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1. This question is about the simple magnifying glass.

An object O is placed in front of a converging lens in the position shown in the diagram below.
The principal foci of the lens are marked F.

converging lens

F O F principal axis

(a) On the diagram,

(i) construct rays to locate the position of the image.


(1)

(ii) draw in the image and label it I.


(1)

(iii) show on the diagram where the eye must be placed in order to view this image.
(1)

For a particular lens, the focal length is 10.0 cm and the distance of O from the lens is such that
the image is formed at the near point of the eye. The distance of the lens from the eye is 3.0 cm.

(b) (i) Explain what is meant by the term near point.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

1
(ii) Calculate the distance of the object from the lens if the near point is 25.0 cm from
the eye.

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...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(iii) State, and explain, where the object should be placed if the image is to be formed at
the far point.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

2
2. This question is about a wind turbine.

Air of density  and speed v passes normally through an area A.

(a) Deduce that the kinetic energy of the air passing through the area per unit time is given by
the expression

kinetic energy per unit time = 1


2 ρ Av 3 .

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

3
Air of constant density 1.2 kg m–3 is incident at a speed of 9.0 m s–1 on the blades of a wind
turbine. The turbine blades are each of length 7.5 m. The air passes through the turbine without
any change of direction. Immediately after passing through the blades, the speed of the air is 5.0
m s–1 as illustrated below.

wind speed wind speed

9.0 m s –1 5.0 m s –1

turbine blades

The density of air immediately after passing through the blades is 2.2 kg m–3. The turbine and
generator have an overall efficiency of 72.

(b) Calculate

(i) the power extracted from the air by the turbine;

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) the electrical power generated.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

3. This question is about power generation.

(a) Describe the origin of fossil fuels.

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...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

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(3)

4
(b) An electrical power generating station using fossil fuels as its source of energy has an
output of 2 GW. It has been suggested that this station should be replaced by wind
turbines, each providing 0.8 MW of electrical power.

(i) State two advantages of the use of wind power.

1. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State and explain two disadvantages of using wind turbines to replace the
fossil-fuel generating station.

1. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

5
4. This question is about wind power.

The maximum theoretical wind power P for air of speed v moving normally through area A
where  is the density of air is given by

ρ Av3
P .
2

(a) (i) Air of density 1.3 kg m–3 and speed of 9.0 m s–1 is incident on a wind turbine
having blades of diameter 15 m. Calculate the maximum wind power incident on
the turbine.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State why it is impossible in practice to extract all of the power P in (i) from the
air.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) State two reasons why wind turbines are not placed close to one another.

1. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

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(b) A nuclear power station has an output power of 200 MW. It is proposed to replace the
power station with a series of wind turbines each with an energy output of 750 kW. State
and discuss one advantage and one disadvantage such a change might bring if this
proposal was to take place.

Advantage: ..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

Disadvantage: ..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

5. This question is about solar power.

(a) Describe, in terms of energy transformations, the difference between a photovoltaic cell
and an active solar heater.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(b) A photovoltaic cell of area 6.5  10–4 m2 is situated on the roof of a house. The cell has
an efficiency of 8%. At a time when the power of the solar radiation incident on the
photovoltaic cell is a maximum, the cell delivers a power of 47 mW to the external
circuit.

(i) Deduce that the maximum value of the power of the solar radiation incident on the
cell is approximately 0.90 kW m–2.

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) State one reason why the power of solar radiation at any particular region does not
have a constant value.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

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(c) A power of 3.0 kW is required to produce adequate hot water for the house.

