essentially this provides a much "flatter" form of network architecture. In this way
latency times can be reduced and data can be routed more directly to its destination.

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Interoperability

LTE hardware from multiple vendors is currently being tested for compatibility with older
technologies such as GSM and 3G networks. The availability of commercial LTE terminals from
multiple vendors and proven interoperability with networks providers is a prerequisite for any
operator to launch commercial LTE services. Interoperability between infrastructure and
terminals is key with every technology, and it is particularly fundamental in such a new
technology like LTE.

LTE is designed to work with legacy technologies such as:

• GSM
• 3G Networks
• WCDMA
• CDMA-2000
• WiMax

New and Wider Spectrum

A key characteristic of LTE technology is its suitability for deployment in scalable bandwidths
ranging from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz. To its advantage, it can operate in all 3GPP frequency bands
in paired and unpaired spectrum allocations. In practical terms, the actual performance
achievable with LTE depends on the bandwidth allocated for services, and not the choice of
spectrum band itself. This gives operators considerable flexibility in their commercial and
technical strategies. Deployed at higher frequencies, LTE is attractive for strategies focused on
network capacity, whereas at lower frequencies it can provide ubiquitous cost-effective
coverage.

As such, LTE networks could be rolled out in any of the bands already harmonized for use by
3GPP systems. These include IMT-2000 core frequency bands (1.9-2 GHz) and extension bands
(2.5 GHz), as well as at 850-900 MHz, 1800 MHz, AWS spectrum (1.7 GHz-2.1 GHz) and
portions of the UHF band recently identified at the World Radio Communication Conference
(WRC-07) for mobile services in some parts of the world.

Outside current allocations, a number of candidate bands below 5 GHz have also been identified
by the ITU as being potentially suitable for IMT services such as LTE. While the exploitation of
frequencies higher than 5 GHz for the provision of extremely high data rates through LTE
network deployments is feasible, challenges are posed regarding the provision of wide
area/national coverage at realistic cost. LTE’s flexibility to operate at a scalable bandwidth also
allows operators to deploy LTE in their existing spectrum allocations. This could be achieved via
re-farming, considered by many parties in the mobile telecommunications value chain as a
cost-efficient option to address increasing traffic demands. In general, demand for high
bandwidth is leading to a greater utilization of wider bandwidth transmission.

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Frequency Bands for FDD and TDD

LTE operates with both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD).
Both methods allow multiple users to share bandwidth. LTE can be used in both paired (FDD)
and unpaired (TDD) spectrum. Leading suppliers’ first product releases will support both duplex
schemes. In general, FDD is more efficient and represents higher device and infrastructure
volumes, but TDD is a good complement, for example, in spectrum center gaps. Because LTE
hardware is the same for FDD and TDD, except for the radio unit, TDD operators will for the
first time be able to enjoy the economies of scale that come with broadly supported FDD
products. Fifteen different FDD frequency bands and eight different TDD frequency bands have
been defined in the 3GPP for LTE use, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: FDD and TDD Spectrum Bands

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Support for Wide Range of Terminals

Long Term Evolution (LTE) will support many types of terminals or user devices. These
terminals may range from cell phones, Blackberrys, hand-held mobile devices, and laptops with
mobile broadband connectivity.

LTE supports a wide range of terminals – In addition to mobile phones, many computer and
consumer electronic devices, such as notebooks, ultra-portables, gaming devices and cameras,
will incorporate embedded LTE modules. Because LTE supports handover and roaming to
existing mobile networks, all these devices can have ubiquitous mobile broadband coverage from
day one.

Today, most people think “mobile phones” when cellular technology comes into question.
In coming years, devices such as notebooks, ultra-portables, gaming devices and video
cameras will operate over existing mobile broadband technologies such as HSPA and
CDMA2000, as well as LTE through standardized mobile broadband modules.
Many companies in the consumer electronics business will be able to deploy mobile
broadband technology cost-effectively to further enhance the user value of their offerings.
Mobile Broadband Routers (MBRs) offer another opportunity to use mobile broadband
efficiently. MBRs can be compared to fixed DSL modems with Ethernet, WLAN or POTS
connections for devices at home or in the office. The main difference is that the
broadband service is not carried over copper cables, but through the radio network. MBRs
enable operators to provide broadband service cost-efficiently to all users who already have
desktop computers with Ethernet connections or notebooks with WLAN connectivity.

Figure 9: LTE Supports Many Types of Terminals

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LTE Complements HSPA+

The 3GPP roadmap from HSPA to HSPA+ and then to LTE has been well defined in standards
development work.

