Está en la página 1de 5

Chinese character I (GKI27G) Lesson 06

Module Two:

Lesson six: 这个多少钱? [zhè ge duōshǎo qián?]

The development of Chinese characters

Chinese characters have been continuously used for more than 3000 years. Through history
the characters also experienced changes and developments, some eventually disappeared
and some new were created. Their form, structure, meaning and ways of written have also
changed throughout history. Briefly speaking, the Chinese characters experienced the
following important steps.

Oracle bone scripts (甲骨文 jiǎgǔwén)

Oracle bone scripts are the earliest evidence of Chinese scripts that have been found so far.
They were used in the late Shang dynasty (1600 BC – 1064 BC). These scripts are caved on
animal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divination of the royal family at that
time. The contents and texts involved the social, cultural and economic events and situations
of Shang dynasty. Oracle bone scripts have already showed to be a mature written system; it
has good reason to believe the Chinese characters were created much earlier than that (as
the legend told). Oracle bone scripts are more “drawing-like” with curved lines and drawing
patterns. It is believed as “the link between earlier primitive system and the complex writing
system of today, where Chinese characters developed from pictograms to more abstract and
sophisticated forms” 1.
Ex.

门 [mén] door

网 [wǎng] net

1
Wang, Xiaojun (2009). Amazing Characters & Magic Brushwork. Beijing Language and Culture University Press.
ISBN: 978-7-5619-2533-1, p. 13
Chinese character I (GKI27G) Lesson 06

Could you guess the meaning of the characters?

Bronze scripts (金文 jīnwén)

Bronze scripts are characters that are casted on ritual bronzes such as 钟[zhōng bells] and 鼎
[dǐng tripodal cauldrons]. The earliest bronze scripts cover a time period from late Shang dynasty to
Qin dynasty (221 BC – 207 BC), nearly a thousand years of time. However, it was most popular in
Zhou Dynasty (1064 BC – 256 BC). The written pattern of the bronze characters appears to be
different in different period in history; however, it follows the track of oracle bone scripts. They are
also drawing-like scripts with curve lines, however, shows more element of abstract.

Ex.

马 [mǎ] horse

Small seal scripts (小篆 xiǎozhuàn)

Small seal scripts were the official written scripts used in Qin dynasty (221 BC – 207 BC) after
the first emperor Yiingzheng 嬴政 [Yíngzhèng] reunited China. Compare with oracle bone
scripts and bronze scripts, small seal scripts showed even more abstract elements with
rounds, soft turnings.

Ex.

门, door
Chinese character I (GKI27G) Lesson 06

马, horse

Clerical scripts (隶书 lìshū)

Clerical scripts were developed on the bases of small seal scripts, started used by officials in
Qin dynasty because they were quick to write. They were most popular in use in Han dynasty
(202 BC - 220 AD). The biggest difference between clerical scripts and the scripts before it is
that from clerical scripts Chinese characters started to turn into squared, stroke-based
characters. From then on Chinese characters lost their drawing-like, pictographic feature and
turned into purely abstract symbols.

花 [huā] flower

Regular (standard) scripts (楷书 kǎishū)

Regular scripts could be traced back to Qin and Han dynasty, and became popular in Sui (581
– 619) and Tang (618 – 907) dynasty. The regular scripts have the feature of neat-written
and balanced structure. They eventually became the standard of Chinese characters, last
until today’s modern Chinese characters.

Could you recognize some of them?


Chinese character I (GKI27G) Lesson 06

Text 课文 [kèwén]

今天是周末, 玛丽和琳达去购物中心买衣服。玛丽看到一条裙子很漂亮,她想问售货
员裙子多少钱。
Jīntiān shì zhōumò, Mǎlì hé Líndá qù gòuwù-zhōngxīn mǎi yīfu. Mǎlì kàn dào yì tiáo qúnzi hěn
piāoliang, tā xiǎng wèn shòuhuòyuán qúnzi duōshǎo qián.
Today is weekend; Mary and Linda go to the shopping mall to buy some clothes. Mary sees a
beautiful skirt; she wants to ask the store assistant how much it costs.
Idag är det weekend, Maria och Linda åker till affärsgallerian för att köpa kläder. Maria
hittar en vacker kjol och vill fråga butiksbiträde vad den kostar.