(i) Use the data from (b) to determine the minimum area of the photovoltaic cells
required to generate this power.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) The efficiency of energy conversion in an active solar heater is 24. Calculate the
minimum area of this solar heater required to generate this power.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) State and explain whether it is more practical to use photovoltaic cells or an active
solar heater to provide hot water for the house.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)

6. This question is about solar heaters.

(a) An active solar heater (solar panel) is installed on the roof of a building in the southern
hemisphere. Suggest why the panel should be facing northwards at noon.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

9
(b) At one particular location, the average power received from the Sun during a six-hour
period each day is 840 W m–2. The solar heater has an overall efficiency of 35. It is
required that, during the six-hour period, the solar heater raises the temperature of 140 kg
of water by 25 K. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 kJ kg–1 K–1. Calculate the
minimum effective area of the solar heater.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

7. This question is about nuclear fission.

(a) Outline whether nuclear fission constitutes a renewable or non-renewable source of


energy.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) State two advantages of nuclear fission over the burning of fossil fuels for the production
of electrical energy.

1. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

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(c) Explain how a chain reaction maintains the production of energy in a nuclear fission.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) When a uranium nucleus fissions, approximately 180 MeV of energy is released. The
overall efficiency of a nuclear reactor is 23 and its output power is 450 MW.

Calculate the number of fissions required per second.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

8. This question is about nuclear power.

(a) A fuel often used in nuclear reactors is uranium. Explain why uranium is a non-renewable
energy source.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

11
(b) One nuclear reaction that takes place in a reactor is

0 n  92 U 92 U 54 Xe 38Sr  x10 n .


1 235 235 140 94

(i) State the number x of neutrons produced in this reaction.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Using the equation explain what is meant by a chain reaction.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

(2)

(iii) Explain how, in a reactor, the production of energy in a chain reaction is


controlled.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Outline how the energy produced in fission reactions is transferred to thermal energy.

.....................................................................................................................................

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.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

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(d) State one advantage of nuclear power production compared to fossil fuel power
production.

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

9. This question is about solar power.

(a) Distinguish, in terms of energy conversion, the difference between a photovoltaic cell and
an active solar heater.

Photovoltaic cell: ........................................................................................................

Active solar heater: .....................................................................................................


(2)

(b) An outside tank, open to the air, contains 4.0×103kg of water. During daylight hours, the
average temperature of the water decreases at a rate of 0.38 Kh–1. In order to maintain a
constant temperature during daylight hours, it is proposed to heat the water using an
active solar heater. The average solar power density during the day is 7.2×102Wm–2 and
the specific heat capacity of water is 4.2×103Jkg–1K–1.

Estimate the minimum effective area of the solar heater needed in order to keep the
temperature of the water constant.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 5 marks)

13
10. Simple harmonic motion and the greenhouse effect

(a) A body is displaced from equilibrium. State the two conditions necessary for the body to
execute simple harmonic motion.

1. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) In a simple model of a methane molecule, a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom can be
regarded as two masses attached by a spring. A hydrogen atom is much less massive than
the carbon atom such that any displacement of the carbon atom may be ignored.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x from its
equilibrium position of a hydrogen atom in a molecule of methane.

The mass of hydrogen atom is 1.7  10–27 kg. Use data from the graph above

(i) to determine its amplitude of oscillation.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

14
(ii) to show that the frequency of its oscillation is 9.1  1013 Hz.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) to show that the maximum kinetic energy of the hydrogen atom is 6.2  10–18 J.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) Assuming that the motion of the hydrogen atom is simple harmonic, its frequency of
oscillation f is given by the expression

1 k
f ,
2 mp

where k is the force per unit displacement between a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom
and mp is the mass of a proton.

(i) Show that the value of k is approximately 560 N m–1.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Estimate, using your answer to (c)(i), the maximum acceleration of the hydrogen
atom.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

15
(d) Methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

(i) Describe what is meant by a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Electromagnetic radiation of frequency 9.1  1013 Hz is in the infrared region of


the electromagnetic spectrum. Suggest, based on the information given in (b)(ii),
why methane is classified as a greenhouse gas.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 14 marks)

16
11. Nuclear power production

(a) With reference to the concept of fuel enrichment in a nuclear reactor explain,

(i) the advantage of enriching the uranium used in a nuclear reactor.

.........................................................................................................................

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) from an international point of view, a possible risk to which fuel enrichment could
lead.

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

17
(b) A particular nuclear reactor uses uranium-235 as its fuel source. When a nucleus of
uranium-235 absorbs a neutron, the following reaction can take place.