Some of the key features of HSPA+ and LTE include the following:

• HSPA+ is a simple upgrade to HSPA networks today, protecting an operator’s


investment in the network

• HSPA+ provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM-HSPA


operators providing OFDMA-equivalent performance in 5X5 MHz spectrum allocations
with only incremental investment

• HSPA+ will significantly increase HSPA capacity as well as reduce latency below 50
msec

• The first phase of HSPA+ with 64QAM is already being deployed by some operators
providing a peak theoretical downlink throughput rate of 21.6 Mbps

Advantages of LTE Over HSPA+

• Flexible Spectrum usage possible with LTE: LTE will be the same whether the
bandwidth available is 5MHz or 20MHz. Of course the data rate will increase when the
BW is increased. With HSPA+ only 5MHz bandwidths possible. Similarly with HSPA+
only FDD mode of operation is possible whereas with LTE FDD or TDD mode is
possible.

• Spectrum Efficiency: Better spectrum efficiency, by a factor of 2 least over HSPA+

• Simpler Architecture: LTE has a much simpler and relatively flat architecture compared
to the legacy UMTS network in HSPA+

• Higher Data Rates: LTE gives DL data rates of 144Mbps and UL of 57Mbps. HSPA+
gives 42Mbps in DL and 11Mbps in UL

• Ultra Low Latency: 10ms instead of 50ms for HSPA+

• Short TTI: 0.5ms instead of 2ms for HSPA+

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Advantages of HSPA+ Over LTE

• Will be ready much before LTE: HSPA+ technology should be available in Q1 2009
whereas the earliest with LTE would be sometime in 2010.

• Much less investment in infrastructure: Since HSPA+ is evolution of HSPA which is


already being deployed, it would be easier and less costly to upgrade. With LTE since its
based on OFDM a lot of new components will be required. Also in case of LTE the
number of components are reduced but since they work in a different way, new
components will be required.

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Study Questions

1. What are some of the major features of Long Term Evolution?

2. What are some of the technologies that LTE is based upon?

3. Is LTE interoperable and backward compatible with legacy technologies?

4. What services will be offered with LTE?

5. Name some types of LTE terminals and services they support

6. How does LTE complement technologies such as HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access)?

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LTE Performance Overview

Higher Voice Capacity Through VoIP

LTE deployment will mean higher voice capacity with mobile VoIP. High-capacity voice service
on LTE will be supported by using VoIP over the LTE data channels. The end-to-end QoS
control ensures that the LTE provides Telco-quality VoIP. The voice call continuity (VCC)
service in the IMS core will ensure that the VoIP service is interoperable with the circuit-
switched voice and VoIP services on the existing UMTS networks. Carrying voice traffic on the
data channels not only enables a high-capacity voice service, it also enables operators to meet all
possible service needs by efficient mixing of voice and data traffic. It enables a suite of new, rich
voice services that can be targeted to specific market segments for increased operator revenue.

Higher User Data Rates

The estimated peak data rates deemed attainable for the LTE system in ideal conditions are very
high, and range from 100 to 326.4 Mbps on the downlink and 50 to 86.4 Mbps on the uplink
depending on the antenna configuration and modulation depth. These rates represent the absolute
maximum the system could support and actual peak data rates will be scaled back by the
introduction of User Equipment categories. There are many dimensions to a UE category but the
most significant is probably the supported data rates.

Figure 10: LTE Peak Data Rates

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OFDMA (Downlink)

OFDMA is a multi-user version of a digital modulation scheme called Orthogonal Frequency-


Division Multiplexing (OFDM). In OFDM the signal is first split into independent sub-carriers
and these closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry the data. The data is divided
into several parallel data streams or channels, one for each sub-carrier. Each sub-carrier is
modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as quadrature amplitude
modulation or phase shift keying) at a low symbol rate, maintaining total data rates similar to
conventional single carrier modulation schemes of the same bandwidth.

A general analogy for OFDM can be of many small lamps in a hall rather than a single big lamp.
The advantage is that light will be distributed across the hall equally as compared to a single
lamp and increase redundancy—a defect in one lamp will not affect the light in the hall.
The primary advantage of OFDM over single-carrier scheme is its ability to cope with severe
channel conditions without complex equalization filters. For example, attenuation of high
frequencies in a long copper wire, narrowband interference, and frequency-selective fading due
to multipath.

Figure 11: Multipath Fading

With the help of OFDM, channel equalization is simplified as OFDM may be viewed as using
many slowly-modulated narrowband signals rather than one rapidly-modulated wideband signal.
With the duration of each symbol being long, it is feasible to insert a guard interval between the
OFDM, making it possible to handle time-spreading and eliminate inter-symbol interference
(ISI). This mechanism also facilitates the design of single-frequency networks, where several
adjacent transmitters send the same signal simultaneously at the same frequency. As the signals
from multiple distant transmitters may be combined constructively, rather than interfering as
would typically occur in a traditional single-carrier system.

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The OFDM technology used in LTE comprises a maximum of 2048 different sub-carriers having
a spacing of 15 kHz. Although it is mandatory for the mobiles to have capability to be able to
receive all 2048 sub-carriers, not all need to be transmitted by the base station which only needs
to be able to support the transmission of 72 sub-carriers. In this way all mobiles will be able to
talk to any base station.