玛丽:这条裙子多少钱? Zhè tiáo qúnzi duōshǎo qián?


How much does this skirt cost?
Hur mycket kostar den här kjolen?

售货员:九十块一条。您喜欢可以试一试。
Shòuhuòyuán: Jiǔshí kuài yì tiáo. Nín xǐhuan kěyǐ shì yí shì.
Ninety Kuai for one. You can try on if you like it.
Nittio Kuai per stycke. Prova gärna om du tycker om den.

玛丽:九十块有点儿贵,能便宜点儿吗?
Jiǔshí kuài yǒu diǎnr guì, néng piányi diǎnr ma?
It’s a bit expensive, can I get some discount?
Det är lite för dyrt, Kan jag få rabatt?

售货员:我们的裙子不打折。不过, 如果你再买一件衬衫的话, 可以给你打八折。


Shòuhuòyuán: Wǒmen de qúnzi bù dǎzhé. Búguò, rúguǒ nǐ zài mǎi yí jiàn chènshān de huà, kěyǐ gěi nǐ
dǎ bāzhé.
Our skirts are not on sale. Nevertheless, if you buy a shirt more, you can get 20% off.
Våra kjolar är inte på rea. Men om du köper en skjorta till får du 20% rabatt.

琳达:你们的衬衫多少钱一件?
Nǐmen de chènshān duōshǎo qián yí jiàn?
How much do your shirts cost?
Hur mycket kostar era skjortor?

售货员:短袖的六十块, 长袖的八十块。都是流行的款式。
Shòuhuòyuán: Duǎnxiù de liùshí kuài, chángxiù de bāshí kuài. Dōu shì liúxíng de kuǎnshì.
Short-armed cost sixty (for one), long-armed eighty. They are all popular styles.
Kortarmade kostar sextio (ett stycke), långarmade åttio. Alla är populära modeller.

玛丽:我可以再买一件短袖衬衫,这件浅蓝色的很好看。
Wǒ kěyǐ zài mǎi yí jiàn duǎnxiù-chènshān, zhè jiàn qiǎn lánsè de hěn hǎo kàn.
I can buy a short-armed shirt too, this light blue one is very beautiful.
Jag kan köpa en kortarmad skjorta till, den här ljusblå är jättevacker.
Chinese character I (GKI27G) Lesson 06

琳达:我想买这条裤子和这件长袖的衬衫, 也给我打八折好吗?
Wǒ xiǎng mǎi zhè tiáo kùzi hé zhè jiàn chángxiù de chènshān, yě gěi wǒ dǎ bāzhé hǎo ma?
I want to buy this trousers and this long-armed shirt, could I get 20% off too?
Jag skulle vilja köpa den här byxan och den här långarmade skjortan, kan jag få 20% rabatt också?

售货员:可以, 没问题。
Shòuhuòyuán: Kěyǐ, méi wèntí!
Ok, no problem!
Ok, inget problem!

Try to write 衣服、买、多少、袖、您、贵、裙、裤、件、看、衬衫 by yourself first, and


demonstrate in our online lecture.

Vocabularies 生词 [shēngcí]:
English Swedish
购物中心 [gòuwù-zhōngxīn] shoppipping mall affärsgalleria
衣服 [yīfu] clothes kläder
裙子 [qúnzi] skirt kjol
块 [kuài] measure word for Chinese Yuan
räkningspartikel för kinesiska valuta Yuan
条 [tiáo] measure word for skirt and trousers
räkningspartikel för kjolar och byxor
件 [jié] measure word for shirts
räkningspartikel för skjortor
售货员 [shòuhuòyuán] store assistant butiksbiträde
多少 [duōshǎo] how much/many hur mycket
钱 [qián] money pengar
九十 [jiǔshí] ninety nittio
六十 [liùshí] sixty sextio
八十 [bāshí] eighty åttio
试 [shì] try on prova
贵 [guì] expensive dyrt
便宜 [piányi] cheap billig
打折 [dǎzhé] discount rabatt
如果 [rúguǒ] if om
衬衫 [chènshān] shirt skjorta
短袖 [duǎnxiù] short-armed kortarmad
长袖 [chángxiù] long-armed långarmad
流行 [liúxíng] popular populär
款式 [kuǎnshì] style modell
浅蓝色 [qiǎn lánsè] light blue ljusblå
裤子 [kùzi] trousers byxa