Está en la página 1de 24

APV Technology Update

Long Life Dairy, Food and Beverage Products


APV provides clients with access to the most up-to-date global technologies for the dairy, beverage, brewery, food and
personal healthcare markets. An early pioneer in steam infusion development in the 1960s, APV has more dairy and
soy steam infusion systems around the world than all other manufacturers combined. We have continued to improve our
steam infusion technology which has resulted in several patented designs that improve product quality, increase time
between CIP, reduce CIP duration times, reduce product losses, and make APV’s Infusion Systems easy and less costly
to maintain. Also, we have expertise with a wide range of products that are being processed on our UHT systems. Our
systems include steam injection, tubular UHT and plate UHT in addition to our steam infusion technology. Our experience
with the products allows us to offer system modifications as needed to address any issues our customers may have.
Contents

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 2

MICROBIOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 3
Bacteria ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Molds . ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Yeast.............................................................................................................................................. 4
Bacteriophages ......................................................................................................................... 4
Toxicity........................................................................................................................................... 4

PROCESS CLASSIFICATION ............................................................................................. 4


Pasteurization ............................................................................................................................. 4
Extended shelf life ..................................................................................................................... 5
UHT treatment ........................................................................................................................... 5
Sterilization ................................................................................................................................. 5

EU classification ........................................................................................................................ 5

PROCESS EVALUATION ...................................................................................................... 6


The logarithmic reduction of spores and sterilizing efficiency ....................................... 6
Terms and expressions to characterize heat treatment processes ............................... 6
Residence time .......................................................................................................................... 7
Commercial sterility .................................................................................................................. 9
Chemical and bacteriological changes at high heat treatment . .................................... 9
Raw material quality . ................................................................................................................ 9
Shelf life ....................................................................................................................................... 9

CHOOSING THE RIGHT PROCESS ...............................................................................10

THE HEAT TREATMENT PROCESSES . ..........................................................................10


Plate Heat Exchangers . ...........................................................................................................11
Tubular Heat Exchangers . .......................................................................................................11
Corrugated Tubular Heat Exchangers ..................................................................................11
Steam Injection Nozzles ..........................................................................................................11
Steam Infusion ...........................................................................................................................12    
Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers ......................................................................................12

VARIOUS ASEPTIC UHT SYSTEMS ................................................................................13


Indirect Plate Sterilizer .............................................................................................................13
Indirect Tubular Sterilizer .........................................................................................................14
Steam Infusion Sterilizer ..........................................................................................................15
High Heat Infusion Sterilizer ...................................................................................................16
Instant Infusion Pasteurizer .....................................................................................................17
Steam Injection Sterilizer .........................................................................................................18
Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger Sterilizer .......................................................................19
Pilot UHT Plant ..........................................................................................................................20
Sterile Tank .................................................................................................................................20
Deaerator . ...................................................................................................................................20

PROCESS CONTROLS ........................................................................................................21

FILLING AND PACKAGING .................................................................................................21

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................21

COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS ....................................................22


Introduction
As one of the most complete food products of all, dairy
products are very important in human nutrition. But dairy
products are also highly perishable and would easily lose
their nutritional value, flavor and appearance if protective
measures were not taken.

Consequently, the dairy industry is one of the most


advanced industries in the food processing area, taking
care of the milk from when it leaves the udder of the cow —
through transportation to the dairy, processing, packaging,
and distribution — until it reaches the consumer.

The technology of producing long-life products is today


applied throughout the food and beverage industries, and
in many cases, the processing plants are designed for
multipurpose operation.

When aseptic technology was introduced more than 35


years ago, it revolutionized the food industry by making it
possible to distribute high quality food products over long
distances in a cost-effective way.

The heart of aseptic technology for production of long-life


dairy products is aseptic processing. Since its introduction
this concept has been developed and refined to a point
where any need in respect of capacity, product viscosity,
particulate content, acidity or sensitivity to heat treatment
can be met while securing high quality, long-life products.
Table 1: A variety of dairy, food & beverage products and their suitability for treatment in thermal
APV was one of the pioneers in aseptic processing
heat processing systems
and over the years we have developed a wide range of
processing concepts to satisfy all the needs of the industry. a necessary requirement but often serve as a useful buffer for
In this Technology Update, we will first discuss some of the sterilized products.
micro-biological factors which must be considered in all The area of extended shelf life products is becoming increasingly
aseptic processing, together with the heating processes most important. APV has developed concepts, offering the industry and
commonly used for reducing micro-organisms in dairy products: consumers new solutions and exciting opportunities.
pasteurization, sterilization and ultra high temperature (UHT)
treatment. With the large number of options available it becomes important
to be able to choose the solution which provides the best
So-called commercial sterility is the aim of all UHT processes, and quality product at a reasonable cost, giving safe and trouble-
the extent to which this is achieved in a particular process can be free operation. A separate section has been made to cover this
measured, notably by reference to the bacteriological effect (B*) subject.
and the chemical effect (C*) of such processes. These factors are
explained in the section “Process Evaluation” on page 7. The process control system is not only necessary, it must
incorporate up-to-date technology — not least on the software
The main part of the Technology Update is devoted to an analysis
side.
of the processing systems of most interest to the dairy, food
and beverage industries: Indirect Plate Sterilizer, Indirect Tubular Special attention must be given to the subsequent filling and
Sterilizer, Steam Infusion Sterilizer, High Heat Infusion Sterilizer, packaging of aseptically processed products.
Instant Infusion Pasteurizer, Steam Injection Sterilizer and Indirect
Finally, we address the area of product development. APV’s
Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger (SSHE) Sterilizer.
worldwide capabilities in respect to product testing makes it
In each case we describe the system, discuss its advantages and possible to work closely with customers in their efforts to upgrade
limitations, and list a number of products for which the system in production and launch new products.
question is particularly suitable (See Tables 1 and 4).
This Technology Update purely deals with the indirect and direct
The Pilot UHT Plant is able to combine most of the aseptic
heat transfer processes.
processes in one unit, which provides an efficient tool for pilot
trials and product development. APV also manufactures various types of electrical — or
“electroheat” thermal processing equipment such as ohmic
In aseptic processing, special consideration must be given to heating. This is dealt with in a separate Technology Update.
some of the auxiliary equipment required. Aseptic tanks are not