Within the OFDM signal it is possible to choose between three types of modulation:

• QPSK (= 4QAM) 2 bits per symbol

• 16QAM 4 bits per symbol

• 64QAM 6 bits per symbol

The exact format is chosen depending upon the prevailing conditions. The lower forms of
modulation, (QPSK) do not require such a large signal to noise ratio but are not able to send the
data as fast. Only when there is a sufficient signal to noise ratio can the higher-order modulation
format be used.

SC-FDMA (Uplink)

For the LTE uplink, a different concept is used for the access technique. The implementation is
called Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA).

SC-FDMA is a hybrid transmission scheme combining the low peak to average (PAR) of single
carrier schemes with the frequency allocation flexibility and multi-path protection.

One of the key parameters that affects all mobiles is that of battery life. Even though battery
performance is improving all the time, it is still necessary to ensure that the mobiles use as little
battery power as possible. With the RF power amplifier that transmits the radio frequency signal
via the antenna to the base station being the highest power item within the mobile, it is necessary
that it operates in as efficient mode as possible. This can be significantly affected by the form of
radio frequency modulation and signal format. Signals that have a high peak to average ratio and
require linear amplification do not lend themselves to the use of efficient RF power amplifiers.

As a result it is necessary to employ a mode of transmission that has as near a constant power
level when operating. Unfortunately OFDM has a high peak to average ratio. While this is not a
problem for the base station where power is not a particular problem, it is unacceptable for the
mobile. As a result, LTE uses a modulation scheme known as SC-FDMA - Single Carrier
Frequency Division Multiplex which is a hybrid format. This combines the low peak to average
ratio offered by single-carrier systems with the multipath interference resilience and flexible
subcarrier frequency allocation that OFDM provides.

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Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO)

MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications
in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination
(receiver). The antennas at each end of the communications circuit are combined to minimize
errors and optimize data speed. MIMO is one of several forms of smart antenna technology, the
others being MISO (multiple input, single output) and SIMO (single input, multiple output).

The MIMO system uses multiple antennas to simultaneously transmit data, in small pieces to the
receiver, which can process the data flows and put them back together. This process, called
spatial multiplexing, proportionally boosts the data-transmission speed by a factor equal to the
number of transmitting antennas. In addition, since all data is transmitted both in the same
frequency band and with separate spatial signatures, this technique utilizes spectrum very
efficiently.

Figure 12: MIMO Smart Antenna Technology

26
Advanced Antenna Systems

Smart antenna systems are a very important part of 4G networks and LTE. The performance of
wireless communications depends on an antenna system. Recently, are emerging to achieve the
goal of 4G systems such as high rate, high reliability, and long range communications. In the
early 90s, to cater the growing data rate needs of data communication, many transmission
schemes were proposed. One technology, spatial multiplexing, gained importance for its
bandwidth conservation and power efficiency.

Multiple “smart antennas” can be employed to help find, tune, and turn up signal information.
Since the antennas can both “listen” and “talk,” a smart antenna can send signals back and forth
in the same direction that they came from. This means that the antenna systems can transmit and
receive data with high capacity and in a “full-duplex” method.

There are two types of smart antennas:

• Switched Beam Antennas have fixed beams of transmission, and


can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves
throughout the sector

• Adaptive Array Antennas (as seen in Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart
antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate
and track the user, minimize interference, and maximize intended signal reception.

Smart antennas provide the following benefits:

• Optimize available power


• Increase base station range and coverage
• Reuse available spectrum
• Increase bandwidth
• Lengthen battery life of wireless devices

27
Switched-Beam Antenna Systems

Switched-beam antenna systems form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in
particular directions. These antenna systems detect signal strength, choose from one of several
predetermined, fixed beams, and switch from one beam to another as the mobile moves
throughout the sector. Instead of shaping the directional antenna pattern with the metallic
properties and physical design of a single element (like a sectorized antenna), switched-beam
systems combine the outputs of multiple antennas in such a way as to form finely sectorized
(directional) beams with more spatial selectivity than can be achieved with conventional, single-
element approaches.

In terms of radiation patterns, switched-beam is an extension of the current microcellular or


cellular sectorization method of splitting a typical cell. The switched-beam approach further
subdivides macrosectors into several microsectors as a means of improving range and capacity.
Each microsector contains a predetermined fixed-beam pattern with the greatest sensitivity
located in the center of the beam and less sensitivity elsewhere. The design of such systems
involves high-gain, narrow azimuth antenna elements.

Figure 13: Switch-Beam Antenna

28
Adaptive Array Antennas

Adaptive antenna technology represents the most advanced smart antenna approach to date.
Using a variety of new signal-processing algorithms, the adaptive system takes advantage of its
ability to locate and track various types of signals to dynamically minimize interference and
maximize intended signal reception.