235
92 U  01 n  144
54 Xe 
90
38 Sr  2 01 n

The following data are available.

rest mass of 235


92 U = 2.1895  105 MeV c–2

rest mass of 144


54 Xe = 1.3408  105 MeV c–2

rest mass of 90
38 Sr = 8.3749  104 MeV c–2

rest mass of 1
0 n = 939.56 MeV c–2

(i) Show that the energy released in the reaction is approximately 180 MeV.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) State the form in which the energy appears.

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) The energy released by one atom of carbon-12 during combustion is approximately 4 eV.

(i) Using the answer to (b)(i), estimate the ratio

energy density of uranium - 235


.
energy density of carbon - 12

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

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(ii) Suggest, with reference to your answer in (c)(i), one advantage of uranium-235
compared with fossil fuels.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) A sample of waste produced by the reactor contains 1.0 kg of strontium 90 (Sr-90). Sr-90
has a half-life of 9.1  108 s.

For the strontium in the sample,

(i) show that its initial activity is 5.1  1015 Bq.

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) calculate its activity after a period of 70 years. (1 yr =3.2  107 s)

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

19
(e) Based on your answers to (d), comment on a problem associated with using uranium-235
as an energy source.

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...................................................................................................................................

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...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 20 marks)

12. This question is about refraction.

(a) With the aid of a suitable diagram define the term refractive index as applied to an optical
material.
(2)

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

20
The diagram below shows the path followed by a ray of red light that is incident on one face of
a glass prism at an angle θ to the normal.

Normal

Incident beam

(b) (i) The red light is now replaced by blue light. On the diagram sketch the
corresponding path followed by a ray of blue light incident at the same angle θ.
(3)

(ii) State and explain whether the refractive index for red light in the glass is greater
than, equal to or less than the refractive index for blue light.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

13. This question is about the formation of coloured fringes when white light is reflected from thin
films.

(a) Name the wave phenomenon that is responsible for the formation of regions of different
colour when white light is reflected from a thin film of oil floating on water.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

21
(b) A film of oil of refractive index 1.45 floats on a layer of water of refractive index 1.33
and is illuminated by white light at normal incidence.

Illumination
Air
Oil
Water

When viewed at near normal incidence a particular region of the film looks red, with an average
wavelength of about 650 nm. An equation relating this dominant average wavelength λ, to the
minimum film thickness of the region t, is λ = 4nt.

(i) State what property n measures and explain why it enters into the equation.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Calculate the minimum film thickness.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

22
(iii) Describe the change to the conditions for reflection that would result if the oil film
was spread over a flat sheet of glass of refractive index 1.76, rather than floating on
water.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

14. This question is about refractive index and critical angle.

The diagram below shows the boundary between glass and air.

glass air

(a) On the diagram, draw a ray of light to illustrate what is meant by critical angle. Mark the
critical angle with the letter “c”.
(3)

A straight optic fibre has length 1.2 km and diameter 1.0 mm. Light is reflected along the fibre
as shown below.

1.2 km

1.0 km

At each reflection, the angle of incidence is equal in value to the critical angle. The refractive
index of the glass of the fibre is 1.5.

23
(b) Deduce that the length of the light path along the optic fibre is about 1.8 km.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

The speed of light in the fibre is 2.0 × 108 m s–1.

(c) Calculate the time for a pulse of light to travel the length of the fibre when its path is

(i) along the axis of the fibre.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) as calculated in (b).

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 9 marks)

24
15. This question is about oil films.

Explain briefly the formation of coloured images when white light is reflected at a film of oil on
water.

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...............................................................................................................................................

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(Total 3 marks)

16. This question is about spherical aberration.

The diagram below shows the image of a square grid as produced by a lens that does not cause
spherical aberration.

25
(a) In the space below, draw a possible shape of this image, as produced by a lens that causes
spherical aberration.