2
Microbiology •  esophilic bacteria (loving the middle range) have optimum
M
growth temperatures between 68°F and 111°F.
The key to production of long-life products with aseptic
technology is a detailed understanding of the microbiology of •  hermophilic bacteria (heat loving) have their optimum growth
T
food. Using the example of the dairy industry, the milk in the udder temperatures between 113°F and 140°F.
of a healthy cow is free from bacteria, but as soon as the milk •  hermoduric bacteria (heat enduring) can tolerate high
T
comes into contact with the air it becomes contaminated with
temperatures — above 150°F. They do not grow and
micro-organisms.
reproduce at high temperatures, but can resist them without
If the temperature is favorable, the micro-organisms multiply being killed.
and very soon the milk will turn sour (or putrefy), developing an
unpleasant flavor. To prevent this from happening, the raw milk is Bacteria can only develop within certain temperature limits,
subjected to heat treatment. which vary from one species to another. Temperatures below
the minimum cause growth to stop, but do not kill the bacteria.
The term “aseptic” is usually defined as “free from or keeping They are, however, damaged by repeated freezing and thawing.
away” disease-producing or putrefying micro-organisms. In the If the temperature is raised above the maximum, the bacteria are
food industry the terms “aseptic”, “sterile” and “commercially soon killed by heat. Most cells die within a few seconds of being
sterile” are often used interchangeably. This is not strictly correct. exposed to 158°F, but some bacteria can survive heating to 185°F
Sterilization means 100% destruction of all living organisms, for 15 minutes, even though they do not form spores.
including their spores, and this is very difficult to achieve.
“Commercial sterility” means that the product is free from micro- A third way of classifying micro-organisms is by their oxygen
organisms which grow and consequently contribute to the requirement. The availability of oxygen is vital to the metabolism
deterioration of the product. Micro-organisms are extremely small of all organisms. Some bacteria consume oxygen from the
and can only be seen under a microscope. However, hundreds or atmosphere; they are called aerobic bacteria. However, to some
thousands of individual cells or groups of cells can form colonies bacteria free oxygen is a poison; they are called anaerobic
— which are visible to the naked eye — and some colonies bacteria and obtain the oxygen they need from chemical
have colors, shapes, textures or odors which make the organism compounds in their food supply.
identifiable. Some bacteria consume free oxygen if it is present, but they can
also grow in the absence of oxygen; they are called facultatively
Bacteria
anaerobic.
The term “bacteria” strictly means rod-shaped micro-organisms
only, but is also used in a loose sense to include all micro- The acidity of the nutrient substrate for bacteria is also important.
organisms except yeast and molds. The individual bacterium varies Sensitivity to pH changes varies from one species to another, but
in size from 0.5 to 3 micron. most bacteria prefer a growth environment with a pH around 7.
Furthermore, the salt and/or sugar concentration of a substrate
The groups of bacteria which are most important in the dairy
has an important influence on the growth of bacteria. The higher
industry are the lactic acid, coliform, butyric acid, and putrefaction
the concentration, the more growth is inhibited. This is caused by
bacteria. The bacterial count in milk coming from the farm varies
the high osmotic pressure which will draw water out from the cell,
from a few thousand bacteria/ml for high-quality milk; to several
thereby dehydrating it. Osmotic pressure is used as a means of
million if the standard of cleaning, disinfection and chilling is poor.
food preservation in sweetened condensed milk, salted fish and
For milk to be classified as top quality, the CFU (Colony Forming fruit preserves like jam and marmalade.
Units) should be less than 100,000/ml.
Spores. The spore is a form of protection against adverse
Bacteria are single-celled organisms which normally multiply conditions, e.g. heat and cold, lack of moisture, lack of nutrients,
by binary fission, i.e. splitting in two. The simplest and most or presence of disinfectants. Only a few bacteria are spore
common way to classify bacteria is according to their appearance forming e.g. Bacillus and Clostridium. The spores germinate back
and shape. However, in order to be able to see bacteria, they into a vegetative cell and start reproduction when conditions
must first be stained and then studied under a microscope at a become favorable again. The spores have no metabolism and can
magnification of approximately 1,000 X. Based on a method of survive for years in dry air and are much more resistant to adverse
staining, developed by the Danish Bacteriologist Gram, bacteria conditions than bacteria. This includes heat treatment, and it
are divided into Gram negative (red) and Gram positive (blue). takes typically 20 minutes at 248°F to kill them with 100 percent
The three characteristic shapes of bacteria are spherical, rod- certainty. The UHT time/temperature combination reduces the
shaped and spiral. Diplococci arrange themselves in pairs, number of bacteria spores by a minimum of log 9, leaving very few
staphylococci form clusters, while streptococci form chains. bacteria spores in UHT treated products.
Another way of classification is according to temperature Enzymes. When milk leaves the udder it contains enzymes, the
preference: so-called original enzymes. Enzymes are also produced by the
• Psychotrophic bacteria (cold tolerant) reproduce at bacteria in the milk, the so-called bacterial enzymes. Enzymes are
temperatures of 45°F or below. not micro-organisms but are formed as a result of the metabolism
of micro-organisms. The ability of enzymes to trigger chemical
•  sychrophilic bacteria (cold loving) have an optimum growth
P
reactions can be important when UHT products are produced.
temperature below 68°F.
3
Some of the bacterial enzymes are able to cause sweet
coagulation of milk products which destroys the product. The
Process Classification
A number of different expressions are commonly used in the food
majority of these enzymes are produced by Gram negative
industry in relation to food preservation. This section will, in brief
Pseudomonas bacteria developing mainly in cold raw milk stored
terms, describe the most common terms used.
for excessive time in milk cooling tanks, road tankers or milk silos.
This problem will be aggravated if the milk has been contaminated
because of unhygienic conditions or lack of cleaning-in-place
Pasteurization
Most commercial liquid food products undergo some form of heat
(CIP). The vast majority of enzymes will be destroyed by UHT
treatment and pasteurization is the most common. As it is usually
treatment, but a few may still be active in the final product.
bacterial growth that causes food to deteriorate, pasteurization
preserves the freshness of the food product. There are basically
Molds two ranges of pasteurization:
Molds belong to the fungi group of micro-organisms which are
• Low-temperature pasteurization. For milk, this is based
widely distributed in nature among plants, animals and human
on heating the product to 162-169°F and holding at that
beings. Molds normally grow anaerobically, and their optimum
growth temperature is between 68°F and 86°F. Molds can grow temperature for at least 15-20 seconds (or equivalent) (Fig.
in substrates with pH 2-8.5, but many species prefer an acid 1). The pasteurization may vary from country to country
environment. The most common species in milk do not survive according to national legislation. A common requirement
pasteurization conditions, and the presence of mold in pasteurized in all countries, however, is that the heat treatment must
products is therefore a sign of re-infection. The penicillium family guarantee the destruction of unwanted micro-organisms and
is one of the most common types of molds. Their powerful protein all pathogenic bacteria. The shelf life of pasteurized milk is
splitting properties make them the chief agent in ripening of, for limited (typically 5-7 days), and primarily depends on raw
instance, blue cheese. milk quality and storage temperature. During low-temperature
pasteurization the phosphatase enzyme is destroyed,
Yeast while the peroxidase enzyme is preserved. This serves as a
Yeast also belong to the fungi group of micro-organisms. They measure to control the process and distinguish it from high-
vary greatly in size. Saccharomyces cerivisiae, used for brewing of
temperature pasteurization.
beer, has a diameter of 2-8 micron, but other species may be as
large as 100 micron. •  igh-temperature pasteurization. This is based on heating the
H
product to 185°F or higher for a few seconds (or equivalent)
Yeast has the ability to grow both in the presence and absence
(Fig. 1). The aim is to kill the entire population of bacteria
of oxygen. The optimum temperature is between 68°F and 86°F.
which are pathogenic for both man and animals, and almost
Optimum pH values are 4.5-5.0, but yeast will grow in the pH
all other bacteria as well. By careful monitoring of the process
range of 3-7.5.
parameters, a product with excellent quality can be obtained
From a dairy point of view, yeast are generally undesirable with minimum heat damage. The shelf life can be extended to
organisms. They ferment milk and cream, and cause defects several weeks in the cooling chain.
in cheese and butter. In the brewing, baking and distillation
industries, on the other hand, they are very valuable organisms.  uring high-temperature pasteurization, both the phosphatase
D
and the peroxidase enzymes are destroyed, and this serves as
Bacteriophages a measure to confirm that the process has actually taken place
Bacteriophages belong to the group of micro-organisms called as specified.
viruses. Viruses have no metabolism of their own and therefore
cannot grow on a nutrient substrate. Viruses infect living cells in
plants and animals. Bacteriophages (also known as phages) infect
bacteria and are consequently a problem in all dairy processes
where bacteria cultures are used. They are very small in size — Temperature
0.02-0.06 microns — and can only be seen with an electron 283°F
ESL
microscope. 248°F
High pasteurization
Bacteriophages grow at temperatures between 50°F and 113°F.
They are killed by exposure to 145-190°F for 30 minutes and
tolerate pH values in the range of 3-11.