Both systems attempt to increase gain according to the location of the user; however, only the
adaptive system provides optimal gain while simultaneously identifying, tracking, and
minimizing interfering signals.

Figure 14: Adaptive Array Antenna

29
Enhanced Interference Control

To avoid severe interference between uplink and downlink transmissions, the cells in a Time
Division Duplex (TDD) network typically use the same uplink downlink configuration together
with inter-cell synchronization to a common time reference to align the switch-points among all
the cells. This avoids interference between the two links as uplink and downlink transmissions
do not occur at the same time. This is especially important in macro deployments with antennas
placed above rooftops with possible line-of-sight-like propagation conditions between base
station antennas. In this case base station-to-base station interference may otherwise severely
degrade uplink reception of victim base stations.

In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, the basic unit for scheduling and resource
allocation is a resource block representing a number of sub-carriers allocated for a user in the
time and frequency domains (upper part). Intercell interference is caused by collisions between
resource blocks that are used simultaneously by several cells (lower part).

Two major techniques to minimize interference in OFDM systems:

• Limiting the use of some of the OFDM resource blocks reduces or eliminates intercell
collisions at the expense of under-utilizing radio resources.
• Limiting the throughput of the system so that maximum utilization of resources does not
occur.

Figure 15: Advanced Interference Control

30
Single-Frequency Network Multicast Services

LTE was designed to allow for shared (multicast) types of services such as digital broadcast
radio and digital video broadcast. The eMBMS (Evolved Multimedia Broadcast, Multicast
Services) feature can simultaneously transmit the same media signals using LTE eNBs (Evolved
Node B) to multiple recipients in the same geographic region. The eNB is a complex base station
that handles radio communications with multiple devices in the cell and carries out radio
resource management and handover decisions. There is no need for a centralized radio network
controller in LTE.

In addition to the shared transmission capability, the two-way capability of the MBMS system
allows users to dynamically interact with the broadcast network. This means that the MBMS
system can provide one-way bearer services (multicasting and broadcasting media) and user
controlled media streaming.

This figure shows how the MBMS system can be used to provide radio and television broadcast
services. A television station (a or a video subscription channel) is broadcast to all the cells
within the LTE system area. Each TV subscription viewer must use a key (previously provided)
so they can receive and decode the television signal. A audio broadcast (local radio station) is
also connected to some of the LTE cells. Voice broadcast (traffic alerts) are connected to cells in
the system area.

Figure 16: E-MBMS Architecture

31
LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network

The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is the next generation multimedia core network for 4G access
and is required to deploy LTE radio technology. It provides optimized access for 2G, 3G, non-
3GPP and potentially even fixed access networks. Due to the sizable investment required to roll
out LTE radio access, the wireless industry tends to lower the priority of the packet core, leaving
the EPC exposed to mediocrity, last minute short cuts and a lack of standard-based IOTs – just to
name a few things. However, the business drivers of emerging LTE radio access impact the EPC
as much including fast and efficient introduction of new multimedia services and applications,
lower overall cost through intelligence and optimization, and session/subscriber management.

The industry tends to couple the LTE radio (the E-UTRAN) and the Evolved Packet Core
(EPC). However, the EPC is being standardized as the core network for all access mechanisms,
including: LTE, 2G, 3G, non-3GPP, and even wireline networks.

• What is your rollout plan for integrating all of the access networks into the EPC?
• Are you considering how 2G, 3G, 4G, non-3GPP, and even fixed networks access the
core, maintain seamless mobility, and obtain consistent and optimized services?

The "open" EPC allows the operator to realize a truly converged packet core supporting all
access technologies. The planning around the EPC must consider how all of these access
networks enter the core, interoperate with legacy systems, maintain seamless mobility and
provide consistent and optimized services.

Figure 17: Evolved Packet Core Network

32
Study Questions

1. How will technologies such as Voice Over IP benefit from LTE?

2. Why is OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access) a superior


technology on the downlink for LTE?

3. Why is MIMO antenna technology a value-add to LTE networks?

4. Discuss the benefits of using Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) on the uplink for LTE?

5. What are some of the benefits of using “Smart Antenna” technology?

6. How does LTE avoid massive interference during the uplink and downlink processes?

33
LTE vs. Wi-Max

Introduction

WiMAX and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) are two different (but not necessarily competing)
technologies that will eventually be used to achieve data speeds of up to 100 Mbps. Speeds that
are fast enough to potentially replace wired broadband connections with wireless, and enable
services such as HDTV on mobiles and TVs without the need for a fixed-line or dish in the
home, as well as a host of other exciting services currently seen as too bandwidth-hungry to be
delivered using existing mobile technologies.

WiMAX and LTE are both in different stages of development. WiMAX is widely recognized as
being the first that will be brought to market. The world's first large scale mobile WiMAX
deployment is due in the United States in 2009. However, although LTE may on paper be some
years off, it will bring with it many advantages, not least the fact that operators will be able to
evolve their existing infrastructure and base station real estate to deliver it.