(2)

(b) Describe one way in which spherical aberration can be reduced.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

17. This question is about a telescope.

The diagram below shows two lenses arranged so as to form an astronomical telescope. The two
lenses are represented as straight lines.

objective lens eye lens

focal length fO focal length f E

The focal lengths of the objective lens and of the eye lens are fO and fE respectively. Light from
a distant object is shown focused in the focal plane of the objective lens. The final image is to
be formed at infinity.

26
(a) Complete the ray diagram to show the formation of the final image.
(2)

(b) (i) State what is meant by angular magnification.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Using the completed ray diagram above, derive an expression in terms of fO and fE
for the angular magnification of an astronomical telescope. Assume that the final
image is at infinity.

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...........................................................................................................................

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(4)

(c) When specifying an astronomical telescope, the diameter of the objective lens is
frequently quoted. Suggest a reason for quoting the diameter.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

18. This question is about dispersion and refractive index.

(a) State and explain what is meant by the dispersion of white light.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) A narrow beam of light is incident from glass on a boundary between glass and air as
shown below.

27
glass
air

The beam consists of a mixture of red and blue light.

(i) On the diagram above, draw labelled rays to show the path of the red and blue light
in air.
(2)

(ii) The refractive index of glass for the red light is 1.52. Calculate the maximum angle
of incidence on the glass air boundary for the red light to pass into the air.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) Explain whether the blue light would pass into the air for the angle calculated in
(ii).

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

28
19. This question is about image formation by a converging lens.

An object P is placed close to a converging lens as shown in the diagram below. The principal
foci F of the lens are marked.

F P F

lens

(a) On the diagram above, draw rays to locate the position of the image formed by the lens.
Label this image with the letter I.
(3)

(b) The near point of an observer’s eye is 25.0 cm from the eye. The lens in the diagram is
positioned 4.0 cm from the lens in the observer’s eye so as to form an image of the object
P at the near point. The focal length of the lens is 8.0 cm.

(i) Define the term near point.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Determine the distance from the object to the lens.

.........................................................................................................................

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.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

29
(c) (i) Lenses are subject to chromatic aberration and spherical aberration.

Describe and explain chromatic aberration and spherical aberration.

Chromatic aberration: ....................................................................................

....................................................................................

....................................................................................

Spherical aberration ....................................................................................

....................................................................................

....................................................................................
(4)

(ii) Suggest how the effects of spherical aberration can be reduced.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

20. This question is about laser light.

(a) State two differences between the light emitted by a laser and that emitted by a filament
lamp.

1. .........................................................................................................................

2. .........................................................................................................................
(2)

30
(b) The production of laser light relies on population inversion. Outline the meaning of the
term population inversion.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

21. This question is about an astronomical telescope.

(a) The diagram below shows two rays of light from a distant star incident on the objective of
an astronomical telescope. The paths of the rays are also shown after they pass through
the objective lens and are incident on the eyepiece lens of the telescope.

The principal focus of the objective lens is FO.

On the diagram above, mark the position of the

(i) principal focus of the eyepiece lens (label this FE).


(1)

(ii) image of the star formed by the objective lens (label this I).
(1)

(b) State where the final image is formed when the telescope is in normal adjustment.

...................................................................................................................................
(1)

31
(c) Complete the diagram in (a) to show the direction in which the final image of the star is
formed for the telescope in normal adjustment.
(2)

(d) The eye ring of an astronomical telescope is a device that is placed outside the eyepiece
lens of the telescope at the position where the image of the objective lens is formed by the
eyepiece lens. The diameter of the eye ring is the same as the diameter of the image of the
objective lens. This ensures that all the light passing through the telescope passes through
the eye ring.

A particular astronomical telescope has an objective lens of focal length 98.0 cm and an
eyepiece lens of focal length 2.00 cm (ie fO = 98.0 cm, fE = 2.00 cm). Determine the
position of the eye ring.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

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(4)
(Total 9 marks)

22. This question is about forces on charged particles in electric and magnetic fields.

The diagram shows two parallel plates situated in a vacuum. One plate is at a positive potential
with respect to the other.

Path of positively charged particle

32
A positively charged particle passes into the region between the plates. Initially, the particle is
travelling parallel to the plates.