162°F
Toxicity Low pasteurization
Micro-organisms which are harmful to man or animals are called
pathogens. They can cause death or severe illness by the
secretion of toxins either directly into contaminated foodstuffs,
which are subsequently eaten, or by transfer to an animal host
offering ideal conditions for reproduction and further generation of
toxins. Some toxins are inactivated by heat treatment at 140°F for Time
one hour. Figure 1: Temperature profiles for pasteurization processes

4
Extended Shelf Life/Ultrapasteurization °F
302 High Heat Infusion
The term “extended shelf life,” or “ESL,” is being applied more
Direct Infusion
and more frequently. There is no single general definition of ESL. Indirect UHT
Basically, what it means is the capability to extend the shelf life
of a product beyond its traditional well-known and generally
accepted shelf life without causing any significant degradation
212
in product quality. A typical temperature/time combination for
high-temperature pasteurization of ESL milk is 257-266°F for 2-4
seconds.

UHT Treatment 122


UHT — or Ultra High Temperature — treatment is based on the
fact that higher temperatures permit a much shorter processing
time. With proper time and temperature combination it is possible
to achieve commercial sterility with only limited, undesirable,
chemical changes in the product. In terms of nutritive value, flavor 0
Time
and appearance, the quality of the product is more vulnerable to Fig. 2: Temperature profiles for direct infusion, high heat infusion & indirect UHT
the duration of the treatment than to the temperature applied. processes.

In the UHT process, the milk is typically heated to 279-302°F and


held at that temperature for just a few seconds before it is rapidly EU Classification
cooled down to room temperature (Fig. 2). After the product has In Europe, the EU milk Hygiene Directive (92/46) suggests that
been cooled it is led to an aseptic filling machine in a closed “limits and methods to enable a distinction to be made between
piping system — either directly or by way of an aseptic storage different types of heat treated milk” may be established (Article
tank. The product obtained in this way has a shelf life at room 20). The proposed parameters, limits and methods may be
temperature of several months. summarized as shown in Table 2.
The quality of the final product depends on the raw material By this method the hygienic requirements concerning food safety
quality but also to a large extent, on the type of heat treatment can be satisfied taking into consideration the keeping qualities
system applied. This is the case for UHT milk and for a wide over varying length of time. This method also makes it possible to
range of long-life food products like sauces, salad dressings, establish a new definition of different types of fluid milk products
mayonnaise and soups, as well as for juices and soft drinks. in a way that is independent of the technology of the heat
In order to combat the Heat Resistant Spores (HRS) APV has treatment and the filling.
developed the patented so-called High Heat Infusion system. It It should be noted that the chemical criteria in Table 2 are the
enables heat treatment temperatures as high as 302°F without recommendation given by IDF and EU to the legislators, but the
adversely affecting the product quality and still maintaining general perception is that this proposal will be followed.
acceptable running times in the order of 24 hours between
cleaning.

Products with very high viscosity are more difficult to handle


in a UHT system, and APV has developed a special patented °F
version of the infusion system to handle high viscosity products. 302

This so-called Instant Infusion system is based on very short


but controllable and well defined retention time in the infusion 212
chamber.

Sterilization 122
Sterilization is another type of heating process used for products
to increase keeping quality without refrigeration. The heat
treatment takes place after the product is packed. The package, 0
10 20 30 40 50 60
with its content, is heated to approx. 248°F and held at that Minutes
temperature for 10 to 20 minutes, after which it is cooled to room
temperature (Fig. 3). Because of the lengthy heat treatment at Fig. 3: Temperature profiles for conventional in-container sterilization

a relatively high temperature, this process reduces the nutritive


value of the product, and it is also liable to change its color and
flavor considerably.

5
Table 2: Present legislation according to EU directive 92/46
**IDF & EU suggestions for Dual Chemical Criteria

Process Evaluation
All UHT processes are designed to achieve commercial sterility. A logarithmic function can never reach zero, which means that
This calls for application of heat to the product and a chemical sterility defined as the absence of living bacterial spores in an
sterilant or other treatment that renders the equipment, final unlimited volume of product is impossible to achieve. Therefore,
packaging containers and product free of viable micro-organisms the more workable concept of “sterilizing effect” or “sterilizing
able to reproduce in food under normal conditions of storage and efficiency” is commonly used.
distribution. In addition, it is necessary to inactivate toxins and
The sterilizing effect is expressed as the number of decimal
enzymes present, and to limit chemical and physical changes in
reductions achieved in a process. A sterilizing effect of 9 indicates
the product. In very general terms it is useful to have in mind that
that out of 109 bacterial spores fed into the process, only 1 (100)
an increase in temperature of 50°F increases the sterilizing effect
will survive.
10-fold whereas the chemical effect only increases approximately
3-fold. In this section we will define some of the more commonly Spores of Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus stearothermophilus are
used terms and how they can be used for process evaluation. normally used as test organisms to determine the efficiency of
UHT systems, because they form fairly heat resistant spores.
The Logarithmic Reduction of Spores and
Sterilizing Efficiency Terms and Expressions to Characterize
When micro-organisms and/or spores are exposed to heat Heat Treatment Processes
treatment not all of them are killed at once. Q10 value. The sterilizing effect of heat sterilization increases
rapidly with the increase in temperature as described above.
However, in a given period of time a certain number is killed while This also applies to chemical reactions which take place as a
the remainder survives. If the surviving micro-organisms are once consequence of an increase in temperature. The Q10 value has
more exposed to the temperature treatment for the same period of been introduced as an expression of this increase in speed of
time an equal proportion of them will be killed. On this basis the reactions and specifies how many times the speed of a reaction
lethal effect of sterilization can be mathematically expressed as a increases when the temperature is raised by 50°F. Q10 for
logarithmic function: flavor changes is in the order of 2 to 3, which means that a
K · t = log N/Nt temperature increase of 50°F doubles or triples the speed of the
where N = number of micro-organisms/spores originally chemical reactions.
present A Q10 value calculated for killing bacterial spores would range
Nt =number of micro-organisms/ spores present after a from 8 to 30, depending on the sensitivity of a particular strain to
given time of treatment (t) the heat treatment.
K = constant
t = time of treatment

6
D-Value. This is also called the decimal reduction time and is The C* value is based on the conditions for a 3 percent
defined as the time required to reduce the number of micro- destruction of thiamine (vitamin B1); this is equivalent to 275°F for
organisms to one-tenth of the original value, i.e. corresponding to 30.5 seconds with a Z-value of 89°F. Consequently the C* value
a reduction of 90%. can be calculated as follows:
Z-Value. This is defined as the temperature change which gives a
C* = 10 ( T - 275 ) /89 · t/30.5
10-fold change in the D-value.

F0 Value. This is defined as the total integrated lethal effect and is Fig. 4 shows that a UHT process is deemed to be satisfactory
expressed in terms of minutes at a selected reference temperature with regard to keeping quality and organoleptic quality of the
of 250°F. F0 can be calculated as follows: product when B* is > 1 and C* is < 1.