The upper layers of LTE are based upon TCP/IP, which will likely result in an all-IP network
similar to the current state of wired communications. LTE will support mixed data, voice, video
and messaging traffic. LTE uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and, in
later releases, MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna technology similar to that used
in the IEEE 802.11n wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. The higher “Signal to Noise
Ratio” (SNR) at the receiver enabled by MIMO, along with OFDM, provides improved coverage
and throughput, especially in dense urban areas.

LTE as an Alternative Technology to WiMax

An alternative high-speed mobile technology that could be used instead of, or to run alongside,
WiMAX is LTE. The crucial difference is that, unlike WiMAX, which requires a new network to
be built, LTE runs on an evolution of the existing UMTS infrastructure already used by over 80
per cent of mobile subscribers globally. This means that even though development and
deployment of the LTE standard may lag Mobile WiMAX, it has a crucial incumbent advantage.

There is also no doubt that the advent of WiMAX has injected a new sense of urgency to the
LTE standardization effort. This may help provide operators keen to control investment with the
confidence to wait for LTE technology to reach maturity before upgrading their existing
infrastructure, rather than invest in a brand new WiMAX network. Even prior to the arrival of
LTE, speeds of up to 7.2 Mbps are currently being reached by existing HSPA technology, which
is being used by more than five million subscribers worldwide.

34
Similarities Between WiMax and LTE

LTE (Long Term Evolution) and WiMax have the following similarities:

• both use Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna technology


• both use OFDM
• both expect speeds to be in the 100 Mbps range

For example, both technologies provide the same approach for downlinks, and both have
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), which means that information is sent over two or more
antennas from a single cell site to improve reception. In tough transmission locations, such as a
dense downtown area, MIMO could be a relatively inexpensive means of improving reception to
users.

The downlinks from the Base Station to the end user in both LTE and WiMax are enhanced with
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing), a technology that supports sustained
video and multimedia transmissions and is already being deployed in some non-LTE and -
WiMax networks. It works by splitting up signals among multiple narrow frequencies, with bits
of data sent at once in parallel. Needless to say, it is complex technology that will require
sophisticated base stations, an added expense even for those carriers that see LTE as an upgrade
path to GSM.

Many industry analysts feel that LTE is not a direct replacement for GSM technology since
newer equipment will be required to deploy LTE networks. That means a substantial investment
is in store for carriers wanting to deploy LTE. The cost of a national WiMax network will be
billions of dollars. Uplinks from the user to the cell tower will probably be different in the two
technologies. OFDM will be used in WiMax, but a technology called SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-
Frequency Division Multiple Access) will be used in LTE. SC-FDMA is theoretically designed
to work more efficiently with lower-power end-user devices than OFDM.

35
Significant Differences

The following are some of the major differences between WiMax and LTE.

LTE (Long Term Evolution) WiMax Issues


3G based and voice traffic Built on IP and meant for data. WiMax was not meant for
design voice networks
Operates in the 700 MHz Operates in the 2.3-GHz, 2.5- Cannot build a distributed
spectrum GHz, 3.5-GHz, and 5.8-GHz network or transport backhaul
frequency bands. across LTE as well as you can
with WiMAX (microwave).
LTE is the next generation WiMax was not engineered LTE is better for voice since it
GSM for voice networks but built incorporates more TDM
upon WiFi. technology.
Variety of bands and Limited spectral capacity WiMax lacks high-quality
spectrums bands.
Has established customer base Not deployed in volume. WiMax has a small customer
with 3G networks base and investments may
have greater risk than LTE
User Equipment must have WiMax is part of existing LTE may require new
special hardware and plug-in hardware such as laptops and hardware
cards. other wireless devices
LTE can build on 3G WiMax requires new WiMax will be more costly to
infrastructure equipment and infrastructure deploy than LTE

36
WiMax vs Wi-Fi

WiMax is a technology that is intended to form large Wireless Metropolitan-Area Networks


(WMANs). WiFi is a standard for wireless LANs meant to span multiple floors or multiple
buildings. The most obvious difference between WiMax and WiFi is the type of networks they
produce. WiFi technology adds mobility and convenience to wired Local-Area Networks
(LANs). WiMax was designed to deliver a Metropolitan-Area Broadband Wireless Access
service. WiMax is supposed to compete with and possibly replace cable and DSL in some areas.
Also, while WiFi supports transmission ranges from 100 to 200 meters, WiMax can support
transmission ranges up to 30 miles.

Figure 18: WiMax Cell (Base Station)

At the present time, neither WiMAX or LTE are expected to displace the use of Wi-Fi (due the
widespread adoption and level of consumer comfort with Wi-Fi), the "WiMAX vs. LTE"
comparison is not an either/or proposition. WiMAX is already being used around the world as an
ideal wireless backhaul technology for bandwidth intensive applications such as wireless video
surveillance, traffic synchronization, and more - and it will continue to be used for that exact
purpose, as well as the backhaul technology for wireless voice and data networks. So, as LTE
networks begin to roll out, it is extremely likely that WiMAX technologies will also be used as
the wireless backhaul for those networks.