(a) On the diagram,

(i) draw lines to represent the electric field between the plates.
(3)

(ii) show the path of the charged particle as it passes between, and beyond, the plates.
(2)

(b) An electron is accelerated from rest in a vacuum through a potential difference of 750 V.

(i) Determine the change in electric potential energy of the electron.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Deduce that the final speed of the electron is 1.6 × 107 m s–1.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

The diagram below shows a cross-section through a current-carrying solenoid. The current is
moving into the plane of the paper at the upper edge of the solenoid and out of the plane of the
paper at the lower edge. There is a vacuum in the solenoid.

Current into plane of paper


×××××××××××××××××××××××××××

Current out plane of paper

33
(c) (i) Sketch lines to represent the magnetic field inside and at each end of the solenoid.
(4)

(ii) A positively charged particle enters the solenoid along its axis. On the diagram,
show the path of the particle in the solenoid.
(1)

An electron is injected into a region of uniform magnetic field of flux density 4.0 mT. The
velocity of the electron is 1.6 × 107 m s–1 at an angle of 35° to the magnetic field, as shown
below.

1.6 × 107 m s –1

35°
Direction of magnetic field

(d) (i) Determine the component of the velocity of the electron normal to the direction of
the magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Describe, making calculations where appropriate, the motion of the electron due to
this component of the velocity.

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...........................................................................................................................

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...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(4)

34
(iii) Determine the component of the velocity of the electron along the direction of the
magnetic field.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iv) State and explain the magnitude of the force on the electron due to this component
of the velocity.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(e) With reference to your answers in (d), describe the shape of the path of the electron in the
magnetic field. You may draw a diagram if you wish.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 25 marks)

23. A bar magnet is suspended above a coil of wire by means of a spring, as shown below.

Spring

Magnet

Coil

35
The ends of the coil are connected to a sensitive high resistance voltmeter. The bar magnet is
pulled down so that its north pole is level with the top of the coil. The magnet is released and
the variation with time t of the velocity v of the magnet is shown below.

0 t
0

(a) On the diagram above,

(i) mark with the letter M, one point in the motion where the reading of the voltmeter
is a maximum;

(ii) mark with the letter Z, one point where the reading on the voltmeter is zero.
(2)

(b) Explain, in terms of changes in flux linkage, why the reading on the voltmeter is
alternating.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

36
24. This question is about electrical energy and associated phenomena.

Electromagnetism

electromagnet

The current in the circuit is switched on.

(i) State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and use the law to explain why an emf
is induced in the coil of the electromagnet.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) State Lenz’s law and use the law to predict the direction of the induced emf in (i).

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

37
(iii) Magnetic energy is stored in the electromagnet. State and explain, with reference to the
induced emf, the origin of this energy.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

25. This question is about a filament lamp.

(a) On the axes below, draw a sketch-graph to show the variation with potential difference V
of the current I in a typical filament lamp (the I–V characteristic). (Note: this is a
sketch-graph; you do not need to add any values to the axes).

0
0 I
(1)

(b) (i) Explain how the resistance of the filament is determined from the graph.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Explain whether the graph you have sketched indicates ohmic behaviour or
non-ohmic behaviour.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

38
A filament lamp operates at maximum brightness when connected to a 6.0 V supply. At
maximum brightness, the current in the filament is 120 mA.

(c) (i) Calculate the resistance of the filament when it is operating at maximum
brightness.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) You have available a 24 V supply and a collection of resistors of a suitable power
rating and with different values of resistance. Calculate the resistance of the
resistor that is required to be connected in series with the supply such that the
voltage across the filament lamp will be 6.0 V.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

26. This question is about electromagnetic induction.

In 1831 Michael Faraday demonstrated three ways of inducing an electric current in a ring of
copper. One way is to move a bar magnet through the stationary copper ring.

(a) Describe briefly a way that a current may be induced in the copper ring using a
stationary bar magnet.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

39
You are given the following apparatus: copper ring, battery, variable resistor, lengths of
insulated copper wire with connecting terminals at each end.