The B* and C* calculations may be used for designing UHT


F0 = 10(T - 250.1) /z · t/60, where plants for milk and other heat sensitive products. The B* and C*
T = processing temperature (°F) values also include the bacteriological and chemical effects of the
heating up and cooling down times, and are therefore important
z = Z-value (°F) in designing a plant with minimum chemical change and maximum
t = processing time (seconds) sterilizing effect. The more severe the heat treatment is, the higher
the C* value. For different UHT plants the C* value corresponding
F0 = 1 after the product has been heated to 250°F for one to a sterilizing effect of B* = 1 will vary greatly. A C* value of
minute. To obtain commercially sterile milk from good quality below 1 is generally accepted for an average design UHT plant.
raw milk, for example, an F0 value minimum of 5 to 6 is Improved designs will have C* values significantly lower than 1.
required.
The APV Steam Infusion Sterilizer has a C* value of 0.15.
B* and C* Values. In the case of milk treatment, some countries
are using the following terms:
Residence Time
• Bacteriological effect:
Particular attention must be paid to the residence time in a
B* (known as B star) holding cell or tube and the actual dimensioning will depend on
•  hemical effect
C several factors such as turbulent versus laminar flow, foaming, air
C* (known as C star) content and steam bubbles. Since there is a tendency to operate
at reduced residence time in order to minimize the chemical
B* is based on the assumption that commercial sterility is degradation (C* value < 1), it becomes increasingly important to
achieved at 275°F for 10.1 seconds with a corresponding know the exact residence time.
Z-value of 51°F; this reference process is giving a B* value of 1.0,
representing a reduction of thermophilic spore count of 109 per The APV infusion system has been designed with a special
unit (log 9 reduction). The B* value for a process is calculated pump mounted directly below the infusion chamber, which
similarly to the F0 value: ensures a sufficient over-pressure in the holding tube in order to
have a single phase flow free from air and steam bubbles. This
B* = 10 ( T - 275 ) / 51 · t/10.1, where: principle enables APV to define and monitor the holding time and
temperature precisely and makes it the only direct steam heating
T = processing temperature (°F) system which allows true validation of flow and temperature at the
t = processing time (seconds) point of heat transfer.

The concept is illustrated in Fig. 5

Holding Tube Without Centrifugal Pump


Multi-phase system:
V1 V2 To
From other V3 Vacuum
Direct UHT Systems Chamber
SIGHT GLASS
V3 > V2 > V1
HOLDING TIME NOT DEFINED

Holding Tube With Centrifugal Pump


Single-phase system:
From V To
APV Infusion Vacuum
Chamber Chamber
SIGHT GLASS
TURBULENT FLOW OF LIQUID IS WELL DEFINED
Fig. 5: Holding Tube

7
4000

3000

region of
sterilization
2000

los
so
ft
hia
m
ine

HM
1000 =
80

F
10
900 %

0
µm
800

ol/
700

l
600

500
HM
F

th
10

400 re 60
sh
µm

ol %
o

d
l/l

300 ra
ng
e
of
los di
so sc
ft ol
200 or
hia at 40
m io %
Heating time or equivalent heating time in seconds

ine n
HM

=
F1

3%
/C
µm

*=
ol/

1
l

100
90
80
70
20
%
60
50

40

30
10
lac

%
tu
lo
se

20
60
0
m
ther ophilic
ther

g/
lac

l
tu

lo
mal
m
los

ss
of
e

dea spores
40

lys
0

in
th v

e
m

10
=
g/

alue B*=1

1%
l

9
8
/

UHT-
=9

7 region
6
5

1
212 230 248 266 284 302 320°F

2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3


1 3 -1
·10 in K
T
Fig. 4: Bacteriological and chemical changes of heated milk

8
Commercial Sterility
The expression of commercial sterility has been previously Deposit build-up

mentioned and it has been pointed out that complete sterility in


Type B deposit
its strictest sense is not possible. In working with UHT products,
Type A deposit
commercial sterility is used as a more practical term, and a
commercially sterile product is defined as one which is free from
micro-organisms which grow under the prevailing conditions.

Chemical and Bacteriological Changes at


High Temperatures Inlet to Heater Milk Flow Outlet to Holding Tube
Heating milk and other food products to high temperatures results
in a range of complex chemical reactions causing changes in
color (browning), development of off-flavors and formation of
176 194 212 230 248 266 284
sediments. These unwanted reactions are largely avoided through
Temperature, ˚F
heat treatment at a higher temperature for a very short time. It
is important to seek the optimum time/temperature combination
which provides sufficient kill effect on spores but at the same Fig. 6 Deposits in UHT plants
time, limits the heat damage in order to comply with market
requirements for the final product. running hours between CIP cleanings and thereby increase
product waste, water, chemical and energy consumption.
Even though the time/temperature combination is decisive for Generally, it will also disrupt smooth operation and increase the
the final quality of the product attention also has to be paid to risk of insterility.
the actual heating profile since various reactions take place at
different temperatures. This is illustrated in Fig. 6 in which type Shelf Life
A deposit is a voluminous protein-rich deposit, whereas type The shelf life of a product is generally defined as the time for
B deposit is a mineral-rich deposit primarily developing at high which the product can be stored without the quality falling below
temperatures. In particular type A deposit — which originates from a minimum acceptable level. This is not a very sharp and exact
protein denaturation — must be minimized since it is harmful to definition and it depends to a large extent on the perception
the product quality. of “minimum acceptable quality.” Having defined this, it will be
raw material quality, processing and packaging conditions and
Raw Material Quality conditions during distribution and storage which will determine
It is important that all raw materials are of very high quality as the the shelf life of the product.
quality of the final product will be directly affected. Raw materials
must be free from dirt and have a very low bacteria spore count, Milk is a good example of how wide a span the concept of shelf
and any powders must be easy to dissolve. life covers:

All powder products must be dissolved prior to UHT treatment, Product Shelf Life Storage
because bacteria spores can survive in dry powder particles even Pasteurized milk 5-10 days refrigerated
at UHT temperatures. Undissolved powder particles will also ESL 20-45 days refrigerated
damage homogenizing valves, causing sterility problems. UHT milk 3-6 months ambient
temperature
Heat stability. The question of heat stability is an important
parameter in UHT processing. The usual organoleptic factors limiting shelf life are deteriorated
taste, smell and color, while the physical and chemical limiting
Different products have different heat stabilities, and although factors are incipient gelling, increase in viscosity, sedimentation
the UHT plant will be chosen on this basis, it is desirable to be and cream lining.
able to measure the heat stability of the products to be UHT
treated. For most products, this is possible by applying the
alcohol test. When samples of milk are mixed with equal volumes
of an ethyl alcohol solution, the proteins become unstable and
the milk flocculates. The higher the concentration of ethyl alcohol
is without flocculation the better the heat stability of the milk.
Production and shelf-life problems are usually avoided provided
the milk remains stable at an alcohol concentration of 75%.

High heat stability is important because of the need to produce


stable homogeneous products, but also to prevent operational
problems as e.g. fouling in the UHT plant. This will decrease

9
Choosing the Right Process
In order to be able to produce a product with specific product Spores cannot develop in high-acid products such as juice,
qualities in the most cost-effective way, it is essential to make the and the heat treatment is therefore only intended to kill yeast
correct choice with respect to processing system and technology. and molds.
In many cases the choice is straightforward, but in other cases
there may be more options to choose between. Some of the more Consequently high-temperature pasteurization at 194-203°F for
important questions to ask when choosing a system are: 15-30 seconds is sufficient to make most high-acid products
• What is the specification of the product to be processed? commercially sterile.
• What are the quality requirements to the final product?
In some cases where new products have to be processed it may
• Viscosity specifications of products and raw materials? be necessary to carry out trials on a small scale to observe the
•  pecification of particulate and fiber content/size and shape
S performance of specific products in different types of systems.
and variation in content? APV has designed a pilot unit for this purpose.
• Acidity of product/high or low acid?
The trend for processors to focus increasingly on flexibility
• Sensitivity to high temperatures/heat stability? to process a range of products and the importance of being
• Requirement for flexibility/multi-purpose systems? able to produce high quality products, have driven the choice
of systems towards indirect tubular systems and direct steam
• Requirement for variable capacity?
infusion systems. The following sections deal with the various
• Requirement for direct or indirect systems? heating principles and UHT systems followed by a more detailed
• Skills of technical personnel/operators? comparison of the individual systems.