37
Study Questions

1. Why does the 3G base of LTE make it cheaper to deploy than WiMax?

2. Why are LTE networks easier and cheaper to build than WiMax networks?

3. Name some of the risks associated with deploying WiMax networks.

4. Discuss the advantage that LTE has over WiMax in terms of a customer base.

5. Discuss the ways in which LTE and WiMax might eventually be complementary
technologies.

38
Overview of the LTE Ecosystem

Introduction

The Long Term Evolution (LTE) ecosystem will be larger than that for any communications
technology to date. It is not only the operators, service providers, device and component vendors,
application and platform developers, content and services providers which will enable end users
to enjoy the performance benefits and wide-scale availability of LTE technology. The ecosystem
will include the regulatory and standards bodies, the consumer and business markets served,
and the business models of the participants. Just as device platforms have opened to
allow thousands of applications and services to be developed and bought by consumers, the
network itself will provide service development platforms which will allow third party
developers to provide network-based capabilities.

39
LTE Mobile Data Applications

LTE networks, with their high capacity, high data rate capability and low latency, will provide
a better platform for many varied services and applications. Our industry survey indicates
general agreement that LTE networks will provide the best opportunity to date for existing
and new services and applications to benefit from mobile broadband networks. This is
reinforced by the growing support for LTE within the operator community. One major
European operator is reported to be planning to move from HSPA to LTE, without incurring
the costs of HSPA+ upgrades. The industry was also in common agreement that increased
data usage on mobile broadband networks will drive the deployment and take-up of LTE
services. In this section of the report we discuss a number of services and applications that
received the most interest in our survey, namely general data services, voice services, video
services, interactive services, location-based services and machine to machine services.

LTE Devices and Infrastructure

The vendor community provides the foundation of the LTE ecosystem. They work
interactively in partnerships and alliances to help build their own success and that of the
industry. During the early stages of standards development, architecture design and systems
development, the vendors are the main drivers in the ecosystem. In this section of the
report we will discuss the chipset, user device, infrastructure suppliers and test system
vendors.

The timing of demand, the variety of services, applications and content, and the volumes of
LTE related chipsets will have a direct impact on the range and sophistication of LTE enabled
devices. However, this aspect of the industry is very intertwined and successfully so, as it
allows new innovative companies to bring new ideas to market. Device vendors and software
developers interact to define and develop mobile operating systems and applications. With
the introduction of mobile data services, service and content providers have increased in
importance as they cooperate with device vendors, software developers and operators to
bring more services/applications to the mobile user market.

40
Roadmap for Chipsets and Devices

The following is an example of a roadmap for LTE chipsets and end devices.

Figure 19: Roadmap for LTE Chipsets and End Devices

41
Study Questions

1. Name three major components of the LTE ecosystem.

2. Why must LTE devices be multi-standard compliant?

3. What are some of major forces driving LTE development?

4. How do devices drive traffic in terms of the development of LTE and 4G networks?

5. What are some new revenue streams to be produced by LTE services?

6. Name the major forces driving the development of the LTE ecosystem.

42
Overview of the LTE Physical Layer

Characteristics of the LTE Physical Layer

The LTE Physical Layer provides data transport services to the higher layers.

To enable data transport service to the higher layers, the physical layer performs
a series of functions that include the following:

• Error detection on the transport channels


• Forward error correction (FEC) encoding/decoding of the transport channels
• Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) soft-combining
• Rate matching and mapping of coded transport channels to physical channels
• Power weighting of physical channels
• Modulation and demodulation of physical channels
• Frequency and time synchronization
• Radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers
• MIMO antenna processing
• Transmit diversity
• Beamsteering
• RF processing

Figure 20: LTE Physical Layer Interface to Transport

43
LTE Physical Layer Design Goals

Long Term Evolution (LTE), one of the wireless industry's 4G solutions rolling out over the next
several years, presents a number of lofty goals. LTE is the next-generation of the 3G UMTS
wireless protocol. It is being developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with
the aim of moving cellular towards a packet-based all-IP network.

The LTE Physical Layer is a highly efficient means of conveying both data and control
information between an “Enhanced Base Station” (eNodeB) and mobile user equipment (UE).
The LTE Physical Layer employs some advanced technologies that are new to cellular
applications. These include Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple
Input Multiple Output (MIMO) data transmission.

In addition, the LTE Physical Layer uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
(OFDMA) on the downlink (DL) and Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-
FDMA) on the uplink (UL). OFDMA allows data to be directed to or from multiple users on a
subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis for a specified number of symbol periods.