(b) Describe how you would use all of this apparatus to induce a current in the copper ring.

copper ring

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

In the diagram below, a magnetic field links a circular copper ring. The field is uniform over the
area of the ring and its strength is increasing in magnitude at a steady rate.

magnetic field

40
(c) (i) State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction as it applies to this situation.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Draw on the diagram, an arrow to show the direction of the induced current in the
copper ring. Explain how you determined the direction of the induced current.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii) The radius of the copper ring is 0.12 m and its resistance is 1.5 × 10–2 Ω. The field
strength is increasing at rate of 1.8 × 10–3 T s–1. Calculate the value of the induced
current in the copper ring.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 13 marks)

41
27. This question is about the force between current-carrying wires.

Diagram 1 below shows two long, parallel vertical wires each carrying equal currents in the
same direction. The wires pass through a horizontal sheet of card. Diagram 2 shows a plan view
of the wires looking down onto the card.

eye

sheet of card

diagram 1 diagram 2

(a) (i) Draw on diagram 1 the direction of the force acting on each wire.
(1)

(ii) Draw on diagram 2 the magnetic field pattern due to the currents in the wire.
(3)

(b) The card is removed and one of the two wires is free to move. Describe and explain the
changes in the velocity and in acceleration of the moveable wire.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

42
28. This question is about emf and internal resistance.

A dry cell has an emf E and internal resistance r and is connected to an external circuit. There is
a current I in the circuit when the potential difference across the terminals of the cell is V.

E
I

(a) State expressions, in terms of E, V, r and I where appropriate, for

(i) the total power supplied by the cell;

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) the power dissipated in the cell;

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) the power dissipated in the external circuit.

...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Use your answers to (a) to derive a relationship between V, E, I and r.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

43
The graph below shows the variation of V with I for the dry cell.

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.90

0.80
V/V
0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.0
0.0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
I/A

44
(c) Complete the diagram below to show the circuit that could be used to obtain the data
from which the graph was plotted.

(3)

(d) Use the graph, explaining your answers, to

(i) determine the emf E of the cell;

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) determine the current in the external circuit when the resistance R of the external
circuit is very small;

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

45
(iii) deduce that the internal resistance r of the cell is about 1.2 Ω.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(e) The maximum power dissipated in the external circuit occurs when the resistance of the
external circuit has the same value as the internal resistance of the cell. Calculate the
maximum power dissipation in the external circuit.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 18 marks)

46
29. This question is about the force between current-carrying wires.

Diagram 1 below shows two long, parallel vertical wires each carrying equal currents in the
same direction. The wires pass through a horizontal sheet of card. Diagram 2 shows a plan view
of the wires looking down onto the card.

eye

sheet of card

Diagram 1 Diagram 2

(a) Draw on diagram 2 the magnetic field pattern due to the currents in the wire.
(3)

(b) Outline how two current carrying conductors may be used to define the ampere.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

47
(c) The card is removed and one of the two wires is free to move. Describe and explain, the
changes in the velocity and in acceleration of the moveable wire.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

30. Fields and potential

Electric fields and potential

(a) Define electric potential.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

48
An isolated metal sphere of radius 50.0 cm has a positive charge. The electric potential at the
surface of the sphere is 6.0 V.

50.0 cm
metal sphere

(b) (i) On the diagram above, draw a line to represent an equipotential surface outside the
sphere.
(1)

(ii) On the axes below, draw a sketch graph to show how the potential V outside the
sphere varies with distance r from the surface of the sphere.

V /V

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 r / m
(4)

49
(iii) Explain how the graph drawn in (b) (ii) can be used to determine the magnitude of
the electric field strength at the surface of the sphere.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) On the diagram below draw lines to represent the electric field outside the sphere.

50.0 cm
metal sphere

(2)

Gravitational fields and potential

(d) Derive an expression for the gravitational field strength as a function of distance away
from a point mass M.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)

50
(e) The radius of the Earth is 6400 km and the gravitational field strength at its surface is 9.8
N kg–1. Calculate a value for the mass of the Earth.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f) On the diagram below draw lines to represent the gravitational field outside the Earth.