Fig. 7 illustrates three of the selection criteria — viscosity, The Heat Treatment Processes
capacity and content of particulates — for the most common APV invented the plate heat exchanger in 1923 and has
processing systems. pioneered new heat treatment principles ever since. Scraped
surface heat exchangers (Crepaco) were developed in the USA
The systems are often flexibly designed to allow for processing a while the direct steam infusion system was developed in Denmark
range of products in the same plant. (Pasilac). The tubular systems were developed partly in Denmark
and partly in Germany (Rosista), and later supplemented by the
It is quite common to process both low-acid (pH>4.5) and high- corrugated tubular heat exchangers in Spain (ICTC). In addition,
acid (pH<4.5) products in the same UHT plant. APV is known for electroheat thermal processing equipment
which is dealt with in a separate Technology Update.
However, only low-acid products require UHT treatment to make
them commercially sterile.

Viscosity cP

Capacity l/h

50,000 cP

500 cP
6,604 gal/h

200 cP
100 cP

50 cP
er
iz
eril
St
HE
SS
Increasing
r er er r particle size
ize iliz iliz ize
ril er er ril
St
e St St St
e
n on ar
te io i l
Pl
a ct us bu
je In
f
Tu
In
m m
ea ea
St St

Fig. 7: Aseptic processing systems

10
Plate Heat Exchangers Corrugated Tubular Heat Exchangers
The plate heat exchanger is the most cost-effective and versatile APV has extended its range of heat exchangers with corrugated
method for indirect heating or cooling of liquid food products. tubular heat exchangers. By corrugating the tube wall it is
Today, APV’s comprehensive Para-flow range of plates is the possible to improve the heat transfer coefficient and consequently
basis for a wide range of plate heat exchanger applications in reduce the requirement for heating surface area. The corrugation
many industries. In the food and dairy industry, the plate heat causes increased turbulence and breaks the laminar flow in high
exchanger is one of the most indispensable pieces of equipment. viscosity products.

As illustrated in Fig. 8.1, the plate heat exchanger incorporates a Double tube, triple tube, quadruple tube and multi tube in tube are
number of parallel, closely spaced stainless steel, gasketed and the basis for the range as illustrated in Fig. 8. 3.1, 8.3.2, 8.3.3
corrugated plates which are compressed and locked together and 8.3.4. The design of the double, triple and quadruple tube
in a rugged frame. As product is pumped through the plate heat makes it possible to arrange direct regeneration, because both
exchanger, the flow is distributed through narrow, corrugated sides of the tube wall are a sanitary design.
flow passages which produce a high level of turbulence resulting
in high rates of heating or cooling with low hold-up volume. Through a variety in corrugation depth, pitch and angle it is
Product contact time is thereby reduced to a matter of seconds, possible to optimize heat transfer and pressure drop depending
minimizing thermal damage. on shear characteristics of the product. Furthermore, the
possibility of adjusting the annular space adds one further
A very important advantage of the plate heat exchanger is parameter for optimizing the design.
its extremely high regenerative capability, reducing energy
requirements for heating or cooling by more than 90%. Plate heat
exchangers provide a maximum amount of heat exchange surface
in a minimum amount of floor space. Fig. 8.3.1: APV Double Tube
Product in Product out

Fig. 8.3.2: APV Triple Tube

Media out Media in Fig. 8.3.3: APV Quadruple Tube

Fig 8.1 APV Plate Heat Exchanger

Tubular Heat Exchangers


APV has developed a range of sanitary tubular heat exchangers
for the food industry, and an increasing number of customers
Fig. 8.3.4: APV Multi-Tube-in-Tube
choose this system. Various tubular systems are available, but the
most commonly used system is the multi-tube-in-tube (MTNT) Steam Injection Nozzles
system as illustrated in Fig. 8.2.The heat transfer modules are APV was one of the pioneers in applying steam in direct contact
multiple, small diameter sanitary tubes aligned within a large with a product to heat it to aseptic temperatures. The first
diameter shell. The diameter of the inner tubes may vary but is generation systems were based on the steam injection principle
usually in the range of 10-12 mm for low viscous products like and were launched under the Uperiser brand name.
Steam
milk and juice.

The APV tubular system is designed with a “loose” jacket Product

around the tube bundles giving a floating head design. This


allows thermal expansion without any risk of tube cracking, Fig. 8.4: APV Steam Injection Nozzle
prevents stress corrosion and allows easy inspection of all heat The system operates by direct injection of steam through a
exchange surfaces. specially designed nozzle as illustrated in Fig. 8.4. The injection of
steam instantly raises the product temperature. In order to prevent
In some countries, e.g. Germany, the tubular system has become the product from boiling, it is necessary to pressurize the product
very popular because of its rugged construction and easy during the steam injection to a pressure of 3-4 bar, depending on
operation and maintenance.
Media out the sterilization temperature.

Product Product Flash cooling takes place in a vacuum expansion vessel where the
in out
vacuum is maintained by means of a vacuum pump. The vacuum
is controlled in order to ensure that the same amount of water is
Media in flashed off as was injected into the product as steam in order to
Fig. 8.2: APV Tubular Heat Exchanger
prevent dilution/concentration of the product.

11
Steam Infusion Scraped Surface Heat Exchangers
In the 1960s APV launched the first steam infusion system under APV’s product range includes a number of scraped surface heat
the Palarisator brand name. Since then significant developments exchangers specially designed to heat or cool viscous or sticky
and progress have taken place which have led to one of the most products, or products containing particulates.
sophisticated systems in the world.
The scraped surface heat exchanger consists of a smooth cylinder
After preheating, the product is pumped into the infuser — a through which the product is pumped, counter current to the
pressure vessel fitted with cones at both top and bottom as service medium in the surrounding jacket.
illustrated in Fig 8.5.
Rotating scraper blades keep the heating surface free from
deposits. The scraper blades are fixed to a rotating shaft called a
dasher (Fig. 8.6).
Product out Product in

Media in Media out


Fig. 8.6: APV Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger

Selection of different blades and dasher types depends on the


product being processed. The cylinders are usually characterized
Fig. 8.5: APV Steam Infusion Chamber
by their diameter, and APV supplies units of 4, 6 and 8 inches.

At the top cone, the product is distributed through a number of


nozzles (patented) and passes down through a steam atmosphere
in a number of jets without hitting the walls of the vessel until it
reaches the bottom cone.

The bottom cone is equipped with a cooling jacket, keeping the


temperature of the inner cone wall below the product temperature
inside the vessel. This creates a condensate film on the inner
cone wall which effectively prevents any burn-on of product.
During the heating of the air, unwanted gases and odors are
stripped off through the CIP inlet at the top of the cone.

Fig. 10: APV VT+660 Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger


The product leaves the infusion chamber through the bottom of
the cone through a pump and an expansion valve before it passes
Furthermore, both vertical (Fig. 9) and horizontal models (Fig. 10)
through the holding tube into the expansion vessel, where the
are available.
product is cooled in a similar way as described for the injection
heating system.
The most recent addition to the range is a VT+660 model with
0.65 m2 surface area which is 41 percent higher than for the
As previously mentioned (Fig. 5) this system ensures a single
4” range.
phase flow and a very accurate flow profile.

The maximum operating pressure for the VT range is 6 bar while


The pump and the valve in the holding tube also serve as level
the HD range is able to operate at 12 bar maximum pressure.
control, which means that there is no product level prior to the
pump, and consequently, no influence on the holding time due to
varying liquid level at the bottom of the cone, since it will always
be empty.