LTE is designed with the following goals in mind:

1. IP Broadband Mobile network


2. High data rates (100 Mbps downlink/50 Mbps uplink)
3. Supports scalable bandwidth: 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 MHz
4. Low Latency (10 ms/User Plane/50 ms Control Plane)
5. High Spectral Efficiency
6. Frequency Domain Channel Adaptation (Selects user and data rates based upon
instantaneous channel quality)
7. Multi-Antenna Solutions
8. Mobility: Low speeds: <15km/hr, high-performance up to 120 km/hr
9. Coverage: Full performance up to 5 km

LTE reaches these goals by using several concepts that add significantly to the complexity of the
technology. These include more complex modulation schemes in the download and upload
directions, flexible channel bandwidths and a MIMO architecture, which in some cases requires
multiple antennas. Ultimately, the increased complexity in LTE will require very powerful,
flexible and innovative processing in base stations and handsets

44
LTE Physical Layer Specifications

The LTE Physical Layer has four major specifications:

1. Physical Channels and Modulation: the uplink and downlink physical signals and
physical channels, how they are modulated, and how they are mapped into the
frame structure. Included is the processing for the support of multiple antenna
techniques.

2. Multiplexing and Channel Coding: describes the transport channel and control channel
data processing, including multiplexing, channel coding schemes, coding of Layer 1
and Layer 2 control information, interleaving, and rate matching

3. Physical Layer Procedures: describes the characteristics of the physical layer


Procedures including synchronization procedures, cell search and timing synchronization,
power control, random access procedure, CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) reporting and
MIMO feedback.

4. Physical Layer Measurements: describes the characteristics of the physical layer


Measurements to be performed in Layer 1 by the User Equipment (UE) and e-Node B
(eNB), and how these measurement results are reported to higher layers and the network.
This specification includes measurements for handover support.

45
Study Questions

1. Name some of the major components of the LTE Physical Layer.

2. What other layers does the LTE Physical Layer interact with?

3. What types of data does the LTE Physical Layer process?

4. What are the two Multiple Access Schemes supported by the LTE Physical Layer?

5. Discuss some of the characteristics of the LTE Frame Types.

6. Name the four major specifications for the LTE Physical Layer.

46
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a broadband multi-carrier modulation


method that offers superior performance and benefits over older, more traditional single-carrier
modulation methods because it is a better fit with today’s high-speed data requirements and
operation in the UHF and microwave spectrum.

Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technology that transmits multiple signals


simultaneously over a single transmission path, such as a cable or wireless system. Each signal
travels within its own unique frequency range (carrier), which is modulated by the data (text,
voice, video, etc.).

Orthogonal FDM's (OFDM) spread spectrum technique distributes the data over a large number
of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality"
in this technique which prevents the demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own.
The benefits of OFDM are high spectral efficiency, resiliency to RF interference, and lower
multi-path distortion. This is useful because in a typical terrestrial broadcasting scenario there are
multipath-channels (i.e. the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver using various paths of
different length). Since multiple versions of the signal interfere with each other (inter symbol
interference (ISI)) it becomes very hard to extract the original information.

There are two methods to perform duplexing:

• FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)-Uses one frequency for the downlink, a second
frequency for the uplink.
• TDD (Time Division Duplex)-uses the same frequency for uplink and downlink but uses
different time slots.

In TDMA, sub-channels are formed by various time slots.


In OFDMA, sub-channels are formed by different frequencies.

Figure 21: Time Division Multiplexing or Frequency Division Multiplexing

47
Long Term Evolution uses OFDM for the downlink(from the base station to the terminal).
OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions
for very wide carriers with high peak rates. OFDM uses a large number of narrow sub-carriers
for multi-carrier transmission.

The basic LTE downlink physical resource can be seen as a time-frequency grid. In the
frequency domain, the spacing between the sub-carriers, ∆f, is 15kHz. In addition, the OFDM
symbol duration time is 1/∆f + cyclic prefix. The cyclic prefix is used to maintain orthogonal
divisions between the sub-carriers even for a time-dispersive radio channel. One resource
element carries QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM. With 64QAM, each resource element carries six
bits.

The OFDM symbols are grouped into resource blocks. The resource blocks have a total size of
180kHz in the frequency domain and 0.5ms in the time domain. Each 1ms Transmission Time
Interval (TTI) consists of two slots (Tslot). In E-UTRA, downlink modulation schemes QPSK,
16QAM, and 64QAM are available.

OFDM with MIMO

MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) used with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing) is a technology that uses multiple antennas to transmit and receive radio signals.
MIMO-OFDM will allow service providers to deploy a Broadband Wireless Access (BWA)
system that has Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) functionality. Specifically, MIMO-OFDM takes
advantage of the multi-path properties of environments using base station antennas that do not
have LOS (Line-of-Sight).