(2)

(g) A satellite that orbits the Earth is in the gravitational field of the Earth. Discuss why an
astronaut inside the satellite feels weightless.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)

51
(h) The gravitational potential outside the Earth and the electric potential outside the sphere
both vary with distance. Compare these variations.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 23 marks)

52
31. This question is about electric motors and generators.

(a) The diagram below is a representation of a simple dc electric motor. The armature
consists of a single rectangular coil and rotates between the poles of a permanent magnet.
The connections between the coil and the battery B are not shown. The split-ring is
labelled C.

armature

(i) On the diagram above, draw connections from the battery B to the split-ring so that
the coil will rotate continuously in one direction.
(1)

(ii) On the diagram above, draw arrows to show the direction of the forces acting on
the coil when connection to the battery is made and the coil is in the position
shown in the diagram.
(1)

(iii) Describe how these connections enable the coil to rotate continuously in one
direction.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

53
(b) In an experiment to measure the efficiency of a small dc electric motor, the motor is
clamped to the edge of a bench. The motor is used to raise a small weight that is attached
to a pulley wheel by cotton thread. The pulley wheel is rotated by the motor. The thread
wraps around the pulley wheel, so raising the weight.

axel

motor pulley wheel

cotton thread

weight
Side view End-on-view

54
The time taken for the motor to raise the weight through a certain height is measured. It is
assumed that the weight accelerates uniformly whilst being raised. The weight of the
cotton thread is negligible.

(i) Draw a labelled, free-body force diagram of the forces acting on the accelerating
weight.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

weight

(3)

(ii) The weight has a mass of 15 g and it takes 2.2 s to raise it from rest through a
height of 0.84 m. Calculate the tension in the thread as the weight is being raised.
(Acceleration of free fall g = 10 m s−2.)

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(4)

55
(c) In a second experiment, the current is adjusted so that the weight of mass 15 g is raised at
constant speed. The motor is connected to a 6.0 V supply and it now takes the motor 3.4 s
to raise the weight through 0.84 m.

(i) Suggest how it might be determined that the weight is being raised at constant
speed.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Determine the power delivered to the weight by the motor. (Acceleration of free
fall g = 10 m s−2.)

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) The current in the motor is 45 mA. Estimate the efficiency of the motor.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

56
(d) It is suggested that the efficiency E of the motor is related to the current I in the motor by
the expression

E = kIn

where k and n are constants.

State and explain what graph you would plot in order to determine a value of n.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)

(e) Explain why

(i) as the coil rotates, an emf is induced in the coil;

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii) the faster the coil rotates, the greater the value of the induced emf;

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

57
(iii) the induced emf is not constant even when the speed of rotation of the coil is
constant.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(f) An emf is also induced in a coil that is rotated mechanically in a magnetic field. This is
the principle of a simple alternating current generator.

For a particular generator, the graph below shows the variation with time t of the induced
(generated) emf E.

E/V 0
t/s
–1

–2

–3

(i) On the graph above, label with the letter P, one point that corresponds to a time
when the coil is parallel to the magnetic field.
(1)

(ii) Determine the root mean square value of the induced emf.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 30 marks)

58
32. This question is about electric circuits.

(a) (i) Define emf and state Ohm’s law.

emf: ....................................................................................................

....................................................................................................

Ohm’s law: ....................................................................................................

....................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) The graph below shows the I-V characteristic of a particular electrical component.

0
0 I

State show the resistance of the component is determined from the graph.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

59
(b) In the circuit below an electrical device (load) is connected in series with a cell of emf 2.5
V and internal resistance r. The current I in the circuit is 0.10 A.

e.m.f. = 2.5V

I = 0.10A

load

The power dissipated in the load is 0.23 W.

Calculate

(i) the total power of the cell;

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) the resistance of the load;

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) the internal resistance r of the cell.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

60
(c) A second identical cell is connected into the circuit in (b) as shown below.