The heating in the infuser is extremely rapid, and the final


Fig. 10: APV HDRT & HEXRT Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger
sterilization temperature is reached in less than 0.2 seconds,
which corresponds to a heating rate of
In terms of viscosity, the VT model is able to process products
932-1112°F/second.
with viscosity up to 100,000 cP.
The system is very flexible and can be used for a wide range
of products covering a broad viscosity range. It provides an The HD range is a heavy-duty model able to handle viscosity as
excellent product quality due to the gentle and rapid heating and high as 500,000 cP.
subsequent cooling.
12
Various Aseptic UHT Systems 194°F 280°F
The best way to characterize UHT systems is to rank them 7
PRODUCT 4 4 FILLING

according to the primary type of heating principle used for


bringing the product into the aseptic area. 8 6

The type of system preferred has developed differently in different 167°F


2 STEAM
41°F 77°F <77°F
countries at different times. In the following section we will give
1 3 3 5 5
a brief description of each type of system available on the market
today. For each system the advantages and limitations will be CHILLED
WATER
COOLING
WATER
emphasized, and finally, the products most commonly processed
in the system will be listed.

All APV UHT systems are preassembled and tested in the factory
1. Product to product 3. Indirect heating 6. Sterile tank
with steam. This minimizes installation and start-up costs, and regenerative 4. Holding tubes 7. CIP unit
2. Homogenizer 5. Indirect cooling
ensures a safe and trouble-free plant commissioning. 8. Sterilizing loop

Indirect Plate Sterilizer Fig. 11.1: Flow diagram for Plate Sterilizer
UHT systems based on plate heat exchangers are used where the
manufacturer’s primary requirement is a dependable system for Energy recovery Plant volume at 90% regenerative
heating liquid products at minimum operating costs. In Fig. 11.1 a LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH

flow diagram illustrates the principle design including some of the PLATE

processing parameters. TUBULAR TUBULAR

Careful design of the heating and regenerative systems optimizes


Product shear at equivalent heat transfer Heat transfer at equivalent surface
the performance of the APV system and minimizes product LOW MEDIUM HIGH LOW MEDIUM HIGH

damage. Fig. 11.2 compares some key data for plate and tubular PLATE PLATE
systems.
TUBULAR TUBULAR

The APV system has a high degree of flexibility and can be


supplied with variable capacity and with two-speed or variable Fig. 11.2: Comparison of data for Plate & Tubular Sterilizer
speed homogenizers.

The system can be built up to a maximum capacity of 25-30,000


l/hour.
Fig. 11.3 shows a typical design for an APV Plate Sterilizer.

Advantages:
• Excellent for low viscosity products
• High regenerative effect and low energy consumption
• High heat transfer area in minimal space
• Easy inspection
• Low hold-up volume
• High degree of flexibility
Fig. 11.3: APV Plate Sterilizer
• Variable capacity
• Large capacity plants
• Relatively low investment
Products:
• Milk, flavored milk
• Low CIP costs
• Fermented milk products, drinking yogurt
• Cream, coffee whiteners
Limitations:
• Limited capability for particulates or fibers • Soy milk

• Exchange of gaskets required periodically • Baby food

• Unsuitable for high pressure drops • Juice

• Some product degradation may occur • Coffee, tea


• Combination plants for milk, juice, coffee, tea, etc.

13
Indirect Tubular Sterilizer PRODUCT
3
203°F
3
284°F
FILLING

UHT systems based on tubular heat exchangers have become 8

popular in many countries and are typically chosen where large 9 7

volumes of commodity products have to be processed at the


lowest possible costs. 41°F 1
2
1 4 5 6
77°F
167°F
In Fig. 12.1 a flow diagram illustrates the principle design COOLING
WATER
including some of the processing parameters. STEAM
10
Fig. 12.2 shows how the pressure drop affects the maximum
running hours.
1. Tubular regenerative 4. Tubular final heater 7. Sterile tank
In a plate based sterilizer, the increase in pressure drop is limited preheaters 5. Tubular regenerative 8. CIP unit
2. Homogenizer cooler 9. Sterilizing loop
to 30-40 percent. This is not a limiting factor in tubular systems, 3. Holding tubes 6. Final cooler 10. Water Heater
and 16-20 hours operating time between CIP is possible. It is
also possible to operate with an intermediate cleaning each 20
Fig. 12.1: Flow diagram for the Tubular Sterilizer
hours and reduce the full CIP cycles to once a week, which
may increase the capacity by as much as 7-9 percent. Exact
times will depend on particular products and micro-biological
considerations.
Plant Feed Pressure —
Milk Fouling in Tubular UHT Plant
Advantages: 240
Running time (hours)
• Less vulnerable to fouling, giving long production runs 220
Tubular UHT 0 4 8 12 16 20 24
200
relative to clean plant (%)

• High operating pressures are acceptable


Pressure increase

180
Common practice tube

• Processes products with fibers and particulates 160


Plate UHT max. limit
140
Common practice
• Processes high viscosity products 120
plate

Plate UHT Tubular UHT


• Low shear characteristics for cream 100

80
5 10 15 20 25
•  ow requirement for gasket material and easy gasket
L Operating Time of Plant [hour]

exchange Tolerated pressure drop (bar) Particle sizes/Fiber lengths (mm)


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 5 10 15 20 25 30
• Very robust design
• Low maintenance costs
• Can be designed as a multi-purpose plant
• Easy to operate Plate UHT Tubular UHT Plate UHT Tubular UHT

Fig. 12.2: Comparison of data for Tubular & Plate Sterilizer


Limitations:
• Lower regenerative effect than for plate sterilizers
•  lightly higher investment costs compared with plate
S
sterilizers
• Higher degree of product degradation

Products:
• Milk, flavored milk
• Fermented milk products, drinking yogurt
• Cream, coffee whiteners
• Whipping cream, ice cream mix
• Evaporated milk, desserts, puddings
• Soy milk
• Coffee, tea
• Juices, juices with pulp
Fig. 12.3: APV Tubular UHT Plant - STH
• Salad dressings
• Gravy, sauces, soups
• Combination plants for milk, juice, coffee, tea, etc.

14
Steam Infusion Sterilizer 167°F
STEAM

UHT systems based on infusion heating are used where the FILLING
2
manufacturer wants to produce a high quality product with as little 9 COOLING
WATER

heat degradation as possible. Also, flexibility in throughput and PRODUCT COOLING


WATER
4 7
variety in product range speak for an infusion based system.
VACUUM
3 5

In Fig. 13.1 a flow diagram illustrates the principle design 41°F 289°F 167°F 77°F <77°F

including some of the processing parameters.


STEAM

1 6 6

8 COOLING
The system can be supplied from 40 gal./hr. (pilot plant) to WATER COOLING
WATER

11.624 gal./hr. with a temperature profile as shown in Fig. 13.2.


The plate heat exchangers for preheating and cooling can be
replaced with tubular heat exchangers as an option. The APV 1. Plate preheaters 4. Flash vessel 7. Aseptic tank
2. Steam infusion chamber 5. Aseptic homogenizer 8. Non aseptic cooler
infusion UHT concept can also be supplied as an add-on solution 3. Holding tube 6. Plate coolers 9. Condenser
to all common UHT plants from other manufacturers.
Fig. 13.1: Flow diagram for Steam Infusion Sterilizer
Fig. 13.2 shows a comparison of various temperature profiles for
infusion based processes which are all characterized by a very Various Temperature Profiles for Direct Infusion
rapid and controlled heating and cooling profile, and a short and
°F
carefully monitored holding time.