Which Technologies Use OFDM

OFDM is used with the following technologies:

• Digital Broadcast Radio


• WiFi (802.11a/b/g/n)
• WiMax
• LTE

48
OFDM and LTE Generic Frame Structure

OFDMA is an excellent choice of multiplexing scheme for the LTE downlink. Although it
involves added complexity in terms of resource scheduling, it is vastly superior to packet-
oriented approaches in terms of efficiency and latency. In OFDMA, users are allocated a specific
number of sub-carriers for a predetermined amount of time. These are referred to as physical
resource blocks (PRBs) in the LTE specifications. PRBs thus have both a time and frequency
dimension. Allocation of PRBs is handled by a scheduling function at the LTE Base Station
(eNodeB).

LTE is very flexible in terms of bandwidth and frame structure. The generic frame structure
allows the system to select the following:

• Channel Configuration (Modulation type and bandwidth)


• Waveform Length (Number of slots and time duration)
• Frequency (each slot has a separate frequency)

Figure 22: LTE Generic Frame Structure

49
Study Questions

1. How does OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) work?

2. Why is MIMO (Multiple Inputs, Multiple Outputs) technology such a good fit for
OFDM?

3. Why is data sent over a system using OFDM resistant to RF interference?

4. What is meant by the “Spectral Efficiency of Orthogonal Frequency Division


Multiplexing (OFDM)”?

5. What is a major weakness of using OFDM compared to single-carrier modulation


techniques?

6. Why is the LTE “Frame Structure” considered to be flexible?

50
LTE Discussion Questions

In a Nutshell, What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)?

Long Term Evolution (LTE), is a new radio platform technology with standards completed in
March 2009 in 3GPP Release 8. Trials are planned for 2009/2010 with initial deployments in
2010 to 2011. LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the
downlink, which is well-suited to achieve high peak data rates in high spectrum bandwidth. LTE
is part of the GSM evolutionary path beyond third generation (3G) technology, following EDGE,
UMTS, HSPA (HSDPA and HSUPA combined) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+).

In the same way that 3G coexists with second generation (2G) systems in integrated networks,
LTE systems will coexist with 3G systems as well as 2G systems. Multimode devices will
function across LTE/3G or even LTE/3G/2G, depending on market circumstances.

What is LTE Expected to Provide?

• Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps using 20 MHz spectrum channels and 4x4
MIMO

• Uplink peak data rates up to 86 Mbps using 20 MHz spectrum channels and 64 QAM

• Operation in both FDD and TDD modes

• Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, covering 1.25 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15
MHz and 20 MHz (1.6 MHz channels are under consideration for unpaired frequency
bands)

• An increase in spectral efficiency of two to four times that of High-Speed Packet Access
(Release 6).

• Reduced latency to 10 milliseconds (ms) round-trip time between user equipment and the
base station and to less than 100 ms transition time from inactive to active

LTE will address the market needs of at least the next decade, after which time operators might
deploy Fourth Generation (4G) networks using LTE-Advanced technology as a foundation.

51
Glossary

Term Meaning

3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project

CDMA Code division multiple access (CDMA) CDMA employs spread-spectrum


technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is
assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the
same physical channel.

CQI Channel Quality Indicator

DSL Digital Subscriber Loop-family of technologies that provides digital data


transmission over the wires of the Public Switched Telephone Network.

eMBMS Evolved Multimedia Broadcast, Multicast Services

eNB/eNode B The eNB is a complex base station that handles radio communications
with multiple devices in the cell and carries out radio resource
management and handover decisions. There is no need for a
centralized radio network controller in LTE.

EPC Evolved Packet Core

E-UTRA Evolved UTRAN-the air interface for LTE

EVDO Evolution Data Optimized-a standard for the wireless transmission of


data through radio signals. It is part of the CDMA-2000 family of
standards.

FDD Frequency Division Duplex/duplexing

HDTV High Definition Television

52
HSPA High Speed Packet Access

HSPDA High Speed Download Packet Access

ITU International Telecommunications Union

GSM Global System for Mobile-most popular cell phone standard in the world

HSPA+ High Speed Packet Access-Wireless Broadband standard

IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Last Mile Internet Refers to the telecommunications technology that connects the
Access customer's home directly to the cable or telephone company

LTE Ecosystem The LTE Ecosystem is made up of standards groups, vendors, and
markets for LTE.

MIMO Multiple Input/Multiple- Output MIMO uses multiple antennas at both the
transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance

OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

PAPR Peak-to-Average Power Ratio

POTS Plain Old Telephone Service

QoS Quality of Service

QPSK Quadrature phase shift keying

RAN Radio Access Network

53
System Architecture Evolution
SAE

Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access-SC-FDMA is a


SC-FDMA
multiple user access technique for LTE.

TDD Time Division Duplexing

UHF Ultra High Frequencies

UMTS Universal Mobile Telephone System

UE User Equipment

VPN Virtual Private Network

WiFi Wireless LAN technology

WMAN Wireless Metropolitan-Area Network

Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access-WiMax is the standard


WiMax
for Metropolitan Area Wireless Networks

54