I = 0.15A

load

The current in this circuit is 0.15 A. Deduce that the load is a non-ohmic device.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

33. Electrical conduction and the force on a conductor in a magnetic field

(a) The diagram below shows a copper rod inside which an electric field of strength E is
maintained by connecting the copper rod in series with a cell. (Connections to the cell are
not shown.)

conduction electron

copper rod

(i) On the diagram, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force on the conduction
electron shown. Label this arrow with the letter F.
(1)

61
(ii) Describe how the electric field enables the conduction electrons to have a drift
velocity in a direction along the copper rod.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) A copper rod is placed on two parallel, horizontal conducting rails PQ and SR as shown
below. The conducting rails are connected to a battery and switch X.

The rails and the copper rod are in a region of uniform magnetic field of strength B. The
magnetic field is normal to the plane of the conducting rods as shown in the diagram
below.

B B copper rod B

X P
Q

battery L

R
S I

62
The length of the copper rod between the rails is L. The mass of the copper rod is M.
Friction between the copper rod and the rails is negligible.

The switch X is now closed and the current in the copper rod is I and in the direction
shown in the diagram.

(i) On the diagram, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force F on the copper
rod.
(1)

(ii) Derive an expression in terms of B, L, M and I, for the initial acceleration a of the
copper rod.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c) The copper rod in (b) eventually moves with constant speed v. When moving at this
constant speed, the power supplied by the battery is equal to rate at which work is done
by the force F.

(i) Deduce that the power P supplied by the force F acting on the copper rod when it
is moving at constant speed v is given by the expression

P = Fv.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

63
(ii) Use the expression in (i) and the data below to determine the speed v.

emf of the battery = 0.80 V


length of copper rod L = 0.60 m
field strength B = 0.25 T

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

34. This question is about an ideal transformer.

(a) State Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) The diagram below shows an ideal transformer.

laminated core

primary coil secondary coil

64
(i) Use Faraday’s law to explain why, for normal operation of the transformer, the
current in the primary coil must vary continuously.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii) Outline why the core is laminated.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) The primary coil of an ideal transformer is connected to an alternating supply rated
at 230V. The transformer is designed to provide power for a lamp rated as 12V,
42W and has 450 turns of wire on its secondary coil. Determine the number of
turns of wire on the primary coil and the current from the supply for the lamp to
operate at normal brightness.

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................

...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

65
35. Specific heat and a domestic shower

(a) Define specific heat capacity.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) Equal masses of two different solid substances A and B are at the same temperature. The
specific heat capacity of substance A is greater than the specific heat capacity of
substance B. The two substances now have their temperatures raised by the same amount.

Explain which substance will have the greater increase in internal energy assuming both
remain in the solid phase.

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(2)

66
(c) The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating element. The
heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water enters at a temperature of 14C and
leaves at a temperature of 40C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2  103 J kg–1
K–1.

(i) Estimate the flow rate of the water.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii) Suggest one reason why your answer to (c)(i) is only an estimate.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

67
36. Domestic shower

(a) The diagram below shows part of the heating circuit of a domestic shower.

Cold water enters the shower unit and flows over an insulated heating element. The
heating element is rated at 7.2 kW, 240 V. The water enters at a temperature of 14C and
leaves at a temperature of 40C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2  103 J kg–1
K–1.

(i) Define specific heat capacity.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) Estimate the flow rate of the water.

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(4)

(iii) Suggest two reasons why your answer to (a)(ii) is only an estimate.

1. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................

2. ...............................................................................................................

...............................................................................................................
(2)

(iv) Calculate the current in the heating element when the element is operating at 7.2
kW.

68
.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(v) Explain why, when the shower unit is switched on, the initial current in the heating
element is greater than the current calculated in (a)(iv).

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) In some countries, shower units are operated from a 110 V supply. A heating element
operating with a 240 V supply has resistance R240 and an element operating from a 110 V
supply has resistance R110.

Show that for heating elements to have identical power outputs

R110
 0.21.
R240

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................

...................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

69