T
UH
302

L
ES
t
an
Fig 13.3 shows an APV Steam Infusion Sterilizer.

st
In
259

Advantages:
•  entle and accurate heating in the
G 212
infusion chamber
• Accurate holding time
167
• Superior product quality Hot Filling/
Spray Drying
• Closed loop during pre-sterilizing
122
• High product flexibility
• Low fouling rate Filling
77
• Long operating time
Cold Filling
• Operator friendly 41

Time

Limitations: Fig. 13.2: Time/temperature profiles for various infusion based processes
• Relatively higher capital costs compared to indirect systems
•  elatively higher operating costs due to lower heat
R
regeneration
• Requirement for culinary steam

Products:
• Milk, flavored milk, creams
• Soy milk products
• Vla, custard, pudding
• Soft ice mix, ice cream mix
• Baby food, condensed milk
• Processed cheese
• Sauces

Fig. 13.3: APV Steam Infusion Sterilizer

15
High Heat Infusion Sterilizer VACUUM STEAM FILLING

PRODUCT
The growing incidents of heat resistant spores (HRS) are 194°F 257°F

challenging traditional UHT technologies and setting new targets. 2 3 5 COOLING 9

The HRS are extremely heat resistant and require a minimum of WATER

293-302°F for 3-10 seconds to achieve commercial sterility. If


41°F 140°F 302°F 167°F 77°F
the temperature is increased to this level in a traditional indirect
UHT plant it would have an adverse effect on the product quality 1 4 1 2 7 6 7

and the overall running time of the plant. Furthermore, it would


10 COOLING 8 8
result in higher product losses during startup and shutdown, and WATER
STEAM STEAM

more frequent CIP cycles would have to be applied. Using the


traditional direct steam infusion system would result in higher
1. Tubular preheaters 4. Non aseptic flavor dosing (option) 7. Tubular coolers
energy consumption and increased capital cost. On this basis 2. Holding tube 5. Steam infusion chamber 8. Tubular heaters
3. Flash vessel (non aseptic) 6. Homogenizer (aseptic) 9. Aseptic tank
APV developed the new High Heat Infusion system. 10. Non aseptic cooler

In Fig. 14.1 a flow diagram illustrates the principle design


including the most important processing parameters, while
Fig. 14.2 shows the temperature/time profile in comparison to Fig. 14.1: Flow diagram for High Heat Infusion Sterilizer
conventional infusion and indirect systems.

Note that the vacuum chamber has been installed prior to the
infusion chamber. This design facilitates improvement in energy
recovery and it is possible to achieve 75% regeneration compared UHT of products with HRS (comparative temperature profiles with Fo= 40)

to 40 % with conventional infusion systems and 80-85% with °F


302
indirect tubular systems.

Fig. 14.3 shows a design of a High Heat Infusion system


delivered as a combi-plant consisting of an APV Tubular Sterilizer
with the infuser module added on. 212

Advantages:
• Micro-biological product safety by elimination of HRS spores
• Very long operating time between CIP 122

•  educed contamination risk having vacuum chamber on non-


R
aseptic side
• No flavor losses
32
• Add-on solutions and combi systems Time
Direct UHT 302°F
High Heat Infusion 302°F
Indirect UHT 297°F
Limitations: Reference Indirect UHT 284°F

• Capital investment costs Fig. 14.2: Time/temperature profiles illustrating High Heat Infusion processing
parameters
• Requirement for culinary steam

Products:
• Milk and milk products
• Desserts
•  ther products as with conventional
O
infusion systems

Fig. 14.1: APV High Heat Infusion Sterilizer

16
Instant Infusion Pasteurizer
The infusion heating principle has increasingly been used for high
viscous and sticky products. However, some products have been
found to be very difficult or nearly impossible to handle unless
very short run-times were accepted.

This challenge led APV to develop the patented Instant Infusion


system. The objective was to design a system where a high kill
rate can be achieved using high pasteurization temperatures and
very low holding time (<0.5 second) for products like egg whites
and whey protein concentrate.

The patented design principle for the Instant Infusion Pasteurizer


is based on the conventional infusion system. In order to have
an efficient removal of the viscous and sticky product from the
infusion chamber, a positive displacement pump has been placed
in the outlet tube from the bottom cone very close to the actual
cone. This effectively prevents any type of buildup of product at
the bottom of the infusion chamber, and it has been possible to
increase the number of operating hours between CIP cycles from
a few to more than 20 hours for some products.

In Fig 15.1 it shows the design of the infusion chamber with the
pump arrangement.

Fig. 15.1: Instant Infusion Chamber

Fig. 15.2 shows an industrial installation of an Instant Infusion


plant.

Advantages:
•  an handle high fouling products with long running time (>20
C
hours)
• High degree of flexibility
•  educed chemical changes in comparison to conventional
R
infusion
• Very high product quality

Product:
• Whey protein concentrate
• Egg-based products
• Baby food
• Processed cheese

Fig. 15.2: Instant Infusion Pasteurizer

17
Steam Injection Sterilizer 167°F

This system operates by direct injection of steam into the product STEAM

PRODUCT
through a specially designed nozzle as previously described
FILLING
2 COOLING
9 WATER
(Fig. 8.4).
4 7

The heating is followed by flash cooling and final cooling,


41°F VACUUM
which take place in either plate heat exchangers or tubular heat 3 5

exchangers. 289°F 167°F 77°F


STEAM

1 6 6
The system is in its basic design, quite similar to an infusion
system where the infuser has been replaced with an injection 8 COOLING
COOLING
WATER
WATER
nozzle (Fig. 16.1).

Long operating times are possible because only a very small area
1. Plate preheaters 4. Flash vessel 7. Aseptic tank
in the nozzle is subject to fouling. 2. Steam injection nozzle 5. Aseptic homogenizer 8. Non aseptic cooler
3. Holding tube 6. Plate coolers 9. Condenser

The operating economy has been optimized through


Steam
optimization of plant design, processing parameters and careful
process control.
Product
The injection system handles low to medium viscosity products, in
the capacity range from 528 to 6,604 gal./hr.

Advantages:
Fig. 16.1: Flow diagram for Steam Injection Sterilizer
• Good product quality
• Long production runs
• Handles heat-sensitive products

Limitations:
• Higher capital costs than for indirect systems
• Higher operating costs due to lower heat regeneration
• Mostly used for low viscosity products
• Requirement for culinary steam

Products:
• Milk, flavored milk, cream
• Soy milk
• Ice cream mix

Fig. 16.2: APV Steam Injection Sterilizer

18
Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger Sterilizer Limitations:
Scraped surface heat exchangers (SSHE) are the most suitable • Relatively high capital cost
equipment for treatment of high viscosity food products and food • Relatively high energy requirements
products containing larger particles.
•  igher maintenance costs due to scraper blades, bearings
H
In a typical aseptic plant, the product is pumped by a rotary lobe and seals
pump (or similar) to feed one or more heating cylinders, followed • High spare parts requirement
by a holding tube and one or more cooling cylinders. Capacities
• Limitation in respect to size of particulates
up to approximately 2,642 gal./hour are available but this depends
— to a large extent — on the physical characteristics of individual
products. Products:
• Milk concentrate
Since the nature of the products can vary considerably in terms • Yogurt
of viscosity, stickiness or size and fragility of the particles, each
system is individually engineered to suit a particular product. • Processed cheese
• Whey protein concentrate
Even though systems based on SSHE are relatively expensive, • Quarg products
both in terms of investment and energy consumption, they are still
very competitive compared with batch sterilizing systems. • Baby food
Fig. 17 shows an SSHE based sterilizer equipped with VT 4” • Compotes
cylinders. • Puddings, dips
• Sauces, soups
Advantages:
• Handles high-viscosity products
• Handles sticky products
• Handles particulates up to approximately 13 mm
• Handles heavy-fouling products

Fig. 17: APV SSHE Sterilizer

19
Pilot UHT Plant
The constant pressure on manufacturers to produce quality •  ontinuation of filling during intermediate CIP or interruption
C
products at the lowest possible cost creates a need for evaluating in UHT operations. Many UHT plants need intermediate CIP
the most suitable process system and optimizing processing after 8-12 hours of operation, depending on the UHT system,
parameters. Using production plants for tests on new products product quality and type of product to be processed. The
and processes is both uneconomical and difficult. aseptic tank ensures that this process can be performed
without interrupting the operation of the filling lines.
Therefore, APV has developed a new generation of pilot plants,
which gives manufacturers the possibility of performing tests on a •  educed investment. Since the filling machines are the most
R
small scale with easy operation, flexibility and scaling up accuracy. expensive part of an aseptic processing line, it is important
The continuous UHT pilot plant has a capacity of 16-59 gal./ that they are utilized to their full capacities. To this end, the
hour and is designed for indirect tubular and direct steam infusion aseptic tank is installed. By increasing the operating time of
heating. However, the following options can be included in the the fillers, a small increase in the capacity of the UHT plant
standard system and/or any combinations: creates the possibility of lengthening the production run
• High Heat Infusion significantly.
• Indirect Plate The aseptic tank is equipped with steam-shielded aseptic valve
• Direct Steam Injection clusters and supplied with sterile air at constant pressure. This
provides for a perfect balance between supply and demand from
• Pasteurization
the aseptic tank.
• Deaeration/Deodorization The aseptic tank is also fully automated, using programmable
• Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger logic controllers (PLC), and the control system can be connected
either to the UHT control system or to one of the filling machines.
It is also possible to provide variable temperature and holding
time profiles. This makes the pilot plant extremely versatile. The
plant can be supplied with a 132 gallon sterile tank, which will
form a link between the pilot plant and a filling machine.

Many manufacturers choose to invest in their own pilot plant for


in-house testing and product evaluation, but in other cases they
may choose to use one of APV’s test and development centers.
Fig. 18 shows an APV UHT Pilot Plant.

Fig. 20: APV Deaerator

Fig. 19: APV Sterile Tank

Deaerator
Deaeration is essential for production
of high quality products. While the
Fig. 18: APV UHT Pilot Plant products in the infusion systems are
deaerated in the infusion chamber,
Sterile Tank this is not the case when indirect
It is not always possible to feed a sterile product directly from the heating systems are used. In these
processing plant to the filling machine. This is where the aseptic cases, the dearation can be solved
tank comes in as a buffer between processing and filling units. through the installation of the APV
Parasol Deaerator, designed to remove
Besides serving as a buffer and storage tank for the sterilized dissolved or entrained air under vacuum. The product is sprayed
product, the aseptic tank also adds an important degree of as a thin film in a parasol form into a vessel, maximizing product
flexibility to the production process as it provides for: surface area and deaeration efficiency. The APV WI+ centrifugal
• Continuation of production regardless of interruption in filling pump is used to ensure pumping of high viscous products under
rate. Usually one UHT line is connected to several filling vacuum. The APV WI+ pump is equipped with an APV UNIversal
machines with variable capacity. If the filling rate is not at a inducer acting as a helical screw pump mounted to the pump
maximum, the UHT plants need to have a variable capacity shaft in front of the impeller, which reduces the risk of cavitation
or the product must be recirculated if allowed by local especially when pumping high viscous products. The air content
regulations. can be reduced to as low as 0.5 ppm oxygen.

20
Comparison Between Different
Systems
As illustrated in the presentation of the various technologies
on the next page, there is a wide choice and there are several
considerations to be made before the final decision is taken.
APV’s team of experts is available to advise on selecting the most
appropriate technology for each specific requirement.

Table 4 provides a rough guideline of the advantages and


disadvantages of different technologies in relation to a variety of
products. This is meant as a guideline to make the right choice,
which in many cases may be obvious, while in other cases more
difficult. As mentioned in the section on the APV Pilot Plant,
this provides a tool for testing different products using different
heating technologies, and this may sometimes become necessary
to ensure the correct choice.
Fig. 22: An APV Color graphic PLC control system

Process Controls containers, which are either pre-formed or formed in conjunction


One of the most important aspects of an aseptic plant is the with the filling operation. After the filling has been completed,
process control system. It must continuously monitor all process the containers are hermetically sealed. The resultant packages
parameters and take reliable, corrective action in case of a are liquid-proof and exclude air, light and bacteria. This method
failure. Today, all of APV’s UHT systems operate under a PLC of processing and packaging allows for the use of paper-board,
(Programmable Logic Controller) or a DCS (Distributed Control plastic containers or pouches as packaging materials, and
System), based on the world-leading brands, providing the best eliminates the need for cans and energy inefficient retort heating
possible repeatability and reliability in the operation. This means systems.
consistent product quality, package after package, day after day.
Human error is minimized and greater production efficiency is The choice of packaging concept depends on product type, unit
achieved. cost and customer preference. Environmental concerns, volume
of waste and the possibility of recycling of packaging material
There are many systems which are capable of successfully become increasingly important depending, however, on the stage
operating an aseptic plant. But when it comes to choosing of development of the community.
the right concept for the process control system, there are
additional factors to take into consideration. Such factors include APV is not a manufacturer of packaging systems but cooperates
hardware durability and availability, service from the supplier and with all companies in the packaging sector and is able to supply
communication ability with surrounding control systems in the the appropriate solution for complete and turnkey systems.
plant. The operating personnel’s familiarity with a particular control With an APV system, customers are assured of a complete
system is also important, and there may be special regulatory aseptic processing line producing high-quality products packed
codes which require adaptation of control systems. for the specific market in the most cost-effective way.

Product Development
New products are developed more rapidly than ever before in
order to satisfy demands in the consumer market. Simultaneously,
the lifecycle of the individual products tends to shorten. These
conditions force the producers to intensify and accelerate product
development. Capabilities in aseptic processing and related
disciplines enable APV to support customers to develop new
Fig. 21: An APV production management system value-added products at the highest possible speed.
The world leading process technology — a result of many
This can be achieved through product testing in APV’s test and
years’ development and experience — is built into our software
development centers around the world or by means of an APV
packages. The control system has already been tested in many
Pilot Plant installed at the customer’s site.
similar applications, and they are always pretested prior to delivery

Filling and Packaging APV is keen to work in partnership with customers in order to
accelerate the product development process.
In order to preserve their high micro-biological quality, aseptically
processed products must be aseptically packed. Even at room
It is the objective of APV to deliver innovation, quality and
temperature, the packaged product then has a shelf life of several
reliability to the dairy, food and beverage industries in order to
months. In aseptic filling and packaging, the aseptically processed
contribute to the safety and high quality products to the customer.
product is filled under aseptic conditions into commercially sterile

21
Comparison Between Different Systems

Table 4: Comparison between the most commonly used processing systems rated on a scale from 1 to 5:
1 = excellent; 2 = good; 3 = acceptable; 4 = possible; 5 = not recommended

Your local contact:

APV, An SPX Brand


105 CrossPoint Parkway
Getzville, NY 14068
Phone: (800) 207-2708 Fax: (716) 692-1715
Email: answers.us@apv.com

For more information about our worldwide locations, approvals, certifications, and local representatives, please visit www.apv.com.

SPX Corporation reserves the right to incorporate our latest design and material changes without notice or obligation.
Design features, materials of construction and dimensional data, as described in this bulletin, are provided for your information only and should
not be relied upon unless confirmed in writing.

Issued: 08/2008 6750-01-08-2008-US Copyright © 2008 SPX Corporation